S If .^

March 2001

Published by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, 54 Wellesley Road, Post Box No. 5, Shivaji Nagar, Pune - 411 005. Printed at Ketan Printers, Pune - 411 005. Telephone No.: 91 (020) 553 5824 E-mail: ketanprinters2002@yahoo.com

The present evaluation study is the eighth in the series of evaluation study reports published by NABARD Pune, Regional Office. As a part of NABARDs efforts in getting a continuous feed back on the performance of various investments relating to agriculture and allied sectors, an evaluation study was conducted on post harvest centres (pre cooling etc.) for export of grapes in Maharashtra State.

NABARD, Pune Regional Office has been actively involved in making available credit for post harvest management of agri produce and had sanctioned 117 Hi-Tech schemes for agro processing including EOUs. Among them, 25 schemes involving 56 units were for setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units for extending shelf life of fruits with a refinance of Rs.1076 lakh. A total of 26 units were taken up for detailed study.

The present study revealed that thejjnits in Nasik district were exporting products by themselves where as the units in Sangli district were rented out. The capacity utiiiation of units was about 50% in Nasik district and less than 25% in Sangli district, in view of the low capacity utilisation, the study has brought out that pre - cooling unit of 2 MT/2.5 MT capacity and cold storage of 25/30 MT capacity alone need to be encouraged as against the higher capacity units financed by the banks.

It was observed that good support was made available for setting up of units by both GOI and GOM. However, the study points out that there is a need for better coordination among various organisations like NHB, APEDA, NCDC, MoFPI, etc., for promoting pre cooling / cold storage units.

I hope. PUNE R. R. NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT.All the schemes were completed in time and there was no time and cost over run for any of these units. There were no major problems in availability of material required for export of grapes or for operation and maintenance of these units. O. the findings of the study will be useful to banks and other implementing agencies. KRISHNAMURTHY Chief General Manager . The repayment performance of units engaged in direct exports was very good whereas in units rented out it was poor suggesting the need for a longer repayment period.

Prasad. Asst. Finalisation of Report Shri B. MUMBAI General Guidance and Supervision Sri.K. AGM Dr. Pune RO Analysis of Data and Drafting of Report Sri. B.S.Mahesh. Mgr. DGM NABARD.CREDIT LIST Overall Direction Department of Economic Analysis and Research NABARD HO.V.S.R. Pune RO III . NABARD.Prasad. B. Assistant General Manager Field Investigation Sri.V.Satyanarayana Chief General Manager.S. B. Shirsat.


14. 33. Ltd. Kadepur. Nasik District Cooperative Central Bank Ltd. Pune. Anand Grape Growers Coop. Maharashtra Grape Growers Society. Nasik. Ltd. Vasanthadada Grape Growers Coop. Soc. Ltd. SACO Fruits. Mahalaxmi Grape Growers Coop. ChamanGrapeGrowersCoop. Nimni. Holly Grapes. Sri Ram GGCS. Bank of Maharashtra. 24. Savalaj. 10. NCDC Unit. Bhilwadi. 18. Khanderaya Grape Growers Coop. 35. 21. Nasik Regional Office. Hutatma GGCS. Sampathrao Deshmukh Phalbhajya Vikri va Shitagriha Coop. 3 4. Soct. Mass Exports. 37. Mahankal. 9. Mouli International. Sangli.. 2. Ltd. Pune. 23. Soc. Soc. 11. Waiphale. Yelavi Grape Growers Coop Soc Ltd. Gardi. Soc. IV . Soc. Traimbakraj. Nasik. 12. Sangli. 32. 36. Bank of India. Susheel Grapes. 22. Ltd. Shiva Sakhi Grape Growers Coop. 29. Shri Nath Grape Growers Coop. 6. Soc. Nasik. Malode Agro Exports. Gardi. 31. 27. Soc. Sangli.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Assistance received from the following insttfettons in the conduct of the study is gratefully acknowledged 1. Anjani. 34. Panchwati. Akkar Exports. Krushirath Agro-Industry. Bank of Baroda. 7 8. Kundal Grape Growers Coop. Ltd. Nasik. Ltd. Ltd. BorasteAgro. Nasik. 5. Kundal. Nasik Sangli District Cooperative Central Bank Ltd. 17. 26. Ltd. 15. 25. Nasik Regional Office. Bhilwadi Grape Growers Coop. 16. Nasik Regional Office. 13.. Soct. VEFCO. Mahagrapes. Tasty Grapes. Shri Veerabhadra Grape Growers Coop.. Kundal. 28. Ltd. Ltd. 30. Soc. Kadava Farms. Leading Agro. 20. Soc.. 19.


1 (Cost of Export upto Mumbai) Annuxure II . I II III IV V VI VII Introduction Support Available for Pre cooling and Minimum Quality Standards for Export of Table Grapes Methodology of Study Description of the Study Area Cold Storage Projects and their Implementation Economics of Investment Paae No. i iii iv vi vii ix 1 6 12 17 22 24 38 46 50 VIII Repayment Performance IX Problems and Prospects of Pre Cooling Annexure I A (FRR for units Exporting) Annexure I B (FRR for units Rented Out) Annexure 7.Particulars Foreword Credit List Acknowledgments Abbreviations Basic Data Sheet Summary and Conclusions THE MAIN REPORT Chapter No.List of NABARD Publications 53 54 55 56 .


SBI SCARDB UK VEFCO WMDC VI . ha HT lATA LT Ltd MoFPl MSEB MT NABARD NCDC NE NGO NHB O&M PC PLR R&D Rs.ABBREVIATIONS APEDA BOB BOI BOM Coop CS DCCB Agricultural Produce Export Development Agency Bankof Baroda Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Cooperative Cold storage District Central Cooperative Bank District Industries Centre Export Oriented Units Government of India Government of Maharashtra Government Hectare High Tension International Air Ticketing Association Low Tension Limited Ministry of Food Processing Industries Maharashtra State Electricity Board Metric Ton National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development National Cooperative Development Corporation North East Non Governmental Organisation National Horticultural Board Operation and Maintenance Pre cooling Prime Lending Rate Research and Development Rupees State Bank of India State Co-op Agriculture & Rural Development Bank United Kingdom Vegetable and Fruit Cooperative Western Maharashtra Development Corporation Die EOU GOI GOM Govt.


Nasik e.1462. 6.5 units unit units units units 3.2 . Nasik d. Evaluation Study of Post Harvest Centres (Pre-cooling etc. b. Bank of Maharashtra. 4. Coverage of Study i) ii) iii) Activity Districts Banks Pre cooling and Cold Storage Units Nasiic and Sangli Districts a.1076. Bank of Baroda. 9. 5. of Units exporting in own name No.1 . 7. Pre Cooling Cold Storage 14 12 04 M l 30 M l Refinance SanctionedRefinance Disbursed Average Capacity of 8.Calendar year 1999 Field Study APRIL 2000 Rs. of containers exported by units exporting units rented out 8 7 VII . Nasik 26 UnitsSDCCB NDCCB BOB BOM BOI iv) Sample Units - -11 .7 .NasikDCCB c.) for Export of Grapes in Maharashtra State 2.849 lakh a. Average No.BASIC DATA SHEET 1.886 lakh Rs. Sangli DCCB b. Reference Year of Study. Bank of India. No. of Units rented out 10.

Percentage of Recovery . Units Rented out Above 50% ( . Price realised by exporters per kg 13.60/- VIII . Units Exporting b.31 %) 100% 17% Rs.11.0. . Financial Rate of Return a.NasikDist. 12.Sangli Dist.

There is an urgent need to stop these losses by improving the post harvest management. Bank of Baroda. Maharashtra tops the list in the production of fruits. Nasik (2) and Sangli DCCB (11). 4. 2. suitable and cost effective for storage of fruits and vegetables. Bank of Maharashtra. Among the states. IX . The present study covers 26 units (11 from Sangli and 15 from Nasik district) financed by Nasik DCCB (1). However. Bank of India. Nasik (7).1076 lakh. two each in Sangli and Nasik districts were visited for general understanding of pre cooling and cold storage units. MoFPI has extended good incentives for setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units for encouraging export of agricultural produce. There are many methods / technologies available for processing. Among them. NHB. However. Government of India.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1. 4 units not refinanced by NABARD. Of these. 3. There is also a need to process them as the availability of fruits is limited to certain months of the year. only. 5. through APEDA. NABARD has been extending refinance for agro processing and has sanctioned 117 Hi-Tech schemes for agro processing including EOUs. the conclusions were drawn based on NABARD refinanced units. 30 to 50 per cent of the produce disappears in transit due to Poor post harvest facilities. India is one of the world's largest producer of fruits and vegetables. Nasik (5). pre cooling / cold storage is most efficient. 25 schemes involving 56 units were for setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units with a refinance assistance of Rs. In addition.

The average installed capacity is 6 MT/6 Hr. Reference year of the study was calender year 1999. 11.10 lakh. The export of grapes starts from middle of February and ends by April and export proceeds are realised after 60-90 days from the day of shipping. 10. Even though food crops dominate in both the districts. 12.7% of net sown area in Sangli district. Of the total expenditure. Nasik falls under high rain fall zone while Sangli falls under moderate rainfall zone.6.25 lakh with an average cost of Rs. in both the districts Mahagrapes and Grape Growers Association have their offices and are extending all the support needed for the development and export of grapes. pre operative expenses. Secondly. grapes occupy about 1 % of the net sown area in Nasik district and 0.19. Both Nasik and Sangli fall in Western Maharashtra region. etc. About 64% and 77% of the total population consist of rural population respectively. 7. the machinery installed was also imported. 45. 9. payment of electricity deposit. electrification and generator set. The total cost of the pre cooling and cold storage units ranged from Rs.15 lakh to Rs. 60 per cent had been accounted for pre cooling and cold storage machinery including installation. The project cost of units in Sangli district is on higher side. . 13. in pre cooling in Sangli district while the same is less than 3 MT /6 Hrs in Nasik district.74. 30 per cent was for civil construction. Further. Both the districts have good net work of rail and road and are connected to major cities in India. This was mainly due to the installation of higher capaicty of pre cooling and cold storage units. The rest was for acquision of land. but also have large number of pre cooling and cold storage units. 8. Both the districts not only lead in the production of grapes.

The contribution ranged from 3. The loans were generally XI . No major problem in operation was reported by any unit. Among 26 units. 15. the supplier himself got the machinery installed. All the units were completed within 10-12 months. Some of the unrts financed by Sangli DCCB were sanctioned interim loan and the same was adjusted on release of subsidy. on an average contributed more margin (26. Normally.63 lakh soft loan at 4% interest rate repayable in five instalments with one year grace period. etc.4% in Vasanth Dada Patil GGCS financed by Sangli DCCB to 48. 19. extended Rs. 22. Six units got subsidy from more than one source. 18.13%).9. Units set up in private sector had. The interest rates varied from 15% to 18. 21. DIC.4% in Susheel Grapes financed by Bank of Baroda. 20. All the units under cooperative sector were sanctioned and disbursed subsidy except one unit (Veerabhadra CGCS. APEDA.81 %) than that of units set up in cooperative sector (6. GOM. Subsidy for the pre cooling and cold storage unit was made available by various organisation like WMDC. 16. The highest subsidy was released to Sampath Rao Deshmukh Phal Bhajya Vikri va Shitaguruha Cooperative Society Limited which was also the largest pre cooling cold storage unKs refinanced by NABARD. subsidy was sanctioned for 16 units but received subsidy in respect of 12 units. No delay was noticed in disbursement. The banks had allowed 5 to 7 years as repayment period with 1 to 2 years grace period. National Horticultural Board as a part of package. NHB. 17. Nasik. There was no time or cost over run. MOFPI.14. Sangli).5% to different units. NCDC.

Further. Banks in Nasik had extended working capital for one working cycle. 27. 30. 28. NCDC and GOM had also contributed 20% and 25% of the project cost as equity capital. traders never tried to optimise the capacities as his costs were not related to the optimisation of capacity utilisation.disbursed in two instalments. while the units in Nasik are exporting iri their name. 24. FRR has been worked out categorising the units separately for exporting and rented out. 23. The rate of interest varied between 16% and 17%. FRR for the former is above 50 per cent whereas negative for the later. As the units were rented out on quantity (per kg. All the exporting units on an average could realise the assumed gross XII . 25. Commission agents from foreign countries also made their presence in these areas and entered into agreements for import of grapes. The level of operation is 50% in Nasik district while the same is below 25 % in Sangli district. locally. The units financed by NCDC had a longer repayment period of 12-14 years with 1 -2 years grace period. However. all the material required for export including containers were available. All the units were completed and commissioned satisfactorily and there was no case of infractuous investments. oneforcivil works and otherfor installation of plant and machinery. 26. 29. The same was not made available to units operating in Sangli as all the units were rented out. There were no problems in harvesting of grapes or availability of grapes. All the units in Sangli district are rented out their units. none of the units are operating at optimum capacity level.) basis.

