uralnage ueslgn

?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage ueslgn
Dra|nage ls one of Lhe most |mportant factors ln pavemenL deslgn.
unLll recenLly, Lhls facLor had noL recelved Lhe aLLenLlon lL merlLs.
Cne mlsconcepLlon ls LhaL good dra|nage |s not requ|red |f the Cne mlsconcepLlon ls LhaL good dra|nage |s not requ|red |f the
th|ckness des|gn |s based on saturated cond|t|ons. 1hls concepL
may have been Lrue durlng Lhe old days when Lhe Lrafflc loadlng
and volume were small.
As Lhe welghL and number of axle loads lncrease, water can cause
more damage to pavements, such as by pumplng and by
degradaLlon of pavlng maLerlals, noL merely by Lhe loss of shear
sLrengLh .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage ueslgn
1heoreLlcally, an lnLernal dralnage sysLem ls not requ|red lf Lhe
lnfllLraLlon lnLo Lhe pavemenL ls smaller Lhan Lhe dralnage capaclLy
of Lhe base, subbase, and subgrade.
8ecause Lhe lnfllLraLlon and dralnage capaclLy vary a greaL deal and are 8ecause Lhe lnfllLraLlon and dralnage capaclLy vary a greaL deal and are
dlfflculL Lo esLlmaLe, lL ls suggesLed LhaL dra|nage |ayers be used for
a|| |mportant pavements, such as Lhe premlum or zero-
malnLenance pavemenLs.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage ueslgn
• ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
• MovemenL of WaLer
• MeLhods for conLrolllng waLer ln pavemenLs
• uralnage MaLerlals
• ueslgn Þrocedures • ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
WaLer enLers Lhe pavemenL sLrucLure elLher by:
• |nf||trat|on Lhrough cracks, [olnLs, pavemenL surfaces, and
shoulders
• groundwater from a hlgh waLer Lable, lnLerrupLed aqulfers, and
locallzed sprlngs.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
1he deLrlmenLal effecLs of waLer, when enLrapped ln Lhe pavemenL
sLrucLure, can be summarlzed as follows :
1. lL reduces the strength of unbounded granular maLerlals and
subgrade solls . subgrade solls .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn
(2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
2. lL causes pump|ng of concrete
pavements, wlLh subsequenL faulLlng,
cracklng, and general shoulder
deLerloraLlon .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
3. under hlgh hydrodynamlc pressure generaLed by movlng Lrafflc,
pump|ng of f|nes |n the base course of flexlble pavemenLs can also
occur, wlLh resulLlng loss of supporL .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
4. WaLer causes d|fferent|a| heav|ng over swelllng solls.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
3. ConLlnuous conLacL wlLh waLer causes str|pp|ng of aspha|t m|xture
and lnduces durablllLy (or "u") cracklng of concreLe .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueLrlmenLal LffecLs of WaLer
3. ConLlnuous conLacL wlLh waLer causes str|pp|ng of aspha|t m|xture
and lnduces durablllLy (or "u") cracklng of concreLe .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
• 1he movemenL of waLer ln pavemenL sLrucLures can be caused by
grav|ty, by cap|||ary act|on, by vapor pressures, or by a
comblnaLlon of any of Lhem.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
• 1he flow ln granular maLerlals ls baslcally due Lo gravlLy, LhaL ln
flne-gralned soll ls mosLly due Lo caplllary acLlon.
• ln Lhe absence of gravlLy and caplllary flows, waLer moves prlmarlly
ln Lhe vapor phase ln response Lo dlfferences ln vapor pressure. ln Lhe vapor phase ln response Lo dlfferences ln vapor pressure.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
1he movemenLs of waLer due Lo gravlLy obey uarcy 's law of saLuraLed
flow,
v = kl (8 .1 )
ln whlch:
v ls tbe Jlscbotqe veloclty, v ls tbe Jlscbotqe veloclty,
k ls tbe coefflcleot of petmeoblllty (slmply colleJ permeablllLy), and
l ls Lhe hydraullc gradlenL, whlch ls Lhe head loss beLween Lwo polnLs
dlvlded by Lhe dlsLance beLween Lhem.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
1he dlscharge veloclLy can be used Lo deLermlne Lhe dlscharge as
C = vA (8 .2)
ln whlch: ln whlch:
O ls tbe Jlscbotqe, ot tbe volome of flow pet oolt tlme, ooJ
A ls o ctoss -secLlonal area normal Lo Lhe dlrecLlon of flow.
