Optical Circuits and Fibers {A}


23rd July 2013
Name________________________ Student ID____________________

SCORE: __________


Answer any two of the following questions listed below. You cannot attach any extra pages. Your answers should fit in the spaces provided for your answers in the next page. If you chose a numerical problem, make sure you show all necessary steps to support your answer. 1. A silicon photodiode has a responsivity of 0.5A/W at a wavelength of 0.85μm. Determine the minimum incident optical power required at the photodiode at this wavelength in order to maintain a bit-error-rate of 10−7, when utilizing ideal binary signaling at a rate of 35Mbit/s. 2. Discuss the implications of the load resistance on both thermal noise and post-detection bandwidth in optical fiber communication receivers. 3. A silicon p–i–n photodiode has a quantum efficiency of 65% at a wavelength of 0.8μm. Determine: (a) the mean photocurrent when the detector is illuminated at a wavelength of 0.8μm with 5μW of optical power; (b) the rms quantum noise current in a post-detection bandwidth of 20MHz; (c) the SNR in dB, when the mean photocurrent is the signal. 4. A germanium APD (with x = 1) operates at a wavelength of 1.35μm where its responsivity is 0.45A/W. The dark current is 200nA at the operating temperature of 250K and the device capacitance is 3pF. Determine the maximum possible SNR when the incident optical power is 8×10−7W and the post-detection bandwidth without equalization is 560MHz. 5. Discuss the three main amplifier configurations currently adopted for optical fiber communications. Comment on their relative merits and drawbacks. A high-impedance integrating front-end amplifier is used in an optical fiber receiver in parallel with a detector bias resistor of 10MΩ. The effective input resistance of the amplifier is 6MΩ and the total capacitance (detector and amplifier) is 2pF. It is found that the detector bias resistor may be omitted when a transimpedance front-end amplifier design is used with a 270kΩ feedback resistor and an open loop gain of 100. Compare the bandwidth and thermal noise implications of these two cases, assuming an operating temperature of 290K. 6. An SOA has facet reflectivities of 23% and a single-pass gain of 6dB. The device has an active region with a refractive index of 3.6, a peak gain wavelength of 1.55μm with a spectral bandwidth of 5GHz. Determine the length of the active region for the SOA and also its mode spacing. 7. Explain the gain process in a Raman fiber amplifier and comment upon the flexibility associated with the pumping process in this fiber amplifier type. The Raman gain coefficient for a silica-based fiber of 10μm core diameter at a pump wavelength of 1.2μm is 6.3×10−14m/W. Determine the Raman gain obtained in a 25km length of the fiber when it is pumped at this wavelength with an input power of 1.4W and when the transmission loss is 0.8dB/km. It may be assumed that the effective core radius is 1.15 times as large as the actual core radius and that complete polarization scrambling occurs. 8. A semiconductor optical amplifier is coupled with an input signal power of 0.75mW operating at a signal wavelength of 1.3μm and in response it produced an output signal power of 15mW. When the differential refractive index of the device is −1.8×10−26m3, the linewidth enhancement factor is –2.5 and the optical signal power variation in input signal is 20nW, determine: (a) the frequency chirp variation at the output signal; (b) the differential gain required in order for the device to operate at the same signal wavelength. 9. Describe the different approaches to implement an optical wavelength converter. Indicate which wavelength conversion schemes possess higher conversion efficiency. 10. Explain with the help of a sketch(es) the four optical regeneration stages for an optical signal and outline their applications in optical fiber transmission.

Page 1 of 2 (NO extra pages allowed)

Optical Circuits and Fibers {A} Quiz-4 23rd July 2013 [10 points] Answer to Question # . [10 points] Page 2 of 2 (NO extra pages allowed) .EEE-5121. Answer to Question # .