E

2
E
2
E
2 2
hu
hu
hu
In
hu
Out
2 2
E
1
hu
E
1
E
1
(a) Absorption (b) Spontaneous emission (c) Stimulated emission
Absorption, spontaneous (random photon) emission and stimulated
emission emission.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
E
3
hu
32
E
3
E
3
E
3
hu
13
E
2
Metastable
state
E
2
E
2
E
2
hu
2
hu
21
OUT IN
E
1
E
1
E
1
E
1
hu
2
Coherent photons
(a) (b) (c) (d) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
The principle of the LASER. (a) Atoms in the ground state are pumped up to the energy level E
3
by
incoming photons of energy hu
13
= E
3
–E
1
. (b) Atoms at E
3
rapidly decay to the metastable state at
energy level E
2
by emitting photons or emitting lattice vibrations; hu
32
= E
3
–E
2
. (c) As the states at E
2
gy
2
y g p g ;
32 3 2
( )
2
are long-lived, they quickly become populated and there is a population inversion between E
2
and E
1
.
(d) A random photon (from a spontaneous decay) of energy hu
21
= E
2
–E
1
can initiate stimulated
emission. Photons from this stimulated emission can themselves further stimulate emissions leading to an
avalanche of stimulated emissions and coherent photons being emitted.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Energy of the Er
3+
ion
in the glass fiber
1.54 eV
1.27 eV
E
3
E'
3
1.27 eV
0.80 eV
E
2
3
980 nm
Non-radiative decay
Pump
1550 nm
1550 nm
In
Out
E
1
0
Energy diagram for the Er
3+
ion in the glass fiber medium and light amplification
by stimulated emission from E to E Dashed arrows indicate radiationless by stimulated emission from E
2
to E
1
. Dashed arrows indicate radiationless
transitions (energy emission by lattice vibrations)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Er
3+
-doped
fiber (10 - 20 m)
Wavelength-selective
coupler
Optical
isolator
Optical
isolator
Signal in
Signal out
Splice
coupler
Splice
ì = 1550 nm
ì = 1550 nm
isolator
isolator
Pump laser diode
ì = 980 nm
Termination
A simplified schematic illustration of an EDFA (optical amplifier). The
erbium-ion doped fiber is pumped by feeding the light from a laser pump
diode, through a coupler, into the erbium ion doped fiber.
© 1999 S O K O t l t i (P ti H ll) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Flat mirror (Reflectivity = 0.999)
Concave mirror (Reflectivity = 0.985)
Very thin tube
He-Ne gas mixture
Laser beam
Current regulated HV power supply Current regulated HV power supply
A schematic illustration of the He-Ne laser
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
(1s
1
2s
1
)
20 61 eV
He
(2p
5
5s
1
)
Ne
Collisions
632 8
20.66 eV
20.61 eV
(2p
5
3p
1
)
Lasing emission
632.8 nm
Fast spontaneous decay
20.66 eV
(2p
5
3s
1
)
~600 nm
Fast spontaneous decay
Electron impact
Collisions with the walls
(1s
2
)
0
(2p
6
)
(1s )
0
( p )
Ground states
The principle of operation of the He-Ne laser. He-Ne laser energy levels
(for 632.8 nm emission).
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Laser radiation
u
Ar
Laser tube
L
u
The output laser beam has a divergence characterized by
the angle 2u (highly exaggerated in the figure)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Relative intensity
Optical Gain
(c)
Doppler
broadening
(a)
ì
o

m
Allowed Oscillations (Cavity Modes)
ì
ì
ì
Allowed Oscillations (Cavity Modes)
(b)
L
m(ì/2) = L
(a) Optical gain vs. wavelength characteristics (called the optical gain curve) of the
ì

m
Stationary EM oscillations
Mirror
Mirror
p g g p g
lasing medium. (b) Allowed modes and their wavelengths due to stationary EM waves
within the optical cavity. (c) The output spectrum (relative intensity vs. wavelength) is
determined by satisfying (a) and (b) simultaneously, assuming no cavity losses.
© 1999 S O Kasap Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Optical gainbetween
FWHM points

m
(a) 5 d
Number of laser modes
dependsonhowthe
Cavity modes
(a) 5modes
4modes
depends on how the
cavity modes intersect
the optical gain curve.
In this case we are
looking at modes
withinthelinewidth
(b)
within the linewidth