lL can be seen LhaL Lhe dlscharge veloclLy ls noL Lhe acLual seepage
veloclLy Lhrough Lhe pores, buL ls an lmaglnary veloclLy for
compuLlng Lhe dlscharge.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
lf Lhe sand layer ln Lhls example ls very Lhlck, Lhe flow channel
becomes wlder aL greaLer depLhs.
As more areas become open Lo Lhe flow, Lhe amounL of seepage
lncreases. 1herefore, Lhe use of uarcy's law for dralnage deslgn by lncreases. 1herefore, Lhe use of uarcy's law for dralnage deslgn by
assum|ng the f|ow ||nes to be vert|ca| |s on the conservat|ve s|de.
1he analysls of unsaLuraLed flow by caplllary acLlon ls much more
compllcaLed . 8oLh Lhe permeablllLy and Lhe hydraullc gradlenL due
Lo Lhe change ln caplllary heads are funcLlons of molsLure conLenL
and are someLlmes lnfluenced by Lhe pasL molsLure condlLlons.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MovemenL of WaLer
lL ls well known LhaL mo|sture moves ln vapor form from warmer to
coo|er reg|ons.
1he vapor condenses under Lhe pavemenL aL nlghL when Lhe
pavemenL becomes cool. ln norLhern LemperaLe cllmaLes, Lhere ls a pavemenL becomes cool. ln norLhern LemperaLe cllmaLes, Lhere ls a
downward mlgraLlon of molsLure vapor from Lhe warmer surface Lo
Lhe cooler subsurface ln Lhe summer and a correspondlng upward
movemenL of molsLure ln Lhe wlnLer.
1hls upward movemenL of waLer vapor ls parLlally responslble for Lhe
hlgh molsLure conLenL ln granular bases .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
1he deLrlmenLal effecLs of waLer on pavemenLs can be mlnlmlzed by:
• prevent|ng lL from enLerlng Lhe pavemenL,
• provldlng dra|nage Lo remove lL qulckly, or • provldlng dra|nage Lo remove lL qulckly, or
• bulldlng Lhe pavemenL strong enough Lo reslsL Lhe comblned effecL
of load and waLer.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
ÞrevenLlon
1he prevenLlon of waLer from enLerlng Lhe pavemenL sLrucLure
requlres |ntercept|ng groundwater and sea||ng the pavement
surface. surface.
1he deLrlmenLal effecLs of groundwaLer have been well documenLed,
and hlghway englneers have pald conslderable aLLenLlon Lo
lnLercepLlng groundwaLer.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
ÞrevenLlon
Less aLLenLlon has been glven Lo seallng Lhe surface Lo exclude
lnfllLraLlon from raln. As a resulL, a conslderable amounL of waLer
ofLen enLers Lhe pavemenL sLrucLure. ofLen enLers Lhe pavemenL sLrucLure.
8ecause comp|ete prevent|on |s not poss|b|e durlng Lhe useful llfe of a
pavemenL, Lhe |nsta||at|on of |nterna| dra|nage systems Lo remove
waLer could be needed .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
• Þrevent|on
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
• Þrevent|on
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
• Þrevent|on
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
lf water enters the pavement sLrucLure elLher Lhrough lnfllLraLlon or as
groundwaLer, |t must be removed qu|ck|y before any damage can be
lnlLlaLed. lnlLlaLed.
