# Steady Pipe Flows: Single and

Branched lines

M.S. Ghidaoui (Spring 2006)

In this set of problems, both simple and branched pipe systems are analyzed in this
chapter. In all the problems below, unless stated otherwise, assume water temperature is
15°C (v = 1.13 x 10
-6
m
2
/S).

Terminology:
. of instead used is Sometimes head). energy total (or head Total H E H
p V
z ≡ = + +
γ 2
2
head Elevation ≡ z ; head Pressure ≡
γ
p
; head Velocity ≡
2
2
V
;
head c Piezometri ≡ +
γ
p
z .
• The plot of total head along the pipeline is called the energy
• The plot of the piezometric head along the pipeline is called
the hydraulic grade line (HGL).

Problem 1: A pipeline 20 km long delivers water from an impounding
reservoir to a service reservoir the minimum difference in level between
which is 100 m. The pipe of uncoated cast iron (ε =0.3 mm) is 400 mm in
diameter. Local losses, including entry loss and velocity head amount to
10 V
2
/2g.
1. Calculate the minimum uncontrolled discharge to the service
reservoir.
2. What additional head loss would need to be created by a valve to
regulate the discharge to 160 l/s?
Solution:

H
1
2

PART 1:

The energy equation is:
g
V
g
V
D
fL
g
V
Z
P
g
V
Z
P
2
2
10
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
+ + + + = + +
γ γ

Where,
f (L/D)( v
2
/2g ) ~ Friction Losses
10 v
2
/2g ~ Minor (local) Losses

P
1
= P
2
= 0; v
1
≈ v
2
≈ 0

g
V
g
V
D
fL
H
Z Z
2
2
10
2
2
2 1
+ = = −
The flow is driven by the difference in potential energy in the system (difference between
water level in the reservoirs).

Or

ε /D= 0.3/400 = 0.00075;

Assume flow is fully turbulent (rough pipe case):

Since ε /D= 0.3/400 = 0.00075; the From Moody chart: f=0.019

g
V
D
fL
H
2
min
2
10 100
min
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
Substituting this value of f gives:

V
min
= (2g*100)/(10+0.019*20,000/0.4) = 1.43 m/s

Check Assumption:

With V=1.43 m/s ⇒ Re =
5
6
10 7 . 5
10
4 . 0 43 . 1
× =
×
=

υ
VD
⇒ which is at the boundary
between the rough pipe zone and the transition zone. The value of f which corresponds to
ε /D = 0.00075 and Re =
5
10 7 . 5 × is about 0.019.

Assumption is OK!

With V
min
=1.43 m/s → Q
min
≈179 l/s

PART 2:

We desire to regulate the discharge to 160 l/s.

Q = 160 l/s → V = 1.273m/s → Re = 4.5*10
9
→ f = 0.0193

( )
m
h
v
g
h
h
g
V
g
V
D
fL
v
v
4 . 19
273 . 1
2
1
10
4 . 0
000 , 20 0193 . 0
100
2
10
2
100
2
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
×
− =
+ + =

The additional valve is required to result in an energy loss of 19.4 m.

Problem 2: A long, straight horizontal pipeline of diameter 350 mm and
effective roughness size 0.03 mm is to be constructed to convey crude oil of
density 860 kg/m3 and absolute viscosity 0.0064 Ns/m2 from the oilfield to
a port at a steady rate of 7000 m3/day. Booster pumps, each providing a
total head of 20 m with an overall efficiency of 60 per cent is to be
installed at regular intervals. Determine the required spacing of the
pumps and the power consumption of each.
Solution:

Q = 7000 m
3
/day = 0.081 m
3
/s → V = 0.842 m/s → Re = 3.96 × 10
4

ε/D = 0.03/350 = 0.0000857 ⇒ From Moody chart f = 0.0222

Maximum head loss = 20m =

Note: If the actual length goes beyond the above calculated length, the pressure will
become negative and cavitation may occur! Cavitation is detrimental to both pipes
and pumps and needs to be avoided.

