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6 Deflection and cracking
6.1 DEFLECTION

6.1.1 Deflection limits and checks
Limits for the serviceability limit state of deflection are set out in BS8110: Part 2, clause 3.2.1. It is stated in this clause that the deflection is noticeable if it exceeds L/250 where L is the span of a beam or length of a cantilever. Deflection due to dead load can be offset by precambering. The code also states that damage to partitions, cladding and finishes will generally occur if the deflection exceeds 1. L/500 or 20 mm whichever is the lesser for brittle finishes 2. L/350 or 20 mm whichever is the lesser for non-brittle finishes Design can be made such as to accommodate the deflection of structural members without causing damage to partitions or finishes. Two methods are given in BS8110: Part 1 for checking that deflection is not excessive: 1. limiting the span-to-effective depth ratio using the procedure set out in clause 3.4.6—this method should be used in all normal cases 2. calculation of deflection from curvatures set out in BS8110: Part 2, sections 3.6 and 3.7

6.1.2 Span-to-effective depth ratio
In a homogeneous elastic beam of span L, if the maximum stress is limited to an allowable value p and the deflection is limited to span/q, then for a given load a unique value of span-to-depth ratio L/d can be determined to limit stress and deflection to their allowable values simultaneously. Thus for the simply supported beam with a uniform load shown in Fig. 6.1 maximum stress

where I is the moment of inertia of the beam section, d is the depth of the beam and L is the span. The allowable deflection is

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Fig. 6.1 (a) Beam load; (b) section.

Thus

where E is Young’s modulus. Similar reasoning may be used to establish span-to-effective depth ratios for reinforced concrete beams to control deflection. The method in the code is based on calculation and confirmed by tests. The main factors affecting the deflection of the beam are taken into account. The allowable value for the span-to-effective depth ratio calculated using the procedure given in clause 3.4.6 of the code for normal cases depends on 1. the basic span-to-effective depth ratio for rectangular or flanged beams and the support conditions 2. the amount of tension steel and its stress 3. the amount of compression steel These considerations are discussed briefly below, (a) Basic span-to-effective depth ratios The code states that the basic span-to-effective depth ratios given in Table 3.10 for rectangular and flanged beams are so determined as to limit the total deflection to span/250. This ensures that deflection occurring after construction is limited to span/350 or 20 mm whichever is the less. The support conditions are also taken into account. The values given for rectangular beams are modified when a flanged beam is checked. Thus: 1. If the web width bw is less than or equal to 0.3 of the effective flange width b, the reduction is 0.8;

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Table 6.1 Basic span-to-effective depth ratios Support Span-to-effective depth ratio conditions Flanged beams, bw/b0.3 Rectangular beam Cantilever 7 Simply supported 20 Continuous 16.0

5.6 26 20.8

2. If the web width bw is greater than 0.3 of the effective flange width b, reduction is to vary linearly between 0.8 at bw/b=0.3 to 1.0 at bw/b=1. The reduction is made because in the flanged beam there is not as much concrete in the tension zone and the stiffness of the beam is reduced (see calculation of deflection below). The basic span-to-effective depth ratios from Table 3.10 of the code are given in Table 6.1. The values in the table apply to beams with spans up to 10 m. Refer to clause 3.4.6.4 of the code for beams of longer span. (b) Tension reinforcement (clause 3.4.6.5 of the code) The deflection is influenced by the amount of tension reinforcement and the value of the stress at service loads at the centre of the span for beams or at the support for cantilevers. The basic span-to-effective depth ratio from Table 3.10 of the code is multiplied by the modification factor from Table 3.11. The modification factor is given by the formula in the code:

Note that the amount of tension reinforcement present is measured by the term M/bd2, (section 4.4.7). The service stress is estimated from the equation

where As,req is the area of tension steel required at mid-span to support ultimate loads (at the support for a cantilever), As,prov is the area of tension steel provided at mid-span (at the support for a cantilever) and