All the expenses for packing. The units that were exporting directly. 37. 33. 35. The electricity charges came to about Rs. While exporting units purchased grapes. directly from other grape growers.00 kg box. The rental income realised was Rs.on maintenance of plant and machinery each year. Of the price realised. New Mumbai. No sample unit was observed to have made sales in domestic market utilising pre cooling cold storage facilities.4/. the promotors sold export quality grapes to traders. could not generate sufficient income to repay loan instalments. In addition. 35% was spent on various charges including transportation charges upto JNPT. on an average. 35. The units were working. had exported on average 9 containers and the same for units rented out came to about 7 containers. transport etc. There was an expenditure of about Rs. These units. The units set up in private sector were exporting and could generate enough surplus for repayment of loans.60/. in addition to their own.price of UK 7. 34. 32. Promotors of all the units are grape growers . XIII .000/.00 lakh per annum. for 75 days.50 / 5.was spent on dieselfor generator.per kg. an amount of Rs. The price realised was about 50% more than domestic market price of comparable quality and this is the additional income that had generated from exports. In the case of rented units. All the units financed in Sangli were rented out.75 pounds for a 4. 31. The exports to Europe were highly profitable and at the same time risky venture. were born by traders. 36. The net price realised works out to about Rs.1.a kilo for pre cooling and cold storage.15000/.

Further. sanitation. general hygiene. Further. 40. XIV .75 to 5. 42. of late. Even in the case of units rented out to members got better prices than domestic market. There were many constraints in export of grapes mainly being non availability of standard quality grapes required for export purpose. The repayment performance of units financed by Sangli DCCB was poor with 16. The net price realised. there is need for longer repayment period in view of low income generation.60/. The yield of export quality grapes are 25-28 ton/ha in Nasik and 45-50 ton/ha in Sangli.38. The average expenditure annually other miscellaneous utilities were about Rs. which other wise they would not have got in absence of pre cooling and cold storage facilities. becoming increasingly susceptible to leaf roll virus thereby severely affecting quality of grapes.8% while it was more than 100% in case of Bank of India.50 / 5. Overall recovery in case of Nasik district is more than 100 per cent. Thus the rate of grape works out to one Pound per kg .6000/. popularvarietiesare. There is a need to properly educate farmers to part with some of the benefits and utilise the same towards repayment of loans instalments.on apparels for labour in the pack house. 43.was spent on Telephone and Rs. The average net price realised constituted about 65% of FOB price. etc. While for rented units.15000/annum on items like gas. Nasik indicating advance payment by some of the borrowers. The percentage of standard quality grapes forms about 5% of the total production. 39. 41. was UK pound 4.50 per a box of 4.a kilo. The exchange rate of per Pound was Rs.00 kg.5000/. The repayment period of 5-7 years allowed by banks was reasonable for the units directly exporting. an amount of Rs.

incidence of large number of diseases and heavy application of pesticide leads to pesticide residues above maximum permissible limit. 45. Again grape producing regions are nearer to seaports and reasonably good infrastructure is available there. availability ECGC cover and packaging credit from banks. Further. Besides. the time of harvesting grapes can be adjusted by adjusting the fruit pruning. There is also scope to stagger the fruit pruning in 90% of the grape cultivated area. Grapes can be harvested in India by virtue of double pruning at such a time when no grapes are available in the world market. This create problems for export of grapes. But in order to adjust pruning. There is also availability of experienced man power for various activities starting from production of grapes to packaging of grapes for export and other support services needed for export of grapes. foreign trading agents are present for taking up export of grapes on a regular basis. as this area falls in the tropical region of India. In addition. 47. Further.44. 48. There is inadequate infrastructure at production sites. Inspite of all the difficulties. There are wide fluctuations in international competition from Chile. prices and severe XV . 46. most of the grape growers are aware of the export opportunities and procedures. Further. we have certain added advantages in production and export of grapes. there are other encouraging aspects like incentives in the form of subsidy. extension agencies have to educate farmers for which a lot of effort is needed. good government support for establishing pre cooling and cold storage for export of fruits and vegetables. Technology for production of export quality grapes is available in India.

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ XVI .ACTIONS FOR FUTURE ^ Pre cooling unit of only 2 MT/ 2. // units are setup for renting out. Besides. Inspite of reaping benefits. There is also need for better coordination among different agencies in disbursement of subsidy and the same should be released only in the name of the financing bank wherever bank loans are involved. if need be. The farmers of the rented units could also realise better prices due to the presence of the pre cooling and cold storage units in the vicinity. There is no need for making a provision for conveyor belt system in the pack house. Installation of indigenous plant and machinery need to be encouraged as it is as efficient as imported.5 MT capacity and cold storage 25 / 30 MT capacity alone need to be encouraged as the capacity is adequate and reasonable for the present level of exports. there is a need for higher repayment period and minimum export should be 17 containers to sustain the investment. initially. the cost of indigenous plant and machinery is also lesser than that of imported one. Based on the performance. Setting up higher level of Pre Cooling + Cold Storage leads to higher overheads and lower capacity utilisation. the same can be sanctioned at a later date.

the repayment is lacking only because the members have not passed on the extra benefits realised by them to the bankers. Wherever, such benefit is passed onto the bankers, the recovery is good. Hence, there is a need to properly educate farmers to part some of the benefits realised to banks towards repayment of loans. ^ The export of grapes can be augmented by streamlining the exports through strengthening market intelligence. Further, a new financing scheme should be designed to help exporters to tide over in bad times. Special care has to be taken before development of vine yards for export. There is also need for exploring new markets. To achieve all these intended objectives, there is a need for proper planning, extensive market surveys, strengthening extension education to farmers etc. This will go a long way in promoting grape exports and thereby augmenting income from pre cooling and cold storage units.

^ ^ ^


CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1.01. India is predominantly agriculture based economy blessed with diverse agro-climatic conditions which are conducive to the cultivation of different crops and almost round the year. Given the arable land and varied agro-climatic conditions, India is already one of the worlds largest producer of variety of food grains, vegetables and fruits. According to CM - Mc Kinsey Report; food production is expected to treble to Rs. 2,34,000 crore by the year 2005. India has emerged as the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world with an annual production of 41 million ton of fruits and 73 million ton of vegetables contributing nearly 10% and 13% respectively of the world productbn. During the next 10 years the output of horticultural produce is expected to be increased to 265.5 million ton. 1.02 The production given above will make agro-business larger than the entire Indian manufacturing sector put together. But much of this potential is likely to remain in the realm of statistics if production is not supported by proper post harvest management. Today 35-50 per cent of production disappears in transit till it reaches to the consumer. Therefore, any increase in production of the food is negated by spoilage in storage and transportation. The loss is more pronounced in the case of fruits and vegetables as these contain high level of moisture (between 75%-95%). 1.03. The immediate requirement, therefore, would be not only to stop these losses, but also value addition through processing. Agro processing, helps to reduce the losses, thereby increasing the availability of both fruits and vegetables for domestic consumption and also for export. 1.04. Fruit and vegetable processing involves transformation of raw materials through physical or chemical alternation, storage, packing and distribution. The purpose of processing is to make the raw material portable, palatable and preservable and are known as 3 Ps of processing. 1.05. The necessity for processing of fruits and vegetables arises due to the following features. 1

• • •

Contain high level of moisture (over 75%), thus prone to micro biological spoilage and natural enzymatic degradation. Availability is restricted to limited months of the year. Creates employment opportunities in rurai/semi-urban areas.

1.06. There are many technologies available for processing. Some of them currently in vogue are: L Classical methods of preservation: This is an age old practice followed in India. It is done by addition of salt or sugar to create high osmotic pressure in the cells of fruits and vegetables and thereby prevent micro biological spoilage. Pickles and jams are prepared by using this process. Preservation by low temperature: The well established principleof processing is that low temperature nearthe freezing point of water is effective in reducing the rate of respiration and minimize spoilage. The storage has to maintain required temperature and relative humidity for effective storage life. Before placing the commodity in the cold storage, field heat is to be removed for effective storage life. It generally consists of 3 methods.: Cold storage The temperature of the commodity can be brought down by taking out the heat by means of mechanical refrigeration without any chilling injury. Generally, ammonia is used as refrigerant. Refrigerated gas storage The process involves storage under low oxygen, high carbondioxide or both. c} Preservation by freezing This process involves passing of commodities through a zone of ultra low temperature (-15° C to -17° C). By freezing, products remain/retain their original flavour, shape, texture and nutrients. But this involves high cost. This freezing can be done by • • • • Air blast freezing Plate freezing Individual quick freezing Cryogenic freezing




vL 1. y. However. NABARD. In India. Canning Canning is a process of sealing of foodstuff in containers and processing them by heat. Of these 117 projects.F jii. less than 1 % of this is utilised for agro processing. recognising the need for extending finance to this sector. Radiation preservation Use of X-rays for preservation of fruits. It may be seen from the above that. Agro-processing involves substantial cost and as such involvement of financial agencies is necessary to supplement the resources of entrepreneurs. This activity could reduce losses and help in export of fruits and vegetables. as this process retains most of the original qualities and the process is easy to operate and thereby is popular than all other methods. Raisins are made of this process.09. 25 units were sanctioned for pre-cooling and cold storage units and 12 were 100% EOUs (8 for production and 4 for processing . micro organisms for enhanced shelf life. 1. actively involved in extending refinance facilities. So far National Bank.08. vegetables. It is also known as cold sterilisation.37 lakhs metric ton. Drying / Dehydration By using sunlight or artificially produced heat. as in the case of rest of India. of the above methods. preservation by low temperature is more suitable for extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. But the process of preservation by irradiation may lead to long-term problems and loss of nutrients to certain extent.07. Pune Regional Office had sanctioned 117 Hitech schemes both for production and processing of agriculture and allied projects including Export Oriented Units (EOUs). 1. Maharashtra ranks on top in the production of fruits which are to the tune of 53. Chemical preservation Chemicals like Sodium Potassium metasulphate/ inorganic and organic (Benzoic Acid) can be used for retarding of inhibiting iv.

10. Therefore. The export of Indian perishable agro-products include grapes. it was decided to conduct an ex-post evaluation study on pre-cooling and cold storage units in Maharashtra State. No.1: TABLE-1.^ of agriculture and allied products). The sector-wise details of ail Hitech & EOU schemes sanctioned by NABARD.1 Hi-tech Schemes sanctioned by NABARD. ECUS sanctioned 18 4 4 25 19 3 9 6 9 11 13 117 7 1 12 It could be seen from the above. No. flowers. no study was conducted on the functioning of these units so far. etc. Since beginning. mangoes. Though NABARD had been refinancing these units in a liberal way.11. The Government of India had also given top priority to set up pre cooling and cold storage units. . that highest number of schemes sanctioned by NABARD were for setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units. The share of Indian agricultural and allied products in dollar terms is about 17% of the 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Activity Poultry Agro-processing Pre-cooling / cold storage Floriculture Vermiculture Mushroom cultivation Straw berry Composite horticulture Tissue culture Seed processing Total 1. live-plants. Pune Regional Office are given intablel. But the export of perishables has gained momentum only after opening up of the economy in early nineties. of schemes Of which. PUNE RO SI. India was primarily a source of raw material supplier to the Industrial nations in Europe.

51) 1038. (a cooperative organisation of grape growers/exporters).56 (17.76) 3803.17) 5904. Table 1. 1.2.64) 1653.78 (11.00) 1998-99 3952. which had set up precooling and cold storage facilities in collaboration with NCDC. The details of exports from India are given in table 1.36 (6.total Indian exports.06 (4.28 (12. The pre-cooling and cold storage units referred above are also established as a part of the liberalisation of Indian economy and most of the units were sanctioned between 1993-94 and 1996-97 and started export of grapes.69 (6.00) Figures in brackets indicate relative share to total.34) 4444. The export of grapes is on the increase ever since these units have come into existence. Mahagrapes also make available other infrastructure required for grower exporters of grapes. goods Cotton yarn and fabrics Ready made garments Germs & jewellery TOTAL 4326. &.24 (4.97) 3876. .24) 35006 (100.29 (17.55) 2773.22) 1650.56) 4435.05 (24.42 (18.25 (16.62) 3264.51 (15.13) 33659 (100. goods Eng.40) 5345.12.18 (15.94 (3.26 (4.52 (21.2 Indian Exports commodity-wise (in million US dollars) 1997-98 Agri.80) 1061. But the share of grapes is very negligible as most of the fruit season lasts for 30-40 days only.19) 1207.24) 890. allied Marine Ores and minerals Mfg. The inspiration for export of grapes was because of the efforts done by 'Mahagrapes'.


NCDC. Generally the Government and its policies play a crucial role in development of any sector. soft loans. tax legislation.00 lakh. This covers cost of training as also for creation of infrastructure facilities. provision of subsidy. upto Rs. Public sector or @33. etc. For the second component. 2. An implementing agency can avail loan or grant only and not both under MoFPI scheme. MoFPI. It has also a scheme for development of manpower requirements of food processing industries.02.2. to undertake R&D projects relating to development of post harvest management techniques. GOI also extends assistance for dissemination of low cost preservation technology on grant basis upto Rs.03 In addition to the above components. 2.01. Government of India.04. Further.50. MoFPI. . APEDA. Industrial Estates/Food Parks and for preservation and processing of fish either by way of loan or grant which would be upto 50% of the cost of capital equipment subject to a maximum of Rs. an attempt has been made in this chapter to analyse the various facilities/support that was made available by Government of India and Government of Maharashtra either directly or through their sponsored agencies like NHB. Government of India 2. Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) has three component plan for setting up of post harvest infrastructure facilities for food processing. etc. 5 lakh. 2.00 lakh to Rs. This could be by way of infrastructure creation. GOI extends the grant @ 100% of the project cost to Non-profit organisations / Universities / NGOs. Hence. It ranges from Rs.CHAPTER-II SUPPORT AVAILABLE FOR PRE COOLING AND COLD STORAGE UNITS 2.400 lakh would be given as a grant.33% of the project cost to the Private sector. MSEB.05.50-150 lakh as loan for first and third components.25 lakh as grant or Rs.

