# Control Valve Calculation Routines

Liquid
1 Calculate the vena-contracta pressure drop -
P P 0.96 0.28
P
P
P
VC 1
VAP
C
VAP
= ÷ ÷
|
\

|
.
|
2 Calculate the critical drop -
P F P
CRIT L VC
=
2
3 Calculate preliminary valve sizing coefficient -
C
W
PG
V
f
=
500 A
4. Calculate Reynolds Number -
R
F W
F C
F C
d
EV
d
CP L V
L V
= +

¸

(
¸
(
346
890
1
2 2
2
1
4
.
µ
5. Calculate Reynolds Number Factor -
F
C
C
R
VS
VT
= ÷
|
\

|
.
| 1044 0358
0 655
. .
.
Where -
C
F
W
G P
VS
S
CP
f
=
|
\

|
.
|
1
23500
0 6667
µ
A
.
and -
F
F
F
F C
d
S
d
L
L V
= +
|
\

|
.
|
0 6667
333
2 2
2
01667
890
1
.
.
.
6. Calculate the pressure recovery and piping geometry factors
K
d
D
B1
1
4
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| K
d
D
B2
2
4
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| K
d
D
1
2
1
2
2
05 1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| . K
d
D
2
2
2
2
2
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
|
( )
F F
K K F C
d
LP L
B L v
=
+
+

¸

(
¸
(
(
÷
1 1
2 2
4
0 5
890
1
.
( )
F
K K K K C
d
p
B B v
=
+ + ÷
+
|
\

|
.
|
|
÷
1 2 1 2
2
4
0 5
890
1
.
7 Calculate the final valve size -
Turbulent flow -
C
e inaryC
F
V
V
P
=
Pr lim
or Transitional flow -
C
e inaryC
F
V
V
R
=
Pr lim
or Laminar flow -
C C
V VS
=
or Choked or flashing flow -
C
W
F P G
V
LP CRIT f
=
500 A
8 Calculate the noise level
SL LogC Log P Log t
V
= + ÷ + 10 20 30 5 A ( )
( ) 5 1
1
2
2
AP
P P
K
F K
LogP P
VAP
c
L c
VAP
÷
÷
÷

¸

(
¸
(
(
(
(
+ ÷
For full cavitation subtract from incipient cavitation --
( )
5 1 Log P P
Crit
A A + ÷
Gas
1 Calculate the pressure drop ratio factors
X
P
P
1
1
=
A
F
K
k
=
14 .
2 Calculate the minimum size for sonic velocity
d
W
P
T
M
min
. = 00454
2
1
inches
3 Calculate the preliminary valve size
C
W
X P
V
N
=
633
1 1
. ¸
4 Calculate the piping geometry factor
K
d
D
B1
1
4
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| K
d
D
B2
2
4
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| K
d
D
1
2
1
2
2
05 1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| . K
d
D
2
2
2
2
2
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
|
( )
F
K K K K C
d
p
B B v
=
+ + ÷
+
|
\

|
.
|
|
÷
1 2 1 2
2
4
0 5
890
1
.
5 Calculate the pressure drop ratio factor
( )
X
X
F
X K K C
d
TP
T
P
T B v
=
+
+

¸

(
¸
(
(
÷
2
1 1
2
4
1
1000
1
6 Calculate the expansion factor
Y
X
F X
k T
= ÷ 1
3
1
7 Calculate the final size
FinalC
e inaryC
F Y
V
V
P
=
Pr lim
8 Calculate the valve sound pressure level
Gas
SL Log C F P P D
T
t
SL
v L G 1 1 2
2 1
3
10 28 =
|
\

|
.
|
+ q
Steam
( )
( )
SL Log C F PP D T t
v L SH 1 1 2
2
6
3
10 11000 1 00007 = + q . /
9 Calculate the outlet noise
( )
SL Log P d D M T SL
s G 2 2
2 2
2
2
1
10 018 = + .
10. If
SL SL
1 2
7 ÷ >
then