1/2
.
ì
©1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) p, p ( )
hu
E
2
E
1
O i l G i
Laser medium
x
E
1
Optical Gain
g(u)
g(u
o
)
P+oP
x
ox
P
u
u
o
Au
g(u)
(a) A laser medium with an optical gain (b) The optical gain curve of the medium. The
dashed line is the approximate derivation in the text.
(a) (b)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
P
i
P
f
Reflecting
surface
Reflecting
surface
E
f
E
i

R
1
R
2
Steady state EM oscillations Cavity axis x
1
2
L
1
2
Optical cavity resonator
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
(N
2
÷ N
1
) and P
o
(N
2
÷ N
1
)
th
N
2
÷ N
1
Threshold population
inversion
P
o
= Lasing output power
Pump rate Pump rate
Threshold pump rate
Simplified description of a laser oscillator. (N
2
÷ N
1
) and
coherent output power (P
o
) vs. pump rate under continuous
wave steady state operation wave steady state operation.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Optical cavity
TEM
00
TEM
10
TEM
00
TEM
10
Spherical
mirror
Optical cavity
(a)
Wave fronts
TEM
01
TEM
11
TEM
01
TEM
11
(b)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
Laser Modes (a) An off-axis transverse mode is able to self-replicate after one round
trip. (b) Wavefronts in a self-replicating wave (c) Four low order transverse cavity
modes and their fields. (d) Intensity patterns in the modes of (c).
©1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
p
+
n
+
E
c
Junction
E
g
E
c
p
+
E
n
+
E
Fn
Inversi on
regi on
E
c
E
c
eV
o
E
Fn
E
v
Hol es i n VB
El ectrons i n CB
El ectrons
E
c
E
g
eV
E
Fp
E
Fp
(a)
E
v
(b)
V
The energy band diagram of a degenerately doped p-n with no bias. (b) Band
diagram with a sufficiently large forward bias to cause population inversion and
hence stimulated emission.
© 1999 S O Kasap Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Optical gain
Energy
Optical gain
E
Fn
÷ E
Fp
E
c
CB
Electrons
in CB
E
Fn
hu
E
g
0
E
v
Holes in VB
= Empty states
E
eV
At T > 0
Optical absorption
VB
Density of states
Empty states
E
Fp
At T > 0
At T = 0
(a) The density of states and energy distribution of electrons and holes in
the conduction and valence bands respectively at T ~ 0 in the SCL
Density of states
(a)
(b)
the conduction and valence bands respectively at T ~ 0 in the SCL
under forward bias such that E
Fn
÷ E
Fp
> E
g
. Holes in the VB are empty
states. (b) Gain vs. photon energy.
© 1999 S O K O l i (P ti H ll) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Current
Cleaved surface mirror
L
Electrode
GaAs
p
+
L
GaAs
n
+
Electrode
L
Electrode
Active region
(stimulated emission region)
A schematic illustration of a GaAs homojunction laser
diode. The cleaved surfaces act as reflecting mirrors.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Laser
Optical Power p
LED
Optical Power
Stimulated
Optical Power
Laser
ì
Optical Power
ì
Spontaneous
i i
Stimulated
emission
ì
I
0
ì
I
t h
emission
ì
Typical output optical power vs. diode current (I) characteristics and the corresponding
output spectrum of a laser diode.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
p n
p
(a) A double
heterostructure diode has
j i hi h
Electrons in CB
AlGaAs AlGaAs
E
c
(a)
p n
p
two junctions which are
between two different
bandgap semiconductors
(GaAs and AlGaAs).
(~0.1 µm)
GaAs
2 eV
1.4 eV
c
E
v
E
c
E
(b)
AE
c
2 eV
(b) Simplified energy
band diagram under a
large forward bias.
Lasing recombination
takes place in the p-
Refractive
i d
Holes in VB
E
v
GaAs layer, the
active layer
(c) Higher bandgap
materials have a
index
Photon
density
Active
region
An ~ 5%
materials have a
lower refractive
index
(d) AlG A l
(c)
(d) AlGaAs layers
provide lateral optical
confinement.
(d)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
W
Cleaved reflecting surface
Stripe electrode
L
W
Oxide insulator
p
p-GaAs (Contacting layer)
p-GaAs (Active layer)
p-Al
x
Ga
1-x
As (Confining layer)
Substrate
Electrode
n-GaAs (Substrate)
p-GaAs (Active layer)
Current
paths
n-Al
x
Ga
1-x
As (Confining layer)
1
2
3
Substrate
Active region where J > J
t h
.
(Emission region)
Cleaved reflecting surface Elliptical
laser
beam
Schematic illustration of the the structure of a double heterojunction stripe
contact laser diode
© 1999 S O Kasap Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Oxide insulation
Electrode
Oxide insulation
n-AlGaAs
p
+
-AlGaAs (Contacting layer)
p-AlGaAs (Confining layer)
n AlGaAs
n-GaAs (Substrate)
p-GaAs (Active layer)
n-AlGaAs (Confining layer)
n GaAs (Substrate)
Schematic illustration of the cross sectional structure of a buried
heterostructure laser diode. heterostructure laser diode.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Dielectric mirror
Fabry-Perot cavity
H i h
Length, L
Height, H
Width W
Diffraction
limited laser
beam
Th l i d fi i i d h l b The laser cavity definitions and the output laser beam
characteristics.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Relative optical power
P
o
= 5 mW
P
o
= 3 mW
778
780 782
P
o
= 1 mW
ì