00 lakh. refrigerated van. conduct of market surveys (Rs.06. Green Houses and Poly Houses are exempted from payment of property taxes.3 lakh). . an export promotion body for agricultural products under Ministry of Commerce is implementing a number of schemes.1. 2. 2.10 lakh-Rs. Government of Maharashtra 2. Similarly.07. APEDA 2.50 per unit of consumption of electricity for both LT and HT pre cooling and cold storage units. etc.. industrialists.10 lakh).09. 2. Further. The brief details of APEDA Schemes are given in Table 2. Agricultural Produce and Exports Development Agency (APEDA). etc. NGOs or to the Public Sector.08. Extends 25% of the Air freight as subsidy to promote export of fruits and vegetables. Government of Maharashtra reserves certain plots in industrial estates for setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units and also extend sales tax concessions to these units. 2. to farmers. cooperative institutions. Maharashtra State Electricity Board charges uniform rate of Rs.13. participation in international exhibitions. food processing industries need to renew their licenses once in 5 years as against 2 years currently. However this is limited to Rs.2. promoting studies.30.11. for promoting exports to new markets orto test marketing of new products. 2. exporters. Under this scheme the following incentives/facilities are offered.00 lakh is provided.2. subsidy upto Rs. cold storage. GOM through Maharashtra Agro-Industries Development Corporation is implementing a scheme for establishing cold storage chain for fruits and vegetables.1. strengthening of backward linkages (Rs.10.12. Specific grant based schemes are for marketing of assistance (Rs.25 lakh). Government of Maharashtra provides 25% of the capital cost of pre cooling.

Table-2. f) Setting up of sheds for storing.25 lakh 2.2 lakh per individual 2 25% 50% 10 lakh per beneficiary 5 lakh per beneficiary 50% 50% 50 lakh per beneficiary 50 lakh per beneficiary . electronic beam processing. Rs. trade associations. APEDA Schemes for Export Promotion SI. consultancy and data upgradation Infrastructure Development a) Purchase of refer vans b) Setting up of the cooling unit c) Setting up of machine handling facilities.25//kg for Europe. public institutions for setting up laboratories for improving .Asia. Rs. Air freight / cost of sample or both 1 ) Cost of packaging material m) Air freight subsidy on export 30% 25% of lATA freight rates or 1/3 of the FOB value 25% 50% 50% 50% 2.10 lakh in case of public Sector / State / Semi Govt.14 APEDA also extends support to exporters.) 50% Rs. North America and Far East. total assistance for items under 2 from 'a' to 'g' shall not exceed Rs. e) Providing facilities for pre shipment treatment. or irradiation treatment k) Supply of product samples for test marketing.10/-per kg. However. 1 Activity Feasibility studies. SE Asia and CIS countries. d) Purchase of packaging material for domestic transport of the produce.5 lakh per beneficiary 10 lakh per beneficiary 10 lakh per beneficiary 5 lakh per beneficiary Subsidy as Ceiling % of cost (Rs. producers. No. for N. surveys.1.50 lakh per beneficiary 1 lakh per beneficiary Rs. grading and cleaning operations g) Setting up of cold storage i) Setting up of vapour heat.

promoters have to apply . subsidy would be given @ Rs.50 lakh. NHB 2.5% and quantum of refinance would be 90% of the amount financed to borrower (95% for SCARDBs (State Land Development Banks) andforNE States and Sikkim). For modernisation and expansion of cold storage. -> -> •^ The scheme would be operational upto March 2002. For NE states the same would be 33 1/3% and Rs. NHB would provide loans/subsidy directly. -> -> -> The subsidy would be released to bank/ financial institution as per the guidelines issued to NABARD by NHB. Further. APEDA reimburses the cost ot pesticide residue testing of exports. National Horticultural Board (NHB) has various schemes for development of production and post-harvest management of commercial horticulture.60 lakhs respectively.1000/ton.quality and certification. 50% is term loan by banks at PLR + 1 % through NABARD refinance. For other storage.15. Whereverterm loans are not raised from institutions. Credit linked capital subsidy @25% of project cost subject to a maximum of Rs. The subsidy would flow from NHB and operated by NABARD through commercial and cooperative banks and by NCDC where cooperatives institutions seek loan from NCDC. Recently NHB has launched Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme for construction/expansion and modernisation of cold storage and storage for horticultural produce with following pattern: -> -> -^ •^ -> -^ Promoters should bring 25% of the project cost. In case if no bank loan is involved. Subsidy would be made available through NABARD and is available to units only after commissioning. subsidy would be at a rate of interest of 8.

etc. It also conducts technoeconomic feasibility studies to review the present status of horticultural development in particular area of the state so as to identify constraints and suggest remedial measures.21 . arranging study tours. Assistance to cooperative societies would be released on guarantee of the respective State Governments. Further. The repayment schedule would have to be drawn by banks in such a way that the subsidy amount is adjusted after the bank loan (net of subsidy) is liquidated. 2. NCDC 2.17. There shall be no moratorium on payment of interest. NHB further extends soft loan @ 4% for setting up post-harvest management systems. 10 .18. there is no moratorium on interest payments. The sanctioned assistance shall be released to the State Government/ Bank in the form of reimbursement finance. providing expert services from India and abroad. 2. by generating market information reports. NHB extends assistance for Technology Development and Transfer which includes introduction of new technologies. exporters.20. 2. The loan shall be repayable in 9 years not exceeding 5 years for repayment of principal. The State Government/ Bank should first disburse and then seek reimbursement from NCDC. -> The subsidy under capital investment subsidy scheme would be back ended. dealers. etc. NCDC gives 50% as term loan and remaining 50% as equity to the beneficiary cooperative society. 2. 2. NCDC provides loan assistance for longer period for 9-10 years with a moratorium upto 4 years. NHB also extends assistance to farmers. However. conduct of seminars.directly to NHB for subsidy.19 National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) has a special schemes for cooperative societies for setting up post harvest infrastructure for horticultural crops in an area of operation where sufficient produce for full utilisation is available..16.

23. is applicable to NCDC financed projects also. 11 . Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme of NHB. NCDC has also a scheme for extending short/medium-term loan to Apex Cooperative Societies engaged in marketing. Promoters have to apply directly to NCDC and subsidy is released by NCDC directly to the promoters.22.2. processing and export of agricultural produce for meeting their working capital requirements. 2.

CHAPTER-MI MINIMUM QUALITY STANDARDS FOR EXPORT OF TABLE GRAPES 3. allowing for the distinct in which they are grown and have no defects. the bunches must be typical of variety. K. Berries must be firmly attached. Germany. Export to European Nations is limited as Europe is highly quality conscious. In shape development and colouring.03. In shape.000 ton.33 per cent of the total production. Singapore. Even for other countries. quality is important.. India produces approximately nine lakh ton of fresh grapes. In order to understand the quality requirements of importers or quality of export grapes. Among the export.01 . 3. etc. have their bloom 12 . n. Class-! The grapes in this class must be of good quality. while eight per cent is to that of European countries and rest goes to South East Asian and other countries. but export from these grapes is little over 12. development and colouring. Hong Kong. which is around 1. U. an attempt has been made in this chapter to analyse the minimum standards required for export of table grapes. the bunches must be typical of the variety allowing for the distinct in which they are grown. Netherlands.02. evenly spaced along the stalk and have their bloom virtually intact. Middle East. The table grapes can classified into four classes which are defined below: L Extra class The table grapes in this class must be of superior quality. Berries must be firmly attached and as far as possible. Indian grapes are exported mainly to Gulf Nations. 90 per cent is for Gulf and Middle East Nations. Classification 3.

allowing for the distinct in which they are grown. however.04. only Extra class and Class-I are accepted by exporters subject to other qualities which are detailed below. bunches in which the grapes are abnormally far apart on the stalk. Class-Ill This class includes table grapes which do not qualify for inclusion in a higher class but satisfy the minimum requirements of ClassII. the following defects are allowed. They may. The bunches may include some abnormally developed berries. may be allowed provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce and the keeping quality of the package. shall fall in this class.1 . however. These bunches. However. • • Slight defects of shape Slight defects in colouring Very slight sun scorch affecting the skin only ML Cjass-il This class includes table grapes which do not qualify for inclusion in a higher class but satisfy the minimum requirements laid down above. 13 . The bunches may show slight defects in shape. still have their bloom. Of the above four classes. and thick bunches in which grapes are too close together. 3.intact. development and colouring provided these do not impair essential characters of the variety. be less evenly spaced along the stalk than in the Extra Class. They may be less evenly spaced along the stalk than in Class . The following slight defects. • • • • defects of shape defects in colouring slight sun scorch affecting the skin only slight bruising jy. i.e. The berries must be sufficiently firm and sufficiently attached and where possible.

Table 3.06. 10% by weight if bunches not satisfying the size requirement for that class. The quality tolerance can be 5% by weight of bunches not satisfying the requirements for the class. well formed. Size Tolerances 3.05. Sizing is determined by the weight of bunches and the following are the minimum weight requirement per bunch.3. I and II classes.1 Class Extra 1 1 1 III House varieties 300 250 150 75 Open field varieties Large Berry Small Berry 200 150 100 75 150 100 75 75 Provisions concerning tolerances Quality tolerances 3. free from all visible traces of mould. but meeting those for the class immediately below and for classes I & II. produce effected by rotting should be excluded. 14 . but meeting the size requirement for that class immediately below respectively for Extra. free from foreign smell or taste. The same is 15% by weight of bunches weighing less than 75 grams. bunches and berries must be * * « * * * * sound. intact. free from abnormal external moisture. practically free of any visible foreign matter free from damage by pests or diseases. 3. normal developed. clean. 10% by weight of bunches not satisfying the requirements of that class but meeting those for the class immediately below respectively.08. The same is 15% for Class-Ill.07. In all the classes also subject to special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed.

Post-harvest Management for export 3. Rest areas for workers should be away from pack house. The boxes are closed and then shifted to cold storage rooms where the temperature and humidity are maintained at 0 °C with "^0. the dual releasing sulphur dioxide (Grape Guard) is to be placed with their coated surfaces downwards on the filled plastic pouches and are to be covered with the plastic sheet lining. The temperature of harvest grapes has to be brought down to less than 4 °C within six hours of harvest. Pack house to be solid construction. not allowing access to rodents or bisels. Hot air dryers or disposal paper towels should be used for hand drying.5 °C variation and 94% with *2% variation respectively.10. Insectocuters to be installed in the pack house.11. Windows to be fly-proofed with mesh screens. prompt removal of field heat of harvested grapes is the best way of retaining the freshness of grapes for longer time. The arrangement of boxes in the cold storage to ensure uniform cooling of all berries in a box and all the boxes is very important. Once pre-cooling is done. Staff should maintain cleanliness and hand washing must be adopted.* * must display satisfactory ripeness must withstand transport and handling.09. storage and packing 3. * * * Protective clothing must be worn in the pack house. Pre-cooling is aimed at reducing the field heat. Head gear/ caps must cover the hair. These should be fitted with catch freeze to prevent insects falling into packed product. Frequent and efficient disposal of waste should be done. Pack House * * Pack house must be clean. 3. Product cooling. The carton size should be: 15 .

A minimum of 9 bags in a 4. 3. Bag weight should be between 400 and 700 grams with no more than 2 bunches per bag.25 Kg.4. Net weight .00 kg.25 kg. clearly marked for easy identification. / 5. Boxes should be palletised on a 48" x 40" pallet with paper board corner posts and steel strapping.8. for European super markets and net weight of 2 kg / box for Dubai markets. The minimum berry size should be 18 mm and Brix is 18%. carton should be used.50 kg. Different growers produce should be palletised separately.50 Kg. Liner bags should be of good quality clear polythene and large enough to cover the grapes and grape guard with a good overlap. carton and 16 in an 8.12. 16 .i) 400 mm X 300 mm x 125 mm ii) 600 mm x 300 mm x125 mm Net weight . Pouch bags to be used from food grade low density poly ethylene.


01. National Banl< had sanctioned 25 schemes involving 56 pre cooling and cold storage units spreading across the different regions of Maharashtra State. Of the four districts also. it was felt necessary to conduct an evaluation study on the subject matter in Maharashtra State so as to firm up our policy and to understand forward and backward linkages. Objectives 4. chain linkages.03 The distribution of sanctioned units spread to 6 districts across different regions of the state which can be seen from table 4. and • to study the repayment performance Sampling Design 4. • to estimate the benefits accruing from the investments to entrepreneurs and utilisers/ hirers. the schemes sanctioned in Amaravathi and Ahmednagar districts have not claimed any refinance thereby leaving only four districts. • to understand and asses the production.CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY OF STUDY 4. the amount of loan sanctioned & adequacy of the loan amount provided by banks .1. • to examine the adherence to technical specifications and to identify the reasons for divergence. 15 schemes involving 40 units 17 . In view of the disbursement of sizable amount and emphasis to be given in future. • to understand the operational problems faced by the entrepreneurs / owners of cold storage units. if any .02 The broad objectives of the study are : • to assess the actual cost of investment. of India has launched a new scheme to promote/expand this activity. Govt. institutional linkages and other forward and backward linkages . But on a careful examination.

