Working fluid

A working fluid is a pressurized gas or liquid that actuates a machine. Examples include steam in a steam engine, air in a hot air engine and hydraulic fluid in a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder. More generally, in a thermodynamic system, the working fluid is a liquid or gas that absorbs or transmits energy. Depending on the application, various types of working fluids are used. In a thermodynamic cycle it may be the case that the working fluid changes state from gas to liquid or vice versa. Certain gases such as Helium can be treated as ideal gases. This is not generally the case for superheated steam and the ideal gas equation does not really hold. At much higher temperatures however it still yields relatively accurate results. The physical and chemical properties of the working fluid are extremely important when designing thermodynamic systems. For instance, in a refrigeration unit, the working fluid is called the refrigerant. Ammonia is a typical refrigerant and may be used as the primary working fluid. Compared with water (which can also be used as a refrigerant), ammonia makes use of relatively high pressures requiring more robust and expensive equipment. In air standard cycles as in gas turbine cycles, the working fluid is air. In the open cycle gas turbine, air enters a compressor where its pressure is increased. The compressor therefore inputs work to the working fluid (positive work). The fluid is then transferred to a combustion chamber where this time heat energy is input by means of the burning of a fuel. The air then expands in a turbine thus doing work against the surroundings (negative work).

Application Gas turbine cycles Rankine cycles

Typical working fluid

Specific example

Air Water/steam, pentane, toluene

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A refrigerant is a substance used in a heat cycle usually including, for enhanced efficiency, a reversible phase transition from a liquid to a gas. Traditionally, fluorocarbons, especially chlorofluorocarbons, were used as refrigerants, but they are being phased out because of their ozone depletion effects. Other common refrigerants used in various applications are ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as propane, Many refrigerants are important ozone depleting and global warming inducing compounds that are the focus of worldwide regulatory scrutiny.

Refrigerant environmental issues
The inert nature of many Halons Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), with the benefits of them being nonflammable and nontoxic, made them good choices as refrigerants, but their stability in the atmosphere and their corresponding global warming potential and ozone depletion potential raised concerns about their usage. In order from the highest to the lowest potential of ozone depletion are Bromochlorofluorocarbon, CFC then HCFC. Though HFC and PFC are non-ozone depleting, many have global warming potentials that are thousands of times greater than CO2. Other refrigerants such as propane and ammonia are not inert, and are flammable or toxic if released.

Refrigerants such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and non-halogenated hydrocarbons preserve the ozone layer and have no (ammonia) or only a low (carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons) global warming potential They are used in air-conditioning systems for buildings, in sport and leisure facilities, in the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, in the automotive industry and above all in the food industry (production, storage, retailing). New applications are opening up for non-halogenated refrigerants; for example, in vehicle air-conditioning. Emissions from automotive air-conditioning are a growing concern because of their impact on climate change. From 2011 on, the European Union will phase out refrigerants with a global warming potential (GWP) of more than 150 in automotive air conditioning (GWP = 100 year warming potential of one kilogram of a gas relative to one kilogram of CO2).] This will ban potent greenhouse gases such as the refrigerant HFC-134a—which has a GWP of 1410—to promote safe and energy-efficient refrigerants. One of the most promising alternatives is CO2 (R-744). Carbon dioxide is non-flammable, non-ozone depleting, has a global warming potential of 1, but is toxic and potentially lethal in concentrations above 5% by volume. R-744 can be used as a working fluid in climate control systems for cars, residential air conditioning, hot water pumps, commercial refrigeration, and vending machines. R12 is compatible with mineral oil, while R134a is compatible with synthetic oil that contains esters. GM has announced that it will start using "hydrofluoroolefin", HFO-1234yf, in all of its brands by 2013.] Dimethyl ether (DME) is also gaining popularity as a refrigerant,] but like propane, it is also dangerously flammable. Some refrigerants are seeing rising use as recreational drugs, leading to an extremely dangerous phenomenon known as inhalant abuse.