(nm)
778
780 782
Output spectra of lasing emission from an index guided LD. p p g g
At sufficiently high diode currents corresponding to high
optical power, the operation becomes single mode. (Note:
Relative power scale applies to each spectrum individually and
not between spectra)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
10
P
o
(mW)
0 °C
5 °
50 °C
4
6
8
25 °C
0
2
4
I

(mA)
0
20
40 60
80

( )
Output optical power vs. diode current as three different temperatures. The
threshold current shifts to higher temperatures threshold current shifts to higher temperatures.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
ì
o
(nm)
Singlemode
782
784
786
788
Singlemode Multimode
(a)
(b) (c)
(nm)
Mode hopping
20 30
40 50
Case temperature (° C)
776
778
780
20 30 40 50
Case temperature (° C)
20 30 40 50
Case temperature (° C)
Peak wavelength vs. case temperature characteristics. (a) Mode hops in the output
spectrum of a single mode LD. (b) Restricted mode hops and none over the temperature
range of interest (20 - 40 °C). (c) Output spectrum from a multimode LD.
©1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) p, p ( )
n
P
n
t h
n
n
Threshold population
inversion
P
o
I
P
o
= Lasing output power · N
ph
I
I
t h
Simplified and idealized description of a semiconductor laser
diode based on rate equations. Injected electron concentration
n and coherent radiation output power P
o
vs. diode current I. p p
o
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Light power
Laser diode
LED
10 mW
5 mW
Current
0
Typical optical power output vs forward current
0
100 mA
50 mA
Typical optical power output vs. forward current
for a LED and a laser diode.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Distributed Bragg
reflector
A
A
q(ì
B
/2n) = A
Corrugated
dielectric structure
(a)
(b)
A
B
q(ì
B
/2n) A
Active layer
dielectric structure
( )
( )
(a) Distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) laser principle. (b) Partially reflected waves
at the corrugations can only constitute a reflected wave when the wavelength
satisfies the Bragg condition. Reflected waves A and B interfere constructive when satisfies the Bragg condition. Reflected waves A and B interfere constructive when
q(ì
B
/2n) = A.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Optical power
Ideal lasing emission
A
Active layer
Corrugated grating
Guiding layer
Op ca powe
0.1 nm
Ideal lasing emission
(a)
(a) Distributed feedback (DFB) laser structure. (b) Ideal lasing emission output. (c)
ì