08.12.202 40.770 39.166 15.94 27.94 27. sanctioned each Rs.700 300.91 100.896 40.619 6.505 16.000 0. involving 11 units were sanctioned in Sangli district.250 45.739 09.93 28.781 238.95 18.95 28.06.011 91.860 0.575 272.500 13. Rs.35 95.860 6.266 706.00 82.4.500 35.700 23.126 62.411 41.860 14.83 32.94 18. The remaining three schemes involving three units were in Latur (2) and in Pune (1) districts.08.03.740 284.333 10.741 10.218 88. of Date Total Refinance Refinance units No.94 09.700 15.227 120.901 613.000 42.534 49.800 18.234 77.723 15.27 79.502 12.396 342.764 21.965 99.060 24. of of Financial sanctioned Disbursed in schemes sanction outlay Rs.96 06.901 6.000 141.96 18.640 48.454 28. four schemes.03. Table . scheme BoM(4) 5 1 7 6 Total Bol (4) 19 1 1 1 •10 Total DCCB 13 1 1 1 Total BoB (2) Total UB{1) Total UCOBK(I) Total Can.179 11.02.078 43.450 583.4.000 24.01.981 10.166 754.333 11.674 31.573 27.000 17.48 87.1.00 (Rs lakhs) %of Achieve -ment Nasik 18 .830 267.741 13.01.010 548.02. Hence it was decided to take up Nasik and Sangli districts for detailed study.were sanctioned in Nasik district.98 09.03.500 10.96 15.96 77.1 Details of Schemes Sanctioned in Maharashtra State District Banl<& No. The details of schemes sanctioned are given at Table .040 15.500 10.807 26. (16) 3 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 40 1544.000 99.500 6.000 34.619 81.500 23.104 256.500 6.038 18.011 40.34 96.000 11.95 15.95 22.218 96.Bk (1) Total Total Nas ikDIst.94 31.

440 39.000 28.000 663.045 913.42 84.000 0.500 43.481 31.000 12.850 398. 15 units were selected and all the 11 units were selected from Sangli district for detailed study. Rs.480 33.045 59.00 0.94 25. ^'vathi Dist (1) Total for the State (25) 2727. (i.600 21.179 913.96 2 2 1 21.600 12.01.(Rslakhs^ District No.00 0.500 92. Bank of India (13 units).976 53.000 429. three units financed by NCDC / Mahagrape and one unit of VEFCO were 19 .367 34.000 36.849 0.000 0.03.217 398.42 66.304 79.000 0.11.93 19.600 21.000 12.227 12.000 77. all the units were implemented by Sangli District Central Cooperative Bank.00 73.727 29.980 92.280 36.000 1076.000 36.06.916 36.000 282. Total for A Amara.96 77.524 81. scheme DCCB (4) 8 1 1 1 Total Total Sangli DIst.60 28. of Bank& Date Total Refinance Refinance %of units No. The major banks were Bank of Maharashtra (19 units).305 97.M) A' Nagar DCCB (1) Total 'Nagar Dist.03.60 84.BoM (1) vathi Totel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 56 17.886 'Jointly with 4 schemes of Pune District 4.044 1462.1 that the cold storage units in Nasik district were implemented by Nasik District Central Cooperative Bank and Commercial banks while in Sangli district.916 28.95 22. of of Financial sanctioned Disbursed Achieve -ment in schemes sanction outlay Rs.000 21.305 29.560 41. In addition to these 26 units.95 632. NDCCB (3 unrts).000 0.727 43.305 0.980 77.00 0.03.000 0.217 24.04 It can be seen from the table 4.00 0. (4) Latur BoM (2) 11 11 1 1 ToUl Total for Latur Dist(2) Pune BoM (1) 1 Total for F 'une Dist .000 663.416 12.10 66.747 63.481 602.10 Sangli Total for.03.03.202 602.500 36.038 120.96 22.000 663.280 29. Out of the 40 units financed in Nasik district.82 97.556 55. sanctioned each Rs.07. Bank of Baroda (2 units) in Nasik district and SDCCB (11 units) in Sangli district.280 08.97 05.95 18.

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of the Bank Total No. Information on facilities made available by various organisations is collected from secondary sources and updated wherever necessary. importers representatives. The distribution of sample units among different banks is presented in table 4. The information was obtained from the banks and also from the unit members.05 The required data for the study was collected through a well designed questionnaire. Detailed discussions were held with bankers. Nasik and at Pune also. officers of Mahagrapes and Grape Exporters Cooperative Society at Sangli. Reference year 4. exporters.06 The reference year of the study is the calendar year 1999 and all the costs and benefits have been valued at the year 1999 prices. Table 4. However.2 Bank wise distribution of sample units SI.2.also visited and discussions were held with concerned people in order to have better understanding of the functioning of pre-cooling and cold storage units. entire analysis is restricted to NABARD refinanced schemes only. of units NDCCB SDCCB BOM BOI BOB Other units Total Units * 2 units have not yet taken off 4. All the *3 11 14 19 13 2 26 — 30 4 Sample units 1 11 12 7 5 2 20 .

21 ..07 Primary data in respect of production. By and large. quantity exported. price realised. 4. expenditure incurred.90 days. However. Financial viability of the investments was worked out using Financial Rate of Return.pre-cooling and cold storage units work for about 45 to 60 days in between 15 February and 15 April every year and hence calendar year is considered as reference year as export amount would be coming only after 60. etc. was collected from selected units by direct interview method and all other related information was collected from banks. the conclusions drawn in this report are based on the data collected from the pre cooling and cold storage units supported by NABARD. all other relevant information was incorporated wherever necessary.


75.16° East longitude at North-West corner while Sangli district is located between 16. Geographically. 5. 5. the literacy rates were around 62%.09 lakh with 77% rural population.West monsoon).73 lakh ha forming 78% of 22 .04 Godavari and Krishna are major rivers flowing in Nasik and Sangli districts respectively. In Sangli district the annual average rainfall was 625 mm with 90% of it is received from June to September (South-West monsoon).10° North latitude and between 73. Nasik district is larger in size (15633 sq. The density of population was more in Sangli district (259 per sq.km) as compared to Sangli district (8610sq.46°-17. Nasik district is divided into 15 blocks and Sangli district is divided into 8 blocks. 5. The study area covers Nasik and Sangli districts. both falling in the Western Maharashtra region. In both the districts. The annual average rain fall of Nasik district was 2600 mm with 90% of it is received from June to September (South .km). For administrative convenience. The relative humidity is between 43%-62%.51 lakh with 64% rural population. physiographic and economic features of the selected districts are discussed in this chapter.16° .40° East longitude at southern side of the district.km) than that of Nasik district (246 per sq.01.02 Nasik district is located between 18. Various demographic.73 lakh ha forming 51 % of the total geographical area while in the Sangli district the same was 6.05 The pattern of land use indicated that the net sown area of Nasik district was 8.03 The population of Nasik district as per 1991 census was 38.5° C and minimum temperature in winter is about 5° C.33°.CHAPTER-V DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 5.53° North latitude and between 73.km).22.42° .75. Both the districts are traditionally grape growing areas. 5. The maximum temperature in summer months is 42. while Sangli district had a population of 22. The maximum temperature in summer months is 47° C and minimum temperature is about 7° C in winter months. The relative humidity varies between 40%-65%.

Further. Agricultural Research Centre for Grapes (ARC-Grapes) of Indian Council of Agricultural Research is also located at Rune.07 Both Nasik and Sangli districts are covered by good network of road and rail connecting with majortowns in India like Mumbai. Bangalore. an organisation working for development of grapes and export of grapes. The area under double copping is 16% and 11 % respectively for Nasik and Sangli districts.the geographical area. Tasgoan is the biggest dry grape market in India. Tasgoan. Rune. 5.08. apart from fresh grapes.10. 'Mahagrapes'. 5. Mahagrapes and Maharashtra Grape Growers Association have been utilising the expertise of ARC Grapes. is also famous for marketing of dry grapes. 5. New Delhi.600 crores in Nasik district and Rs. which is almost at equidistant both from Nasik and Sangli districts also extend technical assistance as and when required by farmers. Tasgoan. 5. Maharashtra.7% area in Sangli district with grapes as a dominant crop in both the districts.09. but also advises them on technical matters. etc. they also supply all the material required for export of grapes and manufacture of dry grapes. 23 .06 The cropping pattern in both the districts is dominated by food crops which is about 55% in Nasik district and 58% in Sangli district. in Sangli district and Niphad and Dhindori blocks in Nasik district are prominent clusters in grape cultivation. Both the districts are having excellent banking facilities as 448 and 404 bank branches are operating respectively in Nasik and Sangli districts. APMC. Plantation & Horticultural crops occupy about 1 % of the area in Nasik district and about 0.200 crores in Sangli district. Similarly Maharashtra Grape Growers Association is also having offices in both the districts. Rune. 5. In both the districts. These organisations not only help grape growers by supplying all relevant material required for grape cultivation.The ground level credit flow for priority sector is about Rs.

It can be seen from the above that the achievement in refinance disbursement in Nasik district was 81.457. while the same was 66.35 66.01 .05 2.41 398. but also having large number of pre-cooling and cold storage units.57 %. The same for both the districts together was 74. the refinance target could not be reached because the sanction included working capital for 15 days which was approximately Rs. In the case of Sangli even though all the schemes had taken up. 6.1.lakh) SI.10 % in Sangli district. the achievement was down by Rs. 26 24 .CHAPTER-VI COLD STORAGE PROJECTS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION 6.63 % of 5/4 6 81. The percentage of achievement would have been higher than 81. No.08 602. Nasikdid not materialise. It is already mentioned in Chapter-IV that this study was conducted in Nasik and Sangli districts. In addition an attempt has been made in this chapter to analyse various aspects of project implementation and management of project.) 5 613.1.26 lakh which otherwise could have been achieved. TABLE-6.) 3 1. which are not only leading in cultivation and production of grapes. 1 1 2 Name of the district 2 Nasik (40) Sangli (11) TOTAL (51) Total financial outlay (Rs.79 Refinance sanctioned (Rs.74 913.356.10 74.544.25 lakh per unit and as the bank has not extended this facility. The package sanctioned by NABARD for setting up of pre-cooling and cold storage units is given in table 6. The reasons for the same were analysed in detail else where in the report at an appropriate place.57 Figures in brackets indicate total number of schemes. Out of the 51 schemes sanctioned in Nasik and Sangli districts.48 1.35% in Nasik district but for the 2 out of 3 schemes sanctioned toDCCB.011.) 4 754.02. Details of schemes sanctioned in Nasik and Sangli districts (Rs.35 %.22 1.56 Refinance disbursed (Rs.204.

93 @ 11. There is no standard project cost for the pre-cooling and cold storage units. Ltd.2. Savalaj.35 3. No Name of the project District Installed &Banlc capacity inMT Date NABARD Bank Prom.12.Actual of sancti.cost as sanoned rsed bution sessed ction project # cost OS Rs.52 3. The total project cost in respewt yf the 26 units selected for the study are presented in Table 6.98 7. Kundal 4 Kundal Grape Growers Coop Soc Ltd.02 58.5 30 51. whether indigenous or imported.93 68.2.002® 9.93 68.002® 9.e. Rs.5 30 4.03.93 68.002® 9.76 7. Project cost of pre-cooling and cold storage units (Rs.35® 54.12.93 @ 11.76 9.93 68.93 @ 11.06 7.037* 36.2.037* 3.93 @ 11. The project mainly depended upon the installed capacity of the units and type of technology chosen i.2. Nimni 3 Yelavi Grape Growers Coop Soc Ltd.12.90 3.5 30 11. 7 Shri Veerabhadra Grape Growers Coop.5 30 55. Soc.35® 11.93 @ 11.037* 36.contri. DCCB Sangli 7.48 5 Bhilwandi Grape DCCB Growers Coop Soc Sangli Ltd.76 3.93 @ 11.82 25 .037* 36.037* 36.12.2.loan oters project disbu.5 DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli 7. Soc. 30 t1.93 68.76 2.93 @ 11.30 51.35® 5. Rs.002® 9. Soc.76 2.037* 36.lakh) SI.12.02 7. Rs.93 68. Kundal DCCB Sangli PC 7. Gardi.2.002® 9.05 3.units were visited by study team for detailed examination as mentioned in Chapter-IV and the following are implementation aspects of the selected schemes. Soc.5 30 45. Ltd.002® 36.2.35® 11.76 4. Bhilwandi 6 Shiva Sakhi Grape Growers Coop.12. Ltd.50 9.35® 46.76 3.037* 36.93 68.002® 9. Project Cost 6.2.35® 1 Vasanthadada Grape Growers Coop.86 DCCB Sangli 7.35® 11. TABLE-6.5 30 11. Ltd. Anjani 2 Chaman Grape Growers Coop.