An evaporator, distiller or distilling apparatus is a piece of ship's equipment used to produce fresh drinking water from sea water by distillation. As fresh water is bulky, may spoil in storage, and is an essential supply for any long voyage, the ability to produce more in mid-ocean is important for any ship. Although distillers are often associated with steam ships, their use pre-dates this. Cook's Pacific exploration ship HMS Resolution of 1771 carried a distiller [1] and Nelson'sHMS Victory of 1805 was fitted with distilling apparatus in her galley.[2] Distilling apparatus was only fitted to larger warships and some exploratory ships at this time: a warship's large crew needed more water and they could ill afford the space to carry enough. Cargo ships, and their smaller crews, merely carried their supplies with them. Large ships usually carry evaporating plants to produce fresh water, thus reducing their reliance on shore-based supplies. Steam ships must be able to produce high-quality distillate in order to maintain boiler-water levels. Diesel-engined ships often utilise waste heat as an energy source for producing fresh water. In this system, the engine-cooling water is passed through a heat exchanger, where it is cooled by concentrated seawater (brine). Because the cooling water (which is chemically treated fresh water) is at a temperature of 70–80 °C (158–176 °F), it would not be possible to flash off any water vapour unless the pressure in the heat exhanger vessel was dropped. To alleviate this problem, a brine-air ejector venturi pump is used to create a vacuum inside the vessel. Partial evaporation is achieved, and the vapour passes through ademister before reaching the condenser section. Seawater is pumped through the condenser section to cool the vapour sufficiently to precipitate it. The distillate gathers in a tray, from where it is pumped to the storage tanks. A salinometer monitors salt content and diverts the flow of distillate from the storage tanks if the salt content exceeds the alarm limit. Sterilisation is carried out after the evaporator. Evaporators are usually of the shell-and-tube type (known as an Atlas Plant) or of the plate type (such as the type designed by Alfa Laval). Temperature, production and vacuum are controlled by regulating the system valves. Seawater temperature can interfere with production, as can fluctuations in engine load. For this reason, the evaporator is adjusted as seawater temperature changes, and shut down altogether when the ship is manoeuvring. An alternative in some vessels, such as naval ships and passenger ships, is the use of the reverse osmosis principle for fresh-water production, instead of using evaporators

Condenser is a device for reducing a gas or vapour to a liquid. Condensers are employed in power plants to condense exhaust steam from turbines and in refrigeration plants to condense refrigerant vapours, such as ammonia and fluorinated hydrocarbons. The petroleum and chemical industries employ condensers for the condensation of hydrocarbons and other chemical vapours. In distilling operations, the device in which the vapour is transformed to a liquid state is called a condenser. All condensers operate by removing heat from the gas or vapour; once sufficient heat is eliminated, liquefaction occurs. In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will transfer to the condenser coolant. Condensers are typically heat exchangers which have various designs and come in many sizes ranging from rather small (hand-held) to very large industrial-scale units used in plant processes. For example, a refrigerator uses a condenser to get rid of heat extracted from the interior of the unit to the outside air. Condensers are used in air conditioning, industrial chemical processes such as distillation, steam power plants and other heat-exchange systems. Use of cooling water or surrounding air as the coolant is common in many condensers.

1. Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as plants using coal, fuel oil or nuclear power. They were once used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ships' propellers (for example the Turbinia, the first turbine-powered steam launch,[4]) but most such applications now use reduction gears or an intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity, which then powers an electric motor connected to the mechanical load. Turbo electric ship machinery was particularly popular in the period immediately before and during World War II, primarily due to a lack of sufficient gear-cutting facilities in US and UK shipyards. 2. Gas turbines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Such engines usually feature an inlet, fan, compressor, combustor and nozzle (possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more turbines. 3. Transonic turbine. The gas flow in most turbines employed in gas turbine engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. In a transonic turbine the gas flow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes, although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. Transonic turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less efficient and uncommon. 4. Ceramic turbine. Conventional high-pressure turbine blades (and vanes) are made from nickel based alloys and often utilise intricate internal air-cooling passages to prevent the metal from overheating. In recent years, experimental ceramic blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines, with a view to increasing rotor inlet temperatures and/or, possibly, eliminating aircooling. Ceramic blades are more brittle than their metallic counterparts, and carry a greater risk of catastrophic blade failure. This has tended to limit their use in jet engines and gas turbines to the stator (stationary) blades.

