Issue No:3

Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd

Ventil Tech July2007

For Internal Circulation Only

Page 1 of 7

PE Team Ventil Tech July2007 For Internal Circulation Only Page 2 of 7 .Issue No:3 Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd Dear All.jagdish@rane. Best Regards from PE Team.in. emission norms the technology opted by OEMs to meet the emission regulations and its impact on Valves.! The previous edition of Ventil Tech covered some of the areas related to vehicle emissions.co. In this edition we wish to cover the basics of materials used for manufacture of Valves and its properties. Please e-mail your feedback with the subject line as “Feedback on Ventil Tech” to dk..

creep resistance and fatigue resistance and withstand high temperatures. and in corrosive environments. under high stresses.Issue No:3 Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd Requirements of Engine Valve Materials: Valves are required to operate satisfactorily over long periods of time at elevated temperatures. low alloy steel and these provide strength. Exhaust valves require high hot hardness. Cyclic Loads Rocker Forces Valve Seating Force Combustion Pressure Combustion Temperature Ventil Tech July2007 For Internal Circulation Only Page 3 of 7 . Most inlet valves are manufactured from a hardened. The Valve materials are selected based on these properties. wear and corrosion resistance. In addition the valves have to withstand the combustion pressures and valve actuation forces coming from the rocker arm.

The intake valves operate at about 450° C maximum. exhaust valves typically run about 850° C maximum. Valve alloys are selected for their properties at these conditions. SUH 11. Ventil Tech July2007 For Internal Circulation Only Page 4 of 7 . nickel (Ni). Super Alloys 3. S-81 etc Non Magnetic Application is in Exhaust Valves Typical austenitic materials are X50CrMnNiNb219 (21-4[3] N). In general the metallurgist call them as martensitic steel and austenitic steel. in different propositions according to the requirement of the application. EN18D. SUH 3.Issue No:3 Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd Valve Materials: The valve materials are classified as 1. X33CrNiMnN23-8 (23-8N). Martensitic Steels Can be Hardened by Heating and Quenching Magnetic Application is mostly inlet valves Typical martensitic materials are X45CrSi 9 3. Hard facing alloys Valve Alloy Steel Valve alloy families are mainly classified into two types of valve steels. Austenitic Steels Cannot be Hardened Significance of Inlet Valve & Exhaust Valve materials: In general most of the inlet valve are martensitic steels and exhaust use austenitic materials. These contain alloying elements such as chromium (Cr). One of the big differences in valve alloys is caused by the typically different operating characteristics of intake and exhaust valves. etc. For better high temperature resistance the exhaust valves are austenitic steels (with high Ni & Cr) content. The differentiation of these Valve alloy steels are described in the table below. Valve Alloy steels 2. X53CrMnNiN219 (21-4N). 21-12N etc.

Martensitic Material Austenitic Material Hard facing Material Ventil Tech July2007 For Internal Circulation Only Page 5 of 7 . Because of the lower operating temperature. this isn’t necessarily good. 350 ~ 450 deg C If you hear of someone using exhaust valve materials (austenitic) in intake. it is not a good design. In fact.Issue No:3 Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd Exhaust Valve operating temperature approx. 650 ~ 850 deg C Incoming air cools the Inlet Valve Exhaust Gas Inlet Valve operating temperature approx. intake (martensitic) alloys are actually much stronger than exhaust materials (austenitic) at intake temperature levels and they are hardened to withstand the valve actuation forces.

for high temperature applications which are a class of specialty alloys. Nickel based Superalloys like Nimonic 80A. Ventil Tech July2007 For Internal Circulation Only Page 6 of 7 . processing and heat treatment during manufacturing. Cobalt – Molybdenum based alloys (Tribaloy) 3. which is welded to the valve seat to impart additional strength for the seating face. Nimonic 90. Let us look into more details on Hardness of valve materials. yield strength and hot hardness. Some of the critical physical properties are coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. which is easily available in the form of rods or powder. wear resistance. Hardfacing Alloys: Hardfacing alloys are the materials. One of the best and easiest ways of measuring strength is by hardness. Valve Alloy properties: The properties of valve alloys depend on the alloy chemistry. preventing the occurrence of indentation. These properties include high hot hardness. and corrosion resistance at operating temperatures.Issue No:3 Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd Super Alloys: Other than ferrous based alloys. Cobalt – Tungsten based alloys (Stellite) 2. Iron based alloys (Eatonite 6) Valve seat hardfacing alloys generally possess a combination of properties that make them suitable for maintaining a seal between the valve face and the seat insert. The critical mechanical properties include tensile strength. wear etc that might occur with unprotected valve seat. Pyromet 31 and Inconel 751 are also used to manufacture Valves. Super Alloys are used for heavy duty applications primarily for aircraft and tank valves. The hardfacing alloys are classified into four main groups: 1. Nickel based alloys (Eatonite 5) 4.

The curves also signify the influence of temperature on Hardness. the stronger it is. With regard to valve materials. Hope the information shared would have been interesting and useful. more than hardness at room temperature it is the hot hardness which is predominant due to the operating conditions.Issue No:3 Copyright © 2007 Rane Engine Valves Ltd Hardness: Generally. Hardness is a measurement of only plastic deformation and it is one of mechanism which indicates the wear resistance of the material. In the next issue we will cover Guides & Tappets Ventil Tech July2007 For Internal Circulation Only Page 7 of 7 . The following chart represents the relative high temperature hardness of the four groups of Valve alloys. the harder a material is.