05 45.3.94 40.90 48.00 43.95 BOM NASIK BOM NASIK 2 4 20 40 22.34 3.52* 52. Waiphale DCCB Sangli 7.00 34.00 61.00 9.26 30.3.00 13. Ltd.15 48.25 11 Sam path rao DCCB Deshmukh Sangli Phalbhajya Vikriva SliitagrihaCoop.3.00 20.5 BOM NASIK BOM 2 20 30 22.00 22.5 30 11.64 28.95 15.78 41.12. Soc.00 7.00 13.00 40.75 NASIK 2+3$$ 30 BOM NASIK 5+8$$ 50 28.95 120.47 19.5 BO! NASIK 2 BOI NASIK 4 BOI NASIK 2 BOI NASIK 2.76 4.3.10 38.95 18.00 16.76 4.53 36.10 38.3. Kadepur.8 Shri NathGrape DCCB Growers Coop Soc Sangli Ltd. Kundal 9 Mahalaxmi Grape DCCB Growers Coop Soc Sangli Ltd.95 18.00® ® 74.82 7.39 6.34 19.8.37 64.35® 81.12.50 40. Ltd.95 22.5 30 47.7. NASIK 2+2$$ 30 BOM NASIK 1.3.30 11.5 BOI 30 20 40 30 30 18.00 3.84 20.74 10.12.93 & 11.95 12.3.82 29.95 38.34 18.5+2.00 2.00 20.5$$ 19.00 30. Mahankal 10 Khanderaya Grape Growers Coop.10 11.28 NASIK 2+2$ 30 BOB 18.3.39 37.93 68.00 32.95 5.00 36.28 8.52 10.93 68.00 43. Soc.90 8.58 28.50 7.2.60 65.95 22.93 @ 11. Soc.180* 7.5 5 0 " 25.63 NASIK 72.10 8.4.98 50.95 18.15 48.002® 9.00 28.95 NASIK 6 DCCB 50** 31.97 19.96 22.00 7. Ltd.00 33.2.34 29.98 36.002® 9.95 19 Akkar exports 20 Krushirath Agro-industry 21 SACO fruits 22 Malode Agro Exports 23 Boraste Agro 24 Traimbakraj 25 Kadava Farms BOM 26 Anand Grape Growers Coop. 12 Tasty grapes 13 Susheel grapes 14 Leading agro 15 louli international 16 Holly grapes 17 Panchwati 18 Mass exports 7.81 8.81 43.94 BOB 50 NASIK 2.5 50** 4.96 18.98 49.50 25.00 33.037* 36.35® 11.78 10.10 7.00 20.00 56.037* 36.3.93 26 .25 25.

pre cooling and 30 .2.74. In most of the cases.05. etc. @ Amount sanctioned for PC. once everything is completed. 6. Additional units not considered in actual cost.50 MT cold storage.10 lakh. all other units had a pre cooling capacity of less than 3 MT/6 hrs and 30 MT of cold storage. This was mainly due to the installation of higher capacity of pre cooling and cold storage units.15 lakh to Rs. 30 per cent was accounted for construction of civil structures.45. major share i.2. No unit had reported any major problem during the 27 . Remaining was accounted for land. Afterwards sales service were also made available to them. All the projects were completed within 10-12 months. Includes working capital for one cycle. barring four units.07.06. Out of which.25 lakh with an average cost of Rs. 6.e.$ $$ PC # Machinery for 2nd unit not installed. there is no time or cost overrun. It can be seen from table 6. electricity deposit. installation of plant and machinery for pre cooling and cold storage including insulation work took 3 months. that the total cost varied from Rs. Of the total cost of setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units. 6. CS Cold storage. The supplier. 2 units of 25 MT each.19. 60 per cent had been accounted for pre cooling and cold storage machinery including insulation. In all the cases. As can be seen from the table 6.04. As per the quotations/Balance sheets of units. electrification and generator set. @ @ Collected as deposit from members. The project cost of units of Sangli district when compared with units of Nasik district were on the higher side. 6. pre operative expenses. Pre cooling. every unit in Sangli district had an installed capacity of 6 MT /6 Hrs. gave training to one of the identified persons on operational aspects of pre-cooling and cold storage machinery and also provided guarantee against defect of machinery for 12 months. In Nasik district. civil works were undertaken by one of the promoters or by their relatives while that of installation of plant and machinery for pre cooling and cold storage was done by supplier on turnkey basis and the costs were well within the estimated cost.

33 28 .4 per cent of NABARD approved project cost (Rs.08.00 46.53 2.56 9.76 26. It is observed that in all the units financed under cooperatives.3 lakh) in the case of Shri Vasanthdada Grape Growers Cooperative Society to 9.41 5. 6.3 percent (Rs.53 Sub-Total DCCB(1) BOB (2) BOM (7) BOR (5) Sub-Total Nasik Nasik Nasik Nasik 74.66 7. TABLE-6.47 4. all the units established under cooperatives had contributed much less than the stipulated percentage and the same ranged from 3.91 9.45 9. Margin Money 6.20. This is one of the reasons that the units under cooperative sector are set up with lower margin money than stipulated by NABARD.2. Nasik to 48. The same for units in private sector ranged from 14. The details of margin money is discussed in the following paragraphs.47 DCCB(II) Sangli 74.6.00 lakh) in case of Tasty Grapes of Bank of Baroda.00 23.28 lakh) in the case of Sri Sampath Rao Deshmukh Phalbhajya Va Shitagriha Cooperative Society Ltd.81 lakh) inthecase of Susheel Grapes.003 5.00 23. The average margin contribution in terms to approved project cost for different banks is given in the table .last 5-6 years of operations and overall working of plant and machinery was reported to be good. that in the case of private sector units.4 per cent (Rs. the margin was more than 25% and averaged it to 26. Bank of Baroda.21 36.4 percent (Rs.81%.7. Eventhough NABARD had stipulated a margin of 15%. This has happened mainly because of wrong estimates/certifications by architects and inflated quotations from suppliers.3.11. Nasik.003 65.52 30.54 41. the capital costs are on higher side.lakh) Bank District Average approved Average margin % cost money 7. It can be seen from the table 6. AVERAGE MARGIN MONEY CONTRIBUTED (Rs.09.94 13.

) (Rs. Mahalakshmi Growers Coop. Society Ltd.00 18. In fact many of the units got the benefit of subsidy from Government of India /Govt. Soc.00 0. Ltd.56 12.25 12. Credit Society Ltd.4.01 13. Ltd. DETAILS OF SUBSIDY AVAILABLE SI. TABLE-6. (Rs.72 0. As mentioned in Chapter-2.00 18.00 50.Lakh) Financing Subsidy Subsidy Source of agency sanctioned disbursed Subsidy (Rs.98 15.81 1. No.98 9. Khanderaya Grape Growers Coop.00 15.4.22 FPI 6 15. ShivShakthi Grape Growers Co-op.99 WMDC NHB WMDC 7 8 50. Society Ltd. subsidies were made available by Central and State Governments directly or through their organisations.90 15.90 FPI GOM WMDC/DIC 29 . Society Ltd. Srinath Grape Growers Coop. Soc. 1 Name of money Vasanthdada Grape Growers Co-op.10. Society Ltd.25 12. Kundal Grape Growers Coop.61 WMDC FPI NCDC WMDC NHB WMDC 2 3 4 NA 11.) DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli 17. of Maharashtra and both.6.Subsidy 6.59 WMDC 5 35.62 3.81 1.00 11. Yelavi Grape Growers Coop.01 18.33 2. The details of subsidy made available by various organisations are given in Table .57 3. Sampathrao Deshmukh Phal Bhajya Vikri Va Shitagruha Coop. Society Ltd.33 2.

Soc. There is a lot of delay in releasing the sanctioned subsidy.09 9. 6. Another noticeable thing from table 6. DCCB Sangli DCCB Sangli DCCB Nasik BOM Nasik BOB Nasik BOB Nasik BOI Nasik BOI Nasik 18. is that all the units sanctioned in Sangli except Veerabhadra Grape Growers Cooperative Society Ltd. It can be seen from table 6. Soc.46 0. 6.9 Bhilwadi Grape Growers Coop. In this particular case. financed by Sangli DCCB. Soc. the subsidy released by all the three agencies worked out more than the actual cost of plant and machinery.1 1. Ltd.41 12. were sanctioned subsidy.87 16.4. In some cases.00 2. Ltd.16 WMDC 10 Chaman Grape Growers Coop.41 0.25 WMDC/DIC APEDA WMDC APEDA GOM/NCDC WMDC WMDC WMDC WMDC WMDC 9. the sanctioned subsidy was not disbursed in full due to non availability of adequate funds with the subsidy sanctioning agency (Western Maharashtra Development Corporation / District Industries Center).74 10. Ltd. that the highest subsidy was sanctioned and disbursed to Sampathrao Deshmukh Phal Bhajya Vikri va Shitagriha Cooperative Society Ltd..4.50 — — — — * Subsidy sanctioned by WMDC but not released so far. the entire amount together with interest is outstanding and the subsidy cheques were encashed through some other bank by the unit. 11 Anand Grape Growers Coop. 12 Akkar Exports 13 Malode Agro 14 Susheel Grapes 15 Leading Agro 16 Mass Exports 18. inspite of availability of subsidy more than the bank loan sanctioned. It could also be seen that all the 30 .50 * * 8. The main reason for this is the lack of coordination among subsidy sanctioning / disbursing agencies. Incidentally this is one of the largest pre cooling and cold storage financed by banks through NABARD refinance. In this case.12.50 11.

Society Ltd. Society Ltd.) 10. 10.5. 6 units had availed interim loan.lakh) Subsidy Interim loan sanctioned (Rs.70 9. The details of interim loan sanctioned by Sangli DCCB for units is given in table .53 lakh.00 13. Subsidy was sanctioned only on commissioning of the units and the purpose of sanctioning interim loan in anticipation of subsidy hence could not be justified by DCCB.2.19 6. No.5.5 Details of Interim loan SI.7 — 13. Sangli DCCB has extended interim loan in anticipation of release of subsidy.) released (Rs.00 9. 6. Society Ltd. that highest amount of interim loan sanctioned was Rs. Interim Loan As there was a delay in release of the subsidy. Yelavi Grape Growers Coop. It may further be observed that in all the cases the interim loan together with interest was adjusted except 31 . It could be seen from the table 6.59 13. (Rs.14. In Sangli district.6. Mahalakshmi Grape Growers Coop.8. Society Ltd. Table 6. Society Ltd.61 12.70 lakh with an average of Rs.81 11.00 10. Chaman Grape Growers Coop. out of the 11 units sanctioned.20 lakh and lowest amount was Rs.25 2. Kundal Grape Growers Coop. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of the unit Shiv Sakthi Grape Growers Cooperative Society Ltd. got subsidy sanctioned/disbursed by different agencies. Veerabhadra Grape Growers Coop.units financed in the cooperative sector except Veerabhadra Grape Growers Cooperative Society Ltd.13. The banks in Nasik district did not extend the same facility. The interim loan has to be repaid within one year.20 10.

) 9. As the DCCB had given guarantee for repayment of soft loan to NHB.63 9. Society Ltd. This had led to higher loan outstanding and excess over dues.15. Yellavi Grape Growers Coop.63 9.63 9.63 9. The units in Nasik had not applied/availed this facility. Shiva Shakti Grape Growers Coop. Chaman Grape Growers Coop. DCCB has initially adjusted the loan as per the interest slabs.30 lakh is overdue in the books of Sangli DCCB on account of interim loan. Veerabhadra Grape Growers Coop. The details of soft loan given by NHB and its repayment schedule stipulated by NHB are given in tables 6.6.lakh) SI. Society Ltd. Society Ltd. TABLE-6. Society Ltd.7 respectively. Soft loan (Rs.63 9. NHB Soft loan 6.63 9. but the societies had not repaid to NHB /DCCB on due dates. Bhilwandi Grape Growers Coop. The soft loan was made available to units financed in cooperative sector that too in Sangli district only. Society Ltd.in the case of Veerabhadra Grape Growers Cooperative Society Limited as the unit was not sanctioned subsidy by any agency and the amount of Rs.63 9. Society Ltd. and 6.63 9.63 32 . NHB has released this amount in 1994-95 after completion of units and has to be repaid with one year grace period. Society Ltd. Srinath Grape Growers Coop.No. See.15. National Horticultural Board (NHB) as a part of the package of assistance extended soft loan at 4% interest rate payable over a period of 5 years.6. National Horticulture Board has released this amount against Bank guarantee of DCCB. Soft loan made available by NHB (Rs. Society Ltd. it had repaid the installments on the due dates to NHB and treated the amount as regular loan charged at market interest rates. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Name of the unit Vasantha Dada Patil Grape Growers Coop. Kundal Grape Growers Coop. Ltd. Mahalakshmi Grape Growers Coop.

112 15.600 192. lakh) SI.008 200.600 192. All the nine units got Rs.600 192.9. It could be seen from the above that out of 11 units financed inSangli district by DCCB. 1 2 3 4 Items Grading packaging house Pre-cooling Packaging house equipment Diesel generator set Total 33 Amount 2.600 963. National Horticulture Board had decided the quantum of soft loan as per the breakup given in table 6. Sangli had not charged any commission/margin on soft loan. Repayment schedule of NHB soft loan (Rs. The two units that did not apply for soft loan are bigger in size and had applied for subsidies only. The repayment schedule by NHB is given in table 6.) 77.816 23.708 6.308 1.6.7 that the first year installment included interest for the grace period also. nine units got soft loan from NHB. lakh) Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Principal (Rs.712 208.640 223.25 9.20 5. TABLE-6.000 Interest (Rs.600 192.084 Total (Rs.63 lakh each as soft loan. The DCCB. TABLE-6.No.408 7.) 192.8. It could be seen from table 6. BREAKUP OF NHB SOFT LOAN (Rs.) 269.040 30.416 215.00 .