5. Shrouded turbine. Many turbine rotor blades have shrouding at the top, which interlocks with that of adjacent blades, to increase damping and thereby reduce blade flutter. In large landbased electricity generation steam turbines, the shrouding is often complemented, especially in the long blades of a low-pressure turbine, with lacing wires. These wires pass through holes drilled in the blades at suitable distances from the blade root and are usually brazed to the blades at the point where they pass through. Lacing wires reduce blade flutter in the central part of the blades. The introduction of lacing wires substantially reduces the instances of blade failure in large or low-pressure turbines.

A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible; while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids.

Centrifugal compressors
Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser (divergent duct) section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for continuous, stationary service in industries such as oil refineries, chemical andpetrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants. Their application can be from 100 horsepower (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower. With multiple staging, they can achieve high output pressures greater than 10,000 psi (69 MPa). Many large snowmaking operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor. They are also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers. Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines.

Reciprocating compressors

Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1,000 hp (750 kW) are commonly found in large industrial and petroleum applications. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>18000 psi or 180 MPa). In certain applications, such as air compression, multi-stage double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available, and are typically larger, and more costly than comparable rotary units.[6] Another type of reciprocating compressor is the swash plate compressor, which uses pistons moved by a swash plate mounted on a shaft (see axial piston pump). Household, home workshop, and smaller job site compressors are typically reciprocating compressors 1½ hp or less with an attached receiver tank.

Axial-flow compressors
Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the working fluid. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design. The arrays of airfoils are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. The rotating airfoils, also known as blades or rotors, accelerate the fluid. The stationary airfoils, also known as stators or vanes, decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid, preparing it for the rotor blades of the next stage. Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged, with the cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio, variable geometry is normally used to improve operation. Axial compressors can have high efficiencies; around 90% polytropic at their design conditions. However, they are relatively expensive, requiring a large number of components, tight tolerances and high quality materials. Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines, in natural gas pumping stations, and within certain chemical plants.

Rotary screw compressors
Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. These are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. Their application can be from 3 horsepower (2.2 kW) to over 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) and from low pressure to moderately high pressure (>1,200 psi or 8.3 MPa). Rotary screw compressors are commercially produced in Oil Flooded, Water Flooded and Dry type.

Rotary vane compressors
Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing that is either circular or a more complex shape. As the rotor turns, blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the outer wall of the housing. Thus, a series of decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades. Rotary Vane compressors are, with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies.

With suitable port connections, the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump. They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Dry vane machines are used at relatively low pressures (e.g., 2 bar or 200 kPa; 29 psi) for bulk material movement while oil-injected machines have the necessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up to about 13 bar (1,300 kPa; 190 psi) in a single stage. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric motor drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. Rotary vane compressors can have mechanical efficiencies of about 90%.

Prime movers
There are many options for the "prime mover" or motor that powers the compressor: 1. Gas turbines power the axial and centrifugal flow compressors that are part of jet engines. 2. Steam turbines or water turbines are possible for large compressors. 3. Electric motors are cheap and quiet for static compressors. Small motors suitable for domestic electrical supplies use single-phase alternating current. Larger motors can only be used where an industrial electrical three phase alternating current supply is available. 4. Diesel engines or petrol engines are suitable for portable compressors and support compressors. Common in automobiles and other types of vehicles (including piston-powered airplanes, boats, trucks, etc.), diesel or gasoline engines can power compressors using their own crankshaft power (this setup known as a supercharger), or, using their waste exhaust gas to spin a turbine connected to the compressor (this setup known as a turbocharger).