Kw
QH
P 76 . 22
6 . 0
20 081 . 0 8 . 9 86 . 0
=
× × ×
= =
ζ
γ

Problem 3: Determine the diameter of commercially available spun iron
pipe (roughness =0.03 mm) for a pipeline 10 km long to convey a steady
flow of 200 l/s of water at 15
o
C from an impounding reservoir to a service
reservoir under a gross head of 100 m. Allow for entry loss and velocity
head. What is the unregulated discharge in the pipeline? Calculate the
head loss to be provided by a valve to regulate the flow to 200 l/s.
Solution:

g
V
g
V
D
fL
es loss Entry
g
V
m H
2
2
2
2
2
2
5 . 0 100 + + = =
43 42 1

Try D = 300mm.

0001 . 0
300
03 . 0
= = →
D
ε

Assume rough turbulence:

s m V
V
f
D
/ 2 . 2 100
6 . 19
2
1
3 . 0
000 , 10 * 012 . 0
5 . 0
012 . 0
2
0001 . 0
300
03 . 0
= ⇒ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
≅ ⇒ = =
ε

( )
Km to m
V
f
D g
L
g
V
D
fL
9 8 8717
842 . 0 0222 . 0
35 . 0 6 . 19 20
2
2 20
2
2
2
≅ =
×
× ×
=
× ×
= ⇒

Check whether the flow is in the rough:
10
5
6
10
6
* 13 . 1
3 . 0 * 2 . 2
Re × =

=

The Moody chart shows that the point given by (e/D=0.0001; Re=
6
10 6× ) belongs to the
transition zone. The assumption is notOK!

The Moody chart shows that value of f which corresponds to (e/D=0.0001;
Re=
6
10 6× ) is 0.014 and not 0.012.

Start again! Assume: f = 0.014, we get:

10
5
6 . 5 Re / 05 . 2 100
6 . 19
2
1
3 . 0
000 , 10 * 014 . 0
5 . 0 × = → = ⇒ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ + s m V
V

Check the value of f:
The Moody chart shows that value of f which corresponds to (e/D=0.0001; Re=5.
6
10 6× )
is indeed about 0.014. OK!

Check whether or not the assumed diameter of 300mm gives the desired
discharge of 200 l/s:

Q = 2.05*3.14*(0.15)
2
= 145 l/s < 200l/s! The diameter is not large enough.

Try D = 350mm

014 . 0 00009 . 0
350
03 . 0
10
7 Re / 2 . 2
100
6 . 19
1
35 . 0
000 , 10 * 014 . 0
5 . 0
014 . 0
5
2
≅ ⇒ = =
× = ⇒ = ⇒
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
≅ ⇒
f
D
s m V
V
f Assume
ε

Check Q = 2.2*3.14*(0.175)
2
= 211.6 l/s ≥ 200 l/s

b) To regulate the flow to 200 l/s

( )
! ! ! ! ! ! 5 . 51
2
37 . 11
100
6 . 19
1
35 . 0
000 , 10 * 014 . 0
5 . 1
08 . 2
/ 08 . 2
175 . 0 * 14 . 3
200
2
2
2
= → = =
= +
(
¸
(

¸

+
= = ⇒
k
g
V
k
m
h
h
s m V
v v v
v

Problem 4: Booster pumps are installed at 2 km intervals on a horizontal
sewage pipeline of diameter 200 mm and effective roughness size, when
new, of 0.06 mm. Each pump was found to deliver a head of 30 m when
the pipeline was new. At the end of one year the discharge was found to
have decreased by 10 per cent due to pipe wall deposits while the head at
the pumps increased to 32 m. Considering only friction losses determine
the discharge when the pipeline was in new condition and the effective
roughness size after one year.
Solution:

( )
s l Q
V f
Check s m V
f turbulence complete Assume
V
f
V
f
g
V
D
fL
m
h
D
new
f
/ 4 . 42 1 . 0 * 14 . 3 * 35 . 1
35 . 1 016 . 0
10
5 . 2
10
* 13 . 1
2 . 0 * 4 . 1
Re / 4 . 1
015 . 0
0294 . 0
6 . 19 * 2 . 0
* 2000 *
2
30
0003 . 0
200
06 . 0
2
5
6
2
2
2
= = ⇒
= → ≅ ⇒
× = = = ⇒
≅ ⇒
=
= = =
= =