(moments are from the maximum moment diagrams). The following comments are made concerning the expression for service stress:

it is corrected by the amount adopted. It can be noted from Table 3. This is because when the steel stress. The modification factor is given by the formula where As. measured by M/bd2. (e) Deflection checks for slabs The deflection checks applied to slabs are discussed under design of the various types of slab in Chapter 8. If the service stress has been modified by redistribution. The stress due to service loads is given by. the smaller portion of concrete in the tension zone reduces the stiffness of the beam Providing more steel than required reduces the service stress and this increases the allowable span/d ratio for the beam.prov. 3.prov is the area of compression reinforcement. there is a larger area of concrete in compression which leads to larger deflections due to creep 3. .req/As. 2. Table 3. This value should be greater than the actual span/d ratio for the beam to be satisfactory with respect to deflection. (c) Compression reinforcement All reinforcement in the compression zone reduces shrinkage and creep and therefore the curvature. is increased 1. It is stated in Table 3. The modification factors for compression reinforcement are given in BS8110: Part 1.12.11 of the code that for a continuous beam if the amount of redistribution is not known fs may be taken as . This effect decreases the deflection. (d) Deflection check The allowable span-to-effective depth ratio is the basic ratio multiplied by the modification factor for tension reinforcement multiplied by the modification factor for compression reinforcement. the depth to the neutral axis is increased and therefore the curvature for a given steel stress increases (see calculation of deflections below) 2. This takes account of partial factors of safety for loads and materials used in design for the ultimate limit state. If more steel is provided than required the service stress is reduced by the ratio As. .Page 124 1.11 in the code that for a given section with the reinforcement at a given service stress the allowable span/d ratio is lower when the section contains a larger amount of steel.

6. Using the rules set out above. check whether the beam is satisfactory for deflection.prov= 226 mm2. The design moment is 165 kN m. 6.Page 125 Example 6.10 in the code is For the modification factor for compression reinforcement.1 Deflection check for T-beam The section at mid-span designed for a simply supported T-beam of 6 m span is shown in Fig.10. with As. two 12 mm diameter bars have been provided in the top of the beam.2. The modification factor for tension reinforcement using the formula given in Table 3. Fig.8. The basic span-to-effective depth ratio is 16.2 . The calculated area of tension reinforcement was 1447 mm2 and three 25 mm diameter bars of area 1472 mm2 were provided. Refer to section 4. To carry the links. From BS8110: Part 1. The service stress is The beam is simply supported and b=1.2 for design of the tension steel. The materials used are concrete grade 30 and reinforcement grade 460. Table 3.

1 actual span/d=6000/300=20 The beam is satisfactory with respect to deflection.3(a) above.3. for dead loads characteristic and expected values are the same 2.3×1. 6. The loads are as set out in 6.1.1. The code states that 1. The code states that a number of factors which are difficult to assess can seriously affect results.017 allowable span/d=16×1.3 Deflection calculation (a) Loads on the structure The design loads for the serviceability limit state are set out in BS8110: Part 2.017=21. (b) Analysis of the structure An elastic analysis based on the gross concrete section may be used to obain moments for calculating deflections. whether the member has or has not cracked 4. The code distinguishes between calculations 1.Page 126 and the modification factor is 1+[0. clause 3. (c) Method for calculating deflection The method for calculating deflection is set out in BS8110: Part 2. to comply with serviceability limit state requirements—this may entail taking special restrictions into account In choosing the loads to be used the code again distinguishes between characteristic and expected values. Factors mentioned are 1. the difficulty in assessing the effects of finishes and partitions .7. for imposed loads the expected values are to be used in best estimate calculations and the characteristic loads in serviceability limit state requirements (in apartments and office buildings 25% of the imposed load is taken as permanently applied) Characteristic loads are used in deflection calculations. expected values are to be used. inaccurate assumptions regarding support restraints 2.052/(3+0. For best estimate calculations. to produce a best estimate of likely behaviour 2. section 3. that the actual loading and the amount that is of long-term duration which causes creep cannot be precisely estimated 3.052)]=1.

