Standards and Approaches for Ball Joint Durability Testing

Tuesday, May 6, 2008 Stuttgart, Germany

Paul Carroll Mechanical Engineer GRV Component Test

Dr. Eric Little Applications Engineer GRV Component Test

1

Germany . 2008 2 Testing Expo -.Stuttgart.Ball Joint Overview Ball Joint Basics Inner Ball Joint » Common ball joint applications » Types of ball joints Upper Ball Joint Lower Ball Joint Tie Rod End Ball Joint Components Types of Ball Joints May 6.

Germany . 2008 3 Testing Expo -. . May 6. . J193 Ball Joint Tests Impact Strength Yield Tensile Load Rotation & Oscillation Torque Axial End Movement Cam-Out Strength Assy Fatigue and Heat Treat Pull-Out/Push-Out Strength MTS Capabilities A multi-axial test system is required.SAE J193 Ball Joint Tests In general. J193 tests are uni-axial . . . .Stuttgart. except for Assy Fatigue/Heat Treat.

” The Goals: .Determine ball joint loads experienced during service life.4 Ball Stud and Socket Assembly Fatigue and Heat Test 5.4.2 Phase II Test – Endurance Load: “To correlate the cycle life of the assembly for the average load to which the assembly will be subjected in application and environment. .4.2.2. May 6.2. 2008 4 Testing Expo -.1 Objective – To determine fatigue and wear characteristics of ball stud and socket assemblies. .J193 Endurance Load Requirements 5.Translate those loads into an easily-reproducible laboratory test. 5.Stuttgart. with life in actual use .2. Germany . .

J193 Loading and Cycle Life Criteria Comments on Loading/Cycle Life from J193 » “The loading use in the test procedures should be as representative as possible in magnitude and direction with loads encountered in the design application. 2008 5 Testing Expo -.” May 6. Germany .Stuttgart. . a program loading procedure can be utilized to obtain a more realistic loading assessment.” » “Using a vehicle . .

Germany .Stuttgart.Focus: Front Lower Control Arm May 6. 2008 6 Testing Expo -.

Germany .What is the Loading Environment? Input • Loads • Moments Attachment • Loads • Moments May 6. 2008 7 Testing Expo -.Stuttgart.

2008 8 Testing Expo -. Germany .What is the Loading Environment? Strain Gauged Ball Joint May 6.Stuttgart.

Test Planning – Peak Valley Slicing Reduced DOFs No Is this a Multi-axial Case? Yes No Is Reproduction of frequency content Important? Yes No Is there a linear relationship between any axis of loading? Yes No Sinusoidal or Block Cycle Time History Simulation or PSD repro Is Reproduction of Frequency content important Yes May be able To use PV Slicing Method May 6.Stuttgart. 2008 9 Time History Simulation Testing Expo -. Germany .

Germany . frequency reproduction is not important May 6.Stuttgart.Peak Valley Slice Technique Multi-axial case Solid Strut Long Lat Vert Phasing between Vertical. Lateral & Long Inputs is critical. 2008 10 Testing Expo -.

2008 11 Testing Expo -. May 6.Stuttgart.Peak Valley Test Methodology Peak Valley Slice Test Method Identify Peak/Valley pairs in multi-channel data. Germany .

2008 12 Testing Expo -.Peak Valley Slice Test Method 5 kph Braking events Raw Time History = 40 sec Longitudinal Force PV Time History = 10 sec Benefit: Speed up “slow” events May 6.Stuttgart. Germany .

2008 13 Testing Expo -.Stuttgart.Peak Valley Slice Test Method Pothole Strike Reproduction Raw Time History Longitudinal Force PV Time History Benefit: Slow down “fast” events May 6. Germany .

» Ensures phase relationships between peak loads are maintained.Peak Valley Slicing Benefits of PV Slicing » Applies accurate max/min displacements to specimens.Stuttgart. May 6. When PV Slicing is not applicable » Elastomeric or components with frequency-dependent characteristics. » Can reduce test time. 2008 14 Testing Expo -. » More representative damage accumulation than block cycle testing. Germany .

Germany .Stuttgart. 2008 15 Time History Simulation Testing Expo -.Test Planning – Time History Reduced DOFs No Is this a Multi-axial Case? Yes No Is Reproduction of frequency content Important? Yes No Is there a linear relationship between any axis of loading? Yes No Sinusoidal or Block Cycle Time History Simulation or PSD repro Is Reproduction of Frequency content important Yes May be able To use PV Slicing Method May 6.

Stuttgart.e. Germany . 2008 16 Testing Expo -.g. REMOTE May 6. CONTROL Control of • Amplitude Distributions • Spectral Densities • Multi-axial Phase Relationship 1. PARAMETER 3.What is Remote Parameter Control? Remote Parameter Control (RPC) is an advanced simulation technique used to repeatedly replicate and analyze “in service” vibrations and motions of a specimen using a dynamic mechanical system in a controlled laboratory environment. Accelerometer 2. .

Stuttgart. often times fatigue is also used. frequency.The RPC Process – Typical Correlation Iterations – example response data Simulation results are typically evaluated in the time. 2008 17 Testing Expo -. and statistics domains. Germany . May 6.

Stuttgart. Germany . 2008 18 Testing Expo -.MTS Standard Ball Joint Test System Examples Four Axis Test Three Axis Test (Inner Ball Joints) Five Axis Test May 6.

Germany .May 6.Stuttgart. 2008 19 Testing Expo -.