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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
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September. \v. SHANNON. Under the direction of LLWI5 L.BULLETIN No. AUBURY. SACRAMLNTO: W. Issued by the CALirORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU. PRINTING. Ferry Building. 5an Francisco. state Mineralogist. 50. 1908. 908. THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA.iTV OF •- CALIFORmA A ^"'Q . LTDRARY UNTVFR«. ::::::::: I SUPERINTLNDLNT STATE.

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rAOK.NTY 1'" 1^" 'oi.NTY Vl MA Cot NTY I'l.n 1.t TIIK ('(iri'KK I'.N.MY r.' CONTENTS.>T TKIIAMA.NTY ' ' San r.mi < '•'•' 'I'lIIMlY ror.n ty Mkkcki) * ' '(tr.MY a..Mi SlKltKA (ol NTIKS NK\ ADA ( m s.\ TI KS 1-I-' . SA ( "( )1 .AKi.\i. 1 '-' ^ is < H:1S1MI ( 'OINTY '-' ' riii: sii:i.i.\MAI)OK ( ( OINTV t AI.. < hiirosi'is I n"' I'M I SlSKlYOl" Y NOUTK CdIMY rn. cnNhlTlnN or STAl'IS'lK'S ol" iiisTi I 111: iNhrsi UV 11 l'K( (hrcrioN -I •'•" tUKAi.NTY Al.AC i.N r.N .<l(iY Shasta Coimy Ol N Mim:s cuAsr ItKI.MKDA l"'^ '' CdINTY ^ ' Contra Costa Coi. I 1'" ^''•' "orM Y ("dIMY Nai-a r.i nty SllNd.###BOT_TEXT###lt;.l llrM.MAS A.K(>I.\ hklt ''' ''' 1 I'M .K. i:a. t .vai».MA "'^ ''"'' MVK. <.\ ..A..:n.Kir <"oriM:ii '" " ''* (. M>ri:s SHASTA (OrNlV 'I'm: "*'' ("uri'KK (IK Hki. .AVKUAS OINTY 22S.NTY ( I >(I1{AI)0 "OINTY ••'1 .MKMlOriNO ('(tr.KMTO ColNTY Sa.. I.k.i -"•' KK < or.

'."UU .Statistics ."! SOITIIKKX AM> KASTKKX .nc I'.Madkka Coi \TY L'li'.NTY KKK.t Fresno Coi'nty 'rn."» Al'l'KXIUX ('Ar. i:i:i.l.44 San Dikoo Cointy Los Angeles Cointy o4.is 'oiN TY .iM. .N ( l'77 l!v. pace.":! -MiNKHAi.AKK Cor.iHKAr -Ml '.'A~ .". : '2'.KKNAHDINO KlVKKSIDK CoiNTY "OINTY '.Mono I ( >i:i'( >SII'S li'.» 'Ol XTY 1 li'.M Coi'MY ('(11 AlUI'OSA .i'im. 'om imki).iioKNiA Stati: Mini.4 CONTENTS.NK .r~< THE siKKKA m:\aiia Ai.

2~) .\IY .)S \ Yo County ( -U'J Sax r. iMCi L'47 -'>] Cointy 'I'roi.

r.MiniiiLr ('uram. Shasta Count Cojtper \- Mi ('omi>any smelter.: foriMfily Minintniii Ckiiiht ( 'niiiiiany.". !i'. Kiswirk. iisi-d r.nlly Hill smcllfr awaiiiui: shipmcnl 1" 41 '. Ki'swick Mountain Copper ~- Company. l^alaklala 'oiisolidated ( .Mine. Shasta Co.iiial View iif the Hully Hill r. Shasta Co.'! Mammoth Mine. acc-offlim: lo available data '>•'• Sketcli showiii.. (leolosieal seftioii. Shasta ("ounty !M li.'hi HlistiT coiJptT from r.ully Ilill snnlier. Siiifllrr.Vfterthou'^'ht claims.alakiala .. 'rnnncl entrance ai ilie Smrar Loaf Copper Mine. N. Shasta County.!1 Preston I'eak trroup of copjter mines .Mine. smelter.> Aftei'thou^'lit smelter at In^'ot. ore McDouirall roastiu}..i County li'l Section throujrh Copper Hill and . HM 1..Moiiiitaiii Sli.deiiosits of Iron .ully Hill. 's'. '<>'< .Mountain Mine liii Sketch showiiif.. . on. Kennet.iinal CiipptT sint-ltrr plnni. show tnniiel djiened in Isti. Shasta County Smelter at the Unlly Hill Mines. Pack.i Shasta 'ounty (lOssaii cropiiinirs and inniiej. Shasta County Coi)i)er Mammoth Mining' Company smelter. 1 ' Shasta ('onniy Suil'arf niiiiiii.iilly Ilill Mini's stalls iiiiil Sluista ("oiinty liy llu- 1-'*> Uoiistin.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.\ci.. Clmte hetwi-eii Ilill sheds.' Canyon. Copper . . Shasta Counl\Iloastin.. stalls at I'.'. *>1 furnace. hodi^-s of lialaklala and Shasta Kini. with lion Mountain ihr rii.Mining' at Company in Siiik Umk •".swick.: plant of tin- < 'upper . Shasta ('ounty.'.s.Mine..Mines from the north ini: orii. Sliast. Shasta County tunnels and e|e<'tric iiowerliouse an<l ."! ISully A'iew of linlly Hill smeltei* from inouih of tunnel N."> Shasta Kiu'. 1"' K..: ( .'.ista ( County 'iimpaiiy's ()ii.Mini' . Shasta County 77 7M ^1 tindier Cross section of UmIIn Ilill ..

'i'. (icntscc. Mariposa County Willie Ro<k Mine. Penn Chemical Companys smelter and roasters. Kern County Coi)i)er l". Mine Copper bowlders Copper at ratii( k Iluniboldt County oroi)pinj2. .LIST OF ILLISTHATIONS. Plumas County is ISo Mountain on which IMunias < located tiic Dum-an crroup of coiipcr mines.ss section of Siienceville formation I'latit I'..i (ireen Mountain and I^one Tree Mines.">7 Union Cupper Mine.Mariposa County l.Mininjr ('om|)any. Del Xorte Ciuiiiiy I. Kl Dorado Cotinty VA L'1. Low Dividi' Miiiiiiu: District. Mariposa County UtiC. L'TI '21'.~( Ubehebe District. Calaveras County. Speiiceviile l!l. Madera County California Copper Comjjany. 1>>. Calaveras County..ore at Islniid Moiiiitaiii ('u|ipiT I'oiiii. Copjieropolis l!. Marijiosa County Pocahontas Copper Mine. Ltd.". Fresno County 1!n(> 2N."'.] Madera County Smelter of California Copper Company..a L'Cil '2tu]

Related Interests

ict(M-ia Mine.'!!' Smeltins works of the Penn Mining Company at Camjjo Seco 1240 1'41 -4.'l (ireenback Coppir Mine." Contraband tunnel. Williams' claim..."i Cosumnes Co|)])er Mine.'!-l -•V^ l'.s. Dorado ('ounty iM.Mariposa County '2"> J." Croppiiifis at Islaud Mountain ('oi)i)tM- Miiu-. Pace. 30. ..'i I'nion Cojiper .Mine. 'I'liiiiiy ("oiinty 147 14fl I. Madera County l!7.i.'» 'ounty Cro."i4 liowldt'i-s of copiKM.'> Shipping station and smelter of the Copper King."i Si<etch map of Mineral Iliil group of mines 1!». Company. Buciianan Cop|)er Mine. Napoleon Cojiper Mine.iH of the Sjience Mineral Company.Mountain Mining Company's claims.. Fresno County Plant of Copper King Mining Company. Tulare County 2".'ll Smelter of Cnion Copper Minim. Copiieropolis Concentrator. . Comiiany. Ltd. Cala\eras County (Jreen Mountain ("ojiper ."> croppings at Copper King Mine and Invo Countv at Dodd's Springs." Fresno Copi)er Mine. Coiiperopolis Penn Copiier Mining Company's mine at Campo Seco -. Copi)ero])o]is. Contra Costa County Smelter at I's4 Fresno -Mine. Fresno County "jsii CopiHM. Cnion ("opjier Mininj. U.

San Fran.' .f Cross sec-tion Iny.-l).-.'-iiwal.-.iinty :..'liin- iui...- histri.T C.T iiwal.CnlM'-'.'y D. San I'..'i.T. San r. liiy.n\val. T.w of (Jr. n. of (Jr.:..^. (..Mini'. Iny.T n.>.-ai- ( .n-. riM-li.v •• from Fmi. ..i'..iiir Hoist and sin.. --I . 's.M'"'"-' I»isiri<i.J7 ••Ml Maiivcl. r Company.•'"•' ci-ly. riianliiio Lonnty County is •'— Blossom .T Miiiini. I iiy. Slat. ( "nunly '•1' Mai.rui. .ili Coi. riM'lirlir liiyn ('.!. -It.17 OuUTop C..h situate. Inyo Copi-'illiyo ( Sin.. Inyo < "oinily I-.l Miiiini-' « .iiii-mmv.. (11 VmIN'.i-:.)\iiity liiirwiii. ( Inyo <'oniily Copii.Wuii.' C.any ••'' .4s Stale . ".Tnl ami rat.. ' Page.Mine.i! Musriim.. .uniy.t. >— ' water Copiifi.-Ju Vi.'an . wJii. =••"' ^^''''-''i"- •'"•"I'iniy i. :!'iT Mil Illy <.. I'Miwin.r.'iiianlino in Kerry Kuildimr. San P.i.Mining' r. Min-'.rs'i'HATioNS.is.i..ur.n\vat.» LIST ur ii.T.'riianliii<> County :'.at Oraii'.- liisiii.Mining' I'ur.l .au Min.i.l the California :..n. Itaiii:..'aili Vall. San lifrnanlinn < "(luiily Sini'ltci..amint Kaiiu.' N 11.