consider the doubly reinforced beam section shown in Fig. The larger value is used in the deflection calculations. (c) stresses and forces in section. 6. The modulus of elasticity of the concrete to be used is the mean value given in BS8110: Part 2. Strains are calculated on the basis that plane sections remain plane. The strain diaeffective modulus of elasticity with a value of 1/(1+) times the short-term Fig. 2.Page 127 The method given is to assess curvatures of sections due to moment and to use these values to calculate deflections.2. The stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone is taken into account by assuming that the concerete develops some stress in tension. (d) Calculation of curvatures The curvature at a section can be calculated using assumptions set out for a cracked or uncracked section. The effect of creep due to long-term loads is taken into account by using an modulus from Table 7. Table 7. .3 (a) Section. 4. 5. 3. To show the application of the method for calculating curvature. where is the creep coefficient. Elastic theory is used for the section analysis. (i) Cracked section The assumptions used in the analysis are as follows: 1. 6. 6. (b) strain diagram.3(a).2 of the code.55 N/mm2 for long-term loads. The value of this stress is taken as varying linearly from zero at the neutral axis to 1 N/mm2 at the centroid of the tension steel for short-term loads and reducing to 0. The concrete in compression is elastic. The reinforcement is elastic with a modulus of elasticity of 200 kN/mm2.

5fctb(hx)2/(dx) The sum of the internal forces is zero: Cc+CsTsTc=0 The sum of the moments of the internal forces about the neutral axis is equal to the external moment M: .5fcbx Cs=efcAs(xd)/x Ts=efcAs(dx)/x Tc=0.55 N/mm2 for long-term loads) As area of steel in tension Asarea of steel in compression x depth to the neutral axis h depth of the beam d effective depth d inset of the compression steel Cc force in the concrete in compression Cs force in the steel in compression Tc force in the concrete in tension Ts force in the steel in tension The following further definitions are required: Ec modulus of elasticity of the concrete Es modulus of elasticity of the steel e modular ratio. (0. The stresses in the reinforcement can be expressed in terms of the concrete stress in compression fc and modular ratio e as follows: fsc fst =efc(xd)/x =efc(dx)/x The concrete stress in tension of the bottom face is fct(hx)/(dx) The internal forces are given by Cc=0.Page 128 gram and stresses and internal forces in the section are shown in 6.3(b) and 6. The section analysis is outlined below. The terms used in the figure are defined as follows: fc stress in the concrete in compression fsc stress in the compression steel fst stress in the tension steel fct stress in the concrete in tension at the level of the tension steel 1 N/mm2 for short-term loads. Es/Ec Note that for long-term loads the effective value of Ec is used.3(c) respectively.

3.4(c) the tensile stress at the outer fibre in the concrete is fct(hx)/(dx). The moment of inertia of the transformed section about the XX axis is given by Ix=0.Page 129 M=0. (c) tension in concrete.67Tc(hx) These two equations can be solved by successive trials to obtain the values of f and x. . The transformed section is shown in Fig.4(b).4 (a) Section. The curvature is determined as set out below. (b) transformed section. Referring to Fig. 6. 6. The depth to the neutral axis is found by taking moments about the XX axis to give the equation 0.34bx3+eAs(xd)2+eAs(dx)2 The stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone is taken into account by calculating its moment of resistance about the XX axis. 6. The force in concrete in tension is Tc=0.67Ccx+Cs(xd)+Ts(dx)+0. The problem is simplified with little sacrifice in accuracy if the neutral axis depth is determined for the cracked section only using the transformed area method set out in section 4.5fct(hx)2/(dx) The moment of resistance of the concrete in tension is Mc=2Tc(hx)/3 Fig. Note that the area of concrete occupied by the reinforcement has not been deducted in the expressions given above.9.5bx2+eAs(xd)=eAs(dx) This is solved to give x.

5(b) and the transformed section in 6. (b) strain diagram. An uncracked section is shown in Fig. 6.5(a). (c) transformed section. (ii) Uncracked Section For an uncracked section the concrete and steel are both considered to act elastically in tension and compression. . the stresses and curvature is given below.5(c) the equivalent area is Ae=bh+e(As'+As) Fig. Referring to the transformed section in Figure.Page 130 This moment is subtracted from the applied moment M to give a reduced moment MR=MMc The compressive stress in the concrete is given by fc=MRx/Ix The compressive strain in the concrete is given by c=fc/Ec where the modulus Ec depends on whether the loads are of short. the strain diagram is given in 6.5(c). The section analysis to derive the depth to the neutral axis. 6.5 (a) Section. 6.and long-term loads. Referring to the strain diagram in Fig. 6.or long-term duration.3(b) the curvature is Solutions are required for both short.