1hree dlfferenL dralnage lnsLallaLlons, elLher lndlvldually or ln
comblnaLlon, have been used mosL frequenLly for pavemenL deslgn:
• dralnage layer or blankeL,
• longlLudlnal draln, and
• Lransverse draln.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
llgure 8.3 shows a dralnage blankeL for lnLercepLlng surface
lnfllLraLlon. 1he dralnage blankeL can be:
• LermlnaLed wlLh |ong|tud|na| dra|ns and plpe ouLleLs, (a), or • LermlnaLed wlLh |ong|tud|na| dra|ns and plpe ouLleLs, (a), or
• dayllghLed by extend|ng to the s|de slope, (b).
1o mlnlmlze Lhe lnLruslon of flnes, all maLerlals surroundlng Lhe
dralnage blankeL and Lhe longlLudlnal draln musL meeL Lhe
fllLer crlLerla.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
• kemova|
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
llgure 8.4 shows Lhe locaLlon of dralnage layer ln a pavemenL
sLrucLure. ln (a), Lhe base course ls used as a dralnage layer and
saLlsfles boLh Lhe requlremenLs of sLrengLh for a base course and
Lhe permeablllLy for a dralnage layer .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
ln (b), Lhe dralnage layer ls placed below Lhe subgrade, elLher as an
exLra layer noL consldered ln Lhlckness deslgn or as a parL of Lhe
subbase.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
1he placemenL of Lhe dralnage layer dlrecLly under Lhe ÞCC or PMA ls
preferable because Lhe waLer can be dralned ouL more qulckly, Lhus
ellmlnaLlng any chance for pumplng Lo occur. ellmlnaLlng any chance for pumplng Lo occur.
Powever, lL has Lhe dlsadvanLages LhaL Lhe def|c|ency of f|nes ln Lhe
dralnage layer could cause stab|||ty prob|ems and LhaL Lhe waLer ln
Lhe subbase cannoL draln readlly lnLo Lhe dralnage layer .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
llgure 8.3 shows Lhe use of a longlLudlnal draln parallel Lo Lhe roadway
Lo lower Lhe groundwaLer Lable.
lf Lhe general dlrecLlon of groundwater f|ow |s para||e| to the lf Lhe general dlrecLlon of groundwater f|ow |s para||e| to the
roadway, such as when Lhe roadway ls cuL more or less
perpendlcular Lo Lhe exlsLlng conLours, Lhen transverse dra|ns can
be more effect|ve ln lnLercepLlng Lhe flow.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
8emoval
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MeLhods for conLrolllng
waLer ln pavemenLs
SLronger ÞavemenL SecLlons
1he use of th|cker nMA or ÞCC can greaLly reduce Lhe hydrodynamlc
pressure and lLs deLrlmenLal effecLs.
1he AsphalL lnsLlLuLe sLrongly advocaLes Lhe use of full-depLh asphalL
pavemenLs. Accordlng Lo Al (1984), vapor movemenL ls probably a
prlmary cause of molsLure enLerlng and saLuraLlng granular bases,
and Lhls problem can be ellmlnaLed by Lhe consLrucLlon of a full-
depLh asphalL pavemenL placed dlrecLly on Lhe naLlve soll .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
uralnage maLerlals lnclude aggregaLes, geoLexLlles, and plpes.
Aggregates can be used as dra|nage |ayers and lrench dralns or as
fllLer maLerlals for Lhelr proLecLlon.
Geotext||es are used malnly Lo replace aggregaLes as f||ters.
Þ|pes can be perforaLed, sloLLed, or open-[olnLed Lypes Lo be placed
lnslde Lhe lrench draln Lo co||ect water, or Lhe convenLlonal Lype Lo
convey water laLerally Lo Lhe ouLleL .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates
AggregaLes Lo be used for dralnage layers and lrench dralns should
conslsL of sound, c|ean, and open-graded mater|a|s.
1hey musL have a hlgh permeablllLy Lo accommodaLe Lhe free passage
of waLer and be proLecLed from clogglng by means of a fllLer .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
llgure 8.6 shows Lhe gra|n s|ze curve and permeablllLy of some Lyplcal
open-graded bases and fllLer maLerlals .
