MATH 443 — Assignment #7

Below are short answers (hints) to assigned questions.

19A
(i) There are 6 = 15 points in the incidence structure. Consider two 2 distinct edges of K6 . If they have a common endpoint, they belong to a unique triangle, and to no perfect matching. If the two edges do not have a common endpoint, they belong to a unique perfect matching, and to no triangle. Thus the design defined in part (i) is an S (2, 3, 15). To see the isomorphism of this design with the S (2, 3, 15) of Example 19.1 we label vertices and edges of K6 as suggested in Appendix 1. We now have a bijection between the edges of K6 and non-zero vectors of F4 2 . To show that this bijection is an isomorphism of the two S (2, 3, 15)s we need to show that the labels of three edges forming a triangle add up to the zero vector, and that the labels of three edges forming a perfect matching add up to the zero vector. Consider the triangle of vertices labeled by vectors a, b, c. The labels of the edges are a + b, a + c, b + c and their sum is a + b + a + c + b + c = 0. Now consider the edges of a perfect matching. The sum of their labels is precisely the sum of the six labels of vertices of K6 , which is the zero vector. This finishes the proof for part (i). (ii) There are 7 = 21 points in the incidence structure. Blocks are all sets 2 of 5 edges of the following three types: To show that the design is an S3 (3, 5, 21) we have to show that each set of three edges belongs to exactly three blocks of the design. There are five possible configurations of three edges which are denoted d, e, f, g, h below: Each set of type d is contained in exactly three blocks of type a, and in no other blocks. Each set of type e is contained in exactly three blocks of type c, and in no other blocks. Each set of type f is contained in exactly three blocks of type b, and in no other blocks. Each set of type g is contained in exactly two blocks of type b, in exactly one block of type c, and in no other blocks. Each set of type h is contained in exactly three blocks of type c, and no other blocks. We have shown that each set of three edges belongs to exactly three blocks of the design, i.e. the design is an S3 (3, 5, 21). 1

Thus the complement design is an Sµ (t. Thus there are exactly bt blocks of the complement design containing J . x + 3. Let P be the point set of the design. 1)difference sets which are found in Example 28. thus the design is trivial. the numbers b2 and b1 introduced in Theorem 19. 6. and let S be a k -subset of P . x + 12} (x ∈ Z21 ). 5. By Theorem 19. We have proved that an arbitrary k -subset of P is block. (ii) Again let P be the point set of the design. 19F Following the hint in Appendix 1 we consider the examples of (21. x + 14. 10. After substituting these five values into (v − 1)(v − 2)/20 we see that only the cases v ≡ 2.2 on pages 388-389. with j = v − k . 19C (i) We will prove that each k -set is a block. 14. Since |P \ J | = k . We get bv−k = λ k / k > 0. 6 (mod 20) yield integral values for both b2 and b1 . that block must be precisely P \ J = S . v ). This finishes the proof. x + 6.19B For any S (3. We have |J | = v − k ≤ t by the assumption.3 are b2 = 1 · b1 = 1 · v −2 3−2 6−2 3−2 v −1 3−1 6−1 3−1 = = v−2 4 (v − 1)(v − 2) 20 and they both must be integers. If (v − 2)/4 is an integer then v mod 20 must be one of 2. Let J be an arbitrary t-subset of P . 2 . v − k. Thus k −t there exists at least one block disjoint from J . 18. Using the first difference set we can construct the projective plane of order 4 by taking Z21 as the point set and blocks Bx = {x + 7. Thus Theorem 19. thus showing that the design is trivial. Let J = P \ S .4 v −t can be applied to J . v ) with µ = bt . 6.4 there are exactly bt blocks of the original design that are disjoint from J .

1. w} such that x + y + z + w = 0. we see that each 3-subset of Fk 2 belongs to exactly one block. and let blocks be all 4-sets {x. z. y. 3 . Since x + y + z + w = 0 is equivalent to w = x + y + z. this is an immediate generalization of the second part of Example 19. Take the 2k vectors of Fk 2 as points of the design.19S As suggested in Appendix 1.