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this linlh-tin.nr1nirnl l.l furnish poss.n...in was .s/<. On o.lislH.. ana therefore access he .. courtesy by n. to n.riahlv .porlr.s.-xKna th.! -onnti-s of Siskiyon. i„vr .l nnn...n.. "Coi'I"-'' R«^s'>iii'^'^'^ ('"lif'"""'='-" Tins n.. sn.s y-ars.l .!..K..')<».rornia . ^vas not possa. .s t. assistant..-re w.ounrrs 1n-a1.LETTER OE TRANSMITTAL.ation np to nn. Inyo. .1..n..n ..t has .mv Dr. .rtan...ann also Shasta and Siskiyon -ounties.h it nnnn.lr.hl ul. .inP.sp.„pp.s n.sions.lon t in „j. whi. in ••opp-r for tlui„fornK.lo.a to assistants H.lm..port that assistants vish..hl.„„.n of V.-a. In llnnnrahh llu Board W V..-n..H.. ....... u.. ("alavras.n 1..av. llu- ll.. K..a uilh llu. Anuulor..nr1 ion of Mr .o .nn.. Shasta.. D.u\rUu No.sahl.v.asl s..n H„n.. ana Ins Trinitv.-onhl Where Hehl th... I (In..-a .nnhoiat h.thanks ihr. llansn.. ^vho v. . nil tins pul.ui! lo you Uulhlin . n. Cknti. (iliXHTT...„.. . ana ll. In.onsHl.ul of Calit-nn..l.l Norte.htain.partmonl..... ana 1 ot this wish to .a aata for the revision of -('opi'-- A...Hi..li.l Dr.. * I l. Tn Ills o.a„on .vas to t-MUHl.s h. -un-es of Cal.-...„.Irnvon-. no n.usn.rnlhnr„ -Iamks N.M-.port of ( is n r-visi-.l.„a sn...torn. the nnnes in San Hernaraino. iumu-ns.„. cupiH-r lo ih. .nt u.y w. Ih-hl assistants visitnl properties.kmkn: No. honor "^" 1....! -lat.. in thr north.M. 2X "CoIMH'V n> Resoun-s "nlUonna..Mo.the . .-r n. hav.„.- IIh- latt.l"Kruttsehnitt...s ( pnl-lish. .wln-l..rratest inv. hvin...-olh.na.-h h.u..-ts .. .- 11.Iv.n.. he.. .a that „. work a ..„ l:ns Ihis S..: rnnmf I In Sl.r <> pul.l.s nf lln Slair Miniinj liiirciii.1 .r t hr assistan... wh.n1s...ann..ns.-a VM^l Uy thisa.tion on ^IrvelopuuMits ol all ropprr to inrorporntr descriptions . whorarri..

KTTER OF TKAXSMI'lTAI. .!. and dis- Nrvada counties.Mr. Shilt 11)08.ii!(l Fresno couiil ics. M iitn-iihit/isl . LKWIS Xoveinher 1. AriJlKV.i.i(!('r.. . 'riKiluiiiiM'.

Related Interests

to all of those of this who have l^nlletin. ( A. \V. Thanks aic and are cordially extended wa.M. Iv was ciiyaiicd in licld .-iripcs. Mdnian repoiMeil on new covei'ies in 'ouni

Related Interests

.M.Mr. H. El Dnrado. I'luiuas tlue . . in any assisted in the pcepaiMtion Kesperl fully sulnnitted. 'I'linfiif .1. wdi'k in i*ln('er. .10 I.

.. and years.nna of the fifth copper-pnHlucin. CONDITION Of TME INDUSTRY. belt soon The further exploitation of the Shasta copper followed the early success of the :\Iountain Copper Hill.unds. and in l!»(ll a -n-at prop.. In belt in Shasta discovery of the possii)ilities of the larufc copi)er ojx'ration of County. for many . :V2.•upi'-s llK' pl:>M' . the Halaklala. Many thousands of tons Atlantic coast shipped for reduction fi-oni San Francisci.' (•alif. to the but thereafter. the IVnn . annual m-onl of is of California niinrral product and with an oulpul I'.-rty. valued at *(i.:Ui.-. the I'.44.7:5!)..in \ui.-e then a uuiuIm^i- of (.state Tnion. that this State will Ilu' hu'ures of the world's production show importaiiee as a undouhtedly soon assume a mu. The total 1S87 to I'HIS was pn. re(lu<-tion tude to have their own works are further.ully Held as a |)roducer.THE COPPER RESOURCB Of CAllfORNIA. . the most important bein.' years from Iti^^ pounds.()()8. Montana and Arizona .thei- mines have developed into :\Iines of sufficient ma.Mi1s a exeeed this outi)u1..the :\rammoth.-hi-an.():U.irni- irreat ppxlncrs. and the Afterthoutrht.durtion for the last t\vn1y-on.Mountain.„.' lu'tween IHtil and 1886..rt:inr..rcmaiu a stron«r factor in the industry. copper was one the industry remained at a low ebb.HlT..!»4:) p. more llian •_>!I1. the result of the ivopenin.ii.iS7 in 1h.. While .p. Sii. The copper industry is an old of lidi ores were one in California..„! Kur.7-!l> -really pound... .Mi. valued at >i.r tliinl -s ('upper iiiiiM.p.and siiccessful i-on . the mine of the Mountain Co|)per Company in 1 mines This mine soon took hiirh rank amonu: the <. e(niipped with a llie modern smeltin<r plant.f 18!)f) canie the the minor mineral products of the State... entered C.(i()2.li lar-cr copper field and that it will Ion..iny.reat coi)i)er of the world.

is the future. leadiiiL. heinu' scattered over tlic len<>:th and breadth of the State its and ties. and a co|)pei' district which must soon rank with the few the coppei. Nevada Ran^'e and the ucneral arid I'euion of southeastern ('alil'ornia.v and some new lli<' jironiise to eontril)nte larjicly to in State's eoppi'r ])ro(luetion the near future.iiid tlici-c Compniiy.. deposits. a result oi' snpei'li-ial pros- peel at Ttiere is hardly at a county in the State which has not some time made Sii'-h sliiilit least such small contril)utions to the nsiiall. excei)t in th(> deti'ital dei)()sits of the valleys. and districts which require chief of Foi' ( oiivenieiice. however. Till' deposits of economic importance. impoi-tatice is of the Sierras. intervals alon^r evei'y section by development. lln' L'oinpjmy jiiid riiinii Copper ai'c both in ('filavei'jis ('oimty.x' coi)per snp|»ly.'. in total out|)ut of metal. the Sieri'a . and hniulreds have yielded a niinin<i' at least few tons of mei'clianlable ore as ini.belt of the westei'U slojK' is great individual copper disti'icts of the world. Of second the woi'ld. di'posits have a reniarUahly wide distril)ution. small as far as revealed varying. in dei)osits stretching north this belt and south for about 400 the principal (ojipei' mines of the State In former . hnl liecanse of widei. Here is a of (opix-r deposits formiui.a curved belt nearly 30 miles lonu'. California's copper. occni'rin'4' in practically every one of fifty-eitiht coun- Thonsands of deposits liaxc been subjects of locations at ditfennt times. the in ( upper deposits the divi- State are sions: in this bulletin uronped four . not only Ix'cause to the material perity ol the Slate.12 riiiMiiical THE COI'l'KK KKSOIKCKS OF CALIFOKXIA. wliirh in territoi'ial magnitude llei'e is not rivaled in an almost contiinious series of copper miles.sijiiiiticance as a com|iarat ively new and very important source of the woi'ld's copper snpply. sei'ies the north-central paii of th<' State. ai'c scatteretl at the borders of the State and throuiihout of it. liave . the Coast Ran<j:e. many old iiiiiit's on Miiiinu' which operations (liseoveiMcs whieh resources llins been resinned latel. ((>|)|»ei' disti'ici The while promises to in and the one that remain of overshadowinu' importance for a good of ('alil'ornia. I'elation tlieii- California copper at command {^

Related Interests

inlcrcstcd tiieir attention the pi-esent pi'os- time.u:eoo:raphical Shasta County. in that of Shasta County. are mainly in certain belts concentrated considei'at ion.

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its important copper districts are for ahout in iiorth('i-ii e. associated with jiyrite.3. t)oth in crystal form and massive. 84. of copper blende. ser]ientine. and sulphni' Bornite.' it yours wci'c (Icvclopcd. calcite. the tlie deposits of this have not hcen in few instances. of uiving a greenish-black stivak. but surface indications point to the widespread existence of cupriferous veins of sufficient size and value to waiTjiiit development and the cxix'ctation that this great mineral region will include protitat)le copper mines among its most superficial ])rospectinji' hcyond a industries. he iH'odiiciim' iiiiiics dcvt'lojx'd While the Coast Ranufe displays its h'li'i'th (•()[)per deposits throughout in its of 500 miles.\tendin<r line. carbonates. crystalline schists. peacock like the former. ore nearly iiL. Sometimes a tlesignated as copix-r pyrite.5. ore. The most coimnon of these. iron zinc spar). in the It (oloi-. ('. nuich resemble those of Arizona in their character.14 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. . has a hardness of 8.0.in<. in It is found.1 to 4. etc. (piartz. (i. with a and metallic luster which mineral scale.i This mineral brass yellow is double snlphide of co|)per and iron. is found throughout the entire minerjd Chalcopyrite. of 4. iiijiiiy llicrc will uiKloiihtcdly in tln' I'litiire. It is and composed.:(' productive of considerable quantities of shipping. . . iron 80. port ion. — Also known as erubescite.iiid jiIoiil. when pure. loO miles soutliwanl NOi'te fi'om th(^ Oi't'iion Excej)t Del County.. where several mines were i-. (heavy 84.i». THE COPPER ORES The pi'inci|)al connnercially useful copper ores found in California are the sulpliides. in the northwestern corner of the forty years developt'il iState. is. especially through the minerali/ed desert These deposits region of the southeastern part of the State. I)arite gneiss. a speciiic is gravity sometimes tarauriferous sliowing iritlcsceuc It is usually ami argentiferous. a double sidphide of copper and iron. and the one that nuiy virtuallv be belt of California. horscHesh oi-e. and silicate of coppei".5 to 4 nished. ^lany copper deposits nw widely scattered throughout Southern California.

y. -1 y. y. y. X .y.