most of the strain due to creep is not recovered. This is termed drying shrinkage and is discussed in of BS8110: Part 2. The code recommends suitable values for indoor and outdoor exposure in the UK and defines the effective section thickness for uniform sections as twice the cross-sectional area divided by the exposed perimeter. Values of depend on the age of loading. Ec is the short-term modulus for the concrete. It is noted that certain aggregates produce concrete with a higher initial drying shrinkage than normal. Creep is discussed in BS8110: Part 2.Page 131 The location of the centroid is found by taking moments of all areas about the top face and dividing by Ae: The moment of inertia Ix about the XX axis is The curvature is (e) Long-term loads—creep The effect of creep must be considered for long-term loads.4. The code states that shrinkage is mainly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. The strain due to creep may be much larger than that due to elastic deformation. the surface area from which moisture can be lost relative to the volume of concrete. section 7. effective section thickness and ambient relative humidity. Table 7.2. In deflection calculations. creep is taken into account by using a reduced or effective value for the modulus of elasticity of the concrete equal to Eeff=Ec/(1+) for calculating the curvature due to the long-term loads. and the mix proportions.3. On removal of the load. Load on concrete causes an immediate elastic strain and a long-term time-dependent strain known as creep. values of which at 28 days are given in BS 8110: Part 2. The creep coefficient is used (f) Shrinkage curvature Concrete shrinks as it dries and hardens. Values of drying shrinkage strain cs for plain concrete which depend on the effective thickness and ambient relative humidity may be taken from . to evaluate the effect of creep. section 7.

6. The curvature caused by shrinkage is illustrated by reference to Fig.Page 132 Fig. More shrinkage occurs at the top of the doubly reinforced beam because the steel area is less at the top than at the bottom. Ss is the first moment of area of the reinforcement about the centroid of the cracked or gross section. 6.7. Add to the long-term curvature under the permanent load the differ- . Calculate the long-term curvature under the permanent load. section 3. gives the following equation for calculating the shrinkage curvature: where e=Es/Eeff is the modular ratio. 7. the modular ratio e is used to find the transformed area of steel.1. (g) Total long-term curvature BS8110: Part 2. Clause 3. Reinforcement prevents some of the shrinkage through bond with the concrete and if it is asymmetrical as in a singly reinforced beam this causes the member to curve and deflect.6 (a) Section. Fig. cs is the free shrinkage strain. Calculate the instantaneous curvatures under the total load and under the permanent load.2. BS8110: Part 2. (b) short length of beam. A plain concrete member shrinks uniformly and does not deflect laterally. 6. gives the followng four-step procedure for assessing the total long-term curvatures of a section: 1.3(e) above) and I is the moment of inertia of the cracked or gross section depending on which value is used to calculate the curvature due to the applied loads. 2. Eeff=Ec/(1+) is the effective modulus of elasticity (see 6.6. BS8110: Part 2. 3.

3(i) below). Add the shrinkage curvature.1 (see 6. 6. (i) Simply supported beam with uniform load Refer to Fig. where it is stated that the deflected shape is related to the curvatures by the equation where 1/rx is the curvature at x and a is the deflection at x. Table 3. M is the moment at the section. Values of K for various cases are given in BS8110: Part 2. Ax. 2. (h) Deflection calculation The deflection is calculated from the curvatures using the method given in BS8110: Part 2. 4. Figure 6.2. The vertical deflection of B away from the tangent at C is equal to the moment of the area under the M/EI curve between C and B taken about B.8.Page 133 ence between the instantaneous curvatures under the total and the permanent load. clause 3.7(c). 6. Useful geometrical properties for a parabola are shown in Fig. The code gives the following simplified method as an alternative: the deflection a is calculated from where l is the effective span of the member.7.1. The centre deflection is . Values of the constant K are calculated for four common load cases. The moment area theorems are as follows: 1. E is Young’s modulus and I is the moment of inertia of the section. i.7 shows a uniform beam loaded with the M/EI diagram and the deflected shape of the beam. (i) Evaluation of constant K The curvature at any section along a beam a distance x from the support is where a is the deflection at the section. 1/rb is the curvature at midspan of the beam or at the support for a cantilever and K is a constant that depends on the shape of the bending moment diagram.e. Deflection can be calculated directly by calculating curvatures at sections along the member and using a numerical integration technique. The change in slope between any two points such as C and B is equal to the area A of the M/EI diagram between those two points.

