# Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Introduction Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe.

We use energy to do work. Energy lights our cities. Energy powers our vehicles, trains, planes and rockets. Energy warms our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, gives us pictures on television. Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a farm. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. It dries our clothes when they're hanging outside on a clothes line. It helps plants grow. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals, giving them energy. And predator animals eat their prey, which gives the predator animal energy. Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another. Energy is defined as: "the ability to do work." When we eat, our bodies transform the energy stored in the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk, we "burn" food energy in our bodies. When we think or read or write, we are also doing work. Many times it's really hard work! Energy causes things to happen around us. Look out the window. During the day, the sun gives out light and heat energy. At night, street lamps use electrical energy to light our way. When a car drives by, it is being powered by gasoline, a type of stored energy. The food we eat contains energy. We use that energy to work and play. We learned the definition of energy in the introduction: "Energy Is the Ability to Do Work." Energy can be found in a number of different forms. It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat (thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical energy, and nuclear energy. Energy is measured in many ways. One of the basic measuring blocks is called a Btu. This stands for British thermal unit and was invented by, of course, the English. Btu is the amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit, at sea level. One Btu equals about one blue-tip kitchen match.

CN604: Energy System

Page 1

you can have kilojoules — "kilo" means 1. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit. Like in the metric system. He discovered that heat is a type of energy.000 times! CN604: Energy System Page 2 .000 BTU to make a pot of coffee. you would use about 15 joules of energy. Joules sounds exactly like the word jewels. as in diamonds and emeralds. So.000 joules = 1 Btu So. if you lifted a five-pound sack of sugar from the floor to the top of a counter (27 inches).000 joules = 1 kilojoule = 1 Btu Do you know that…? A piece of buttered toast contains about 315 kilojoules (315.000. It takes about 2. scientists measure energy in joules rather than Btus. it would take 2 million joules to make a pot of coffee.000 joules) of energy. Around the world. Energy also can be measured in joules.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy One thousand BTU roughly equals: One average candy bar or 4/5 of a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. The term "joule" is named after an English scientist James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. 1. It's much like people around the world using the metric system of meters and kilograms. With that energy you could:        Jog for 6 minutes Bicycle for 10 minutes Walk briskly for 15 minutes Sleep for 1-1/2 hours Run a car for 7 seconds at 80 kilometers per hour (about 50 miles per hour) Light a 60-watt light bulb for 1-1/2 hours Or lift that sack of sugar from the floor to the counter 21. One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift something weighing one pound to a height of nine inches. 1. instead of the English system of feet and pounds.

CN604: Energy System Page 3 . one for each type of element. You used your own energy to lift and move the pencil. The three main particles making up an atom are the proton. Here's something you can do to see the importance of electricity. Electrons spin around the center. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. If the numbers are the same. of atoms. Moving it higher than the floor adds energy to it. we need to know a little bit about atoms and their structure. house or apartment and write down all the different appliances. You'll be amazed at how many things we use each and every day that depend on electricity. the number of electrons usually needs to be the same as the number of protons. Put the pencil at the edge of the desk and push it off to the floor. With a pencil. Each atom has a specific number of electrons. Electricity lights up our homes. in the same way the moon spins around the earth. But what is electricity? Where does it come from? How does it work? Before we understand all that. Electrons contain a negative charge. protons a positive charge. and it is very stable. Electricity figures everywhere in our lives. television sets. devices and machines that use electricity. the neutron and the electron. the pencil has potential energy. and other electronic devices. An atom is a single part that makes up an element. powers our computers. the further it could fall. try this example to know the two types of energy. Take a walk through your school. Now. There are 118 different known elements that make up every thing! Some elements like oxygen we breathe are essential to life. The higher it is. the atom is called balanced. protons and neutrons. cooks our food. All matter is made up of atoms. Electricity from batteries keeps our cars running and makes our flashlights shine in the dark. or nucleus. Neutrons are neutral – they have neither a positive nor a negative charge. As it rests on the desk. Moving energy is called kinetic energy. That means the pencil has more potential energy. But no matter how many particles an atom has.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Electric Energy DID YOU KNOW? Energy makes everything happen and can be divided into two types: Stored energy is called potential energy. pick up the pencil and put it back on the desk. The moving pencil uses kinetic energy. There are many different kinds of atoms. and atoms are made up of smaller particles.

