Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila

DECISION

61 Phil. February 16, 1935 G.R. No. L !""## $%slan&s '. (ayona) THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, plaintiff appellee, 's. CORNELIO BAYONA, &efen&ant appellant. Gervasio Diaz for appellant. Office of the Solicitor-General Hilado for appellee. Vickers, J.: *his is an appeal fro+ a &ecision of ,u&-e (raulio (e.asa in the /ourt of First %nstance of /api0, fin&in- the &efen&ant -uilty of a 'iolation of section !16 of the 1lection La2 an& sentencin- hi+ to suffer i+prison+ent for thirty &ays an& to pay a fine of P53, 2ith subsi&iary i+prison+ent in case of insol'ency, an& to pay the costs. *he facts as foun& by the trial .u&-e are as follo2s4 5 eso &e las once &e la +a6ana &el &ia 5 &e .unio &e 193!, +ientras se celebrahan las elecciones -enerales en el precinto electoral nu+ero !, situa&o en el (arrio &e 5ran-uel &el Municipio &e Pilar, Pro'incia &e /api0, el a7ui acusa&o fue sorpren&i&o por ,ose 1. 8esi&erio, 7ue era entonces el representante &el 8eparta+ento &el %nterior para inspecionar las elecciones -enerales en la Pro'incia &e /api0, y por el co+an&ante &e la /onstabularia F.(. 5-&a+a- 7ue iba en a7uella ocasion con el cita&o ,ose 1. 8esi&erio, portan&o en su cinto el re'ol'er /olt &e calibre 3", No. 1953#", 19hibit 5, &entro &el cerco 7ue ro&eaba el e&ificio &estina&o para el cita&o cole-io electoral nu+ero ! y a una &istancia &e "" +etros &el referi&o cole-io electoral. %n+e&iata+ent ,ose 1. 8esi&erio se incauto &el re'ol'er en cuestion. La &efensa, por +e&io &el testi+onio &e ,ose 8. (enliro y &e 8ioscoro (uen'eni&a, trato &e establecer 7ue el a7ui acusa&o paro en la calle 7ue &aba frente al cole-io electoral nu+ero ! a in'itacion &e &icho ,ose 8. (enliro y con el ob.eto &e suplicarle al +enciona&o acusa&o para

