Created by Ankur Sharma, Gurudayal Srivastava, Vikram Singh, Sanket Tamhane 1. Foam fire fighting system, requirements.

All foam systems consist of a water supply, foam liquid storage, a proportioning device and a distribution system The water supply pump!s" provide!s" a certain capacity of seawater to the deck foam system, and is#are supplied by the ship$s fire pumps The foam liquid is stored in a tank The tank must be complete with vent, contents gauge, and access manhole The foam is delivered via a high pressure foam liquid pump to the automatic foam liquid proportionator, which will accurately proportionate foam liquid at %& to '& to the seawater flow, irrespective of flow rate or pressure (or satisfactory operation of the proportionator, foam liquid must be supplied with a minimum pressure of at least )* meters head higher than the inlet water pressure under all load conditions The electrically driven foam liquid pump is provided for this purpose (oam solution is supplied to the deck monitors and hand lines by the deck main fitted with isolating valves +ach monitor is isolated from the main supply pipe by means of butterfly valves, which are normally close ,ow e-pansion foam is used to create a blanket above the tank top in the machinery space +-pansion ratio should not e-ceed )./) 0t should cover entire floor area to a depth of )1* mm within 1 minutes 2igh +-pansion foam is used to fill up the entire space +-pansion ratio should not e-ceed )***/) 3ate of discharge is such that depth of ) meter is covered in every ) minute (oam generator is used for this purpose 4uantity of foam making compound onboard should be sufficient enough to produce foam volume 1 times the volume of the largest space served This system is fitted for machinery spaces, pump room and cargo spaces (oam system is also used to cover tank decks of tankers (oam should be supplied at the rate of ).1* litres#minute or ' litres#minute#sq metre area served by the largest monitor or * ' litres#min#sq meter area of the entire cargo tank deck whichever is higher The supply should last for %* minutes (oam applicator should have capacity of 5** liters#min and throw of )1 m in still air condition

regular foam is not effective Alcohol resistant foam should be used in such cases 9echanical foam system is usually operated by pumps A venture proportionator unit is fitted in the line :ater pressure is 6 bar . Drencher system.0f vapour pressure of the cargo at %6 78c e-ceeds ) *)% bar. and pushes the liquid through the syphon tude to the other side of the venturi The mi-ture of foam liquid and water in right proportion is led to the foam making no<<les or monitors (oam is formed as the air is drawn in when the mi-ture passes through the no<<le The tank cannot be recharged during operation 0n another type of system. >attery room The room should be well ventilated prior to entry There should be an e-haust fan that starts as soon as the door is opened and should provide ' air changes per hour The temperature of the room should be maintained between *8c to '*8c Procedure to follow after co2 is released in the compartment: Allow sufficient time for the fire to get e-tinguished Temperature of the boundary divisions will give indication Team of . ventilators. What will you do if all the foam is used up in one go? What for the next time? How will you prepare foam onboard? (lush the system and recharge foam compound for further use 3. ifferent Fire fighting mediums.?% persons with breathing apparatus and portable fire e-tinguishers should enter space with caution +nsure no traces of fire and smoke =pen skylights. Fixed Fire Fighting Systems: Water based systems-Sprinkler of the discharge water flows through the induction unit and draws the foam liquid from an atmospheric tank The tank can be replenished during operation 0n gas operated foam system. etc to admit clean air After sufficient ventilation start the machineries one by one @o not start the machinery affected by fire or fire fighting medium .art of the water enters the tank containing the foam liquid. What is the pro"edure followed to enter "o2 room? 0nform bridge prior to entering the C=. premi-ed foam making solution in correct proportion is stored in a tank C=. induction unit is fitted on the suction side of the pump . under pressure is released into the tank when required The gas e-pels the solution which is led to the foam distribution network in the spaces protected 2. Fixed CO2 fire fighting system Foam systems alogenated hydrocarbon system !nert gas system"more of a fire pre#enti#e system rather than exting$ishing system% Portable Fire fighting System: Water &ith CO2 Soda acid Foam"mechanical or chemical% Dry chemical po&der Co2 $nder press$re !.