6. 6. The deflection of A away from the tangent at C is . (c) properties of parabola.9. (ii) Moment at one end of a simply supported beam Refer to Fig.Page 134 Fig. (b) deflected shape of beam.7 (a) Beam load with M/EI diagram.

(b) M/EI diagram. 6.8 (a) Load. (c) deflected shape. 6. (b) M/EI diagram.Page 135 Fig. Fig. (c) deflected shape. The slope 1 at C is Ml/6EI and the change of slope 2 between the tangents at C and B is .9 (a) Load.

Page 136 The slope 3 at C is The deflection 2 of C away from the tangent at B is The deflection (3 at C due to the slope at B is Thus the total deflection at B is (iii) Intermediate span with uniform load and end moments The solution in (ii) is used in this case. The deflection A at B due to MA/EI loading is The deflection B at C due to MB/EI loading is The deflection M at C due to M/EI loading is and the resultant deflection c at C is thus . 6.10. Refer to Fig.

Page 137 Fig.e.10 (a) Load.8 kN/m and an imposed load of 10 kN/m. .2 Deflection calculation for T-beam A simply supported T-beam of 6 m span carries a dead load including self-weight of 14. i. (c) combined M/EI diagram. 6. and where This is the expression given in BS8110: Part 2. (b) individual M/EI diagrams. Example 6.1. 6. Equate this expression to Kl2Mc/EI). Calculate the deflection of the beam at mid-span. The T-beam section with the tension reinforcement designed for the ultimate limit state and the bars in the top to support the links is shown in Fig. Table 3.11.

total load=14.0 N/mm2.2.2. Fig.3×62/8=77. 6.25×10=17. The neutral axis is assumed to be in the flange. The modular ratio e=200/26=7.1. Refer to Example 4.8 kN/m permanent load=14.11 (a) Section. 6.6 kN m MP=17. (a) Moments The deflection calculation will be made for characteristic dead and imposed loads to comply with serviceability limit state requirements. The stresses in the steel in terms of the concrete stress fc in compression are fsc fst =7.69.8×62/8=111.69fc(x45)/x =7. 2. For steel Es=200 kN/mm2 from BS8110: Part 1.11(c).Page 138 Fig.8+10=24. clause 3. The materials are grade 30 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement. This is checked on completion of the analysis. The stress and internal forces in the section are shown in Fig.8+0. (c) stresses and forces. Table 7.3. The stress in the concrete in tension at the level of the tension steel is 1. is Ec=26 kN/mm2 for grade 30 concrete.3 kN/m The moments at mid-span are Total load Permanent load MT=24. (b) strain diagram.13 for the design of the tension steel and to section 6.85 kN m (b) Instantaneous curvatures for the cracked section—accurate analysis The instantaneous curvatures for the total and permanent loads are calculated first.2 for the application of the rules for checking deflection for the beam.69fc(300x)/x . The permanent load is taken as the dead load plus 25% of the imposed load as recommended in BS8110: Part 2. The static modulus of elasticity from BS8110: Part 2.

section 7.9 mm fc=8.6×106 N mm The internal forces in the section.7 N/mm2 The neutral axis lies in the flange as assumed. The compressive strain in the concrete is c=fc/Ec The curvature for the total loads is (c) Instantaneous curvature for permanent loads For the instantaneous curvature for permanent loads the sum of the moments in Table 6. .2 is 77. the lever arms of the forces about the neutral axis and the moments of the forces about the neutral axis are shown in Table 6. The two equations are solved for fc and x by successive trials.85 kN m.2.Page 139 Table 6.2 Forces and moments due to internal forces Force Lever Arm 725xfc 2x/3 Cc Cs 3091fc(x45)/x (x45) Ts 1131fc(300x)/x (300x) Tc 125(350x)2/(300x) 2(350x)/3 600(100x)2/(300x) 2(100x)/3 0 Moment 483x2fc 309fc(x 45)2/x 11319fc(300x)2/x 83. The solution is x=63.3.3(350x)3/(300x) 400(100x)3/(300x) 111. The solution of the equations is (d) Long-term curvature under permanent loads The creep coefficient is estimated using data given in BS8110: Part 2.