The repayment period fixed by NABARD at the time of sanction was 5 years including one year grace.20. 8 units each had 6 years and 7 years as repayment period. While Bank of Baroda and Sangli DCCB had charged the ultimate borrowers uniform interest rate at 15%.5%.Rate of Interest 6. illustrates bank-wise repayment period fixed for the units financed by them. The implementing banks had charged varied interest rates. During the field study it was observed that banks were fixing varied repayment periods. The Nasik DCCB had charged 17. 10 units had 5 years. the interest rate varied between 16. Nasik Bank of India.9 Repayment period-wise schemes. 6.18.5 % on the loan. Bank Repayment period in years 5 Sangli DCCB Nasik DCCB Bank of Baroda.5% and 18. In the case of Bank of India.9. During the grace period (first year) only interest was to be collected by the banks. Repayment period 6. When it comes to repayment.5) 6(2) — 8 Figures in brackets indicate grace period in years. Nasik Total 9(1) — — 1(1) — 10 6 1(1) 1(1) 1(1) — 5(1) 8 71(2) — 1(1. 34 .19. The table 6. Bank of Maharashtra charged between 16% and 17%. Nasik Bank of Maharashtra. it can be seen from the above that eighteen units allowed one year grace period while seven units allowed 2 years grace period and one unit of Bank of Baroda had allowed a grace period of one and half year. Table 6.

Loan sanction and disbursement 6. In all the cases. All units except one i. Information on other units visited 6. Nasik. Nasik were using free on gas while Anand Grape Growers Coop. However. Anand Grape Growers Cooperative Society Ltd. Technology adopted and its suitability 6. Society unit operated on any hydrous ammonia. the loans disbursed was in full. All these units were also set up under cooperative sector. makes contribution @ 20% of the cost of the project as share capital. Nasik. All the units visited had been used by exporters and there were no problems in quality of the grapes.23. In the case of Anand Grapes.e. All the units were complete and commissioned satisfactorily in time. the rate of interest charged by NCDC varied between 16% and 17%. State Govt. three units financed by NCDC / Mahagrapes and one unit financed to VEFCO were also visited. which established the suitability of the units for export of grapes. also had made an share capital contribution @ 25% of the project cost. One for taking up construction activity and other for installation of plant and machinery of pre-cooling and cold storage units. These units enjoyed a longer repayment period of 10-12 years in addition to 1-2 year grace period.24. the unit had subsequently availed loan from National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) and repaid the earlier loan availed from Nasik DCCB. However. apart from term loan. Utilisation of loan 6. The loans were generally disbursed in two installments. The members contribution was only 15% and rest 40% was extended as term loan. in addition to NABARD refinanced units. No delay was noticed in any case in disbursement of loans. As mentioned at Chapter-IV.21. four units. the unit was initially financed by DCCB. soft loans was more than required amount.22. 35 . There were no cases of misutilisation except that in case of some units the loan sanctioned including subsidies. NCDC.

In Nasik district. against 60-90% in other cases.25. Sanction of working capital/packaging credit 6. Members were allowed space subject to availability of time for pre-cooling and space in cold storage.m. Plug in facilities are also available at Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust.24. Availability of other infrastructure 6. These units have comparatively larger pre-cooling and cold storage capacities. These units also availed of subsidy from WMDC. No unit/exporter has expressed any difficulty in getting labours for harvesting at such odd hours. the interest outflow average was relatively low due to loan component being only 40%. while all the units in Nasik district had availed working capital except in the case of Susheel Grapes which was financed by BOB but was enjoying packing credit from SBI. Nasik DCCB.Even though. the packing credit extended was observed to be sufficient. The units allow members to keep their produce on rental basis. In addition all the packaging material needed for export are either supplied by Mahagrapes / Grape growers association or available locally at competitive rates.00 a. MoFPI. Sangli DCCB did not extend the facility of working capital to any unit. there was no gestation on payment of interest. there was no need for packaging credit/working capital to these units and therefore the same was not extended. Navi Mumbai. GOM & NCDC and were exporting grapes of members and non members. NCDC allowed longer gestation period. Inspite of this.787 lakh for all the units in Sangli district as working capital for one working cycle of 15 days each. NABARD had as a part of the project sanctioned Rs. The refrigerated containers are also available as and when required. As this area is predominant grape 36 .26. Nasik. and pre cooled immediately after that. The grapes need to be harvested before 8. It was informed by Sangli DCCB that as the units were rented out to exporters. Bank of Maharashtra and Bank of India had been extending packaging credit for the units financed by them. Inspite of the higher interest rate. the same was not extended to Nasik district while appraising the schemes.

Quality grapes are available in both the districts. All other units had purchased plain tables with stainless steel cover. Insurance of the units 6. Had the conveyor beH systems not sanctioned the units could have saved about Rs. Chaman Grape Growers Cooperative Society Ltd. its availability is relatively less in Sangii district. no unit had the provision for conveyor belt system and has not provided the same. 37 .1. however. All the units had complied with the same. In Nasik district.growing area. foreign super market importers make arrangements with exporters/units to pay advance for grapes. 1. Conveyor belt system in the pack house 6.50 lakh was provided.50 lakh.26 The study team had observed that the banks had insisted the units to obtain the insurance to cover at least the investment loan sanctioned.27 The units in Sangii district had a provision for establishing the conveyor belt in the pack house for which an amount of about Rs. All the units were using tables with stainless steel covers in the pack house. All the units in Sangii had purchased the conveyor belt system. but the same was not installed by any unit except Sri. as some of the farmers convert them into raisins (dry grapes) which also fetches good price without involving export risks and additional heavy investments on arrangements of exports.

net price realisation.01 This chapter examines the viability of the units on the parameters of earnings. BOI.1 Exports from different units (No. Nasik SACO Fruits. Nasik Mouli. BOI. DCCB.C H A P T E R VII ECONOMICS OF INVESTMENT 7. All these data relate to the calendar year 1999. export sales to domestic sales were expected at 67:33. Nasik Mass Exports. gross price realisation. The actual position of grape exports made by sample units during last 3 years is presented in table 7.02 Under all the schemes. reference year of the study. BOM. BOM. BOM. BOM. BOI. of containers exported) SI. None of the units used pre cooling cold storage facilities for domestic market. 7. of which half the exports would be to UK / Europe markets and rest to Dubai market (Gulf Countries). Nasik Panchawati. Table 7.. BOI. Nasik Akkar exports. Nasik Boraste Agro. T^e exports to Gulf countries was not only insignificant but also inconsistent. Nasik 1997 NA 2 12 15 2 7 18 9 2 7 17 1998 6 1 13 7 1 4 11 9 3 6 6 ' 1999 2 # 16 8 — 5 16 8 2 7 29 UNITS EXPORTING INTHEI R OWN NAME 38 . units were categorised as self exporting and rented out. Bora. etc. While analysing the gross income.1. BOI. Nasik Holly Grapes. Nasik Anand Grapes. Nasik Malode Agro. cost of exports. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name of the Unit Leading Agro. Nasik Krushirath Agro.

Nasik Tasty Grapes BOB. Sangli units rented out for that year units closed for the year units not commissioned for that year @ @ 11 @ NA ** @ 5 @ ** @ 8 2 3 NA ** @ 3 4 ** 3 7 3 7 NA 12 7 7 7 *« 1 1 4 It can be seen from the table 7. No. DCCB. DCCB. Sangli Dongarai.1 that all the units in Sangli and one unit in Nasik was leased out on rental basis during the year 1999. Sangli Khanderya. Sangli Sri Chaman. DCCB. The level of operation of units in Sangli district was abysmally low. 12 13 14 15 Name of the Unit Trimbak Raj. BOB. Nasik Susheel Grapes. On an average units in Nasik district exported eight containers to European markets. Nasik Kadava. BOB. DCCB. Sangli Kundal.SI. Sangli Srinath. Sangli 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 # ** @ 7.03 Shivshakti. As mentioned at Chapter VI. because their installed capacities are higher. DCCB. Sangli Mahalakshmi. Nasik 1997 9 4 @ 10 1998 4 1 @ 10 1999 3 9 5 13 EXPORTS FROM UNITS RENTED OUT 16 Vasanth Dada Patil. DCCB. Sangli Yelavi. BOM. None of the units were operating to the optimum capacity level. Sangli Bhilwadi. DCCB. DGCB. the availability of superior quality of grapes suitable for export to Europe was only 5% of the total production and pre cooling cold storage facilities were used only for export market. As 39 . DCOB. Sangli Veerabhadra. DCCB. DCCB.

It was reported that more than 1100 containers were exported from India to European market during that year (1996 season). This had taught a lesson to exporters and since then they had started giving due importance to quality aspects of grapes. palleting container rent and transportation upto Europe. leave alone the surplus for repayment of loan installment. But it was reported that UK 2. etc. Gross price realisation 7. packaging. the risk was also very high.05 As against the above assumptions.00 kg box making an average of UK 7.00 kg. 7. It was reported that even though export of grapes to Europe is generally profitable. insurance. import duties. It is assumed that about 36% of gross realisation would be spent on various overseas expenses.75 pounds per box of 4.50 / 5. Almost all the units were making exports to Europe and no unit made sales in domestic market after utilising the pre cooling and cold storage facilities.25 .06 The gross export price realised is reflective of the overall price that Indian grapes command in the international markets. the amount earned was not even sufficient to meet the operational and maintenance cost of the units. the actual price realised for the units that are exporting to European markets realised a minimum rate of UK 7 Pound and a maximum rate of UK 8. almost all the units could not realise even the cost of export and had lost heavily During that year. Due to sub-standard quality of grapes for export and competition from Chile.in the domestic market for a box of 4. 40 .50 / 5. price realisation was lower. The cost of export per container upto Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT).5 Pound for 4.00 kg were spent on pre cooling. all the banks in Nasik rescheduled packaging credit and / or term loans. Often. trader exporter had never tried to optimize the capacities utilisation as his costs were not related to the optimum utilisation of the unit. cold storage. agency commission. including freight charges.110/. 7.2.04 It was assumed that gross price realised would be UK 9 Pound in European markets and 25 Dhirams for Dubai / Gulf markets and Rs.75 Pound. It was reported that in 1996 season.50 / 5.the rents were fixed in relation to quantity.

000/. there was a shortage of produce. The units work for 60 to 75 days and even a 2 MT pre cooling unit + 20/ 25/30 MT cold storage can export a container in 4 days taking 2 shifts of 6/8 Hrs each shift a day making it a total of 15 .25/. New Mumbai to Europe. While in case direct exporters. expected quantity of grapes could not be exported by any unit in both the districts.New Mumbai. the promoters had sold grapes to traders. other charges at overseas etc. marine insurance. 7. import duties. In the case of rented units. In Sangli district. at the farm gate.20 containers in a season.09 The units that were rented out. 7.4.depending on the season.per container. The average net price realised constituted about 65% of FOB prices.10 Promoters of all the units were originally growers of grapes. 7. 12 -18 per kg.07 The net price realised. however the capacity utilisation was not even 1/10 of the established capacity.7. Electricity bills other repairs.50 / 5. the export quality grapes would have fetched a price of Rs.60/.08 Even though expected FOB price could be realised. 7. were born by traders. replacements were to be borne by pre cooling cold storage unit owners. they were growers and exporting their own produce. earned rent @ Rs. All the expenses for packing. The expenditure from JNPT.1.60.00 for Kg of grapes for using the facilities of pre cooling and cold storage which amounts to Rs. They also occasionally purchase from market. thus works out to UK 4. are paid by the commission agents and deducted from the sale proceeds and balance would be transferred to the Indian firms. the farm gate price received per kg ranged between Rs. 41 . The difference to farm gate price is because of availability of pre cooling and cold storage facilities. Had the units not been setup.00 kg which was approximately UK 1 Pound per kg which was equal to Rs.a kilo. is given in annexure.75 to 5. all the units have a capacity to export 50-60 containers in any given season. whenever. In both the cases.40/.to Rs.50 Pound per box of 4. transport etc.