#. Wet Type Deck Water Seal The picture below shows the construction of a wet type deck water seal and its functioning >asically it consists of a chamber semi?filled with water and two pipes for inlet and outlet of flue gases while another two small pipes denote inlet and outlet for sealing water There is a demister pad to remove water droplets from gas The operation of this device is pretty simple and the two diagrams shows conditions where the inert gas is flowing from the plant to the distribution area and the right hand side showing a condition where back pressure tends to push cargo gases into the 0G system and is prevented by the water seal Semi Dry Type Deck Water Seal The construction of this type of seal as well as the functioning under both conditions is shown in the diagram below The main difference with the previous type of seal is that it uses venture action to draw water when there are chances of backflow of the gases thus reducing if not completely eliminating water carry over to the cargo tanks Dry Type Deck Water Seal This seal totally eliminates any water carry over and uses automated valve control to deliver water to the seal in case there is any back flow but the only disadvantage is that if automation system fails then there is a danger of blow back of cargo gases The only alarm is @eck water seal low level alarm . raw de"$ seal on your ship and also draw any alarms or trips on it.

Why isolating )al)es are pro)ided on the manifold. . &xplain '(2 system with diagram. &xplain all the safeties.%.


*. as opposed to smoke. can be fought and brought under control with a minimum of damage The main function of a fire detector is therefore to detect a fire as quickly as possibleA it must also be reliable and require a minimum of attention An important requirement is that it is not set off by any of the normal occurrences in the protected space. resulting in the operation of a cold cathode gas?filled valve The alarm sounds on the operation of the valve to give warning of a fire Smoke detectors are used in machinery spaces. if detected quickly. one open to the atmosphere and one closed !(igure )% )" The fine particles or aerosols given off by a fire alter the resistance in the open ionisation chamber. flames and heat. (lame detectors are used near to fuel handling equipment in the machinery spaces and also at boiler fronts . The use of fire detectors is increasing. accommodation areas and cargo holds (lames. are often the main result of gas and liquid fires and flame detectors are used to protect against such ha<ards (lames give off ultra?violet and infra?red radiation and detectors are available to respond to either An infra?red flame detector is shown in (igure )% . particularly with the tendency to reduced manning and unmanned machinery spaces A fire. +ypes of dete"tors onboard. The smoke detector makes use of two ionisation chambers. that is it must be appropriately sensitive to its surroundings Three phenomena associated with fire are used to provide alarms/ these are smoke.


-solation )al)es on fire main. -s there a safety )al)e on fire main? A relief valve is necessary in the fire main if the pumps are capable of raising the pipeline pressure to an e-tent that it is greater than the designed pressure for the pipeline Also certain situations like taking water from the international shore connection from shore or other vessel and there rate of pump discharge to be taken into consideration it is always wise to implement a safety valve in the fire main . -ts use if fire on main de"$ and engine room? ....

pump room.cargo spaces. Fire extinguishers2Fixed types.etc !not sure of the answer" 13. What are fire fighting system for boiler?What is the si3e of foam extinguisher? . which are able to remain suspended in the air The water particles are evaporated by the heat of the fire and the e-panding vapour displaces o-ygen The combined cooling and o-ygen starvation effects quickly e-tinguishes a fire 0n this system less water is used than with sprinkler systems and the mist has proved effective against liquid fuel fires.0n tankers. raw the hyper mist system. in particular as to the effectiveness of mist in a large machinery space :ater mist is accepted as a fire e-tinguishing agent. 1%. isolation valves shall be fitted in the fire main at the poop front in a protected position and on the tank deck at intervals of not more than 5* m to preserve the integrity of the fire main system in case of fire or e-plosion 1/. Hyper 1ist system. making it suitable for use in machinery spaces 3esearch is continuing. 2alon fire suppression systems The mist system delivers very small water particles. (n de"$ what type of system you use? Why only low expansion foam? Why not high expansion foam? 0nd where high expansion foam is used? =n deck we use low e-pansion foam system if we use high e-pansion foam on deck there are chances of fire spreading and agitating due to the convection currents and high wind speed possibilities :e use high e-pansion foam in enclosed spaces like engine room. From where do you maintain water supply to hyper mist system? :ater supply is maintained from the fresh water port side tank 0n my ship minimum water level should be kept )* 1 m% for the safe operation of the system These are very high pressure water mist systems =n operation it creates a water fog which effectively puts out the fire while also providing a quenching or cooling effect 0t is also automatically activated when two different types of fire detectors are triggered in the same fire <one 0t can also be operated remotely All new ships have this. :ater mist !fog" sprinklers are being used as an alternative to. What basi" "he"$ do you thin$ you should do while entering the "o2 room? Covered above 11. and the systems are very effective 1#. Fire dete"tors. (n an oil tan$er fixed fire fighting system onboard. 3efer Answer ) 12. with respect to S=0AS fire protection requirements 1!. the now banned.