ε

b)
s l Qold / 2 . 38 4 . 42 * 9 . 0 = =

V = (38.2)/(3.14*0.1
2
) = 1.22 m/s

f = (0.0294*32/30)/(1.22
2
) = 0.019*32/30 = 0.02 m/s
⇒ Re= 2.2*10
5
⇒ From Moody chart ε/D = 0.0004
⇒ ε = 0.08mm
Br anc hed Pi pe Syst ems:

We need to assume a flow direction. Let us assume:
Water flows from reservoir 1 to the junction (J).
Water flows from junction (J) to reservoir 2.
Water flows from junction (J) to reservoir 3.

Cont i nui t y:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
= ⇒ = ⇒ =
OUT IN OUT IN OUT IN
Q Q A V A V A V A V ρ ρ
For the system shown:
3 2 1 3 2 1
Q Q Q m m m + = ⇒ + = & & &
Z1
Pipe 3
Z2
Pipe 1
J
Pipe 2
Z3
Res.2
Res.1
Res.3

Ener gy:

I Eq.
J
loss
J
H
J
H
H
p V
z
p V
z
1
2
1
1
2
2 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
4 4 3 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
γ γ

II Eq.
2
2
2 2
2 2
J
loss
J
H
p V
z
p V
z =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
γ γ

III Eq.
3
3
2 2
2 2
J
loss
J
H
p V
z
p V
z =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
γ γ

Note, that adding Eq.I to Eq.II gives:

Eq.IV
12 2 1
2
2
1
2
2 2
loss
J
loss
J
loss
H H H
p V
z
p V
z = + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
γ γ

Also, adding Eq.I to Eq.III gives:

Eq.V
13 3 1
3
2
1
2
2 2
loss
J
loss
J
loss
H H H
p V
z
p V
z = + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
γ γ

Problem 1: Assuming f = 0.020, determine the discharge in the pipes.
Neglect minor losses.

Solution: Assume flow from A to B; C to D and B to D. Thus,
continuity gives:

BD CB AB
Q Q Q = +
Energy:

AB
AB
AB
loss B A
AB
loss
B
H
B
A
H
A
gA
Q
D
fL
g
V
D
fL
H H H H
p V
z
p V
z
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = − ⇒ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2
2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
4 4 3 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
γ γ
( )( )( ) ) 2 /( ) 12 / 10 /( ) 100000 ( 02 . 0
2 2
gA Q H H H
AB
loss B A AB
= = −
( )( )
2 2
545 . 0 12 / 10 4 / ft
AB
= = π A
2
53 . 12
AB
Q H H H
AB
loss B A
= = − ⇒
B B A
AB
loss
H H H H Q − = − = = ⇒ 150 283 . 0 283 . 0 283 . 0
AB

Elevation = 150 ft
Elevation = 100 ft
Elevation = 0 ft
10000 ft
10-in. diameter
4000 ft
8-in. diameter
5000 ft
12-in. diameter
A
B
C
D
Elevation = 10 ft
Similarly, from C to B:
( )( )( ) ) 2 /( ) 12 / 8 /( 4000 02 . 0
2 2
gA Q H H H
CB
loss B C CB
= = −

2
3 . 15
CB
Q H H H
CB
loss B C
= = − ⇒

B B C
CB
loss
H H H H Q − = − = = ⇒ 100 256 . 0 256 . 0 256 . 0
CB

From B to D:
( )( )( ) ) 2 /( 1 / 5000 02 . 0
2 2
gA Q H H H
BD
loss D B BD
= = −
2
52 . 2
DB
Q H H H
DB
loss D B
= = − ⇒
0 63 . 0 63 . 0 63 . 0 − = − = = ⇒
B B C
CB
loss
H H H H Q
BD

Summary & Solution Procedure:

Step 1: Assume
B
H and compute the 3 flows using the following
relations:
B
H Q − = 150 283 . 0
AB
;
B
H Q − = 100 256 . 0
CB
; 0 63 . 0 − =
B
H Q
BD

Step 2: Using the flows computed in Step 1, check if continuity is
satisfied by plugging all 3 flows into:
BD CB AB
Q Q Q = +
Step 3: Stop if continuity is step 2 is satisfied, else, go back to tep
1 and repeat the iteration.