Note that the force in compression in the concrete is divided into three forces for ease of calculation. The solution of the equation is . the lever arms and the moments of forces about the neutral axis are shown in Table 6. The neutral axis is assumed to be in the beam web in this case.12. The tensile stress in the concrete at the level of the tension steel is taken to be 0. The internal forces.78=34.1 is 3.12(d).12 (a) Section.6. as shown in Fig. 7. say. the creep coefficient from Fig. The relative humidity for indoor exposure is 45%. when the soffit form and props are removed. 6. (d) forces in concrete in compression. 6.3.5. The stresses and internal forces in the section are shown in Fig. 6.55 N/mm2. If the age of loading is 14 days.Page 140 Fig. (c) stresses and forces. The effective modulus of elasticity is The modular ratio e=200/5. (b) strain diagram.

25×10 fc/x 125fc(x100)2/x 13909fc(x45)/x 50931fc(300x)/x 68.25×106fc(x33.66 N/mm2 6 Moment 1450fc(x100)(x50)/x 7.83(350x)3/(300x) 77. Fig.2.13.Page 141 Table 6.86×106 N mm (x50) (x33.058×105 mm3 The shrinkage curvature is .3 Forces and moments due to internal forces Force Lever Arm 1450fc(x100)/x Cc Cs Ts Tc 7. for an effective thickness of 122 mm and a relative humidity of 45%.34)/x 83.34) 2(x100)/3 (x45) (300x) 2(350x)/3 The curvature for the permanent loads is (e) Curvature due to shrinkage The value of drying shrinkage for plain concrete is evaluated from of BS8110: Part 2. 6. Ix =1450×100×602+1450×1003/12+250×103/3+13909×652 +50931×1902 =2. 7.6 The transformed section is shown in Fig. The 30 year shrinkage value is cs=420×106 The moment of inertia of the cracked section is calculated using the depth to the neutral axis determined in (c) above.541×109 mm4 The first moment of area of the reinforcement about the centroid of the cracked sections is Ss=(402×65)+(1472×190)=3. The effective modulus for an age of loading of 14 days is Eeff=5.75(350x)2/(300x) 0 x=110 mm fc=4.78 kN/mm2 e=34.3fc(x100)3/x 13909fc(x45)2/x 50931fc(300x)2/x 45.

The beam does not meet deflection requirements for the creep and shrinkage conditions selected. The transformed section is shown in Fig.4.69. 6.14. The calculations for the section properties are given in Table 6. (h) Curvatures for the uncracked section The instantaneous curvature for the total load is calculated where e=7.Page 142 Fig. K=5/48. 6. The beam is satisfactory when checked by span/d ratio rules. The instantaneous curvature for the total load is .13 (f) Final curvature The final curvature 1/rb is the instantaneous curvature under the total load minus the instantaneous curvature under the permanent load plus the long-term curvature under the permanent load plus shrinkage curvature: (g) Beam deflection For a simply supported beam carrying a uniform load.

94×106 52.4 Properties of transformed section No. (i) Approximate method for curvature Recalculate the curvatures using the approximate method outlined earlier.33×109 – 0.57×106 3 3 145. 6.25×103 125 0.34×109 ic 0.82×106 221.63/3+3091×15.09×10 305 0.097×109 0.0×10 300 43. Area y Ay 1 6. Deflection calculations based on the cracked section should be used.14 This is much less than the value of 5.5×106 3 4 3. 6.24×106 calculated in (b) for the cracked section.6 mm.03×109 13.42 =757×106 mm4 Table 6.12×109 0.98×103 ic.15(a). The instantaneous curvature for the total load is calculated and the value is compared with that obtained by the accurate method used above. Locate the neutral axis by solving the equation 725x2+3091(x45)=11319(300x) This gives x=60.39×10 50 0.45×109 .05×109 0.62+11319×239.781×106 3 2 11.29×109 14. The transformed section with the neutral axis in the flange is shown in Fig.Page 143 Fig. moment of mertia of section about its own centroidal axis Ay2 . Ix =1450×60.