6hip "oming out of dry do"$ after ma7or "hanges in fire system. 0 central tube provides the outlet passage for the carbon dio-ide which is released either by a plunger bursting a disc or a valve operated by a trigger The liquid changes to a gas as it leaves the e-tinguisher and passes through a swivel pipe or hose to a discharge horn Carbon dio-ide e-tinguishers are mainly used on Class > and C fires and will be found in the machinery space. ) :eekly inspection for alarm system . wire. rope and toggle must be free from dirt. 3efer Answer ) 2/. raw me"hani"al foam system with all its "ontents. it could be lethal 1. How will you "al"ulate the no. How it wor$s. of "o2 bottles for engine room? . 8ou 7oin the ship and how will you "ome to $now? 21. particularly near electrical equipment The carbon dio-ide e-tinguisher is not permitted in the accommodation since.1*..%5.. -ts safeties. 0ns4 A very strong container is used to store liquid carbon dio-ide under pressure !(igure 13. in a confined space. '(2 system wee$ly "he"$s. All the pulley. raw "o2 portable extinguisher. scales and well lubricated % >ottles should not be e-posed to temperature of '*BC 1.

* 1'-51D. e-cluding casing +qual to %1& of gross volume. 6afeties in fixed "o2 system and in "o2 room. bottles required for the space to be protected 22.1 . will give you the number of co.. . equal to 5*& of gross volume. mC Thus 5*& of gross volume of machinery space e-cluding casing #. including casing Volume of free gas in a bottle shall be * 1' mC# kg (4 k! C"₂ # $ottle% Therefore.1 . Covered above 2!. e"$ fire fighting arrangement on 9:. raw "o2 "abinet alarm "ir"uit diagram.C=₂ quantity shall be sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gasA (or machinery space. Fixed Fire fighting in de"$ and engine room. 23.

fire damperF 'll f$el p$mps and ($ick closing #al#es of f$el tanks and f$el transfer line m$st be sh$t from remote control position. -f there is fire in the engine room and it is de"ided to release "o2 .company supdt That such non? conformity was found during inspections Class is to be informed about it 0f temporary measures are taken. testing to be done.@C. How will you as"ertain that .. Covered above 3!. &xplain fixed foam system. Whi"h extinguishing medium for de"$? raw foam system entire line for de"$ and engine room. .. satisfactory completion. 2*.#+ :hen ca$inet door is opened alarm will sound and all +3 fans will be stopped >efore releasing. raw fire line of your ship with all a""essories. and high pressure water fog system 2%. 6afeties prior to entry of "o2 room. Covered above 3#. Fire fighting 6ystem for de"$ on your ship. what a"tions to be ta$en before release? C=₂ flooding to machinery space must be done by master$s order C=₂ must be released by competent engineer. Covered above 2. What will happen if fire main de"$ line is "ra"$ed and you want water in fire hydrants on de"$? Cracked fire main line is a maGor non?conformity. Covered above 3/. Cargo carried in tankers is flammable and gives vapours which can cause e-plosion Special care is required in designing and operating tankers =fficers are reqd to have tanker safety certificates .ump room atmospheres can be highly ha<ardous and entry to pump room is restricted Cargo tanks are subGected to pressure and vacuum according to the ambient conditions Cargo tanks should be purged of vapours to bring the vapour concentration inside the cargo tank down to a safe limit Alarms are provided for high level of liquid in the cargo tanks and also an overflow arrangement is made so that the liquid does not rise to the vent level @uring Cargo transfer operations the hoses should have electrical continuity and should be earthed to remove electro?static charges 33.#< of "o2 has been dis"harged within 2 minutes? 32. Temp of the room should be maintained less than '*8c" 2. Covered above !ventilation should be on. psc detention 3epair. a condition of class is issued for % months to 1 years depending upon whether the work can be carried out during operation of ship or emergency dry dock or in dry dock :hen permanent repairs are carried out the class is to be informed again Class surveyor will inspect the repairs. C+ or . 3enew the pipeline as soon as possible Hotify flag state. condition of class will be removed Temporary repairs can be done for fire fighting purpose but notify all parties the intention for it 31. all +3 crew to be counted All openings must be shut Eventilator flaps. Ha3ards on +an$ers. Foam expansion ratios. Fixed "o2 system.