H
B
(Assumed)
ft
H
loss
(ft) Q (cfs) Q
AB
+Q
CB
-Q
BD

(cfs)
AB
B
H − 150 =100.0
2.83
CB
B
H − 100 = 50.0
1.81
50.0
BD
0 −
B
H = 50.0
4.46
0.18
AB 95.0 2.75
CB 45.0 1.72
55.0
BD 55.0 4.67
-0.20
AB 97.5 2.79
CB 47.5 1.76
52.5
BD 52.5 4.57
-0.02
(close enough)

Problem 2: A service reservoir, A, delivers water through a trunk pipeline
ABC to the distribution network having inlets at B and C. The data for the
pipes are:

Pipe AB: length =1000 m; diameter =400 mm; roughness =0.06 mm.
Pipe BC: length =600 m; diameter =300 mm; roughness =0.06 mm.

The water surface elevation in the reservoir is 110 m from the indicated
datum in the figure below. Determine the maximum permissible outflow at
B such that the pressure head elevation at C does not fall below 90.0 m.
Neglect losses other than friction, entry and velocity head. Outflow at C =
160 l/s.
Solution:

Let
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
γ
α
P
g
V
Z E
2
2

For convenience we will drop the over bar (but you must remember that these are average
quantities with respect to the cross sectional area). In steady turbulent flow, . 1 ≅ α

From energy conservation we have:

A
E E =
1

B
C
A
1

C B
losses
B
losses C
C B
losses C B
B
losses B
H H E E
H E E
H E E
− −

+ = − ⇒
¦
)
¦
`
¹
= −
= −
1
1
1
1

C B
losses C B
H E E

= −

Therefore:
4 4 3 4 4 2 1
4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1
43 42 1
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
C B
losses
H
BC
BC
BC
B A
losses
H
AB AB
AB
AB
E
BC
C
E
g
V
D
L
f
A at loss Entry
g
V
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
Z
P
C
g
V
Z
P

+ + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + −
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
2 2
5 . 0
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
γ γ
We know:

I Eq.
and
g
V
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
Z
C
P
C
g
V
Z
P
BC BC
BC
BC
AB
AB
AB
AB
E
2 2 2 2
5 . 0 90 10 1
90 110
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
+ + + = − ⇒
= + = + +
γ γ
4 43 4 42 1

Head Losses in Pipe BC: Head Loss due friction + Minor Loss

Head Loss Due to Friction:

m
g
V
BC
D
BC
L
BC
f
f
D
BC
BC
s m
V
BC
s l Q
BC
84 . 7
2 * 8 . 9
263 . 2
2
3 . 0
600
015 . 0
2
2
2
015 . 0
2
0002 . 0
300
06 . 0
;
10
5
6
Re
/ 263 . 2 / 160
= = ⇒
≅ ⇒
= = × = → = → =
ε

Minor Loss due to Sudden change in velocity at point C:

m
g
V
BC
26 . 0
6 . 19
263 . 2
2
2
2
= =

Which is much smaller than the friction loss!

Total Loss in pipe BC = 7.84+0.26= 8.1m

Going back to Eq. I we have:

1 . 8
2
2
1
2
2
5 . 0 90 110 + + = −
g
V
AB
D
AB
L
AB
f
g
V
AB

m
g
V
AB
D
AB
L
AB
f
9 . 11 1 . 8 20
2
2
1
5 . 0 = − =
(
¸
(

¸

+ ⇒

Assume flow is fully turbulent (rough pipe case):

Since ε /D= 0.06/400 = 0.0004. As a result, the Moody chart gives: f=0.016

Substituting this f=0.016

[ ]
s m
V
AB
V
AB
V
AB
/ 4 . 2
9 . 11
6 . 19
2
40 5 . 0 9 . 11
6 . 19
2
4 . 0
1000
016 . 0 5 . 0
= ⇒
= + ⇒ =
(
¸
(

¸

+

Check the assumption:

10
5
5 . 8
Re
/ 4 . 2 × = → = ⇒
AB
s m
V
AB

The flow is close to the rough zone and the assumption is OK!