2. 6.42×2/(3×106) +0.5×0.1 Cracking limits and controls Any prominent crack in reinforced concrete greatly detracts from the appearance.15 (a) Transformed section. Calculate the moment of resistance due to the concrete in tension where the tensile stress is 1 N/mm2 for short-term loads at the centre of the reinforcement (Fig.3.1. Excessive cracking and wide deep cracks affect durability and can lead to corrosion of reinforcement although strength may not be affected.2. states that for reinforced concrete cracking should be kept within reasonable bounds.5×1.16×1200×39.4=0. (b) tension in concrete. The clause specifies two methods for crack control: .15(b)). clause 2.2 CRACKING 6.4/239.4/239.4=1.53=103.21×250×289.42×2/(3×106) =8.07 kN m The curvature for the total load is This gives the same result as that obtained with the exact method.68.4. The stress at the bottom face is 1×289.Page 144 Fig.21 N/mm2 The stress at the bottom of the flange is 1×39. 6.16 N/mm2 MR=0. 6.53 kN m net moment=111. BS8110: Part 1.

2. section 3. Bars of diameter less than 0. 2.3 mm.16 where The moments are taken from the maximum moments diagram.2 Bar spacing controls Cracking is controlled by specifying the maximum distance between bars in tension. For zero redistribution the maximum clear distance between bars is . The spacing limits are specified in clause 3. 6. The rules are as follows. The clause indicates that in normal conditions of internal or external exposure the bar spacings given will limit crack widths to 0.8. 6. The maximum clear distance depends on the grade of reinforcement and a smaller spacing is required with high yield bars to control cracking because stresses and strains are higher than with mild steel bars.11.16) Fig. in special cases use of a formula given in BS8110: Part 2.Page 145 1.45 of the largest bar in the section should be ignored except when considering bars in the side faces of beams. for assessing the design crack width 6. 1. The clear horizontal distance S1 between bars or groups near the tension face of a beam should not be greater than the values given in Table 3. in normal cases a set of rules for limiting the maximum bar spacing in the tension zone of members 2.2.12. Calculations of crack widths can be made to justify larger spacings.30 of the code which are given by the expression (Fig.

4.12. The clear distance s2 from the corner of a beam to the surface of the nearest horizontal bar should not exceed one-half of the values given in BS8110: Part 1. 6.3% where As is the minimum recommended area.1. The maximum clear spacing between bars in slabs is given in BS8110: Part 1. clause 3.3 Calculation of crack widths (a) Cracking in reinforced concrete beams A reinforced concrete beam is subject to moment cracks on the tension face when the tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded. It also states that no further checks are required if (a) grade 250 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 250 mm (b) grade 460 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm (c) the reinforcement percentage 100As/bd is less than 0.Page 146 Reinforcement grade 250 300 mm Reinforcement grade 460 160 mm 3. Cracking has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically. The size of bar should not be less than (see BS8110: Part 1. Table 3.2.12.11. Primary cracks form first and with increase in moment secondary cracks form as shown in Fig.20.4) sb1/2b/fy where sb is the bar spacing and b is the breadth of the beam. 5. If the overall depth of the beam exceeds 750 mm. As an alternative the clear spacing between bars can be found from the expression where fs is the service stress estimated from equation 8 in BS8110: Part 1.7 and 3.7.12. longitudinal bars should be provided at a spacing not exceeding 250 mm over a distance of two-thirds of the overall depth from the tension face.12. The crack width at a point on the surface of a reinforced concrete beam has been found to be affected by two factors: 1.5. b is the breadth of the slab considered and d is the effective depth Refer to clauses 3. Points of zero . This clause states that the clear distance between bars should not exceed three times the effective depth or 750 mm. the surface strain found by analysing the sections and assuming that plane sections remain plane and 2.2(b) above).11. the distance of the point from a point of zero crack width.8 for other requirements regarding crack control in slabs.11. Table 3.17(a). 6. clause 3.11 (section 6.