Nasik) had not been managed properly and defaulted on repayment obligations. did not generate enough income even to meet operational and maintenance costs.12 At the time of financial appraisal. the internal rate of return was worked out to over 50%. the maximum containers exported were 18 by Akkar Exporters while the average of all the exporting units came to 9. the following assumptions are made : •i^ All the units are 2 MT pre cooling and 25 MT cold storage. All the units financed in Sangli District by Sangli DCCB were incurring losses. onwards.7. However. even at this export level. An analysis is to be done to find out the minimum business to be done to break-even under both the circumstances in the light of the study findings. Anand Grapes.13 For this purpose. the units financed under cooperative sector. Hence there was a need to treat the units rented out as a separate entity while working out IRR / FRR. the units setup under private sector had managed well and generated enough surplus and could repay bank loans. the fact that most of these units had made repayment of loans indicate that the activity was highly profitable. the units should therefore be expected to generate enough surplus to meet the repayment obligation of bank loan together with interest in addition to their operation and maintenance costs.11 As all the units were setup with bank loans. which subsequently extended loan for the same unit. only indigenous technology is considered for setting up of pre cooling and cold storage units. 7. As it is found that among the exporting units. the 42 . which is the average of the sample units. '5> As the indigenous technology is available and is also cost effective. With the 2 MT PC capacity. Viability of the units : 7. Nasik which had made an advance repayment. Other units those rented out and all units in cooperative sector except one (Anand Grapes. By and large. As seen. •^^ The capacity utilisation is assumed at 50% in the first year and 60% in the second year. The similar information on private / partnership firms financed by various commercial banks in Nasik district were not available to the study team. had defaulted to NCDC.

kg.14 All selected units have one full time employee. 'i> For working out FRR the net income received from exports is suitably adjusted by deducting the local market price so as to assess the benefit of pre cooling and cold storage units.2. 0 & M Cost of the units Wages to employees 7. '^ Project cost includes land of one acre which costs about Rs. loading pallets in the container. '5i> The economic life of plant and machinery is assumed as 15 years. The main work was maintenance of accounts..43capacity utilisation would be just 50% of the average unit which leaves adequate scope for expansion of exports in future. 4/. payment of wages for labourers and to grape growers if purchased from market.00 lakh.pa) •^ Interest on term loan is considered at 15. pre cooling and cold storing.00 lakh. It also includes DG set of Rs. The average for units rented out is 7 containers and rent is Rs. '^ Conveyor belt system in pack house is not considered in the total cost. i. only electrical charges.e. on working capital.a. '5^ Insurance expenditure is considered as 0.2000/. payment of electricity bill.000/. palletisation. the residual value is taken as 20% of the project cost.per annum.2% of the project cost.per annum. and at 18 % p. an expenditure on labour for grading. Normally full time employee was paid Rs. periodical maintenance of plant and machinery and salary of one supervisor for the year is considered in addition to telephone rental charges for the year (subject to a maximum of 5000/. "^ For units rented out. sorting. In addition.24000/. etc. The expenditure on this count comes to Rs.per month and was employed for the whole year even though work is limited to 75 -120 days including pre and post export operations. At the end of 15 years. etc. comes to about 43 .5% pa. about Rsl 0. packing. "^ The units work on a average of 75 working days for the season in double shift.1.

cold storages were treated on par with agriculture and charges levied were on connected load basis (on HP basis per annum).16 The average consumption of electricity worked out to 40 KVA annually @ Rs.for telephone bills. ever since power charges for cold storages converted to unit basis.Rs.per year is considered for other misc. Another Rs. utilities like gas. 7. During the initial years.per container.18 The FRR works out to more than 50% for units that were exporting.1.5 MT capacity and cold storage of 25/30 MT capacity alone need to be financed as the capacity is considered adequate and reasonable 44 .000/.000/.per annum on repair/ replacement charges. The following action points emerge from the above analysis. However.per annum.000 were spent on apparels for labourers working in the park house and about Rs. Repairs and Replacement 7. in the case of units rented out this is borne by traders / exports.000/.to Rs.15 As the units are working only for a period of 60 . As a result. items. The average electricity bill comes to about Rs. cold storage units were not put to use once the grape export is completed. 7. Other Utilities 7.2000/.50 per unit of consumption was charged by MSEB. The same was negative for units rented out.17 The average expenditure on other misc.000/. However. Another Rs. sanitation. 5. It was reported that on an average they spend about Rs.3. cold storage were also used for storage of dry grapes (raisins) as there was no additional cost in running the cold storage.35.75 days in a year. the plant machinery has to be fully oiled before start of the export operation.000/.1. was about 10.000/-.30.6. Diesel consumption expenditure during the peak season comes to about 15. equipments for general hygiene etc.19 Action points for future ^ Pre cooling unit of only 2 MT/2. Electricity & Diesel charges 7.00 lakh for season.

^ Only indigenous plant and machinery need to be encouraged as it is as efficient as imported. the same can be sanctioned at a later date.for the present level of exports ^ Setting up of higher Pre Cooling unit and Cold Storage lead to higher overhead costs and lower capacity utilisation. the cost of indigenous plant and machinery is also lesser than imported one. Based on the performance. In addition. if need be. ^ ^ If units are set-up for renting out. There is also need for better coordination among different agencies in disbursement of subsidy and the same should be released only through the financing bank wherever bank loans are involved. 45 . there is a need for higher repayment period. initially. ^ There is no need for making a provision for conveyor belt system in the pack house.

lakh %of Recovery @ Veerabhadra GGCSL 104.11 18.1 Table No. But for pre cooling and cold storage units no such linkage is available.00 Balance (Rs. /Financing Bank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sri Chamam GGCSL Shiv Sakti GGCSL Vasanth Dada Patil GGCSL Yelavi GGCSL Khanderaya GGCSL Bhilwadi GGCSL Mahalaxmi GGCSL Srinath GGCSL (As on 3 0 .5 12.2 years.18 27.80 1.39 19.12 16.93 83.01 This Chapter examines the repayment performance of the selected units in respect of demand.87 49. collection and balance position.47 95.72 12. Collection and Balance position SI.11 68.28 20.36 76.69 100. Name of the unit No.61 61.8.CHAPTER-VIII RECOVERY PERFORMANCE Introduction 8.51 39.52 83.18 15. reasons for delinquency as well as reasons for timely repayment of loans.59 84. collection and balance for all the selected units is given in table 8.55 46 . The recovery performance of overall agricultural term loans in both Nasik and Sangli districts is good due to linking of loan repayment with sugar factories.05 86. loans were to be repaid to the banks within 5 to 7 years including a grace period of 1 .1 Demand.66 73.75 67.24 19.19 14.65 4.30 12.35 30. Repayment Schedule 8.38 86.84 47.02 As per the repayment schedule.73 77.34 98. Demand Collection Balance Position 8.03 Data on demand.80 19.65 4.07 1.June 1999) Demand Collection DCCEI Sangli 78. During the grace period only interest was to be collected by the banks.

21 @ 774.35 7.65 16.18 BOB Nasik 17.02 12.06 29.00 65. Nasik 26 Anand GGCSL** Sub Total for DCCB.19 99.48 18.71 90.20 2.23 83.20 9.00 65.82 435.48 1207.75 36.11 100.00 16.98 16.40 18.30# 56.83 29.37 10.33 155.82 102.20 0.05 47 .88 100.30 276.26 60. Nasik 10.77 19 Sushi! Grapes** 20 Tasty Grapes Sub Total for BOB.11 279.10 Sampathrao DeshmukhGGCSL 11 Kundal GGGSL Sub-Total for DCCB Sangli 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Kadava Farms Boraste Agro Triambak Raj Malode Agro** KrishirathAgro** Akkar Exports SAGO Fruits Sub Total for BOM.48 6.99 6.00 88.70 8.00 24.48 100.75 B0IV1.00 100.40 10.96 0.30 0.28 23.66® 771.15 56.00 37.36 DCCB Naslk 56.63 7.00 15.50 7.07 76.47 7.00 100.32 930. Naslk Total for Nasik District (15)** Total for Sangli District (11) Grand Total for all Schemes (26) 7. Nasik * 10.07 30.50 16.82 44.00 153.90 100.91 155.00 100.00 24.66 29.00 16.06 25.30 56.53 2. Naslk 62.53 14.13 129.00 100.01 26.00 29.41 774.84 66.40 21.63 930. Nasik 21 Leading Agro 22 Mouli Fruit International** 23 Holy grapes** 24 Panchawati Exports** 25 Mass Exports** Sub Total for BOI.74 36.01 15.00 0.30 56.00 100.48 23.20 21.00 100.50 BOI.

8. the repayment performance of the units is considered good as 8 out of 15 units had made repayments in excess of demand of loan instalments. Sampath Rao DeshmukGGCS Ltd inspite of availing subsidy. Further. BOB. financed by Nasik DCCB.05 In the case of Nasik district. no other unit was exporting grapes in their own name and were rented out to traders and the amount received from rent was not even sufficient to meet the interest liability on loans availed for establishment of units. if any. diverted the subsidy for other purpose. made them clear the loans. In case of Anand Grape Growers Society Ltd.. Except Chaman Grape Growers Cooperative Society Ltd.8 per cent. Only one unit (Tasty grapes. In case of Veerabhadra.. Further. Nasik) had defaulted in full and did not repay any instalments. Note : Totals rriay not tally due to adjustments in sub totals 8. Nasik district. Another reason for default in Sangli district was that all the units belong to cooperative sector and no one in the society had undertaken responsibility for proper management of funds or repayment of loan. It was observed that only two units viz.06 The main reasons for timely and advance repayment by units in Nasik district is that all these units engage in direct export and the profits / proceeds are used to repay the loans. Chaman GGCS Ltd and Bhilwadi GGCS Ltd have shown inclination to repay. Most of the recoveries in other cases were from adjustment of subsidy when available after adjusting interim loan and interest. these units are run by family as private / partnership entities and had absolute liability.* Rescheduled to start from July 2000 # Repaid on availability of loan from NCDC @ In case recovery more than demand it is treated as 100% ** Advance recovery. 8. has repaid the loan in advance to Nasik DCCB as the society had received another loan from NCDC 48 .04 It may be seen from the above that all the units in Sangli district have defaulted in repayment with an overall recovery performance of 16. The main reason for poor recovery performance was poor generation of incremental income from the units financed. interim loan given in anticipation of subsidy had become overdue as no subsidy was sanctioned to the unit. The average repayment of Nasik district is more than 100 per cent.

Similarly.15/. 49 . traders paid any where between Rs. 8. in case of other units.07 While appraising the units. Their fate would have been different had these units were not established as they would have got Rs. There is an urgent need by the extension agencies to educate the farmers about the benefits of pre cooling and cold storage units and need to share the benefits realised with bank by clearing their dues.08 Units operating in Sangli district though defaulted to the banks. the units financed in private sector in Nasik district repaid loans before the stipulated period indicated that the given repayment period of 5-7 years was fairly reasonable had the units directly exported the produce. The fact that. But the members did not pass on the benefit to the society and kept entire export proceeds with them. However.10-15 / kg in the domestic market. it was worked out that the income from export of grapes would be sufficient to pay back the bank loans taken for setting up of the units. In case of Chaman GGCSL the members received a price ranging between Rs. But in practice. This is expected to facilitate clearance of dues of the banks by the rented units.45-70 per kg for export of grapes had the units not existed they would have got Rs.10/to Rs. Rationality of Repayment 8.with longer repayment period. 8. all the units in Sangli district had rented out the units to traders and out of which in some cases the rental income realised was not even sufficient to meet O & M costs of the unit. the rented units are likely to switch over to exporting units to enhance their income. this unit has ultimately defaulted to NCDC.09 As the experience gained. Hence.in the local market. in respect of rented units there is a need to give longer repayment period.30-50 / kg for good quality of grapes at farm gate because of availability of pre cooling and cold storage facility near by. inspite of exporting in its own name and reaping sizeable benefits. the members of the society got good rates for their produce because of existence of these units. say 8-10 years with one year grace period as was done by NCDC for its supported units which allows 12-14 years repayment period with two years grace period.

9.IX PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF PRE-COOLING COLD STORAGES 9. Bahrain. Saudi Arabia.e. Further.Ganesh cannot produce grapes of the required quality. (for a period of about 60 days) grape is a highly perishable crop. Hong Kong. 90 per cent of the exports are made to Middle East. UK. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Generally.01 India produces approximately 10 lakh tons of fresh grapes annually from about 35000 ha. Quatar. However export of fresh grape is limited to about 10-11 thousand tonnes per year making exports just more than one per cent. 8 per cent to European countries and rest to South East Asian countries and others. Similarly.05 Normally EEC class I grapes are approximately 5 % of the total production of grapes and this also depends on climatic conditions.C H A P T E R . exports to Europe are confined to a period of about one month commencing from middle of March. the most accepted varieties i. Kuwait. Weakness of Indian grapes in export market 9. about another one per cent are crushed for wine. USA.04 The major limiting factor of growth industry is the marketing problem as more than 85% of the total production is for fresh consumption.December sometimes affect the quality of grapes. Sri Lanka. Thompson seedless and its clone Tas-A . 120 thousand fresh grapes are converted to raisins (about 12%). Oman. Bangladesh. While Sonaka and Sharad seedless are exported to Middle East. 9. During above period also.02 India exports grapes to UAE. In addition. Germany. Netherlands. seedless green grapes meeting the standards of EEC class-l table grapes are sent to Europe and superior quality white or black seedless grapes are exported to Middle East and South East Asian Countries. It is reported that untimely rains during October . 9. meeting EEC class -1 standards. etc.03 The principal grape varieties exported to Europe are Thomson seedless and Tas-A Ganesh. 50 .April. Mauritius. Singapore. 70 per cent of total production is harvested during February . Of the total exports.

inTasgoan taluka of Sangli district. Therefore. But this causes delay in delivery of fresh grapes from India. Grapes are transported mainly by sea route as it is economical way of transport. 9.12 Inspite of all the difficulties.9.07 The distance between importing countries and India requires long duration storage. In fact. There is also scope to stagger the fruit primming in 90% of the grape cultivated area as 90% of the area under grapes in India is in the tropical region. Strengths of Indian grapes in export market 9. There is also inadequate infrastructure facilities at production sites to maintain the cold chain from harvest to cold storage. there is severe competition from Chile.08 Incidence of large number of diseases has necessitate heavy spray schedule of pesticides as a result of which pesticide residues are many times above maximum limits. 9. unless we produce good quality of grapes than that of Chile. there is a tendency to make indiscriminate use of fungicides.09 Shortage of water for irrigation had also posing problem to ensure production of quality grapes. giving rise to new set of problems. 9.10 Fluctuation in prices in the markets abroad and lack of assured returns from grape exports is also an discouraging factor in export of grapes.06 The proportion of export quality grapes get progressively reduced with increase in yield over 20 ton /ha. The average production in Sangli is about 45 .11 In the international market. we have certain added advantages in production and export of grapes. In Sangli district farmers prefer to go for larger production and convert part of the produce into raisins. 9. 9. marketing in foreign countries would be difficult. farmers are transporting water from a long distances by means of tankers for irrigating the grape gardens.. extension agencies have to educate farmers for such fruit pruning for which a lot 51 . Grapes can be harvested in India by virtue of double pruning at such a time when no grapes are available any where in the world.50 ton / ha against 5 28 ton / ha of Nasik district. In addition. the time of harvesting grapes can be manipulated by adjusting the fruit pruning. Further. However.