and has no proton to balance it out. That means that when you add up the electrons and protons. The free electron charge is negative. the atom that has been "unbalanced" will look for a free electron to fill the place of the missing one. so we say that it has a "negative charge" (-). The element with six protons and six electrons is called carbon. they have a strong attraction for the electrons. A "charged" atom is called an "ion." Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another. Since it got kicked off. as in diamonds and emeralds. Since positive atoms want negative electrons so they can be balanced. we call the total attraction "charge. CN604: Energy System Page 4 . The charge is passed from atom to atom when electricity is "passed. The electrons also want to be part of a balanced atom." Scientists and engineers have learned many ways to move electrons off of atoms. It is a situation that's very similar to electricity passing along a wire and a circuit. The more positive atoms or negative electrons you have. Some kinds of atoms have loosely attached electrons." One electron is attached and another electron is lost. each person would have a bucket of water to pour from one bucket to another. The result was a lot of spilled water and not enough water to douse the fire. a current of electricity is created. An atom that gains electrons has more negative particles and is negatively charge. Carbon is found in abundance in the sun. The electrons move from one atom to another in a "flow. stars. Since all atoms want to be balanced. the free electron moves around waiting for an unbalanced atom to give it a home. This chain is similar to the fire fighter's bucket brigades in olden times.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy So. the positive attracts the negative to balance out. comets. and the food we eat. So. you would wind up with one more proton instead of being balanced. When those electrons move between the atoms." Energy also can be measured in joules. so are diamonds. But instead of passing one bucket from the start of the line of people to the other end. it should also have six electrons. We say that this unbalanced atom has a "positive charge" (+) because it has too many protons. So what do positive and negative charges have to do with electricity? Scientists and engineers have found several ways to create large numbers of positive atoms and free negative electrons. if an atom had six protons. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit. atmospheres of most planets. Coal is made of carbon. so they have a strong attraction to the positive atoms. Joules sounds exactly like the word jewels. Since we have both positive and negative charged groups attracted to each other. the stronger the attraction for the other. An atom that loses electrons has more protons than electrons and is positively charged.

4 degrees Fahrenheit. So. Some things hold their electrons very tightly. Electrons do not move through them very well. The yellow yolk of the egg is like the core of the earth. aluminum or steel – are good conductors. is like the earth's crust. that would have surrounded the boiled egg if you didn't peel it off. it is called lava. water sometimes makes its way close to the hot rock and turns into boiling hot water or into steam. Other materials have some loosely held electrons. the temperature increases 5. The white part is the mantle of the earth. This is what happens in a piece of wire. These are called conductors.000 feet below ground. Most metals – like copper. This is hotter than boiling water (212 degrees F / 100 degrees C). These things are called insulators. plastic. which move through them very easily. CN604: Energy System Page 5 . The crust of the earth floats on this liquid magma mantle. When magma breaks through the surface of the earth in a volcano. Electricity is conducted through some things better than others do. Or for every 328 feet below ground. For every 100 meters you go below ground. It doesn't turn into steam because it is not in contact with the air. the temperature of the rock increases about 3 degrees Celsius. Deep under the surface. The electrons are passed from atom to atom. the top layer of the mantle is a hot liquid rock called magma. just like in the picture. Have you ever cut a boiled egg in half? The egg is similar to how the earth looks like inside. and "thermal" means heat. creating an electrical current from one end to other. Rubber. The hot water can reach temperatures of more than 300 degrees Fahrenheit (148 degrees Celsius). if you went about 10. Thermal Energy Geothermal Energy has been around for as long as the Earth has existed. a current of electricity is created. So. Below the crust of the earth. And the thin shell of the egg. geothermal means earth-heat.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy When electrons move among the atoms of matter. Its resistance measures how well something conducts electricity. "Geo" means earth. cloth. glass and dry air are good insulators and have very high resistance. the temperature of the rock would be hot enough to boil water.