IvKsotkces of camkounia. It It »rives a pah' . vitreous luster and a light blue streak. San Bernardino. ness is '. and Monterev counties. Santa Chalcocite. of a metallic color oil liistrr. carbonic acid. — Is a sulphide. The and specific gravity 4. parent to subtranshucnt. Cuprite. with a imrplc red to has piiiclilx'ck ln'owii a fresh fractuic taniisliinM: speedily to iridescence. with a metallic ol'teii luster irreeti. is the ^i-een carbonate of copper.9 to 5. witli It contains iron coppei. It is found coiiunoidy mas- but also incrusting.77 to 3. Imt hitherto not ma.xide. and ln###BOT_TEXT###quot;o connties. of a (lark lea(l-iira\.9 cupric oxide.2 ori'. is an oxide of copper of I'ed to various shades of red. It 3. color. when found massive found in numerous parts of Califoi'nia. sive.83. Azurite. with a delicate fibrous silky structure. ("lara. and sub- metallic lustei- when ci-ystalline. and It carries found in Calaveras. the color is is bright green. Los Angeles. from cochin(>al almost black.9 to 4.5.2 water. sometimes a It little and silver replacinu' part of the copper. alteration fi'om other coppei- oi'cs. is a valuable copper anil It is used for ornamental puriioses.and 20.5 to 5.5 to 2. (i Malachite. a hardness of 8 and specific 16. 25.5 and specific gravity 3.]. the hardness to 4.4. — Copper is ^hmce: is a siilpliide of coi)per. hartlness is 1.i h\(lrons carbonate of copjier. 1!). iron It snlphnr Shasta. giving a pale green streak.~y The hardIt is trans- to 4. 6!). 01)is])o. — Red oxide of eoppei-.nrayisli-l)lack streak. is This is a valuable copper ore.color. water. cspeciallv chalcocite.ssive.8 and specific Lrravity 5. of an azure blue coh)r. It .6:^ It conThis ore is the result of tains 66. has hccu fonnd in Plnmas.!) is contains It carbon dioxide.^. and specific gravity . lu\(>.1. and 5. has been fonnd Luis in Inyo. Fresno. and 8.i.4 copper and . Calaveras. but when massive. of an indigo blue or darker to with lead-gray black shining dull streak. often trrceii on the snrfaoe. 2 copper o. a cu|)ric Dic<i-o. and contains co]>per 55. tarnished lilue or The hardness 7i).51) to 4. San Covellite.4. 71. and lilackish lead-Liray slreak'. — Is .8. It has been fonnd in a few localities in California.5 to . 2. San and Plumas c(tunties.16 Till-: coi'Im:!. 2S.S:16 sulphur. lii-avity of 4.2 sidpluir.

o 'J X X. 50 .H X. >5 X. X 2— BuL.

mercury. Among may note the less frequent copper ores found in California we Melaconite. farther in Kern. Tulare. and a common mineral in California. — This mineral is a silicate of copper. Plumas County. Trinity. and results from decomposition of copper sulphides. though very handsome specimens have been found silica. although stones. The hardness is specific 3.85 to 6. and showing a metallic luster.15.238. and Kern counties. and the streak . 34. with an opal-like or enamel-like texture. Placer. Shasta. copper (blue vitriol). (when pure) white.2 gravity 5. Plumas. It has a vitreous. massive. passing from a mountain green and bluish green to sky and turquoise blue. is shining luster.5 to 3. The hardness varies from 2 to 4 the specific gravity is 2 to 2.3 a good copper ore. giving a metallic shining streak. It occurs usually as an efflorescence in old copper mines. The color is copper red. oxygen.8 to 8. in clay slates Napa. — This is pure copper. having been found with native copper in Del Norte and Plumas. also near St. It it is also found has been found in and sandCalaveras. and 11.5 water.2 copper oxide. is It contains 88.: 18 has an THE COPPER RESOUKCES OF CALIFORNIA. and a specific gravity of 8.8 cupric oxide and 20. —Black oxide of copper. It has been found in Calaveras. Helena in Napa County. and consists of 79. Colusa. it may I be brown to black. containing often etc. Chrysocolla. bismuth. It has a hardness of 2. and 20. It is decomposition of chalcopyrite and other copper found earthy black. adamantine or submetallic to earthy brownish red. the various other copper ores. it is found in connection with other copper minerals. and Nevada counties. It is formed by ores. It in It is contains 45. and Shasta counties.8 copper. if impure. shining streak. It Chalcanthite. As it is an alteration product. is — This a native sulphate of . and is found rather sparingly in California accompanying some silver. It varies in color. Amador. Native Copper. especially in the vicinity of igneous rocks.2 oxygen. Shasta. Mono. luster.9. more especially in the southern portion of the State.5 to and a 4. with a specific gravity of about 5.

is named Tennanitc. Shasta County. having but little reseml)lance either in appear- ance or (|uality with the metallic constituents of which they are found combined with oxygen as a brown earthy substance.5. there may be thousands or millions of dollars worth of ore exposed. A. occur as a ruh'. chemically combined with other elements with which they form new composed. with inetallie luster. a little sulphur converts the white. These elements unite in certain fixed proportions. hardness of 3 to 4. This mineral has a a i. silvery. accord«tc.1 copper. Tetrahedrite. Hausmann.WHAT CONSTITUTES COPPER SMELTING has been found in Califonii. ing to certain laws of afifinity and may be separated again under knowledge of these laws is based the science of metallurgy. c. . such an apparently contradictory condition useful metals. It The i'ontains 23. li(|uid mercury into the bright red. how to convert it into money.'ray to iron-l)laek eolor and streak. solid cinnabar.1 sulphur. for the mere possession of an ore \nH\y in the iiroiiiid is not a source of revenue. not bringThe reason for ing' revenue. bodies. is with o. for instance.\ygen and carbon white crystals of brilliant silky luster. that all the exception of gold and plati.! als»> in ORE. 24. but causing the loss of money. lead forms with molybdenum and oxygen transparent yellow crystals.4 to ')A. On the frequently required to separate the ore from the bulk of the baser material in order to obtain it sufficiently pure for treatment. which also includes the preliminary mechanical work the same laws. not in a native state. Imt as ores. 19 in thf IN'i-k niinc. the art to produce the metals from their compoiuids in a form in which they can be used in the industries. — Cray copper ore (fahlore). when the ore silver. These ores frr(|ucntly carry some WHAT CONSTITUTES A GOOD "COPPER SMELTING ORE"?* The discovery of a mine is in itself not always eciuivalent to success. * Bv Dr. aiul r)2. with the partial is. S antimony. and a specific gravity of 4. Iron. Nevada County. and mdess the next important question has liecn solved. antimony is sometimes replaced l)y arsenic. iinun.

would be impossible without the scientifie basis. Without . which permits of calculating the results in advance with absolute certainty. branch of exteni industi\' does financial success dejicnd to such an application of theoretical knowledge on is the |)ractical nothing else but a systematically arranged eoUeetion of facts obtained by experience). smeltei-s. to the detfiineiit of the mining industry.. which ascer- and liberates the srold. Another very couuiion mistake is to ligure on the composition of the ore as it appears on the surface. Notwitlistanding many practical demonstrations that too often these metallurgical calculations are indispensable for financial success. representing a deploral)le loss of money. metallurgy has (Uivelopcd in very recent times only from an empirical cusloni to an exaet science. where. which is usually blamed instead i>r individual incompetence. which renders it unfit for treatment in Idle reduction woi'k's.v free milling aii'. have been protlnced in iiu'tals i)rehistori(' ages.20 Altliouii:li TllK COPPER RESOURCES OF CALII'OHNIA. etc. the residf of exposure to the oxidizes the base metals depth. (which really under certain conditions to ol)1ain good results by mere praetieal methods. without faking into in consideration the almost certain change taking place ore on the surface. mills. as in metallurgy. but at the present state of metallurgy. with tiiousands of tons of ore on the dump and exposed in the mine. On the supposition thai a it cent copper. involving great financial losses. The sm(>lfer was never blown in. that particular plant. A striking example of this kind is the ease of the Fresno mine. This applies especially to gold veins which carr. such work as is done by large modern smelteis. which has . form a conspicuous and unpleasant feature of many mining camps in the United The failure States.L:reatly modiIn no olhei' fied the processes and increased their efficiency. a smelter was built at if cost of several hundred thousand dollars. but after it was finished was suddenly discovered that the ore only contained 2 ])er cent copper and was ton low grade for smelting. no excuse for such failures. of these plants is usmdly due to these causes: lack of oi'c. leaving nothing to chance and acci- While it is possible dent. its value there is seems to have been contained 7 pel- luiknown. or character of ore. the necessity of scientific methods is still ignored and this disregard causes fre(|nent failures.

l-'or cop])!'!' oi-cs snieltinir is almost the oid\ all ti-t-atmi'nl to he considered: it is applieahle to althouirh they arc not cipially them without exception. not l)e out of place to state briefly the conditions for successful smelting.lit it as is loiipr as this ore lasts.iiiie bodies of copper ore are. labor. the can be calculated the factors by which it determined. while in others 10 per cent may not be of sufficient grade. a mill up wliicli works all rii.cent ore.ore : at 30 cents a und of copper is worth $120 ouiy hut such a jjratle and jn-ice . on.stitutes desirable quality. a sufficient percentage of copper. is 21 put it how dft'i) tliis five iiiilliiii. a ton of I'd per cent coppei. fluxes and transit portation. no longer and opci-a- tions have to he suspended. The first condition of course. L.ii-e ratlier exceptional and 1(1 |»ei. hecause the formei. however. usually of much lower <rrade. and for the better understanding of is is this is important given. but knowledge of smelting and the chemical composition of the ore and presents a problem which the metallurgist must solve for every particular case and rerpiires locality.cxtemls. cost of smelting is Supposing the ore if to be of fair grade. There is a lowest limit. eopper at 15 cents. ORE. the cost of fuel. well adaptc(l to it. The (piestion of loi- of smelting at the mine is of «rreater importance copi)er than foi' 'jfold or silver ores. Often we hear people speak about <lo self-flvixing ore tliis who evid<'ntl\ not know what (»f con. and the owner is confronted hy the alternative to close the mine or to smelt the ore on the spot. in many localities would not pay to ship. question a general idea the principles involved The object of smelting material with which it the separation of a metal from the mechanically mixed or chemically combined. it may he possible in some localities to treat ore as low as 2 per cent.WHAT CONSTnTTKS fOPPKR taiiiiiii: SMKLTINP. and this is accomplished by uniting the necessary minerals in such proportions that they will smelt and form . While uold and ores luay carry metal enoutrh to he wt)rth many pi tliousands of dollars aiul hear considerahle expense for transportation. a-ssuming an ore not containing enough gold or silver to aft'ect the value. and it may is. In such a case it is of importance to know whether this can he done.can never silver attain such hi<rh values as the latter. power. hut i'vcv niillini. hut no fixed stand- ard for all i)laces. when (•liauiTt's into suli)hi(l('. are known.