Thermal expansion valve

A thermal expansion valve (often abbreviated as TEV, TXV, or TX valve) is a component in refrigeration and air conditioning systems that controls the amount of refrigerant flow into the evaporator thereby controlling the superheating at the outlet of the evaporator. Thermal expansion valves are often referred to generically as "metering devices". Flow control, or metering, of the refrigerant is accomplished by use of a temperature sensing bulb, filled with a similar gas as in the system, that causes the valve to open against the spring pressure in the valve body as the temperature on the bulb increases. As the suction line temperature decreases, so does the pressure in the bulb and therefore on the spring causing the valve to close. An air conditioning system with a TX valve is often more efficient than other designs that do not use one. A thermal expansion valve is a key element to a heat pump; the cycle that makes air conditioning, or air cooling, possible. A basic refrigeration cycle consists of four major elements, a compressor, a condenser, a metering device and an evaporator. As a refrigerant passes through a circuit containing these four elements, air conditioning occurs. The cycle starts when refrigerant enters the compressor in a low pressure, low temperature, gaseous form. The refrigerant is compressed by the compressor to a high pressure-and-temperature gaseous state. The high pressure-and-temperature gas then enters the condenser. The condenser precipitates the high pressure-and-temperature gas to a high

pressure liquid by transferring heat to a lower temperature medium, usually ambient air. The high pressure liquid then enters the expansion valve where the TX valve allows a portion of the refrigerant to enter the evaporator. In order for the higher temperature fluid to cool, the flow must be limited into the evaporator to keep the pressure low and allow expansion back into the gas phase. The TXV has sensing bulbs connected to the suction line of the refrigerant piping.

Function in a refrigeration cycle
Expansion valves are flow-restricting devices that cause a pressure drop of the working fluid. The valve needle remains open during steady state operation. The size of the opening or the position of the needle is related to the pressure and temperature of the evaporator. There are three main parts of the expansion valve that regulate the position of the needle. A sensor bulb, at the end of the evaporator, monitors the temperature change of the evaporator. This change in temperature creates a change in pressure on the diaphragm. For example, if the temperature in the evaporator increases, the pressure in the diaphragm increases causing the needle to lower. Lowering the needle allows more of the working fluid into the evaporator to absorb heat. The pressure at the inlet of the evaporator affects the position of the needle and prevents the working fluid from flowing back into the compressor. Since the pressure before the valve is higher than the pressure after the valve, the working fluid naturally flows into the evaporator. The pressure at the inlet of the evaporator acts on the diaphragm. There is also a spring providing a constant pressure closing the valve needle. The spring constantly restricts the amount of working fluid entering the evaporator. The pressure spring can be adjusted to increase or decrease pressure based on temperature needs. The pressure created by the spring acts on the opening of the valve. When the pressure of the sensor bulb acting on the diaphragm is greater than the combined pressure of the evaporator and spring, the valve opens to increase the flow of the working fluid. An increase of flow lowers the temperature of the evaporator and allows for more heat absorption.

Oil Separator
1) The oil in a refrigeration system a : What is the function of oil in a refrigeration system? The oil has a key function in a refrigeration system because it contributes to ensure:  Lubrication of the mobile parts of the compressor  Evacuation of the heat due to frictions of the mobile parts  Air tightness between the compression stages in rotative compressors.

b : What are the consequences of oil presence in the refrigeration system ?

All the oil does not stay in the compressor cranckase and a part is brought into the refrigeration system:  During stages of start-up of the compressor, due to the sudden evaporation of the refrigerant dissolved in the oil  By the piston rings in piston compressors  By its close contact with the refrigerant in rotative compressors. The volume of oil ejected by the compressor circulates with the refrigerant and has the following effects:  Decrease in the oil level in the crankcase, which can lead to a mechanic breakdown  Modification of the quality, physical and thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant  Decrease in the efficiency of exchangers (evaporators and condensers); the lost of capacity can reach 30% with rabbet tube evaporators  Oil retention in « oil traps » and low speed areas. This oil may return suddenly and generates a liquid hammer (slugging)  The damage into the compressors are often irreversible. 2) What are the different techniques of oil separation? To enable the oil ejected of the compressor to return to the crankcase, it is necessary:   To respect the speed in the pipes in order to ensure the circulation of oil. Especially when the refrigerant is in gas stage as its miscibility with oil is low. To use an oil separator which function is to recover a substantial quantity of oil and to make it return to the compressor as soon as possible.