ortable foam e-tinguisher and water mist system !/. How to extinguish and type of "ylinder? a% Sufficient no of 51 litre capacity foam type e-tinguishers. if there is one. to enable foam to be directed onto fuel and . 0t what inter)als is portable fire extinguisher refilled and pressure tested? 9ost e-tinguishers should be tested by discharge over a period of one to five years.months to check for leakage :here practicable the operating mechanisms of portable e-tinguishers should be e-amined every three months C"2 e-tinguisher contents. such e-tinguishers within )*? meter walking distance At least ) . upper deck engine room entrance This should be done from the tunnel. there shall be at least .** lb spare container 3. so located that. gearing and other fire ha<ards $% Sufficient no of portable foam type e-tinguishers. Fire fighting in paint lo"$er? . skylights are opened one by one The compartment is thoroughly ventilated Always ensure proper ventilation while entering the machinery space for damage survey# inspection Since co.= pressure system.?% persons with scaba enters the compartment and looks out for fire and e-tinguish if present with the help of portable e-tinguishers =nce it has been confirmed that there are no traces of fire and that the fire has been completely e-tinguish and fire cannot reignite all the openings like ventilators. What is the pressure setting of relief )al)e in "o2 fixed fire fighting system? What safeties are pro)ided in "ase if "o2 room itself is on fire? +ach bottle has a combined &urstin! Disc. flooding for fire fighting in the engine room allow sufficient time for the compartment to cool down The temp of the boundary divisions can be used as an indicator A team of .ortable (oam Applicator with . this should be done about every four months ..Covered above 3%. is heavier than air there is danger of gas pockets under plates. or the lowest point remote from the seat of the fire 3. Fire on main engine "ylinder head.. +conomiser platform. is led into the co. which will rupture spontaneously at a pressure of )66 bar at '%BC 0f in case there is fire in the co. Steering flat aft entrance. foam types 1*& discharged per year Carbon dio-ide e-tinguishers should be weighed every si. depending on the e-tinguisher type. e g soda?acid and dry powder types . room itselfIthe bursting disc ruptures and the discharge of co.*& discharged per year. can only be checked by regular weighing. 0fter "o2 release from where will you enter in the engine room? How many entran"es are there in the engine room? After co. in corner and in any area in which air circulation may be difficult =nce all safeties are ensured entry can be made from the topmost deck +ntrances to the engine room? (unnel deck. emergency escape route. battery room itself 3*.

!1. 6$et"h and explain portable ': fire extinguisher. Why is "o2 stored at #3 bar? !2. produce C"2 which should further assist in smothering the fire !3. due to the heat from the fire. (n what prin"iple does ': extinguishes fire? @ry powder acts to smother a fire in a similar way to a blanket =wing to the great shielding properties of the powder cloud the operator can approach quite close to the fire The sodium bicarbonate powder will. .


Acceptance criteria of non combustibility/ 1aterials to be "lassified as non?"ombustible to be shall satisfy the following "riteria4 • • • • The average furnace thermocouple temperature rise does not e-ceed %*8C The average specimen surface thermocouple temperature rise does not e-ceed %*8C The average duration of sustained flaming does not e-ceed )* seconds and The average mass loss does not e-ceed 1*& !*. 6ustained flaming.!!. drop in pressure at the no<<le throat and this breaking of the liquid particles . =on > "ombustibility test. 6tandard fire test? Standard fire test means a test in which specimens are e-posed in a test furnace to temperatures corresponding appro-imately to the standard time?temperature curve !#. -n hyper mist system how does the 11 bar @5 pump generates a fine mist? 6ur)eyor as$ed the spe"iality of the no33le?@-n"omplete5 @iffuser action in Ho<<le. Sustained flaming means a presence of flames on or over any part of a specimen lasting 1 seconds or longer !%.