1he graln slze ls always ploLLed ln log scale and Lhe percenL passlng ln
arlLhmeLlc scale . 1he slzes ln lnches correspondlng Lo Lhe sleve
numbers are also shown, Lo faclllLaLe Lhe deLermlnaLlon of varlous
slzes for fllLer deslgn.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
?ang P. Puang,
Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn
(2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
íffect of lloes
lL has long been recognlzed LhaL proper gradaLlon and denslLy are vlLal
Lo Lhe sLablllLy of granular maLerlals. Lo Lhe sLablllLy of granular maLerlals.
1he gradaLlon requlred for sLablllLy usually ranges unlformly from
coarse Lo flne. 1o obLaln Lhe des|red permeab|||ty, Lhe f|ne port|ons
need be de|eted , Lhus, Lhe sLablllLy of Lhe dralnage layer can be
adversely affecLed.
1hls effecL can be compensaLed for by stab|||z|ng Lhe dralnage layer
wlLh a small amounL of aspha|t or port|and cement.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
• Aggregates
• Þermeab|||ty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
• Aggregates
• Þermeab|||ty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
íffect of Ctolo 5lze
A number of approxlmaLe relaLlonshlps have been suggesLed beLween
permeablllLy and graln slze. permeablllLy and graln slze.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
íffect of Ctolo 5lze
1he mosL frequenLly used approxlmaLlon ls Lhe one suggesLed by
Pazen for fllLer sands : Pazen for fllLer sands :
k = C
k
u
10
2
(8.3 )
ln whlch:
k ls Lhe permeablllLy ln mm/s,
u
10
ls Lhe effecLlve slze, or Lhe graln slze correspondlng Lo 10° passlng,
C
k
ls an experlmenLal coefflclenL dependenL on Lhe naLure of soll.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
íffect of Ctolo 5lze
LxperlmenLal evldence suggesLs LhaL Lhe accepLable approxlmaLe
values for k can be obLalned when Pazen's formula ls applled over a values for k can be obLalned when Pazen's formula ls applled over a
wlde range of solls.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
• Aggregates
• Þermeab|||ty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
MoulLon (1980) developed Lhe followlng emplrlcal equaLlon for
deLermlnlng Lh permeablllLy of granular dralnage and fllLer
maLerlals :
k ls Lhe permeablllLy ln fL/day,
u
10
ls Lhe effecLlve slze ln mm, and
n ls Lhe poroslLy
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
• Aggregates
• Þermeab|||ty
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: letmeoblllty of Aspbolt-1teoteJ 8oses
Next Meetinq.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
Aggregates:
Þermeab|||ty of
(Aspbolt-1teoteJ
8oses)
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s
and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce
Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: Þermeab|||ty of (Aspbolt-1teoteJ 8oses)
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s
and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce
Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: Þermeab|||ty of (Aspbolt-1teoteJ 8oses)
lloJly ooJ ílsoyeJ (1995) JevelopeJ tbe followloq regresslon
equaLlon for esLlmaLlng Lhe permeablllLy of asphalL-LreaLed
bases : bases :
k = coefflcleot of petmeoblllty lo feet pet Joy,
l
b
= petceot ospbolt cemenL by LoLal welghL of sample,
v
o
= petceot olt volJs by totol volome of somple ,
Þ
#8
= petceot by welqbt possloq oo. 8 sleve (2 .J6 mm).
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Aggregates: Þermeab|||ty of (Aspbolt-1teoteJ 8oses)
1hls equaLlon was based on 1.S-|n. (38-mm) top s|ze aggregates
wlLh 2 to 3 percent aspha|t, as used by mosL hlghway
agencles ln Lhe deslgn of asphalL-LreaLed dralnage layers . agencles ln Lhe deslgn of asphalL-LreaLed dralnage layers .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es
Geotext||es are f||ter fabr|cs LhaL can be used Lo proLecL Lhe
dralnage layer from clogglng.