The four main techniques selected in the design and the manufacture of oil separators intended to refrigeration systems are: 1. Coalescence: phenomenon into which two substances identical but separated, tend to concentrate. 2. Centrifugation: this technique uses the centrifugal force in order to separate refrigerants with different densities. 3. Speed reduction: this technique enables the heaviest molecules to follow their trajectory, by inertia, while the lightest molecules scattered into the internal volume of the oil separator. 4. Change of direction: this technique, in association with the previous one, enables to improve the efficiency of droplet separation (heavy molecules) present into the steam (light molecules). The droplets keep their initial trajectory because of their mass and their initial speed, while steam is directed towards the outlet connection of the oil separator. The manufacturers of oil separators will select one or several separation techniques according to the level of efficiency researched. Coalescence can be obtained with metallic sieves or coalescent cores which will be then necessary to replace regularly.

Filter Driers
Filter-driers are a key component in any refrigeration or air conditioning system. This article offers technicians a description of the basic function of these devices and differences between the various types currently available .A filter-drier in a refrigeration or air conditioning system has two essential functions: 1. one, to adsorb system contaminants, such as water, which can create acids, 2. and two, to provide physical filtration. Evaluation of each factor is necessary to ensure proper and economical drier design.

1. Absorbing moisture, preventing acids
The ability to remove water from a refrigeration system is the most important function of a drier. Water can come from many sources, such as trapped air from improper evacuation, system leaks, and motor windings, to name a few .Another source is due to improper handling of polyolester (POE) lubricants, which are hygroscopic; that is, they readily absorb moisture. POEs can pick up more moisture from their surroundings and hold it much tighter than the previously used mineral oils. This water can cause freeze-ups and corrosion of metallic components .Water in the system can also cause a reaction with POEs called hydrolysis, forming organic acids. To prevent the formation of these acids, the water within the system must be minimized. This is accomplished by the use of desiccants within the filterdrier. The three most commonly used desiccants are molecular sieve, activated alumina, and silica gel. Molecular sieves are crystalline sodium alumina-silicates (synthetic zeolites) having cubic crystals, which selectively adsorb molecules based on molecular size and polarity. The crystal structure is honeycombed with regularly spaced cavities or pores .Each of these cavities or pores are uniform in size. This uniformity eliminates the co-adsorption of molecules varying in size. This permits molecules, such as water, to be adsorbed, while allowing other larger molecules, such as the refrigerant, lubricant, and organic acids, to pass by. The surface of this desiccant is charged positively with cations, which act as a magnet and will therefore adsorb polarized molecules, such as water, first and hold them tightly. The water molecules are physically separated from the lubricant, minimizing the potential for POE hydrolysis. Activated alumina is formed from aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and is not a highly crystalline material. Both alumina and silica gel show a wide range of pore sizes and neither exhibit any selectivity based on molecular size. Due to the varying pore sizes, they can co-adsorb the much larger refrigerant, lubricant, and organic acid molecules, eliminating the surface area available to absorb water. Alumina can also aid in the hydrolysis of the POE lubricants creating organic acids since both water and lubricant are absorbed into the pore openings of the alumina .Silica gel is a non-crystalline material with a molecular structure formed by bundles of polymerized silica (SiO2). Gel-type desiccants are indicative of the weaker bond formed between water and the desiccant. Silica gel is the old type of desiccant and is not widely used in today’s filter-driers.