(nm) ì
ì
B
(b)
(c)
Typical output spectrum from a DFB laser.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Active
layer
Cavity Modes
ì
In L
In D
y
L
D
(a)
ì
ì
In both
L and D
(b)
Cleaved-coupled-cavity (C
3
) laser
(b)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
E
c
d
E
E
3
E
Bulk
QW
E
² E
D
y
AlGaAs AlGaAs
y
z
d
E
1
E
2
n = 1
E
g2
E
g1
E
n = 2
² E
c
Bulk
QW
D
z
GaAs
x
E
v
g(E)
Density of states
Bulk
² E
v
(a)
(b)
(c)
A quantum well (QW) device. (a) Schematic illustration of a quantum well (QW) structure in which a
thin layer of GaAs is sandwiched between two wider bandgap semiconductors (AlGaAs). (b) The
conduction electrons in the GaAs layer are confined (by ² E
c
) in the x-direction to a small length d so
that their energy is quantized. (c) The density of states of a two-dimensional QW. The density of states
is constant at each quantized energy level is constant at each quantized energy level.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
E
c
E
E
1
hu = E
1
– E'
1
E
v
E'
1
In single quantum well (SQW) lasers electrons are In single quantum well (SQW) lasers electrons are
injected by the forward current into the thin GaAs
layer which serves as the active layer. Population
inversion between E
1
and E'
1
is reached even with a
small forward current which results in stimulated
emissions.
© 1999 S O Kasap Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Active layer
Barrier layer
E
c
E
E
v
A multiple quantum well (MQW) structure.
Electrons are injected by the forward current Electrons are injected by the forward current
into active layers which are quantum wells.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Contact
ì/4n
1
ì/4n
2
Dielectric mirror
Dielectric mirror
Active layer
Substrate
Surface emission
Contact
A simplified schematic illustration of a vertical cavity
surface emitting laser (VCSEL).
Surface emission
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Pump current
Active region
Signal in
Signal out
AR = Antireflection
coating
AR
Partial mirror Partial mirror
Simplified schematic illustrations of two types of laser amplifiers
(a) Traveling wave amplifier (a) Fabry-Perot amplifier
© 1999 S O Kasap Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Observer
Mirror
Laser
E
cat
(x,y)
E
ref
(x,y)
Hologram
Laser
beam
Through beam
Cat
Laser
beam
E
ref
(x,y)
Real cat imag
Vi t l t i
Photographic plate
Hologram
E
cat
(x,y)
Real cat imag
Virtual cat image
(b)
Photographic plate
(a)
A highly simplified illustration of holography. (a) A laser beam is made to interfere with
the diffracted beam from the subject to produce a hologram (b) Shining the laser beam the diffracted beam from the subject to produce a hologram. (b) Shining the laser beam
through the hologram generates a real and a virtual image.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
(1s
1
2s
1
)
20 6 V
He
Ne
Lasing emissions
(2p
5
5s
1
)
3 39 µm
20.6 eV
(1s
1
2s
1
)
(2p
5
4s
1
)
1523 nm
19.8 eV
632.8 nm
543.5 nm
(2p
5
4p
1
)
3.39 µm
Collisions
(2p
5
3p
1
)
1152 nm
1118 nm
Electron impact
(2p
5
3s
1
)
~600 nm
Fast spontaneous decay
(1s
2
)
0
(2p
6
)
Collisions with the walls
Ground states
Various lasing transitions in the He-Ne laser
© 1999 S O Kasap Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Energy
4p levels
4s
488 nm
514.5 nm
4s
72 nm
P i
Ar
+
ion
ground state
15.75 eV
Pumping
Ar atom
d
0
ground state
0
The Ar-ion laser energy diagram
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
p
+
n
+
p
E
g
n
E
Fn
e
÷
A
E
c
E
c
E
Fp
h
+
B
E
v
E
v
V
The energy band diagram of a degenerately doped p-n with with a sufficiently
large forward bias to just cause population inversion where A and B overlap.
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)