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe Lwo general requlremenLs Lo reta|n so|| and Lo
a||ow water to f|ow, geoLexLlles musL have sufflclenL openlng
areas Lo prevent Lhem from c|ogg|ng.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es
1hey musL be made from sLrong, Lough, polyesLer,
polypropylene, or oLher roL-proof polymerlc flbers formed
lnLo a fabrlc of Lhe woven or nonwoven type .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: llltet ctltetlo
1he mosL |mportant d|mens|on of geoLexLlles ls Lhe apparent
open|ng s|ze, ACS, deflned as Lhe slze of glass beads when 3°
pass Lhrough Lhe geoLexLlle . pass Lhrough Lhe geoLexLlle .
1he meLhod for deLermlnlng ACS ls speclfled by Lhe AS1M
(1989a).
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: llltet ctltetlo
1here are Lwo conf||ct|ng requ|rements for ACS.
1o achleve Lhe max|mum retent|on of solls, Lhe sma||est 1o achleve Lhe max|mum retent|on of solls, Lhe sma||est
open|ng slze (Lhe largesL ACS ln Lerms of sleve number)
should be used, yeL,
Lo m|n|m|ze Lhe clogglng of fabrlcs, Lhe max|mum open|ng s|ze
(Lhe lowesL ACS) should be used .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: llltet ctltetlo
1. lor f|ne-gra|ned so||s wlLh more Lhan 30° passlng Lhrough a
no . 200 sleve :
Woven: ACS ≤ u
83
(8 .10a )
nonwoven: ACS ≤ 1 .8u
83
(8.10b)
ACS ≥ no. 30 sleve or openlng smaller Lhan 0.297 mm (8 .10c )
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: llltet ctltetlo
2. lor granu|ar mater|a|s wlLh 30° or less passlng Lhrough a no .
200 sleve :
ACS ≤ 8 x u (8 .11 ) ACS ≤ 8 x u
83
(8 .11 )
ln whlch
8 = 1 when C
u
≤ 2 or ≥ 8
8 = 0.3C
u
when 2 ≤C
u
≤ 4
8 = 8/C
u
when 4 < C
u
< 8
C
u
ls Lhe coefflclenL of unlformlLy = u
6o
/u
1o
.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: llltet ctltetlo
3. When Lhe proLecLed soll conta|ns part|c|es from 1 |n. (23 .4
mm) Lo Lhose passlng Lhrough a no. 200 sleve, on|y the
port|on pass|ng through a No. 4 s|eve should be used Lo port|on pass|ng through a No. 4 s|eve should be used Lo
deLermlne Lhe graln slze.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: letmeoblllty ctltetlo
MeLhods for deLermlnlng Lhe permeablllLy of fabrlc are speclfled
by Lhe AS1M .
As wlLh solls, boLh Lhe consLanL and Lhe falllng head meLhods
can be used.
1he resulL glves Lhe perm|tt|v|ty of the fabr|c, whlch musL be
mulLlplled by Lhe th|ckness of Lhe fabrlc Lo obLaln lLs
permeablllLy.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: letmeoblllty ctltetlo
1o reduce hydraullc head loss ln Lhe fllLer and lncrease dralnage
efflclency, Lhe fabr|c musL be more permeab|e Lhan Lhe
ad[acent so||:
LquaLlon 8 .12 can usually be saLlsfled unless Lhe soll ls
exLremely permeable.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: cloqqloq ctltetl o
Woven: ÞercenL open area ≥ 4°
nonwoven: ÞoroslLy ≥ 30°
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: Appllcotloos
Geotext||es for subsurface dralnage may be used as:
• an enve|ope of Lrench dralns,
• a wrapp|ng of plpe dralns, or • a wrapp|ng of plpe dralns, or
• a f||ter of dralnage layers.
ln Lhe deslgn of subdra|nage, geoLexLlles should be glven
conslderaLlon as an a|ternat|ve des|gn.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Geotext||es: Appllcotloos
uue Lo Lhe relaLlve ease of |nsta||at|on as compared Lo Lhe
d|ff|cu|ty of placlng a fllLer aggregaLe and a coarse aggregaLe
ln separaLe layers wlLhouL conLamlnaLlon, Lhe use of
geoLexLlles may be more cost effect|ve. geoLexLlles may be more cost effect|ve.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Þ|pes
1he p|pes Lo be used for subdralnage may be made of:
• concreLe,
• clay, • clay,
• blLumlnlzed flber,
• meLal, or
• varlous plasLlcs
wlLh smooth or corrugated surfaces.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Þ|pes
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
Þ|pes
When used as underdra|ns, mosL are perforated or s|otted , a
few have open [o|nts, so LhaL Lhe waLer can flow freely lnLo
Lhe plpes.