zinc. manganese. . it is either converted into the metallic state fuel. in order to reduce the specific weight of the slag sufficiently to allow the metallic particles to sink and collect. lime. necessitating an increase of iron at the same time. liquids (slags) of less specific gravity than the metal. liecause the slag would become too heavy. l)e the latter might be partly replaced by magnesia. etc. which If the they permit to sink through and gather on the bottom.. but experience has shown that the oxides of the heavy metals. iron. and lime furnish the bulk of the slag-making material in copper ores and the basis for the slag calculation. Silica.22 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALll-'ORNIA. Because the metal represents a snuUl portion of the ore.. and their amount may also diminished. slags are made. would be an ore containing the acid and but it basic constituents in such proportions as reciuired to good slag fluxes. which must be combined in certain proportions in order to answer the purpose for which oh. Silica requires a certain quantity of the basic group. make a and which could be smelted without adding any is Such an ore is seldom found is in practice . 40 per cent ferroiLS oxide and 20 per cent total lime.. in various proportions. which may be iron. and the earthy bases.ject of the ni(4<dlurgist. etc. consisting of 30 per cent silica. the oxides of the heavy metals. and the more or less perfect recovery of the metal depends on the proper condition of the slag. Taking a slag. nnist be replaced to a certain extent by the earthy oxides. galena and. about 10 per cent. etc. iron. heavy spar. iron. because they are infusil)le by themselves. worst of all. etc. alumina. manganese.. magnesia. etc. As such must be named arsenic and antimony.. lime. metal is not present in the ore as such.. or recovered in refining. which becomes prohibitive if cheaply procured and which exceeding about 10 per cent of the charge. by the chemical action of the flux and some form which requires sul)sequent treatspecific ment or But the principle of separation by gravity remains the same. for instance. the metall)e lurgist content with an ore reijuiring fluxes that can free from impurities interfering with the smelting. lime. therefore. the acid silica (quartz) and the basic. The ideal selffluxing ore. etc. would not be safe to go below a certain limit. the making of a slag free from metal and easily removed is the main The material forming the slag consists of two groups.

intending: to sulphide ore... injurious minerals and . is obtaimnl By far the <rreater part of the copper produced but as a mixture of from the sulphides. at a ratio of from 3.'ither portion reipiired for a good slag. as flux. lonc'er aiiy excuse for failure in an enterprise . Oxidi/ed ores are not i„. in various proportions.-han-ni? nito the upper part of a vein and the probability below the water level. must latter at a . 10. and there is no that every result can be calculated in advance.-ommon as the sulphides. and the into one. or even 20. 23 Accordinthe snu'ltiiil' distinguish between to the c-haractor of tlic on-. w. an intermediate usuall.produce metallic of oxidi/i'd ores.n whrn a smelter • is planned. without the l)e smelted with one of them. By makinper cent copper (or even less) to smelt ores that c. utilizing the heat from the fuel.-ailed the addition of Huxes and fuel. n. pyritic smelting.t in metallic form. residue smelted with removed bv preliminary roasting and the later method. without In this method the ore is smelted burning sulphur. produccopper directlv.ntain only 8 cent or over) to extract and obtain a matte rich enough (45 per i i Matte smelting is really a dry the metal bv a dit^'erent process. the There are two ways to accomplish this is in which part of the sulphur .-ertain depth. Whether a certain ore can an extent on local conprofit in a given place.. . nuitte.\VMAT CONSTITITES COPPER SMELTING ORE. usually the the erection of be tak. and the smelting of the as product.-ontains it is an ore which is free from silica and the bases in a pro- addition of .. of this kind. adding roasting. they are of .v confined to . It is evident onlv a very small percentage of carbonaceous principles of smeltfrom the foregoing brief description of the a good smelting ore can ing that a definition of what constitutes only be given in a general way.Mi into considerati-. called matte. depends to such for every particular ditions that the problem has to be solved science The smelting of copper to-day is such an exact case. earthy constituents concentration. bv which the silica and the of sulpliur and iron are of the ore and part of the excess smaller bulk condensing the copper contents into a removed. this product it is possible sulphides.ld method of matte smelting. object.

72t.0so.")iri.<.-.. in fine statistical I'ccord of the and following years.4.sr.t.'.4S0 1892 189.!S..2 1S!)t.!»S.4o.-> 11M>2 100:5 I'. "Mineral Industry" beyan its annual mineral record with 1892...S4. 22r).S44 i. (Jcological Sui'vcy and -Mineral huhislry " as to some of the years succeeding 1891..i'-an 1S!)4. 1891 20.) having the stamp of official aulhoi'i1>- when the United States (}eoh)<i'ical Sui'xcy hcuan its mineral statistics.-j(.:!07.'}.(MMl 2. ir. Year..". STATISTICS..9i)7. ami between tliese records Burc^an as to and Ihat of the State Mining some of the years succeeding 1893.074.8<^i 2:!. is'. 'I'hei'c

Related Interests

.V.. oldest consecutive record of the ( opper production of begins with Calit'onii. S.22'.)4 1007 .1 . (lisajjree- mculs hclwccn those of llic rccoi-ds of the S. (reological Survey for the years preceding 1894 and of the record of the State Alining Bureau for the succeedpouiuls.8(M).r.( >!!.!>ir>.KM 19(>..S0.s-_> v:x)i\ 28.4. The following copper |>roduct of Califoi-nia.!><)2. 1."> 27.n:?.->12 1887 1888 1889 181)0 1000 l!Hil l. for 1882 ing years : Year.44S .i. Fine Pounds. Fine Pounds. S2(.-.(.s<.C.«>44 2. 21.00.io 1SS2 1S83 1S84 1885 18S<> l.24 THE COl'PER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA.J2.! isjtT ]S!»8 ]Sf)i) MIL'S 4.:i>. is matle up of the record of the V.-.(.045 1894 7.tJ02.(»s. 4(.> sTc.4 lft.()2l l. Th(> California State Mining Bureau's careful yearly (•()ni|»ilat idii of the in aiiKiiiiils and \alucs of the State's arc i-adii-al miiici'al pfoduds l)e.r)TO.(.(Mi.0.3 2.1G2 io. The ]8Sl*.. 2!).:!47 :J.l.-.ic.n81.2io 1.

O to ^ O . *a.i to o ^~.

« 26 THE COPPER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNLV.a CO d m 4-1 O >• c 3 O s t^ > 03 . « o « a a o I. 3 s 10 o 00 > be e i e « 00 3 "3 JO CO > . I i £3 5 « 3 "3 O Si r^ OS lO 1-4 -" S 55 00 E o 3 d CD > 3 oo CO s « >- 3 pq u> ^ a g 3 "3 e « c c o ss h i o •4-1 > g .0 « B O o B O u 9 i: •J 9) f— 3 00 3 C C <! in s a.o 3 (2 s > o p o so O o •w a> > c 3 "< 5 O OS Q _ W S o .

27 .STATISTICAL TABLES.

. Statistics of the blale Mining Bureau. Copper Production of California for fourteen years. from 1894 to 1908. Compiled from the Annual Mineral County.28 THE COPPER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA.

as Shown the Years 1890. 29 The Progress of the Copper Industry in in the by the Production by States. 1895.STATISTICAL TABLES. in United States. Soi'RCE. . and 1905. 1900. Pounds.

The widespread occurrence of copper in California had been known for many years before the industry began its productive more than incidental attention. and the specimens from it attracted considerable attention on account of their beauty and richness. is fragmentary and often conflicting that the actual beginning of the so . but the discovery was soon forgotten. Trask. liistory of the copper industry of California Tlie first is naturally 18()() divided into three periods. and to Swansea in Wales. from the practical cessation of all development in 1868 to 18!J5.iblc . and that about 1854 tile deposits afterward worked there were discovered by About 1855 a small deposit of a Frenchman named INIaris. but his reports thereon appear to have had no influence on the later beginning and progress of copper mining Available historical material unreli. B. of almost complete prostration. The third and present period is that beginning with the operations of the Mountain Copper Company in Shasta County in 1895. and of the shipment of many thousands of tons of copper ores by sea to reduction works at Baltimore. extended from to and widespread development and operation of copper mines. but without attracting minerals in nearly every county in the State. Old records state that as early as 1840 copper had been noted near Soledad Pass. some of them on a considerable scale. J. in Hope Valley. in Los Angeles County. who acted as State Geologist from 1851 to 1854. marked by the discovery and development of the immense ore bodies of the copper l)elt of Shasta County. and Boston on the Atlantic coast. in fact.30 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. The 1868. Dr. and by a general revival of a period of active and was interest in the industry throughout the State as a consequence of the successes won at the north and of the recent period of high prices for the metal. The second period was one of depression and. extondina. Alpine County. by copper ore was fouiul "Uncle Billy" Rodgers. HISTORICAL NOTES.iiul in California. discovered copper career. New York.

according to J. were incorporated in that year. to be entitled to the honor of being regarded as the real heginning of the notable period of copper mining that quickly ensued. identifies be^'innin^^ with the discovery of the Napoleon mine in Calaveras County.' HISTORICAL NOTES. industry J.s west of the tlie Koeky . and that modest plans for their exploration were being quietly formed. A vjilu. ^Mr. and later joined the returning procession of the unsuccessful. maiidy of Del Norte and Calaveras counties. El Dorado County. caii 31 not 1k' tixctl. as other records show that several copper mininj. . and because the copper excitement of that day was a direct consequence of this and related discoveries. attached. turning to some of the known copper deposits of the State. is said to excel in richness the celebrated Arizona mines. that discovery by Iliram Hughes late in 18^0 was just appears. The fifties. This is essentially an error. which was opened chicHy as a evidence indicates that. The mill has three stamps iTold. When the first Washoe excitement ])roke out he joined the rush to the famous new silver field of Nevada.in«l official report on tin- . Ross Browne's report. and a vein on the Cosumnes has yielded over seventy per cent of jMire metal. hy Hiram Hughes. Lan^dey's State Re^nster for 1850 says.il)l(> and Icnjjthy paper in K(>ss Browne's . in the low discovery in foothills of the western end of Calaveras County.Mountains. at the close of the decade of the practical attention Cosumnes mine gold mine.' companies. There is a vein of copper on the middle fork of the Cosumnes River. re^'ardintr the copper resources of the State: "The ore from the vicinity of the Pitt and McCloud rivers. and to contain in addition a considerable (piantity of Ore of exceedinf. richne&s has also been found in ditTerent localities in El Dorado County. now being worked by machinery i)ropelled by water. and has so far yielded a proprietors. ' handsome return to the The la. Mountain Township. made 18G7. some of in them part. Shasta County.Mineral Kesonrees of the States in Territorie. because all historical does not seem 1" liave resulted from what had been known or done before. it Hughes. However. from data here available. in the sprintr.st reference is believed to be to the old of that county. had lived and in the region of his mined for gold for some years the Gopher Hills. late in 18»i().