SL SL =
1
Else
SL SL SL = +
1 2
Two Phase Flow
1 Calculate the vena-contracta pressure drop
P P 0.96 0.28
P
P
P
VC 1
VAP
C
VAP
= ÷ ÷
|
\

|
.
|
2 Calculate the critical drop
P F P
CRIT L VC
=
2
3 Calculate the specific volumes of the gas and liquid
v
g
N
=
1
¸
v
G
l
f
=
0016033 .
4 Calculate the volume fraction and the weight fraction of the gas
V
w v
w v w v
g
g g
g g f f
=
+
f
w
w w
g
g
g f
=
+
5 Calculate the pressure drop ratio factors
X
P
P
1
1
=
A
F
K
k
=
14 .
6 Calculate the expansion factor
Y
X
F X
k T
= ÷ 1
3
1
7 Calculate the effective specific volume for the mixture
( )
v
f v
Y Y
f
G
e
g g g
f
= +
÷
2
1
633 .
8 Calculate the preliminary valve size
( )
C
w w
v
X P
v
f g
e
=
+
633
1 1
.
9 Calculate the piping geometry factor
K
d
D
B1
1
4
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| K
d
D
B2
2
4
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| K
d
D
1
2
1
2
2
05 1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
| . K
d
D
2
2
2
2
2
1 = ÷
|
\

|
.
|
( )
F
K K K K C
d
p
B B v
=
+ + ÷
+
|
\

|
.
|
|
÷
1 2 1 2
2
4
0 5
890
1
.
10 Calculate the final size
C
e inaryC
F
v
V
P
=
Pr lim
11 Sound level calculated using the liquid calculations above.
Fluid Properties
These are calculated using common chemical formulae with each item corrected for pressure and
temperature. Some fluids show deviations from the formulae, the user should check typical calculated
values against known values. In all cases if accurate laboratory information is available it should be used.
Density uses the Redlich-Kwong Equation.
Nomenclature
C
V
Valve sizing coefficient dimensionless
d
Nominal valve size inches
D
1
Inside diameter of inlet piping inches
D
2
Inside diameter of outlet piping inches
¸
n
Fluid density at operating temp and pressure pounds per cubic foot
F
d
Valve style modifier dimensionless
k
Ratio of specific heats dimensionless
F
K
Ratio of specific heats factor dimensionless
F
L
Rated pressure recovery factor dimensionless
F
LP
Combined liquid pressure recovery factor dimensionless
F
P
Piping geometry factor dimensionless
F
R
Reynolds number factor dimensionless
G
f
Specific gravity at flow temperature dimensionless
M
Molecular weight dimensionless
M
S
Mach number at flow conditions dimensionless
P
1
Upstream absolute pressure psia
P
2
Downstream absolute pressure psia
P
c
Critical pressure psia
P
VAP
Vapor pressure psia
AP
Valve pressure drop psi
SL
SL
Sound pressure level dBA
SL
G
Gas property factor dBA
t
Pipe wall thickness inches
T
1
Absolute upstream temperature degR
T
SH
Steam superheat temperature degF
R
EV
Reynolds number dimensionless
v
e
Effective two phase specific volume ft3/lb
v
f
Specific volume of liquid ft3/lb
v
g
Specific volume of gas ft3/lb
V
g
Volume fraction of gas dimensionless
W
Total rate of flow lb/h
w
f
Rate of liquid flow lb/h
w
g
Rate of gas flow lb/h
X
1
Pressure drop ratio dimensionless
X
T
Rated pressure drop ratio factor dimensionless
X
TP
Value of XT for valve/reducer assembly dimensionless
Y
Expansion factor dimensionless
q
Acoustic efficiency dimensionless
References
Control Valve Sizing Equations ANSI/ISA S75.01
Masoneilan Noise Control Manual Masoneilan - Dresser
ISA Handbook of Control Valves. J . W. Hutchison