1hey musL be surrounded by sulLable aggregates or fabr|cs as
fllLer maLerlals Lo prevent Lhe openlngs from c|ogg|ng.
When used as out|et p|pes, Lhey do not need perforaLlons, sloLs,
or open [olnLs and can be placed ln a Lrench and backfllled
wlLh naLlve solls .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
uralnage MaLerlals
• Þlpes
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
llgure 8 .12 shows Lhe cross secLlon of a two-|ane h|ghway wlLh
asphalL shoulders .
1he concrete pavement ls 9 ln. (229 mm) Lhlck wlLh an open-
graded subbase LhaL also serves as a dralnage layer . graded subbase LhaL also serves as a dralnage layer .
1he dra|nage |ayer ls 6 ln. (132 mm) Lhlck and ls connecLed Lo
Lhe perforaLed or sloLLed collecLor plpes for lowerlng Lhe
waLer Lable and removlng Lhe lnflow.
1hls flgure ls used ln Lhe examples LhaL follow Lo lllusLraLe Lhe
deslgn procedures.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow
1he ma[or sources of |nf|ow are surface lnfllLraLlon, groundwaLer
seepage, and melLwaLer from lce lenses.
Whenever posslble, groundwater should be lowered by deep
longlLudlnal dralns and should not be a||owed to seep lnLo
Lhe pavemenL sLrucLure, as shown ln llgure 8 .3 .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: 5otfoce lofllttotloo
Surface |nf||trat|on ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL source of waLer and
should always be consldered ln subdralnage deslgn.
When water tab|e ls aL a conslderable dlsLance be|ow the
pavement surface, as ln Lhe case of a hlgh flll, surface
lnfllLraLlon ls probably Lhe on|y water to be cons|dered for
subdralnage deslgn.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow:
Surface |nf||trat|on
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: 5otfoce lofllttotloo
Clven Lhe resulLs of lnfllLraLlon LesLs ln ConnecLlcuL, 8ldgeway
(1976) lndlcaLed LhaL Lhe durat|on of ra|nfa|| ls a more cr|t|ca|
facLor Lhan Lhe |ntens|ty. facLor Lhan Lhe |ntens|ty.
Pe found LhaL Lhe amount of |nf||trat|on can be relaLed dlrecLly
Lo crack|ng and suggesLed LhaL an lnfllLraLlon raLe 4 of 2 .4
fL
J
/Joy/ft of ctock (0 .22 mJ/Joy/m) be oseJ fot Jeslqo.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: 5otfoce lofllttotloo
1he |nf||trat|on rate per unlL area p, coo be exptesseJ os
I
c
|s the crack |nf||trat|on rate,
N
c
|s the number of |ong|tud|na| cracks,
W
p
|s the w|dth of pavement sub[ected to |nf||trat|on,
W
c
|s the |ength of transverse cracks or [o|nts,
C
s
|s the spac|ng of transverse cracks or [o|nts, and
k
p
|s the rate of |nf||trat|on through uncracked pavement surface,
wh|ch |s numer|ca||y equa| to the coeff|c|ent of permeab|||ty of
nMA or ÞCC.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: 5otfoce lofllttotloo
8y assumlng LhaL n
c
= n + 1, where n ls Lhe number of Lrafflc lanes,
W
c
= W
p
, k
p
= 0, and Lhe lnfllLraLlon raLe ls 0.1 fL
3
/h/fL of crack, Lhe
lnflow raLe can be wrlLLen as (8ldgeway, 1982)
ln whlch
q ls Lhe lnflow raLe ln fL
3
/h/llnear fL of pavemenL and
C
s
ls Lhe [olnL spaclng for concreLe pavemenLs and
ls 40 fL (12 .2 mm) for asphalL pavemenLs.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: CtoooJwotet 5eepoqe
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: CtoooJwotet 5eepoqe
lf Lhe dra|nage |ayer ls used Lo |ower the water tab|e, ln
addlLlon Lo provldlng dralnage for surface lnfllLraLlon, Lhe
charL shown ln llgure 8.14 can be applled Lo deLermlne Lhe charL shown ln llgure 8.14 can be applled Lo deLermlne Lhe
lnflow from groundwaLer.