R. Reed. Finding no gold he quit. and the Copperopolis mine soon appeared richer than the Napoleon. 1 mine. and in a few months it filled the State. who in -lune. and hundreds of claims were staked out. It was reported to carry 80 per cent copper. lie found the gossan eap of what beeanie the Quail Ilill No. Soon after he found the gossan of wlial was soon the Napoleon mine. and ^FcCafty. and to be woi-tli ^120 ])(']• ton. ('o])per ores had in fact been familiar l)ut worthless rocks to these local miners for many years. and expanding into adjoining States and Territories. 1861. a few miles east of the Napoleon lode. New life was given the local copper excitement. Copjier operators soon realized the fact that money. and began working it as a gold mine. The furor and speculative excitement lasted as such for about two years. and the boom suddenly burst. Prospectors l)y hundreds visited Copperopolis. and more hundreds of claims were staked out along and near the Copperopolis lode for twenty miles. Comstock lode had awakened his interest in roeks he had often seen near home. Blatchly. The period of 1862-63 was marked by a speculative mania. and legitimate development were necessary to success. were W. Tlie copper excitement thus started quickly spread. and in 1852 had sunk a prospect shaft on the lode he now helped to locate. throwing away rieh surface cojiper ores of what was to be the productive Keystone copper mine.32 THE COPPER RESOLRCES OP CALIFORNLV. and finding no gold. ^McCarty had mined and farmed in the Salt Spring Valley for ten years. A local excitement broke out. and on his return he be^an jirospeetinj? for silver. sent some of the ore to San Francisco for assay. His observations of the Among the local people like who joined in tlie sean-h for rich copper ores those of the Napoleon. . The men named located 11. Dr. skill. made the important discovery and location of the Copperopolis lode. running its course after the natural manner of popular mining excitements.250 feet of the Copperopolis lode. and went home or elsewhere and formations. and to search for similar ores the wildcat exploitation of slight surface prospects. the lode was traced antl located f(tr a nnnibci. the organization of hundreds of copper mining companies. ^Ir.of miles. leaving legitimate mining companies to here and there. found it rieh in gold.

cent. ground and an coi)per mine. a very considerable scale for several years. per cent l'r> to :i.lackson. in addition to the copper. The follo\vin«r notes etineerninjr the active period of the sixties are a nietallur^Mst fiirnished hy Tlumias Price of San Francisco.S. the most e. ss iii.1. and carried.lIISTORir. l'>00 like . which was discovered in 1S(. by way of tin.solid i)yritic ore the and feet. and from it The mine was opened up to tons of ore were shipped.ili'vclopnicnt of tin. afterward known as the Newton liOO feet. in Calaveras County. ore as greater depth was attained the grade of which then prevailed. proved too poor to stand the expense of shipment. but the grade was not as high as in the mines near Copperopolis. l>ut at this time small slii|)ments were made to Hoston and Haltimore. its thousands of claims were staked out along of many development the in result but that systematic work would properties along this belt. two mines From near the situated some six miles to the we. mine. and tlie The was operated on I'nion mine. and There is no doubt course. (ireat went to were shipped from this mine. but Britain. averaged Napoleon the ore in the li(M) feet about surface to a depth of carbonates of quantities large yielded Hill Quail The L'O per cent copix'r.somethinj. however. yielded. in 14 feet averaged about considerably mixe«l with to be found was vein the In dei)th. and one small lot was sent to Swansea. Campo Se<o. and but low-grade deposit was opened up.yi'ar New York.!» several hundretl tons of ore were shipin-d from the Napoleon and Quail Hill mines. and Empire."» from a hiu'h grade of chalcopyrite. Between lSt« and l. silver and gold as a attempt was made to operate it realized. and the grade "The miners at Canipo Seco and Lancha IMana shipped several thousand tons of chalcopyrite ore.xtensively developed property in the State. the old . thousand several vein of . "In . Wales. 50 .y stains and other in(lication. principal mines were the Inion. NOTF. down to a depth of copper. in addition to those now known and in process of exploitation. "During this period the most important coiiper mines were near the towns of ('opi)eroi»olis.st of Coi)peropolis.s<.Vmador County. running tons of ore thousand Several with small (|uantiti«-s of gold and silver. and oxides of coi)per. a depth of IJ to 25 per cent copper. liy the spring' of ls<">.s the copper belt sixties literally early the during can be traced for fully thirty miles.M. Both Mariposa n(>ar the river a 3— BuL. Keystone.newly discovfrcd i-opiHT deposits of (California. and Landia Plana.'i the shipments of ropper ore from California to other parts of the I'nited States and \n (Ireat Britain had assnmed very considerahle proportions. from far were owners saniruine expectations of the in Calaveras County "I'. most of which ceased it and decreased. a forty-stamp mill was erected on the but the projierty. to pay for shipment under conditions and prices extended north to the belt the Newton mine the copper valuable copper "From it Cosumnes River. from assaying width. who has -It l)een intimately associated with the California copper its industry almost since was wfll on in inception: ISCI hcforp anythinc considcrahh' had Im'hh (lone in iln. N per «» to from off fell slate.iU»' tliruu^hout tlif Slatr to ptirsiic their efforts tn from tlie development of mines and the shipment of money ores. considerable Several years after it had ceased to be worked as a gold and silver.

which sank the copjier industry of California into the ]irof()Uiid slumlier from which it is only just awakening. with 2 ounces of gold and 4<l ounces of silver per ton. ounce per ton. Mariposa. an ore containing 20 per cent co|)per was $4 to $. lint the grade deteriorated very rai)idly with depth. Slanishius. ^ladera. The linihanan mine was the hir. "During all this period the product of our copper mines had to be transported first to San Francisco and thence shii)i)ed to Boston. mencing to fall.i.est property in that section. carrying as much as 4S iHM. "Small quantities of copper ore were shii)i)ed to San Franci. Del Norte County ranked second only to Ca'laveras in the iiroduction of copper ore. in Nevada County. On being assayed further. Fresno. BaltiFrom lSt»2 to ISii. the means of transportation being by teams to Marysville and thence by boat to San Francisco. next to wliidi came the I'nion. and from the silver contents a deduction was made of After comthree-fourths of an ounce for each one per cent of copper. prwlnct-d some copi)er ore. shipped considerable quantities of high-grade carbonates and oxides. hut their distance from shii)ping points rendered them valueless at that time. "Hased iiiion the early day prospects. however." the i)rice of copiier ranged from more. but no large (niantities of chalcopyrite.sted in San Bernardino County and other southern counties. Tuohimne. the i)rice of copjier soon reached a jioint as low as . and was. and gave a small margin of profit. and Fresno counties. "In Shasta County copper was discovered and mined at Copper City. In IM^hi some '2~>{) tons of then known as Williams. contained large quantities of pyritic ore.sea may The copper ton there is 21 hundredprove interesting at this time. It was this. : . successfully worked by open-air roasting. leaching. "The old Zinc House mine. Merced.sco from Some of the ore Colusa County during the period from isij'J to 1S<>4.cent copper. and Tulare comities should prove larjie producers of copper when their resources in this direction shall have received proper attention."> per unit worth from $80 to $100 iier ton of 237014 pounds. while the Occidental and other mines produced comparatively small fpiantities of ore. that is.34 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. but the percentage of copper contained was not sufficient to make it Subsecjuently this low-grade material was very a shipi)ing proi)osition. "Earlier than this considerable very high-grade ore. was shipped from (ienesee Valley in I'lumas County. as then known. the ore were shipped to San Francisco. as early as ISdli.s exi. and precipitation of the copper on iron. therefore. as in the case of most of the mines then shii^piug. near the Empire ranch. "The following pru funna statement of a shipment to Swan.1. delivered at any of Nothing was ))aid for any gold in the ore below one these three i)oints. or Swansea. in silver. The mine.$. mined from near the surface was very rich in coi)per. but on sampling it was found to contain only S per cent cojjper. "I Hiring the period extending from 1!S<)2 to lytjo. In Del Norte the copper belt extended north and south for a distance of about ten miles.20 per unit. and some hnndreds of tons of ore were shipped from it. The largest mine in Del Norte was known as the Low Divide. "It was well known in these early days that coi)per dei)Osit. of no value. it showed a value of $40 per ton in gold and $20 It wajs shipped to Swansea. coujiled with the natural lowering of grade as dei>th was attained. The Santa Cruz Mountains yielded several hundred tons of ore in the year ISCT.

S i)er cent copper.\nti(Kh. San Francisco. for "To very good fuel for reverheratory furnaces. fiom Stockton I'rancisco.rnt and assayin. several thousand matte.ii \v»'i.s Attendinj. ll)s.rlit $l>. and which i)er from the Mount Diablo mines.vpenses at Swansea Sanii'linir. niakinf: the toil.Sl. and no difficulty was experienced in producing a matte carryin}. L.j pounds. l. .$1. to S.">.rade oxi(liz<'(l ores to mix with the sul|)hides.«.{. in these early days. and produced npolis.4.sisted of a of the (piestion. The report of J.' iier . on or 24 'j pouiids ores.'I'j pt-r ton.-ss l... ITS 2'_. pt'i* •5 35 fori'i.'> T4 smelt copper ore at the mine was. reckoned. . althoujrh lijjnite is not a furnace was erected under the direction of Constantine Ilensch.in :it ton of ItKK) Frei. Uoastin^ was almost entirely dis])ensed with. reverheratory furnace was erected on the Cosumnes liiver.$L*0 per cent 2. Calaveras County.lir. must Iw . the subsetiuent increase in their cai)acity. in the year ISAwl. o per cent E. Freiffht from San Francisco at ..U. and with some success.'!<i As. 141' jU $1.i<Ii1l'(1.IIISTORIC.'ood (inality. Ross Browne for of .'.i"ate fairly Kood results were obtained.lit."> to 4.rh-^'rade At the Campo Seco mine.s 21MK) per cent.' sale and Kuaranlee. with a step f."^1 per 2-J4(t Il. '-Ml-'O :!<Mi <•<) i)er '2-24() lbs Insurance.NOTKS. from 4. A tons of ore were treat(>d by kernel roasting.-'U) Xet KM) lon. etc ~o (K) 10 4.~>2 to wliicli ]ioiiiuls (linftnK»' !is lnin<lrt'(l\v('i." pffidd of activity practically closed in 18()8 with a fall price of copper.Slo.st mining and lessened values as depth was attained. . not over fall in and althoimh several thousand tons were smelted.-0 40 If.S per cent : (M» ITS . $S ton was i»ai(l.siiy piTiciii copper. and the persistent failure of most properties to pay dividends. the price of coiiiier ^'ave no encourairement to an At the Union copper mine. ."4. stationery.J<H» '2{\ -JO (Ml Harbor and town dues Stamps. ).M. simply out The tirst smelting works in California con. small reverheratory furna<H>.") Sainplinj. "J. !it .H> 2i. works were of a purely experimental capacity. ai .. and this produced considerable (piantities of a very hi.*.. per ten tons day."iO to Swansea. l.. Copperaiiil tliey finally ceased ojierations..tMMl (M» l-'reiulii from mine Ills to Stockton. San Francisco. erected under the direction of the writer at The fuel was coal . increased co. in Contra Costa County.M.. (of 2:iT<"ii. as there was an abundant These supply of low->.'JTlJ'..$N tmit jier . a small blast considerable matte of fairly Tills in llic f. Net value . 120 IM) Commissions. or pouiKls.