such as petroleum. gravitational energy. CN604: Energy System Page 7 . motion and sound. One example of chemical energy is that found in the food that we eat. nuclear energy and electrical energy. it can only be converted from one form to another. Kinetic energy can also be converted to potential energy. to make the car move. The different forms of kinetic energy are radiant energy. x-rays and radio waves. energy can neither be created nor destroyed. During respiration. the chemical energy is released. the reverse reaction takes place.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Chemical Energy Chemical energy is one form of potential energy. and if it absorbs energy. the chemical energy is stored in the bonds that make up the molecules. including humans. and other forms of chemical energy. radiant energy. When wood is burned. molecules can be created or destroyed. All of these forms of energy are stored within an object and are converted to forms of kinetic energy when a force or change is applied. kinetic energy. along with mechanical energy. which includes light. During chemical reactions. it is called exothermic. the chemical energy within the cells of the wood break and heat is released. Energy is stored in the bonds of the molecules that make up food. When animals eat the plants. or the light from the sun. If a reaction releases energy. fuel their bodies. heat. If a product is created. If something is broken down. the chemical energy is converted to heat. which is stored within the plant. Other forms of fuel include wood and chemicals. As stated by the first law of thermodynamics. The process of breaking down and using the food by our cells is called respiration. When we eat the food. The bonds are broken. Food is just one example of a fuel — it is how animals. is converted into chemical energy. usually as heat. like that stored in the fat cells in our body. the large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells of the body. During the process of photosynthesis carried out by plants. which releases stored chemical energy for the animal to use. the energy in the gasoline is converted to heat and motion. In the engine of a car or truck. it is called endothermic.

Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.e. You can feel the effect of this energy if the cricket ball hits you. Motion energy: This is the energy something has because it is moving (eg a speeding cricket ball).Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Stored Mechanical Energy There are two main types of mechanical energy. This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. Similarly. When assuming its usual position (i. when not drawn). You can feel it when the band is released. Stored mechanical energy is also called potential energy. the bow is able to store energy by virtue of its position. Potential Energy An object can store energy as the result of its position. Stored mechanical energy: This is energy something has stored in it because of its height above the ground or because it is stretched or bent or squeezed (eg in a stretched rubber band). This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. They are motion energy and stored mechanical energy.. For example. Motion energy is also called kinetic energy. Yet when its position is altered from its usual equilibrium position. there is no energy stored in the bow. the heavy ball of a demolition machine is storing energy when it is held at an elevated position. a drawn bow is able to store energy as the result of its position. CN604: Energy System Page 8 .

But they can be changed in form. One of the laws of the universe is that matter and energy can't be created nor destroyed. The energy is both heat and light energy. when let out slowly. A nuclear power plant (like Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant shown below) uses uranium as a "fuel. It is: This equation says: E [energy] equals m [mass] times c2 [c stands for the velocity or the speed of light. The ancient Greeks said the smallest part of nature is an atom. An atom's nucleus can be split apart.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Nuclear Energy Another major form of energy is nuclear energy. surrounded by electrons which swirl around the nucleus much like the earth revolves around the sun. CN604: Energy System Page 9 . When this is done. created the mathematical formula that explains this. Scientists used Einstein's famous equation as the key to unlock atomic energy and also create atomic bombs. the energy that is trapped inside each atom. This energy. When it is let out all at once. or the speed of light raised to the second power — or c-squared. Normally c-squared is shown with a smaller "2" placed above and to the right of the c. a tremendous amount of energy is released. Atoms are made up of smaller particles -.] Please note that some web browser software may not show an exponent (raising something to a power. a mathematical expression) on the Internet. c2 means c times c. Albert Einstein. The world's most famous scientist. can be harnessed to generate electricity.000 years ago about nature's even smaller parts.a nucleus of protons and neutrons. It is processed into tiny pellets that are loaded into very long rods that are put into the power plant's reactor. Einstein said that a very small amount of matter contains a very LARGE amount of energy. it can make a tremendous explosion in an atomic bomb. Matter can be changed into energy." Uranium is an element that is dug out of the ground many places around the world. But they did not know 2.

