12: Communication in Organisations Organisation Definition: A planned system of behaviours of two or more people who seek to achieve a common goal

or set of goals by coordinating their efforts. Features of Organisations 1. Structure  Provides predictability for members so that they understand roles, procedures and expectations.  Organisation relationships and interaction in an organisation.  Most rely on hierarchical structure. 2. Communication networks  Formal and informal links between members of organisations.  Overlaps between networks ensure that we will communicate in various ways with many people in any organisation. - Upward - Downward - Lateral - Grapevine 3. Links to External Environments  System of external relationships that provide the context for the organisation.  Affect how they work and whether they succeed or fail. Organisational Culture Consists of ways of thinking, acting, and understanding work that are shared by members of an organisation and that reflect an organisation’s identity.  Distinct cultures - Values, rules, myths, symbols and conventions - Reflect the organisation’s identity 1. Vocabulary Reflect and reproduce organisational cultures.  Hierarchical Language - Designate status (Captain, Sir, General) - Unequal terms of address communicate rank - First names (employees) vs Mr, Ms, Sir, Ma’am (CEO)  Masculine Language - Emphasizes men’s traditional interests and experiences - Bind men together in a community in which women may feel unwelcome or uncomfortable. - Range from sports (touchdown), military life (battle plan), male sexual parts and activities (balls). - Normalise sexist practices and sexual harassment.

demotions.  Rituals Forms of communication that occur regularly and that members of an organisation perceives as familiar and routine parts of organisational life .Social rituals: standardised performances that affirm relationships between members of organisations. style and history of an organisation.  Personal stories . planned sets of activities that bring together aspects of cultural ideology in a single event .Can help navigate one’s context.  Corporate stories .Rites of integration affirm and enhance the sense of community in an organisation.- Obscures women’s professional abilities and status. reprimands .Task rituals: repeated activities that help members of an organisation perform their jobs.Convey the values.Renewal rites: Aim to revitalise and update organisations (training workshops).Announce how people see themselves and how they want to be seen by others. . . . . . Rites and Rituals Verbal and non-verbal practices that express and reproduce organisational cultures  Rites Dramatic. Stories Establish and sustain organisational contexts.One person’s account of other members. . .Personal rituals: routine behaviours that individuals use to express their organisational identities .Enhancement rites: Praise individuals and teams that embody the organisation’s goals and self-image o Campuses bestow awards on faculty who are gifted teachers or outstanding students (Nanyang Awards) .Pivotal events in shared history cement bonds between long-term members and their involvement with the organisation.Socialise new members into the organisation’s culture.Stories about themselves aka members of organisations. .  3.Assert identities for others in an organisation. Collegial stories . 2.Blaming rites: Firings.

Situations.  Meet the expectations and needs of different workers.  TEAM PLAYER 3. 2.Constitutive rules: Specify what various kinds of communications symbolise o Working late – commitment o Socialising with colleagues – team spirit o Attending training sessions .Formal statements of practices that reflect and uphold the overall culture of an organisation  5.Responsibilities and behaviours expected of people because of their specific positions in an organisation.  Adjust your style of communicating to expectations and interaction styles of a variety of people and to the constraints of a range of situations. interrelated and interacting. Communication networks Guidelines for communicating in organisations 1. Structures  Roles . Adapt to Diverse Needs. . .Regulative rules: Specify when.4.Patterned ways of interacting. . Expect to Move In and Out of Teams  Effective comm requires interacting intensely with members of teams that may form and dissolve quickly.May be formal or informal.  Cafeteria-style benefits package that allow employees to select benefits from a range of options (compromise). and People  Variety of workers is a major chance that requires organisations to adapt.Different roles in an organisations are a system.Not tied to any particular person. experience and qualifications. . where and with whom communication should occur Policies .  Rules . Manage Personal Relationships on the Job  Involve relationships that are simultaneously personal and professional .ambition . can be performed by a number of people who have particular talents.

   May involve tension between the role expectations for friends and for colleagues. Also more dramatic when breaking up. . Difficulty rendering a fair evaluation Romantic relationships: arouse co-workers’ resentment and discomfort.