y 7ue cuan&o lle-aron . hay una &istancia &e ": +etros. 2hich he hi+self 2as &ri'in-. an& Ma. (enliro 7ue ya habian ter+ina&o &e 'otar. 1l . an& the &efen&ant coul& not lea'e his re'ol'er in his auto+obile. a representati'e of the 8epart+ent of the %nterior. 2ithout runnin.near the pollin. al con&enarle a prision y +ulta. *he latter part of the ar-u+ent un&er the secon& assi-n+ent of error is that if it be conce&e& that the &efen&ant 2ent insi&e of the fence. 2ho ha& been &esi-nate& to super'ise the elections in the Pro'ince of /api0.place ha& calle& hi+. 5s to the 7uestion of fact raise& by the first assi-n+ent of error.s attorney +a<es the follo2in.u0-a&o a quo erro al &eclarar 7ue el apelante fue sorpren&i&o con su re'ol'er &entro &el cerco &e la casa escuela &el (arrio &e 5ran-uel. nor &oes the recor& sho2 that it 2as necessary for the &efen&ant to carry ar+s on that occasion. Municipio &e Pilar. 5ppellant. 8esi&ierio y el co+a&ante F. 1l . an& all election precincts are 2ithin fifty +eters fro+ so+e roa&. se-un &ichos testi-os. testifie& positi'ely that the &efen&ant 2as 2ithin the fence surroun&in. a literal application of the la2 2oul& be absur&.place 2hen 8esi&erio too< possession of the re'ol'er the &efen&ant 2as carryin-. *his also &isposes of that part of the ar-u+ent un&er the secon& assi-n+ent of error base& on the theory that the &efen&ant 2as in a public roa&.u0-a&o a quo erro al &eclarar al apelante culpable &e la infraccion &e la Ley 1lectoral 7uerrella&a y. *he >olicitor General ar-ues that since the Go'ern+ent &oes not especially construct buil&in-s for electoral precincts but +erely utili0es 2hate'er buil&in. he is ne'ertheless not -uilty of a 'iolation of the 1lection La2. 2here he ha& a ri-ht to be.ose 1.ose 8. el a7ui acusa&o estaba en la calle. it is sufficient to say that the recor& sho2s that both .it because he 2as alone. por consi-uiente. 5s to the contention that the &efen&ant coul& not lea'e his re'ol'er in his auto+obile 2ithout the ris< of losin. it is sufficient to say that un&er the circu+stances it 2as not necessary for the &efen&ant to lea'e his auto+obile +erely because so+ebo&y stan&in. 7ue fue habilita&o co+o cole-io electoral. 8esi&erio. 5-&a+a-.assi-n+ents of error4 1.in a 'iolation of the la2. estaba el acusa&o cuan&o se le 7uito el re'ol'er 19hibit a.there +ay be a'ailable. because +e+bers of the police force or /onstabulary in pursuit of a cri+inal 2oul& be inclu&e& in that prohibition an& coul& not use the roa& in 7uestion if they 2ere carryinfirear+s= that people li'in. 2hen he 2as arreste&.place.ose 1.(.or 5-&a+a.of the Philippine /onstabulary.the pollin.it an& thereby incurrin.in the 'icinity of electoral precincts 2oul& be prohibite& fro+ . ". because he 2as calle& by a frien& an& +erely approache& hi+ to fin& out 2hat he 2ante& an& ha& no interest in the election= that there 2ere +any people in the public roa& in front of the pollin.lle'ar a su casa a los electores &el cita&o .the ris< of losin. 8es&e el cole-io electoral hasta el sitio en 7ue.

.A Bhile it is true that. it 2oul& be inhu+an an& unreasonable to con'ict hi+.s Ne2 /ri+. an& he co++itte& it 2illfully. 1! Phil.place. . but in those +ala prohibita it is sufficient if the prohibite& act 2as intentionally &one. an& to +a<e their co++ission cri+inal 2ithout re-ar& to the intent of the &oer. C/are +ust be e9ercise& in &istin-uishinthe &ifference bet2een the intent to co++it the cri+e an& the intent to perpetrate the act.or han&lin.hel& 2hen a frien& of his calle& hi+= that 2hile in the strict.ustice. pro+ul-ate& No'e+ber "3. 1"#. 5h /hon-.the+ &irectly or in&irectly to influence the free choice of the electors ?citin. La2. an& the intent 2ith 2hich he 'iolate& it is i++aterial.of the firear+s 2as inten&e& for the purpose of usin. *he intention to inti+i&ate the 'oters or to interfere other2ise 2ith the election is not +a&e an essential ele+ent of the offense.the roa& in front of the buil&in.C ?@.of certain acts. he co++itte& the act co+plaine& of. 15 Phil. the courts ha'e al2ays reco-ni0e& the po2er of the le-islature.alon. *he la2 2hich the &efen&ant 'iolate& is a statutory pro'ision. %. 31536. if not i+possible.2here the election 2as bein.the pollin. 's. @nless such an offen&er actually +a<es use of his re'ol'er.cleanin. it 2oul& be e9tre+ely &ifficult. 1! Phil.place to preser'e or&er on the re7uest of the chair+an of the boar& of election inspectors. "#6A.>. 2as ac7uitte&A= that in the case at bar there is no e'i&ence that the &efen&ant 2ent to the election precinct either to 'ote or to 2or< for the can&i&acy of anyone. sec. to forbi& in a li+ite& class of cases the &oin. Go /hico. +en are not an& shoul& not be hel& cri+inally responsible for acts co++itte& by the+ 2ithout -uilty <no2le&-e an& cri+inal or at least e'il intent ?(ishop. 2here a police+an. !##. on -roun&s of public policy an& co+pelle& by necessity. Go /hico. not reporte&). 19"9. @r&eleon $G. as a rule an& on principles of abstract . %t +ay be conce&e& that the &efen&ant &i& not inten& to inti+i&ate any elector or to 'iolate the la2 in any other 2ay.ect of the Le-islature 2as to insure the free e9ercise of suffra-e. 'ol. ?@. 1"#= @. but on the other han& the e'i&ence sho2s that the &efen&ant ha& no intention to -o to the electoral precinct= that he 2as +erely passin. 's. the prohibition in 7uestion shoul& only be applie& 2hen the facts re'eal that the carryin.ect of the Le-islature 2as +erely to prohibit the &isplay of firear+s 2ith intention to influence in any 2ay the free an& 'oluntary e9ercise of suffra-e= *hat if the real ob. Be cannot accept the reasons a&'ance& by the >olicitor General for the ac7uittal of the &efen&ant. *he act prohibite& by the 1lection La2 2as co+plete.the &ecision of this court in the case of People 's. narro2 interpretation of the la2 the &efen&ant is -uilty. *he rule is that in acts +ala in se there +ust be a cri+inal intent.u&icial authority has the po2er to .their firear+s 2ithin their o2n resi&ences on re-istration an& election &ays= *hat the ob. No. 2ho ha& been sent to a pollin.A %n such cases no .>. to pro'e that he inten&e& to inti+i&ate the 'oters. but 2hen he -ot out of his auto+obile an& carrie& his re'ol'er insi&e of the fence surroun&in. Cthe -reat +aster of thin-sC.>..R. 's.