In nuclear power plants. particles released by the splitting of the atom go off and strike other uranium atoms splitting those.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy The word fission means to split apart. The reaction also creates radioactive material. instead of burning a fuel. This chain reaction gives off heat energy. Inside the reactor of an atomic power plant. CN604: Energy System Page 10 . almost pure pieces of the element Uranium-235 or Plutonium. The very strong concrete dome in the picture is designed to keep this material inside if an accident happens. it heats another set of pipes filled with water to make steam. But in atomic bombs. uranium atoms are split apart in a controlled chain reaction. Below is a cross section of the inside of a typical nuclear power plant. These conditions are not present in a nuclear reactor. nuclear power plants use the chain reaction of atoms splitting to change the energy of atoms into heat energy. in the heat exchanger. so it is kept in a solid form. The steam in this second set of pipes turns a turbine to generate electricity. with great force. Here. This heat energy is used to boil water in the core of the reactor. control rods are used to keep the splitting regulated so it doesn't go too fast. Power plant drawing courtesy Nuclear Institute This water from around the nuclear core is sent to another section of the power plant. you could have an atomic bomb. This material could hurt people if released. of a precise mass and shape. must be brought together and held together. Those particles given off split still other atoms in a chain reaction. So. In a chain reaction. If the reaction is not controlled.

Scientists have been working on controlling nuclear fusion for a long time. elimination of waste. two types of hydrogen atoms. Berkeley for the picture. The electricity that we use comes from nuclear power. combine to make a helium atom and an extra particle called a neutron. and rational use. In the picture to the right. and its supply of fuel can last longer than the sun. This gives off heat and light and other radiation. Also given off in this fusion reaction is energy! Thanks to the University of California. through economy. Energy should be conserved since we are consuming disproportionate amount of energy and that day is not far when all our Non-Renewable resources will expire forcing us to rely just on Renewable Sources. When burned they emit carbon-dioxide which is harmful to humans and the environment. foreign energy dependence and the risk of international conflict over energy supplies. acid rain and global warming. What's better about nuclear fusion is that it creates less radioactive material than fission. Fusion means joining smaller nuclei (the plural of nucleus) to make a larger nucleus. Energy conservation is… Reduction in the amount of energy consumed in a process or system. or by an organization or society. These include air pollution. The sun uses nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. loss of wilderness areas. Apart from these it also helps us to save money. But they have been having trouble learning how to control the reaction in a contained space. oil spills and water pollution. mitigates the numerous adverse environmental and social impacts associated with energy production and consumption. construction of new power plants. CN604: Energy System Page 11 . coal power plants.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Another form of nuclear energy is called fusion. Energy conservation extends the lifetime of equipment and reduces the maintenance cost by operating less hours and at less than maximum capacity. Oil that we use to run our vehicles are fossil fuels that were created million of years ago from decaying plants. trying to make a fusion reactor to produce electricity. deuterium and tritium.

they are going to deplete one day and will take another millions of years to form again. and harms trees and crops. Improvements in energy efficiency are most often achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process. It kills fish in lakes.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Reduce Consumption on Non-Renewable Sources Consumption on Non-Renewable sources must be reduced as much as possible. land loss. Severe storms. Acid Rain: Coal power plants and vehicles emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx). floods. 5. These travel beyond the local area and are harmful to the health throughout whole regions. monuments. Resource Depletion: By using these resources in excess. Adverse affect on humans and the environment: Extraction of Uranium and Coal from beneath the earth cause huge affect to the lives of cola miners. These people have high cancer death rates. cars). solar electricity may cost expensive initially but prove to be cost-effective in the long run. 1. Compact fluorescent lights use two-thirds less energy and may last 6 to 10 times longer than incandescent lights. Many energy efficiency and conservation measures are better investments than the stock market or bank interest. sometimes simply called energy efficiency. Pollution from nuclear and coal power plants cause diseases like asthma. is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. Drought. Save Money: Usage of fluorescent bulbs . Reduce Carbon-dioxide: If Non-Renewable resources are used up to the limit they may also help in reducing the carbon-dioxide. Climate Change : Due to increase int the rate of these resources it also affect the climate greatly. are formed. 8. There are various different motivations to improve energy CN604: Energy System Page 12 . 2. They also harm the environment and agricultural lands. global warming is taking place all over the world and the result which is glaciers are melting which is causing the rise in the sea level. insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. erosion of soil and heat deaths are few examples of climate change. making life on the earth possible. sulfuric acid and nitric acid. 3. emphysema etc. This is very harmful to the lungs. corrodes property (buildings. 7. When SO2/NOx and water vapor mix under certain conditions. Efficient energy use. 4. Ozone Layer Depletion: Ozone layer in the atmosphere protect us from ultraviolet rays from reaching the earth thus. For example. harms the soil (releasing toxins). Global Warming: With so much dependence on Non renewable sources. know as acid rain. Installing fluorescent lights or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. 6.