[Tons of 2370 poll mis.] . 1867 was made near the end of this productive era. and the statement there ^iven of the shipments of copper ore and i approximately complete for that decade.36 TllK COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 1862-1867. The following tahU' is taken from that report: rejrnlns (matte) is Copper Exports from San Francisco.

S.."iSl i.4 1st.-L> (.7:. It.'! 1 1S70 is.077 L''J7. r.:]ir> u. statement of copper e.5. Nevada.71 1S7:.!i:W vr.-L' 1.\|)orts from San Francisco. '...".' 1 i:!.S13 7. and it does not ilist iiiiiuish hetweeii copper ores .(.n -jJA^ LM'. but the bulk of the shipments was from California mines.2 1 1 7.'.V.-.s:::{ iscT isc.S74 i.i:{.KJ 1 11.l' I IL'I." There are wide (liscre|>an(ies aiiioiiLr llii. When transcontinental l)eLr«in railroads were estahlished liy shijtments he also maile rail.$ll'L'.: decade.. cisco |)ai)er in 187. includiipj liritish Columbia.!." u\ .4uo ri' Total !m.s..j.S..o l.'*:..i i'.c. and.r.iiiil copper matte. State in fact. Ore<?on.: HISTORICAL NOTES..s:50 i.TJ 4.s 1 4lm . when the . however. and Arizona.'. hut such irive a ireiieral worthy to he dijznified as are ot" here pr(>seiited serve to coiiipi-ehension the productive course of the Of such value only is the following.:is.t7o 1 1 s7:i . ami the statistics of exports by sea became still less a reliable measure l)y of production. I'nr 1 he entire time up t<» lSi)4..7I $7. States and Territories....ciirreiilly recorded estimates ot" eopper prinliict ion for this ami tlie siirceediii.(. I4.-.i' 1 Valuf. .-.Miniiiir i>nreaii licLian tiie comiiijat inn uj" It annual mineral statistics.i' ise.7.4:51MtNit The al)(»ve statement does not inlnrm ns what ton was used as a hasis of calculation for a period W'ejsli tons when the short.'.i!i4 1. compiled hy a San Franindustry.-4 L'.-n .tL:. ISCI is<. has lieeii round li^nires iiiipossihie to ]>resent any record of California's total co|)per prodm-tion as statistics. and were Variously so used.< IM'.-.7. nearly all nl" this coast tluiiiiLf IIh' i)ast t'lnir which has proved a loss for the reasons stated.. From the beirinninir shipments sea from San Francisco also included ores and some matte from adjoin iny."i se.:m( .'.-.co i.'!i. loni:-.-..inu. wcirUs (111 37 years.-.. During the decades of the seventies and .siii. is(.1 Tons. 1M. corre- sponds cop])er in a Lidieral way with to the annual condition of the industry.:.

which begins the real history of the copper industry in this district. but two years before the beginning of the career of the ^rouiitain Copper Company. SHASTA COUNTY. The history belt .38 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. but they caused no effort Such ores were encountered in at their exploitation as such. the discover^' of copjier l)eing in fact practically contemporaneous witli that of gold and silver. but no dej)osits were ever opened or regarded as valuable chiefiy for their copper. copper was not even mentioned in a review of the mineral resources of Shasta County in a local paper. . small quantities in tunnels which were opened in the searcli for gold and silver in the l)ase-ore deposits of the middle and eastern parts of the belt. The discovery thorough jiros- that great bodies of sulphide copper ores lay buried below the gossan cappings of the belt followed i:)ecting tlie fii-st of the Iron ^Mountain property. of the copper industi-y in Shasta County as the is part of the history of the l)ase-ore belt now known copper is but that history for the period previous to 1895 the history of attempts to precious metal values. quite rich in copper and the precious metals. but the importance which co]>per has suddenly assumed makes this related history pertinent and of interest. the product in the main going East for the manufacture of mineral paint. mine tlie base surface ores for their and copper cuts but a very small inci- dental figure in the story. but there was no general recognition of the nu^tal as one of tlie imi)ortant mineral resources of the county. of the belt itself is one of gold and silver The past history mining and of nearly forty years of failure thereat. and a few tons. The occurrence of rich copper ores in this mineral belt of Shasta Couiily was noted early in the decade of tlie fifties. were shipped at different times to San Francisco. In 1893. and cop])er ores were fre({uent]

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noted through the succeeding years. was practieally at a standstill in prodm-tion of cement copper by the leaching eighties the copper industry this State. For over a generation there Avas not only no recognition of copper as the element of main importance in tliis mining district. and tlie of old duini)s provided most of the output.

WITH R( ).ICK ROCK CANYON. the ores of the helt until in the decade of the sixties. near the |)resent site of Copper City.NOTES — SHASTA COUNTY. most of which w(>re of still value. With this discovery l)e<:an a stamix'de which resultetl in the location of a larirc little number of j)lacer claims. which heeame known as the Pittshur<r district. PLANT Ol' TIfE MOUNTAIN COPPER COMPANY. workeil ill this Althouuh s(tme small placers are district. by a man named Watson. As early SfRKACK MIN1N(. Tluijhes. and had jjaincd the troKl in their Lii'avels par11_\ from the ores in the helt itself and jiaitly from the ^'old quart/ veins adjacent 'I'lici-c appear to have lieen no attempts at niiniiifx to the helt. with whom were associated Hiir.distiMcts closely llanked the copper licit.V MOUNTAIN AT THE RIGHT. In 1862 sold was discovered the surface rock of the Excelsior claim. IX SI. by Jack . Some of tlicsc placci. still rii-li.Lrion of l^nlly Hill.trs. 1 as 18"):^ i)laeer j^'old was discovered in the re. active interest had lapsed long in before 1870. and Silverthorn. 39 The placiT sin-ract' placci's niiiiitiir ul" Shasta ('(miily wcrt' and its noted Imtli camps were prosperous when prospccttn's Lrt>ld and cupper in tlic vein format ions of the first l»clt.HISTORICAI.

The ore was found lusli to contain was begun for the location of the supposed rich veins of gold and The liills were covered by locations for many miles. and J. Alexander Sanford. and the story of the Bully Hill miniim property was begun. which was incorporated. they were not long continued. P. A shipnumt of ore was made to Swansea. and realized a fair {)rofit luit as later shipments were less fortunate.40 Killingrer THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. sold stock and began the operation of their mine. which was continnod until ISGf). silver. At the same time was organized the Baxter ]\Iininy . The Killinger and Williams company. into this district and another BLISTER COPPER FROM THE BULLY HILL SMELTER AWAITING SHIPMENT. It was in the spring of 1862 that the ground now covered by the Bully Hill and adjoining claims was tirst located by silver as well as jjold. Williams. .

.o u 7.

gronnd. and at a long distance from ore markets. had been relocated by T. and at the same time carried on other developments. in 1877. l)ut ^lininu: Company. 1). Potter reopened and retimbered the old tunnel (Xo. and interest on borrowed money. W.se to convey ores from Bidly Hill by gravity to the mill. which operated on at Bnll

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Hill.4L* the copper resources of CALIFORNIA. who sold them to Alvin Potter & Co. The work was not successful.1. a Ignited States land surveyor. exjiloitation was betiun on the east face of the hill at the site of what is still tunnel Xo.x' in 1877.Mining Company worked only the surface ores from these mines. Johnson & Co. Company. A tramway was built at an enormous expen. Popejoy. The Extra . a part of the principal. had aiMpiired the development of lode mining in the State. 1 of the Bully Hill mine. and little was done for another decade. The decade of the seventies brought a revival of interest aiul activity to the Pittsburg district. adjoinino. In this period. . which had been abandoned by the Bully Hill Company. ().()00 from these ores. dealing with very base surface ores at an earl

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stage in R. and the claims were eventually abandoned. which was the result of the discoveries and the mining life of this district. ^Meanwhile. During the few years (perhaps three or four) in which the company ojierated. the bottom dropped out of the mining boom. These mining enterprises. William ^lagee. but the property was finally turned over to creditors. noted the enormous capi)ing of gossan on the mountain. it was said to have extracted as much as $H40. which built the first mill at Copper Cif. It was early in the decade of the sixties that Iron Mountain began to cut any tigui-e in the story. enjoyed a lively boom and looked forward to a long and great career. Soon the property passed to the Extra Mining Company. and . and dividends were rapidly ]iaid. in the early and middle sixties. soon demonstrated the impossibility of realizing profits.M. Silver and Copper Xo attempt at reduction was made. though an attempt . some of the claims located by Sanford and he^nn operations under the corporate name of the liully Hill Cold. Copper City. It was idly held as a simple iron deposit of possible future value until 1879. having no successful process for the redm-tion of the baser ores. and in association with Charles Camden secured the property as an iron mine. The claims in Hully Hill.

whose story of the lielt in ISTfl. Thi^ i)opular effect well news letter to the Mininir and Scientific Press from He writes in "Whiskeytown correspondent in .-idc of his finds. and the outccmie of was the ae(|nirement of a om*-tliird interest in the property by him. 1880. and such expressions as 'the most e. assays have Ihch m. tli»nii. i)ur. and from this point was shipped by i-ail to reduction works in Denver. A curious expert came fi-om the city and has been secretl

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looking at its formations. in spite of this laborious method of handlintr.lune claim from II. and now the whole country is wild and claims are staked off for miles.Ienii> .ssociated with the development of the (•o|>per belt. The <tre was of sufficient value. not very successfully. Colorado. hundreds. With the comjilefion of this wairon ntarl the handling' of the ores was to into the away up . visited Shasta County and fully incidentally Ii'on Mountain. I^ater . to provide tin.Messi-s. lor -i'A made at roastiiitr. Iron Mountain makes its entr\ as a factor in the industrial In that year James Sallee.McClure. Imt the hase ores finally caused them to al)andon the worl<. the silver and no one prospected there.'li Tlu' mill some years for the Potter (•nnlitors. and success- worked these ori's for a time. : l>art "At this particular time. and tramway." Sallee found his ^-old and silver values in the <rossan crusts <»f the surface. a distance of ei<rht or more miles. rnder the direction of Sallee and Potter ore was transported by pack train and wa«ron to Redding. the assays of which <ro Xothinii was expected of it. boom is up hi^'h.lune. a This tliscovery was soon noised al)road and cliaracteristic is stampede sliown a in a to the reirion ensued. in this part of Shasta County.HISTORICAL NOTES Avas — SHASTA was i-iin COINTY.means of construetinjr a waj^on i-oad from the mines to the railroad at ^liddle Creek. A new silver belt has been discovered. ami Hall ohtaiued possession of the vhasetl the .self and Alvin Potter. 1 1 is assays of surface ores revealed his discovery the presence of silver and irold. mill ( ". under whose direction the mine be^an the second period of its evolution. name was thenceforth to be prominently a. however. Some five or six miles from the ancient town of Shasta was known to exist what was called Ii'on .Mountain. and this mat(»rial constituted the ore that was subsecpiently worked.xtensive and the richest silver ledire the world has ever seen' are frecpient.