an& the sa+e thin. ?@.that the appellant shoul& be ac7uitte& because it 2as not pro'e& that he trie& to influence or inten&e& to influence the +in& of any 'oter.a public roa& on election &ay.reasons. 2ith the costs a-ainst the appellant. supra. 2ithin fifty +eters of a pollin. anybo&y coul& sell into9icatin.re7uire. /. 5s to the se'erity of the +ini+u+ penalty pro'i&e& by la2 for a 'iolation of the pro'ision in 7uestion. he &oes not 'iolate the pro'ision of la2 in 7uestion. For the fore-oin. such <no2le&-e or +oti'e to be sho2n. 5::.. in the enforce+ent of the la2.an& /o Don-. 33 Phil.or&er is authori0e& by la2 to carry his ar+s..a cri+inal= nor 2oul& the prohibition e9ten& to persons li'in.place. 5yre. >treet.. %f a +an 2ith a re'ol'er +erely passes alon.(ien.2ithin fifty +eters of a pollin.A *he cases su--este& by the >olicitor General &o not see+ to us to present any &ifficulty in the enforce+ent of the la2. that a police+an 2ho -oes to a pollinplace on the re7uest of the boar& of election inspectors for the purpose of +aintainin.. 's. an& Eull.firear+s 2ithin the conte+plation of the la2= an& as to the &ecision in the case of People 's. >iy /on. 2e ha'e recently hel& in the case of People 's. an& 8e-racia ?p. . concur. as they 2oul& not be carryin.place. 169. @r&eleon.2oul& be true of a peace officer in pursuin. 5ba& >antos. %f 2e 2ere to a&opt the specious reasonin. because he ha& no intent to perpetrate the act prohibite&. 5'ance6a. 2ho +erely clean or han&le their firear+s 2ithin their o2n resi&ences on election &ay. the &ecision appeale& fro+ is affir+e&. . that is a +atter for the /hief 19ecuti'e or the Le-islature..>.li7uor or hol& a coc<fi-ht or a horse race on election &ay 2ith i+punity. anteA..