[4] In many countries energy efficiency is also seen to have a national security benefit because it can be used to reduce the level of energy imports from foreign countries and may slow down the rate at which domestic energy resources are depleted. there are major drawbacks related to limited production as well as high costs that don't allow people to use it in a wider scale. The heat that is stored inside the earth is used to produce steam. According to the International Energy Agency. The major drawback is that it can be used only in the coastal regions and can be noisy too. However. This apart from solar is another clean and renewable source of energy. Solar energy is responsible for growth of plants and indirectly.[3] Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy policy. the existence of all animal life. However. Reducing energy use is also seen as a key solution to the problem of reducing emissions. which is then used to drive electrical generators.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy efficiency. Renewable Energy & Non Renewable Energy The energy sources from which we gain energy are classified broadly into 2 groups namely: Renewable and Non-Renewable (Fossil Fuels) Renewable Sources Renewable Sources include solar. and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases. biomass and hydro power. The center of the earth has temperature about 6000 degrees F. geothermal. wind. industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third. Geothermal energy is the energy stored inside the earth. hazardous steams and gases may come out from bottom that may cause harm to mankind. The main advantage of it is that it does not cause any pollution and no fuel is needed. Reducing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy efficient technology. Wind energy is used in large farm fields where they can use windmills to provide power for the accomplishment of agricultural tasks has contributed to the growth of civilization. Solar energy is the energy that we get from the sun. improved energy efficiency in buildings. CN604: Energy System Page 13 . It is the major source of energy among all the nations.

and produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. Thus. whose atoms we split (through a process called nuclear fission) to create heat and ultimately electricity. Coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt. When used on a larger scale they may deplete from the earth after some years and also cause the great deal of air pollution. They're called fossil fuels because they were formed over millions and millions of years by the action of heat from the Earth's core and pressure from rock and soil on the remains (or "fossils") of dead plants and animals. It in turns causes pollution when you burn them but is relatively cheap and freely available. a nuclear accident can be a major disaster. coal fired power stations need huge amount of fuel. Non-Renewable Sources Non-Renewable Sources include fossil fuels (Coal. Some military ships and submarines even have nuclear power plants for engines. With the large drawbacks of fossil fuels. a problem with fossil fuels is their environmental impact. Also. burning wood is a method of producing biomass energy. To trap this energy a dam is built usually in a river or lake and water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam to turn the turbines and thus drive generators. The major drawback is the pollution which in turn causes greenhouse effect which may lead to global warming. Most of the nations have started building nuclear reactors in order to avoid using fossil fuels which contribute to global warming.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy Biomass energy is the energy that we get from the organic materials. "Bioconversion" uses plant and animal wastes to produce "biofuel" such as methanol. Nuclear power is reliable and does not produce smoke or waste but if any thing goes wrong. Although very large amount of electricity can be produced at one place. natural gas. However. without the pollution that you'd get from burning fossil fuels. Oil and gas can be burnt directly. Oil and gas) and Nuclear energy. and oil. Hydroelectric energy is the use of running of water to generate electricity. Non renewable energy source is the element uranium. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needs. CN604: Energy System Page 14 . scientists across the world are moving there focus from fossil fuels to Nuclear energy. No waste or pollution is caused and power can be generated through out the year but if the dam is built it may cause the flood in the large area and therefore getting the suitable site may be difficult. Fossil fuels are relatively easy to use to generate energy because they only require a simple direct combustion. Biomass is simply the conversion of stored energy in plants into energy that we can use. it has a lot of disadvantages.

and the diesel fuel used in our trucks are made from oil. renewable sources are not used on much wider scale and use of Non-renewable sources cause pollution to the environment and may extinct if used in a hazardous manner. factories and schools. We use this energy to light bulb. refrigerators. We use energy to run our cars and trucks. washing machines and air conditioners etc. run computer.Topic 1: Introduction to Energy People all across the globe use these energy sources to generate electricity for homes. CN604: Energy System Page 15 . Since. so the need of the hour is to conserve these resources and use them in an efficient manner to minimize the wastage and making this planet a better place to live in. Both the gasoline used in our cars. business.