Besides. ECGC cover and credit for packaging. 9. 9. This will go a long way in promoting grapes export and thereby augmenting income from pre-cooling and cold storage units. The grape growers are also aware of the export opportunities and procedures. There is also availability of experienced and required man power for various activities starting from production of grapes to packaging of grapes for export including other support services necessary for export of grapes. 52 . a new scheme need to be designed to help exporters to tide over in bad times.16 To achieve all these intended objectives..15 The export of grapes can be augmented by streamlining the exports through strengthening market intelligence. etc. there is a need for proper planning. 9. Government support for establishing cold storages for export of fruits. foreign trading agents are present for taking up export of grapes on a regular basis.of efforts are needed. extensive market survey. strengthening of extension education for farmers. 9. etc. There is also need for exploring new markets. there are other encouraging components available like incentives in the form of subsidy. from banks. Further.13 Technology for production of export quality grapes is in vogue in India.14 Again grape producing regions are more or less nearer to sea ports and reasonably good infrastructure is available at the sea ports. Further. Special care has to be taken before development of vine yards for export.

Telephone e.24 3.70 50.15 0.62 6.00 36.00 • 1.5.20 0.ANNEXURE-I A FRR FOR UNITS DIRECTLY EXPORTING (At a capacity level of 16 containers per unit) (Rs.15 0. Salary for Accountant i.35 0.00 0. Dresses for Pack House g.06 0.^^ 3 .10 0.00 lakh per Container for 6 months Total Recurring Cost Total Cost ( A + B) II.00 -50.60 5.60 1. Cost / Income 1 1 Capacity Utilisation Costs A.62 39. Sanitation and Others h.00 0 o 6.15 60% _^ 50. Net Price Realisation from Export of Grapes (Net Realisation per Container less Opportunity Cost of Grapes) Total Income Net Surplus from Export Years 2 50% .70 36.24 4.00 30.15 0.05 0.60 32.32 5. Electricity Charges b.30 39.05 0.06 0. Diesel Expenses f.iakh) SI.98 FRR Above 50% 53 . Repairs/ Replacements d.00 0.35 0.No. Fixed Cost B Recurring Cost a. Insurance c.10 0.15 0. Interest on Working Capital @ Rs.

5.62 2.31%) 54 .ANNEXURE-I B FRR FOR UNITS Rented Out (Rs. Diesel Expenses f.20 1.10 0.60 lakh per container) X 7 containers Total Income Net Surplus from Export 50. Fixed Cost B Recurring Cost a.62 0.05 0. Interest on Working Capital @ Rs.20 2.00 0.00 0.63 FRR (-0.99 4.00 0.00 1.00 -50.20 0.15 60% — 50. Repairs / Replacements d. Insurance c.35 0.00 0.41 4.lakh) SI.24 0. Electricity Charges b.00 Total Cost ( A + B) II.00 0.24 0.00 0 1.00 0.00 4. Salary for Accountant i.00 1.79 4.05 0.00 0.No.35 0.99 Years 2 50% — 3 . Dresses for Pack House g.79 0.05 1.05 1. Cost/Income 1 1 Capacity Utilisation Costs A. Net Price Realisation from rent @ Rs.10 0. Sanitation and Others h.00 laWiper Cicntaineir f o r 6 itcntiis 3 Miscellaneous Tbtal Recunring Cost 0. Telephone e. 0.

00 1. Recorder Central excise Residue sampling charges Misc.50 6. 90.91.75 1.50 Rs.00 This cost includes cost of grapes and cost of precooling cold storage 55 .50/5.00 2.00 2.1 AVERAGE EXPENSES UPTO MUMBAI PER BOX OF 4.50 9.00 1.00 KG FOR EXPORT TO UK/EUROPE Particulars Box Liner Bubble sheet Grape guard Tissue paper Poly pouch Pallet Pack strip Labour Inland Insurance Temp.15 0.00 1.ANNEXURE 7.90 or say Rs.00 4.00 1.50 15.50 15. Total Rs. 28.50 1.

Maharashtra Sheep Rearing in Nalgonda District. Andhra Pradesh Development of Coffee Plantation in Lower Plains Area. Maharashtra Minor Irrigation Scheme . Andhra Pradesh Mechanised Fishing Boats in South Kanara District. Bihar Development of Grape Cultivation in Bijapur District. Andhra Pradesh Groundwater Irrigation in Kota District. Mah. Karimnagar District. Madurai District. Rajasthan Minor Irrigation in Bhojpur District.Scheme for Reclamation and Development of Land. Haryana Bhadra Land Development Project . Andhra Pradesh Dairy Development Scheme in Jagadhri block of Ambala District. Karnataka Land Development under Nagarjuna Sagar Project. karnataka Development of Acif Lime Gardents in Nellore District. SI. No.Installation of Shallow Tubewells in Karnal District. Miryalguda Taluka. Punjab Poultry Development Scheme in Mulkanoor.REPORTS PUBLISHED UNDER THE EVALUATION STUDY SERIES OF THE NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT A. Haryana Dairy Development Scheme in Moga Area of Faridkot District. 1 Reports published by the Head Office of NABARD Title of Evaluation Reports Minor Irrigation Scheme . Dairy Development Schemes in Western UP River Lift Irrigation Schemes in Kolhapur District. Tamil Nadu Year of Publication 1977 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1977 1977 1977 1978 1978 1979 1979 1981 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1983 56 .Construction of New Wells and Installation of Pumpsets thereon in Sholapur District. Karnataka River Lift Irrigation Schemes in Punt Dist.

UP Impact of Non-farm Sector Investments Lift Irrigation Schemes in Maharashtra 1984 1985 1986 1986 1986 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 1989 1990 1991 1991 1991 1991 1994 1995 Note : Reports Nos. Kerala Tractors in North Bihar Dairy Development Schemes in Darjeeling District. Reports from 1 to 10 are now out of stock. Kerala Dugwell Irrigation in Dhenkanal District. Maharashtra Marine Fisheries in Coastal Gujarat & Maharashtra Financing of Shallow Tubewells under Massive National Programme in Haryana Financing of Apple Orchards in Hill Districts. Andhra Pradesh Dugwell Irrigation in Palghat District. Salem and Coimbatore District. 5 was not published. West bengal Commercial Poultry in Krishna Dist. West Bengal Sprinkler Irrigation in Semi arid Areas of Rajasthan A scheme of Dugwell Irrigation for Small Farmers in Amravati District. Tamil Nadu Minor Irrigation in Allahabad District. Andhra Pradesh Bio-Gas Plants in Nainital and Rampur District. Eastern Uttar Pradesh Tractors and Power Tillers in Tamil Nadu Minor Irrigation and Muzaffar Nagar District. 57 . Ghazipur and Naunpur Districts. Uttar Pradesh Coconut Development in Quilon District.19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Public Tubewells and River Lifts in Orissa Power Tillers in Hooghly District. UP Work Animals & Animal Driven Carts in Meerut Dist UP Inland Fishery in Krishna District. Kerala Minor Irrigation in Purulia District. Bihar Dugwell water Irrigation Development in Nasik District. UP Dairy Development in Quilon District. West Bengal Tractors Schemes in Varanasi.. Orissa Bamboo & Shallow Tubewells in Purnia Dist. Maharashtra Calf Rearing in North Arcot.

. MP Commercial Layer Poultry Development in Indore District. Gujarat Financing of tractors in Mehsana & Rajkot Dist. Madhya Pradesh IRDP in Sagar District. Madhya Pradesh Tractor Financing in Raisen & Vidisha Dists.B. Orissa Tractors in Sambalpur District. Gujarat Investments Financed under IRDP in Valsad Dist. West Bengal Bullock & Bullock Carts in Malda Dist. Gujarat Lift Irrigation Scheme of Ukai Left Bank Main canal. West Bengal Betelvine Gardens in Midnapore Dist..Farm Investments Bhopal Dugwell and Shallow Tubewell Irrigation in Narsinghpur District.. Karnataka Borewell Financing in Chitradurga and Kolar District. West Bengal 1989 1990 1992 1993 1988 1989 1992 1994 1989 1989 1992 1994 1997 1987 1989 1991 Year of Publication 1988 1989 1991 1992 1994 58 . Orissa Calcutta Inland Fisheries Scheme in Nadia Dist. Orissa Minor Irrigation in Sambalpur District. Karnataka Development of Coffee Gardens in Karnataka State Sericulture Development in Karnataka . Orissa Brackish Water Prawn Culture in Puri District.. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 Reports published by Regional Offices of NABARD Title of Evaluation Reports Ahmedabad Poultry Development Scheme in Gujarat Dairy Development Scheme in Mehsana Dist. No. Gujarat Bangalaore Development of Grape Gardents in Bangalore and Kolar Districts. SI. Orissa Dairy Development Scheme in Cuttack and Ganjam Districts. Madhya Pradesh Bhubaneswar Betelvine Gardens in Puri District.

Andhra Pradesh Dairy Development in Krishna Dist. Andhra Pradesh Dugwell Irrigation in Chitoor District. Andhra Pradesh Inland fishery in West Godavari Dist. Andhra Pradesh 1987 1987 1994 1988 1989 1990 1991 5 6 7 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1992 1994 1998 1989 1992 1988 1989 1989 1991 1995 6 7 1996 1999 59 . Tamil Nadu Dugwell Irrigation in Pudukkottai and North Arcot Districts. Tamil Nadu Tea Gardens in Nilgiris District. Tamil Nadu Minor Irrigation Investments under Massive Assistance Programme in South Arcot and Tiruchirapalli Districts. Tamil Nadu Mini Dairy Investments in Coimbatore and Periyar Districts. Tamil Nadu Jasmine Investments in Salem and Madurai Districts. Andhra Pradesh Om Farm Development works under Nagarjunasagar project command in Khammam and Krishna Districts. Haryana Tractors in Haryana Chennai Poultry Development in Salem District. Andhra pradesh Mango Orchards in Krishna and Khammam Districts.1 2 3 1 2 3 4 Chandigarh Poultry Farming in Punjab Dairy Development Schemes in Karnal and Rohtak Districts. Tripura Hyderabad Public Tubewells in Khammam Dist. Andhra Pradesh Development of Grape Gardens in Ranga Reddy District. Tamil Nadu Marine Fisheries in Tamil Nadu Guwahati Private Shallow Tubewells and Lift Points in Assam Inland Fishery in WestTripura District.

Rajasthan Jammu IRDP in Baramullah District.S. UP Grape in Muzaffarnagar District. Jammu & Kashmir Lucknow Minor Irrigation Scheme in Jhansi District. Jammu & Kashmir Tractors in Jammu District. UP Tractors in Western Uttar Pradesh Inland Fishery in Azamgarh and Deoria Districts. Bihar Deep Tubewells in Bihar Dairy Development Scheme in Begusarai and Singhbhum Districts. Bihar Minor Irrigation Schemes in Samastipur Dist. Bihar Pune Lift Irrigation Schemes in Ahmednagar Dist. Uttar Pradesh Minor Irrigaiton in Raebareli District.Jaipur 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Minor Irrigation Structures in Kherwara P. Rajasthan IRDP in Alwar District. Maharashtra 1992 1995 1988 1992 1994 1995 1997 1997 1998 1998 1988 1989 1989 1996 1988 1991 1991 1993 1988 1991 1991 1993 1995 1995 1997 60 . Mah Well Irrigation in Aurangabad District. Uttar Pradesh Patna Shallow Tubewells in Darbhanga. Maharashtra Poultry Development in Pune District. Uttar Pradesh Saghan Mini Dairy Project in Allahabad Dist. Rajasthan Market Yard in Kekri-Ajmer District. Rajasthan Poultry in Ajmer District. Udaipur District.. Madhubani and Samastipur Districts. Maharashtra Grape Gardens in Nasik District. Rajasthan Borewell in Jodhpur District. Rajasthan Tractors in Alwar District. Rajasthan Sprinkler Irrigation Schemes in Barmer Dist. UP Mushroom Cultivation in Dehradun Dist. UP NFS in Moradabad District.

Mumbai . Himachal Pradesh Trivandurm Betwivine Gardens in Trivandrum District. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. Mah. Shimla Dairy Dev. Bandra-KurIa Complex. Kerala 1995 1997 1999 1997 1988 1990 1991 1992 1995 Copies of evaluation reports can be obtained from the Manager. Department of Economic Analysis and Research (DEAR). in Ernakulam Dist. Kerala Broiler Poultry Dev. in Mandi District. Kerala Fisheries Development in Kollam District.400 051. in Command Area of Kukkadi Project IRD Programme in Yavatmal District Far* Mechanisation in Ahmednagar Dist. 1 61 . Kerala Farm Mechanisation in Palakad and Ernakulam Districts. Bandra (E). Kerala Development of Rubber Plantation in Kottayam District.5 6 7 1 1 2 3 4 5 Land Dev. C-24.