at C on the corner of the beam (b) Crack width equation The calculation of crack widths is covered in BS8110: Part 2.8.3.8fy/Es. section 3. the larger the crack width will be. The code notes that the width of a flexural crack depends on the factors listed above. (b) crack locations. at B equidistant between the bars 3. The larger this distance is.17(b) the critical locations for cracking on the beam surface are 1. clause 3. 6. The terms in the expression are defined as follows: acr distance of the point considered to the surface of the nearest longitudinal bar m average strain at the level where the cracking is being considered (this is discussed below) cminminimum cover to the tension steel h overall depth of the member x depth of the neutral axis . to determine the design surface crack width: The code states that this formula can be used provided that the strain in the tension reinforcement does not exceed 0. Referring to Fig. 6. The following expression is given in BS8110: Part 2.Page 147 Fig.17 (a) Cracking in a beam. at A equidistant between the neutral axis and the bar surface 2. crack width are the neutral axis and the surface of longitudinal reinforcing bars. It also states that cracking is a semi-random phenomenon and that it is not possible to predict an absolute maximum crack width.8.

The alternative approximate method set out above is used in the calculation. m should be increased by adding 50% of the shrinkage strain.3 above.0006. The properties of the transformed section are computed first. and section 6. The total moment at the section due to service loads is 111.18(a). The modulus of elasticity of the concrete is to be taken as one-half the instantaneous value to calculate strains. 2.6 kN m. the strain 1 at the level considered is calculated ignoring the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone (the transformed area method is used in this calculation) 2.3 Crack width calculation for T-beam The section and reinforcement at mid-span of a simply supported T-beam are shown in Fig. Determine the crack widths at the corner A. . The values for the moduli of elasticity are as follows: The transformed section is shown in Fig. The materials are grade 30 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement.e. If the drying shrinkage is very high. Example 6. The neutral axis is located first: 725x2+6191(x45)=22669(300x) Solve to give x=80.18(b). The code gives an alternative approximation in which 1.9 mm. at the centre of the tension face B and at C on the side face midway between the neutral axis and the surface of the tension reinforcement. section 3. A negative value of m indicates that the section is not cracked. 6. 3. In normal cases shrinkage may be neglected.Page 148 The average strain m can be calculated using the method set out for determining the curvature in BS8110: Part 2. 6. greater than 0.1. m for a rectangular tension zone is given by where bt is the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel and a is the distance from the compression face to the point at which the crack width is required The code adds the following comments and requirements regarding use of the crack width formula: 1.6. the strain 1 is reduced by an amount equal to the tensile force due to the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone acting over the tension zone divided by the steel area 3. i.

18 (a) Section. (b) transformed section.22×108 mm4 The stress in the tension steel is .92+22669×219. 6.Page 149 Fig.93/3+6191×35. (d) stress diagram.12 =13. (c) crack locations and dimensions acr. The moment of inertia about the neutral axis is Ix =1450×80.

Page 150 The strain in the tension steel is Neglect the stiffening effect of the concrete in tension in the flange of the T-beam. where a=h=350 mm.18(c)).7 mm from the neutral axis.655×103.7490.18(c)) The dimension acr=50 mm and the average strain m=1.635×103 The design surface crack width at A where acr=58. The strain in the concrete at C is The strain reduction due to the stiffening effect of the concrete is The average strain at the crack location is (0.038)103=0.6 mm.5 mm is (b) Crack width at B (Fig. The location of C is found by successive trials. it is also 108. 6. 6. Therefore crack width=0. If C is 108.668×103 . 6. is The average strain at the crack location is therefore m=(1.18(c)) The strain in the concrete at A is The strain reduction due to the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone.23 mm (c) Crack width at C C is midway between the neutral axis and the surface of the reinforcement (Fig. (a) Crack width at A (Fig.7 mm from the surface of the bar and a=189.094)103=1.7060.2 mm and cmin=37.

3 mm and are satisfactory.7 mm. is All crack widths are less than 0. where acr=108.Page 151 The design surface crack width at C. .