Hill. The history of the Peck and Afterthought mines in the Cow Creek district has l)een in many respects parallel to that of the Iron [Mountain and the Bully Hill.()tiations to the point of making' a payment of . Tlie bond obtained t)y McDonald was transferred to Cleary. as part owner and superintendent of the newly ecpiipped mine. This deal was consummated in the early part of IS!)"). and the erection of a suitable reduction plant. pans. the building of a r.000. jiroperty was transferred to the the [MounIn January.deposits.$30. James Sallee.000 and completing. Ltd.000. In 18S4. Tin. Before any production was effected. althou^'h it was kept up for some years. and settlers. undertook its operation and worked it successfully until it was .000. repre. 1>S!)7. These factions combined in its purchase. was successful in effecting its sale to tlie Rotlischild and Fielding people of London and New York. its ecjuipment with an elaborate plant. Avho. through the inriuence of Alexander Hill of the Rio Tinto mine. 1895.iilroad. The earliest attempts at operation were made for the extraction of gold and silver values from the oxidized surface ores. Later an effort was made to to was made the [Mountain [Mining . Earl and Charles Ellsworth.. some extent simplified and the expense of its reduction was eorrespondingly lessened. and proceeded with the neji. to whom it appeared as an inmiense deposit of valuable copper ore. Cleary. boilers. the entire plant and mine were returned to the orijrinal owners for a consideration of $10. and in addition a small sawmill. The exact results of this method of work are not known. In September. F. a formal transfer of the Fielding interests C(mipany. 125-horsepower engine. The new company incorporated as the ^Mountain Mining Company. who called it to the attention of Judge X.sentino: a Honolulu company. which under management continued its operations the of [Mr. and estal)lishing a working capital of $200. tain Copper Company of London. bonded the property with the intent of huyincr it.sold to the present owners. paying for the property the sum of $800.equipment of the mine included a 20-stamp mill.44 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. and began at once the development of theii. evidently with some profit. The first recognition of the possibilities of this mine as an available copper deposit was by Iluuh [McDonald. however. John O.

and afterward ties a man named (Jerrish.ssful attempts to reduce the ore in the same furnace. he had discovered the Donkey mine. The quantity of charcoal required amounted to nearly 1000 bushels per day. who had erected the oiv mill in the vicinity of Copper Shasta City. . also pnt Couiity. Naturally was not successful. who erected a small water-jacket furnace of 25 tons cajiacity. he betran its sncees. proved to be too much. and HOW" included in the Afterthouirht mine. was built. however. up the first furnace for foi' sineltinjr in nominal sum the property" aftt'iwafd incorporated and known as the Peck mine. and this attempt also ended in failui'c. made other \uisucce. in which charcoal was to be used. Peek. The refractory character of the ore. as these ores have since defied more a ri^'orous methods. The ores of this mine are similai' to those of the Afterfhouuht. ^r. of the water-jacket pattern. which occasioned repeated freezing and other difficul- which could not then be surmounted. In 187. C.sful operation upon the oxidizetl surface ores. the period in During: which Peck operated in this district. father of the former su|ierintendent.") he Ilavinu: obtained a erected a small reverberatory furnace. secontl furnace. J. Later on this property was acquired by Joseph Cone and others of Retl IMulV. Williams. Two attempts were made with this furnace. Subsequently. that a continuous and fairly successful run of seven days was made at one time. both of wliich tcrniiiiated wifhouf success. Upon the advice of a Mr. in which wood was to be used as a fuel this attiMnpt in the reduction of the baser ores. which he sohl to A. roast ini: 45 Work tlic baser ores l)y a process first and niilliuiLr. Cook for the sum of $110(1. It was claimed.HISTORICAL NOTES — SHASTA n

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COUNTY. John Williams.

and the various extensive ore bodies whose exploitation gives the chief promise of an early and marked is increase of copper production. an extinct volcano. From the valley and lower foothills of the southern part of . northern. Shasta County commands In its first and chief attentidii in a survey of the present condition of California's rising.4(5 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. which enrves as a its thirty-mile string of ore deposits through west central part. having an area of 3675 sfjuare miles. irregular ranges tlie fill counties. nearly equally distant from the western. and is about 90 miles in length and 60 miles in width. The Sacramento Valley thrusts its rapidly narrowing northern end a short distance up into the southwestern part. about 20 miles above the southern boundary. In the southeastern corner of the county is Lassen Peak. and the county reaches eastward high up the slope of the Sierra Nevada range. directly confined in copper industry While the Shasta County to one definite mineral belt. tlie greater part of the county between main ranges to the east and west. are the mines and smelting i)lants which yield most of the current copper output of the State. The western border of the county is along the Trinity range summit. and eastern boundaries of the State. the county as a whole presents various features contributing to the exceptionally favorable conditions surrounding the industry. affording the principal agricultural and horticultural region of the county and meeting the long canyon of the Sacramento River a little above Redding. SHASTA COUNTY. The county lies in the mountainous region about the head of the Sacramento Valley. which liears westward and merges with the Coast Range in Shasta and Siskiyou Short. the lavas from wliich have blanketed the eastern portion of the cou)ity as far as the Sacramento River. copper indnstry. great copper "or "l)ase-ore" belt.

also cro. oceui"rin<j chiefly in the winter. and opportmiities for the utilization of their waters for "reneratinp: electric are many. Most of the timber iiiinin<r and wood now used companies is in lar'jre (piantities by the principal sources. prominently identified with tlie copper belt. two the the mountains above the northern houndarw and tlows southward throu<rh the western half of the county in a deep. through the county. hiirh in power and cascades. The torrential l*itt cro. The rainfall.xtreiiips. The no less pictures(|ue ^IcCloud discharges into the Pitt amid the <rossan capi)in<rs of the copper deposits. Tributary creeks. The copper helt oecupie. and adjacent to miniiiLr . tilt' 4< ((•iiiity the sui't'iicc iiiriU'iist's ill iMiu'LTt'iliu'ss Mild t-lcviit i<tii northward. tlie floated down from these p]lsewhere districts. until altitudes of 5000 to HOOO feet are reached. exceeds forty ineh(>s and the snows of the hiiiher ranges maintain the principal streams the first streams throuirhout the summer months.in»^ sinnmits and caiixon thiol's the belt irenerallN' between 1000 and :i(iOO feet. and are valuable sources of water supplies. fall is raj)id. as well as eastward ami westward. F'all Riv("r The Pitt presents many falls Mows over a precipice sixty feet Pitt. Met 'loud.SHASTA COUNTY.ss it on both sides of the Sacramento. in operation. and exceedintrly picturestjue canyon. The Pitt are the Sacramento.s a jiositiou iMtweeii ihese e. sinuous. aloiii. The Sacramento the chief mineral retrion. their volume reliable. those alon? the Pitt beinfr especially available.' the altitudes of mountain ranj. Nature has ^iven this county as a r\iU\ a splendid water supply. Im-portaut electric transmission plants are now The county has almost inexhaustible supplies of timber in heavy forests of yellow and suirar |)ine and fir. clustered in the hijxher ranjres about the upper courses of the chief rivers. crossinu the copper belt a little above the apex of the Sacramento Valley plain.sses the axis of the Sierra ranjje throujxh heavy forests and deep canyons to join the Sacramento in the midst of the copper belt. The streams Their afford exceptionally valuable power th(^ resources. and hi<:h just before joininir the the mountains. and risin«r in last rivers. There is thus a freneral eonverjrence of tlie important rivers and creeks of the county in and throujjh in Modoe County.

white. and on the more moist northern slopes of others. to open up a splendid mining region in the Coast ranges. the yellow pine is here and there found in satisfactory abundance. and live oaks and "digger pine.48 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. l)lish made to accom- the construction of a railroad westward from Redding through Trinity and IIuml)oldt counties to Eureka on the Pacific coast. with which this Bulletin is chiefiy concerned. though on the higher ridges. is . The eastern half of the county being generally buried under lava deposits which effectually hide the minerals that undoubtedly exist. the timber supplies are scant or inferior.iiid the copper Ijelt along the course of the Sacramento River. and extensive and ancient auriferous gravel deposits remain. including gold dredging. Several quartz min- ing districts have been more or less successfully exploited. l)ut 'with this exception. as indicated by exposures. the confined to the western third of the portion west of the Sacramento tlie There were recent ri<'h early placers in this region. the belt. as a rule. affording (Quartz ojiportunitics for various forms of ])lacer mining. the most noted one being the French (Julcli district at the western side of tli<' county. While the copper belt. in which the important Niagara and Glad- . generally. mining was of slow development. and is extensively utilized. The California and Oregon line of the Southern Pacific railway system crosses the county . and this important mining field thus has the advantage of close proximity to a main comSeveral efforts have been mercial highway. the mining industry is confined to the western jxirtion. along with scrub oaks and small pines. being prolonged eastward into the lava sheet county's mining industry county. owing most of the districts in wliich to the base character of the ores in gold-bearing veins were early discovered. The crescent-shape copper belt presents its eastern end a little south of the center of the county." and there are widespread growths of underbrush (chaparral). In the foothill zone tlie forest growths comprise mainly black. is now by far the leading feature of Shasta County's mineral resources. those resources are varied and (juite widely distributed elsewhere. and mainly to River.