Flows:

s l Q
OUT
s l Q
AB
s m
V
AB
/ 141 160 301
/ 301
2 . 0
2
* 14 . 3 * 4 . 2
/ 4 . 2
= − = ⇒
≅ = ⇒
=

Problem 3: An existing spun iron trunk pipeline 15 km long, 400 mm in
diameter and effective roughness size 0.10 mm delivers water from an
impounding reservoir to a service reservoir under a minimum gross head
of 90 m. Minor losses due to the bends and valves are estimated to total
12V
2
/2g..
(a) Determine the minimum discharge to the service reservoir.
(b) The impounding reservoir can provide a safe yield of 300 l/s.
Determine the minimum length of 400 mm diameter uPVC pipeline
(roughness =0.03 mm) to be laid in parallel with the existing line so
that a discharge equal to the safe yield could be delivered under the
available head. Neglect local losses in the new pipe and assume
local losses of 12V
2
/2g in the duplicated length of the original
pipeline.

B
C
A
141
EGL
HGL
110
s l Q s m V Hence
g D
fL
V
f
D
s m V Assume
g
V
g
V
D
fL
/ 5 . 213 / 7 . 1
7 . 1 697 . 1
2
1
12
1
90
016 . 0 00025 . 0
400
1 . 0
10
5
6
10
6
* 13 . 1
4 . 0 * 7 . 1
Re / 7 . 1
2
2
12
2
2
90
= → =
≅ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
≅ ⇒ = =
× =

= → =
+ =
ε

f
Q
Q
2
L2 ?
Q1
L1=L2

Energy at the junction of the two pipes:
J
E
Energy at the downstream reservoir:
DR
E
Along pipe 1:
1 pipe
loss
H
DR
E
J
E = −
Along pipe 2:
2 pipe
loss
H
DR
E
J
E = −

2 1 pipe
loss
H
pipe
loss
H =
) (
2
1
12
2
1
2
1
12
2
1
2
12
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
1
2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1
A Equation
Q
Q
L
D
Q
Q
f
V
V
L
D
V
V
f f
g
V
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
D
L
f
⇒ + = + = ⇒
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

The energy equation also gives:

) ( .
2 2
) 15000 (
2
12
2 2
) 15000 (
90
2
2 2
2
2
2 1
2
2
1 1
1
2
1
B ation Equ
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
D
L f
g
V
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
D
L f
+

= + +

=
From continuity (mass balance) we have:
s m Q Q Q /
3
3 . 0
2 1
= = +
Assume L
2
= 9300m and Q
2
= 0.155 m
3
/s

⇒ Q
1
= 0.145 m
3
/s ⇒ V
1
= 1.15, V
2
= 1.23 m/s

⇒ Re
1
=4*10
5
, Re
2
= 4.3*10
3

016 . 0 00025 . 0
014 . 0 000075 . 0
400
03 . 0
1
1
2
2
=   →  =
=   →  = =
f
D
f
D
Moody
Moody
ε
ε

Plug into equation (A) and check:

0.016(0.145/0.155)
2
+ 0.4/9300 (0.145/0.155)
2
=0.014

Which is very close to 0.014. Accept.

Check whether or not equation (B) is satisfied:

m 57 . 91
6 . 19
23 . 1
4 . 0
9300
014 . 0
6 . 19
39 . 2
*
4 . 0
9300 15000
016 . 0
2
= +

This is close enough to 90m ⇒ Accept !!!!

Additional Required Reading: Civil 151 notes and o2Chapter 12, Sections
12.1, 12.2, and 12.3, Fluid Mechanics, By Streeter; Wylie & Bedford, Ninth Edition,
McGraw-Hill, USA.