Selecting a desiccant

There are many factors involved when selecting which desiccant material is best for an application. Water capacity, refrigerant and lubricant compatibility, acid capacity, and physical strength are important characteristics of desiccants and should be considered. The first of these, water capacity, is the amount of water the desiccant can hold while maintaining low moisture levels within the refrigeration system .A molecular sieve retains the highest amount of water, while keeping the concentration of water in the refrigerant low. This is due to the strong bond between the molecular sieve and the water .By keeping the water in the system at low levels, freeze-ups, corrosion, and acid formation is minimized. Activated alumina retains a fair amount of water, but the retention isn’t as great as the molecular sieve. This is indicative of co-adsorption of other material. Based on this information, Parker recommends the use of 100% molecular sieve in liquid line filter-driers for maximum water removal. Refrigerant and lubricant compatibility is also essential when selecting a desiccant. Inorganic acids (HCl and HF) form from the decomposition of the refrigerant reacting with an incompatible desiccant and water at elevated temperatures. Inorganic acids formed will attack the crystalline structure of the molecular sieve and break it down as well as attack metal surfaces in the system. Organic acids can form from the breakdown of the lubricant in the presence of an incompatible desiccant and water (elevated temperatures will increase this reaction).These organic acids are a sludge-like material that can deposit and plug the system’s expansion device. Parker has tested each of the desiccants used based on the ir application, to ensure that the formation of these acids is minimized. Acid capacity. The varying pore sizes in the activated alumina allow it to be more effective than molecular sieve in removing the larger, organic acid molecules. Alumina is more effective in removing the various acids when it is used in the suction line of the system. When used in the liquid line of a system, there is a potential for the hydrolysis reaction between the POE lubricant and water to occur, actually forming organic acids. This reaction did not occur when the alumina was tested in the suction line. Therefore, for acid cleanup in a system, some manufacturers recommend the use of a suction line filter-drier containing an activated alumina core. Physical strength of the desiccant is another factor to be considered. Desiccants should be strong enough mechanically to resist breaking up when subjected to system vibrations and surges (attrition). Attrition occurs when the desiccant beads rub against one another when it is shaken or vibrated, yielding fine particles. Therefore, the method of retaining the desiccant in the filter-drier (based on drier size and location) plays a major role on the integrity of the desiccant.

2. Providing filtration
Filtration is the other main function of a filter-drier and is accomplished by different methods. Some driers use only one method; others may use a combination of methods. There are two primary means of mechanical filtration: 1. Surface 2. and depth. The simplest form of surface filtration is the screen. The screen is usually a woven wire mesh that catches particles that are larger than the holes in the screen. Until the screen has captured enough particles to provide a layer across the entire surface, particles that are smaller than the holes will pass

through the screen. In addition, a particle longer than a hole can pass through if its cross-section is smaller than the hole. As layers of contaminant cover the screen, it will become a depth filter as the layer of contaminant will act as a filter to remove smaller particles that would ordinarily pass through the screen. This layering of contaminant will continue until the pressure drop across the screen reaches the point at which the refrigerant flashes into vapor. Depth filtration takes different forms. The most common depth filters are:    Bonded desiccant cores Rigid fiber glass filters bonded with phenolic resin; and Fiberglass pad filters.

Depth filters force the fluid and contaminant to take an indirect route through the filter. Contaminants are trapped in the maze of openings that are spread throughout the filter. Depending on the type of filter, the openings will vary significantly. Bonded desiccant cores have smaller rigid openings than do fiber glass pads. As the flow passes through the media, particles are trapped in the channels, depending upon their size. As the channels fill with particles, the pressure drop will increase until vaporizing occurs as described above. Fiber glass pad filters are not compressed as tightly as bonded, rigid fiber glass filters. The liquid refrigerant with the entrained contaminant flows through the pads. The contaminant will impact the glass fibers and lose some velocity. As the contaminant passes through the media, the velocity will eventually drop to zero, at which point the contaminant will deposit in an opening in the fiberglass. The larger particles will tend to drop out first as their higher mass will tend to cause them to impact on a fiber even though the flow stream will bend around a fiber. As the fiber glass fills with more and more particles, the filtration becomes finer as the filter becomes closer in function to the rigid filter. The core drier picks up particles and the pressure drop increases quickly as the core plugs with contaminant. For the same pressure drop and flow rate, the fiber pad drier can hold up to five times the amount of contaminant as the core drier with equivalent or greater filtration capacity. The core can be used effectively in the suction line drier. In this case, the higher velocity in the suction line will cause the loose fiber glass structure to disintegrate. The rigid cores can be tailored to remove the solid particles that result from compressor breakdown, sludge, and resins.The desiccant bonded in the core will remove water and neutralize acids caused by breakdown of the lubricant. The bonding The bonding of the desiccant will preclude the attrition that can occur with loose desiccant beads.