hut are usually and tliey are variously eliaraeterized by the presence of silver. lime. of which $S1!). yieklinj. Shasta's total ]>roduction of 1907 was $7.838. togethei. 'I'lie iioid and (|uartz silver carried by the cop|)er ores smelted and the silicious ores used as tluxes. Vai'ious niinei'a! products are minerals in minor features of the record. giving the annual values of the tlin'e chief mineral products and the total annual mineral production from 1894 to 1907. further iiici-easing Sha.iic distrihuted along the western side of the eounty for sixty miles.(J27 metals. atforded $1.568.SHASTA COUNTY. Besides the value of gold. Of this output.503.211 in silver. Its total mineriil oiilpiil in llKKi was . This made Shasta also the leading silver- producing county of the State.' ores. the totals include the minor mineral products.84.54. valued at $5.364 pounds of copper were j)rodnced.^o. silver. and l)rick in most of the . statistics for 1907 show that 27. and mineral waters. $4. stone mines. embracing $1500 in iion in 1894. The iccent exploitation of the far ill copjx'r mines has i)laced Shasta llie till- lead of llie niiiieral-producing counties of Stale.844.997 was in gold and $370.144 the jirecious was in gold and >{!4. some places.vears. just Ix'fore copper l)roduetion began. the total mineral outi)nt was imt 51^813. To these districts ndniug enterprise is newly turning. giving pi-omise of important new discovei-ies and gold. The following table. The gold increase is comparatively small. and gold.121 was in coitper. shows the expansion due to the i-ecent (leveloinneut of the copper industry. owing to the closing of several important -gold mines at about Topper Company began producing gold as a by-product. wci-c developed 49 many years ago.084.873. gold and developments. inclusive. Other quartz mining ilisli-ii-ts .with the outjiut of i)lacei' and mines in in districts outside the copper belt.48:? (coinage value) in silver. free-mill in*.'?. in association with baser metals. The large increase in silver in 1900 was partly due to its being measured in coinage value for the period that the ^Mountain that year instead of in commercial value as in preceding years: 4— BuL. and coj)per. In 1896.253. 745. chrome in 1895 and 1900.706. of which $791.sta's mineral all The mineral preeminence. limestone. 50 . silver and copper. The ores of these distriets are free-milling in base.

CALIFORNI.\r.V. .50 THE COPPER RESOURCES OF Ye.

" ore deposits in system l)ut do not a praetieally continuous tissure which directly related vein formations have resulted. irretrular vein fonnations in the eastern half of the and they also vary in their mineralization. displays nearly perpendicular walls that rise high above the top of the slope into which the tunnels of the open. Mountain Copper Company Southerly fnmi Iron ^Mountain but two or three known copper deposits. with which the belt worthily begins. —THE COPPER BELT. A cursory survey of the belt as a whole shows these ferruginous surface formations to be practically continuous throughout. alon^ the curved line described. ridge forming this mountain rises neai'iy Slick a The above thousand feet Rock and Boulder creeks on either side. The belt is throughout superficially marked by massive its exposures of the gossan which nearly everywhere caps mineralized formations. but in an irregular and disjointed way. or frroups of vein formations. occur. tlat-lyin<r. as . but they are successively ranfjed.sterly from Iron [Mountain and nearly to the Sacramento River. These to jrroups of deposits vai\ foi'm of occurrence from massive. belt. 51 Tin- and not as syiioiiynums with "lotlt'. lodes mark occur as disconnected masses.stand out in places with striking boldness. or ends. individual in forming' and districts.SHASTA COUNTY propt'i'ly carrii's. 300 feet wide. in many of which exploration is steadily proceeding. the mineral formations of the belt being succeeded through the adjacent regions by gold fjuartz veins. these dark croppings of the iron oxides resulting from the decomposition of surface sulphide ores .set it apart from other ore deposits in thai part of the State. widely separated. formin«r a belt three or four miles wide in places. In several ways this series of deposits presents features of unity ality. For ten miles northea. lenticular hvds of sulphides on the west. Especially striking is the great gossan cap of Iron ^Mountain. and which . with considerable re<rularity. the belt. For the distance named. and at the top the gos. over a mile apart. and individu- which enforce its conception as one definite mineral belt. and coursing in varying directions. the belt is outlined by a quite continuous succession of both gossan outcrops and important groups of copper claims. I'pon the elevations between the canyons cut by the streams.san formation.

and the Sacramento River.Mountain and Balaklala mines to (juantities exceeding a million tons. Farther eastward its tinal entered by the Pitt where it is turns on west- ward course. and and Sacramento. as well as the copper values. etc. crossed by streams tributary to the Pitt l)elt Through the whole course of the a multitude of gulches help give a very rugged character to the These gashes made by the waters in tlie "iron hat" region. antimony. which thus ends the belt is in the midst. in some cases. The where belt it intersects the Sacramento River at al)out the point it receives the Pitt. the belt. and being found principally on the elevations. Creek. About four miles east of but mainly on the northern side. to be several hundred feet in length and breadth. eastern districts of the belt the gold a^d silver. of the belt further diminish its of sulphides occurring in eru!)tive formations. though constituting an important element of the ore values. The geology and mineralogy of the belt are specially treated The ore deposits are composed of ill llic succeeding section. West of the Sacramento River the percentages of the precious metals are small.claims. the belt is cut through by three deep creek width of canyons. as zinc. and indicating similarly large proportions in other properties of smaller development.i1 tlie northern side of Iron Mountain. displaying contents amounting in the Iron . The Iron jNIountain ores are stated to yield about $1 in gold and two ounces of silver per ton. apparent continuity. exhibits Between lioiilder approximately three miles. are frequently much higher than in any large . West of the Sacramento the deposits are in the form of irregular lenses iiiaiiily They have been shown.52 indicated a l)y THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. eastern portions of the belt the ores occur in vein formations. the Sacramento the Pitt is joined by the JNIcCloud River. In the central and in flat or inclined positions. . arsenic. The ores' all carry gold and silver.of the copper it ])elt. the distribution of copper mininii. antl for nearly ten miles eastward exhil)its its gossan croppings on both sides of the latter stream. with thicknesses of 50 to 300 feet. and these quantities are probably characteristic of the ores of the other deposits of that part of These ores carry very low percentages of the baser In the central and metals. the gossans having here and there been eroded away or covered by surface wash.

The supply is practically inexhaustible. have been used for some of . which are many veins carrying' low. across the Sacramento Rivei. . ami are distributed for scn'eral miles south and east of this end of the belt through the Shasta and Flat Ci'eek tlie districts. nv hi'jh which are base. the l)elt. inchulin<r the Mount Shasta in in the Shasta district.jacent districts. Iron both majrnetite and limonite. four miles south of Iron . rcirion i)f numbei. is the Old Di^trin<rs district. occur notal)ly in th(> rcLrion of the old t(»wn of Shasta. the latter lyintr between the belt and Eastward from this portion of the l)elt.sulphides which attention is Udw diiTcted. The stimulus thus afforded (piartz miiiiii'^ in this is one of the important local benefits of the development (Jold ores are not only supplied the cop|)ei. includintr points in and Ti'inity counties. and the Texas Consolidated veins the latter. and irold (ptarl/ abundant in close proximity to the ])elt i:enerally. tluxin«r materials are e(pudl\. are the most abundant. These silicious ores thus provide abundant and conveinent copper ores.plentiful Other and convenient. COPPER BELT.ii-t/. most important copper i)roperties iiave irold past years been worked for the the decomposed and silver values remaininjr in putt ions of the deposits near the surface to and dis- above the eoppei. Adjacent tricts. and are found alon? lar^e belts near the smelters. and can not be efficiently and profitably reduced l)y milliim processes.Moinitain. Other cpiartz its districts similarly attend the belt at olhi-r j)oints alouir ai'e course. in to different parts of the belt are <rol(l (|u. over several miles. Some imi)or- tant (puirtz mines have been developed in these districts.of (piart/. the ores beinu: rich enouirh to stand the larire transportation costs. tlie smelters have created a market for these ores and a enabled the developnu'ut and mining' of properties. as a ruif.iul 53 (levolopotl to tlu' tlicy carry the baser Throu^'liout in <'lciii('iits in tlie nnicli irrcatcr (|uantity and variety. but are hauled by teams and shij)ped Siskiyou by rail from (piite remote localities. 'riie wcslci-n Ikh'u of the belt is |)ractically surrounded by such veins. They L'rade ores. nicdiuni.iiulustry. presenting' <'i-oui)s Sacrameiiti) Kiver.and within and without the chord of the bell 's ai'c. tluxintr materials for use in smeltinu' the suli>hide In turn.SHASTA COITNTY ore lioilics —THE west. of i|uai-t/ claims extending. from closely ad.. ores. Limestones Iron ores and limestone are also used for tluxintr.

and highways all reacli llic various districts. 1900. with 15 per cent ash. until a few years ago.20 per ton.000 tons of ore averaging 10 per cent copper. during the first ten months after beginning operations in ]\Iay. were the two principal producers. Alal)ama coke. as a copper with an equal value of precious metals.250. which were carried on the narrow gauge railway eleven miles to the company's smelting plant at Keswick The resulting matte and blister copper were for treatment.000 tons of ore.200. Up to January 1. Water is especially abundant. From 1895. It is now believed that a mixture of ores from this belt can be made that will obviate the use of iron ores. are attractive to conservative mining capital.54 the THE COPPER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. this property at the western end of the copper belt. about $4. l)iit the former lias not been found to be suitable for such uses.000 jwunds of fine copper. and desirable sites for reduction works are conveniently available. when the Iron ^Mountain mine was recognized The wood and timber At the Keswick smelters wood now costs favorable.000 pounds of copper. The company had paid in dividends up to December 31.000 tons. This is an unofficial estimate. Belgian coke. Opportunities for the generation of electric power are widely present. 1900. has been obtained for $12. carrying 16 per cent ash. more refractory sulphides. The Bully Hill mine is credited with having reduced 50. .000. as well as values. Climatic conditions are supply is ample. aflPording 5. and the Bully Hill mine at the eastern end. The belt is bisected by a main railroad lino. can be delivered at Redding for about $13 per ton. The copper belt thus presents many favorable conditions for copper mining and smelting. but is believed to be approximately correct. and can be economically explored and mined through tunnels. or 11.000. mine and passed into the possession of the ^lountain ^Mining Company. shipped to the company's refinery in New Jersey and yielded 120. the Iron ^Mountain mine had produced 825. embracing broken and wooded cam-ons. over 50 per cent of the capital stock of $6. There are distributed through a long mineral belt massive ore deposits whose quantities. Groups of claims are closely ranged for ten miles northeast of Iron ^lountain. These deposits are usually embedded in great hills. 1902.25 per cord.

o X .o y.

the Balaklala. eastern portion of the belt. In the Donkey mine near by work has been resumed and man

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