1he charL ls appllcable Lo Lhe general case where an
|mperv|ous boundary ||es aL a cerLaln dlsLance be|ow the
dra|nage |ayer. 1he lnflow ls dlvlded lnLo Lwo parLs.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: CtoooJwotet 5eepoqe
1he |nf|ow above Lhe bottom of the dra|nage |ayer ls q
1
and
can be deLermlned from
ln whlch
k ls Lhe permeablllLy of Lhe soll ln Lhe cuL slope/subgrade,
P ls Lhe lnlLlal helghL of Lhe groundwaLer Lable above Lhe
lmpervlous layer
P
0
ls Lhe verLlcal dlsLance beLween Lhe boLLom of Lhe dralnage
layer and Lhe lmpervlous layer
L
1
ls Lhe dlsLance of lnfluence
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: CtoooJwotet 5eepoqe
D|stance of Inf|uence, L
l
1he |nf|ow be|ow the dra|nage |ayer ls q
2
ooJ coo be JetetmloeJ
ftom llqote 8.14 . noLe LhaL q
1
and q
2
are Lhe volume of flow
per unlL Llme per unlL lengLh of Lhe longlLudlnal draln. 1he
laLeral flow ls
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: CtoooJwotet 5eepoqe
1he groundwaLer |nf|ow to the dra|nage |ayer per unlL area ls
ln whlch W ls Lhe wldLh of Lhe roadway. ln whlch W ls Lhe wldLh of Lhe roadway.
Powever lf Lhe pavement |s s|oped to one s|de and Lhe collecLor
p|pes are |nsta||ed on|y on one s|de, as shown ln llgure 8.12,
Lhe laLeral lnflow per unlL lengLh of plpe ls
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: ueslqo loflow
1he des|gn |nf|ow ls Lhe sum of the |nf|ows from all sources
m|nus Lhe outf|ow Lhrough Lhe subgrade soll.
1he outf|ow Lhrough subgrade depends on Lhe permeablllLy of 1he outf|ow Lhrough subgrade depends on Lhe permeablllLy of
Lhe soll and on Lhe waLer Lable aL Lhe boundary and can be
deLermlned by Lhe use of f|ownets or oLher slmpllfled deslgn
charLs, as presenLed by MoulLon (1980).
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: ueslqo loflow
When Lhe subgrade |s not affected by any waLer Lable, a
slmple and conservaLlve meLhod Lo esLlmaLe Lhe ouLflow
capaclLy ls Lo assume the hydrau||c grad|ent to be 1, as
lllusLraLed ln Lxample 8.1, so Lhe ouLflow raLe ls equal Lo Lhe lllusLraLed ln Lxample 8.1, so Lhe ouLflow raLe ls equal Lo Lhe
permeablllLy of Lhe soll.
ln Lxample 8.6, Lhe soll has a permeab|||ty of 0.34 ft]day (1 .2
x 10-4 cm/s), so Lhe outf|ow rate w||| be 0.34 ft
3
]day]ft
2
(0.10
m
3
/day/m
2
), whlch ls qulLe large compared Lo Lhe surface
lnfllLraLlon of 0.46 fL
3
/day/fL
2
(0.14 m
2
/day/m
2
) .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: ueslqo loflow
lf Lhe ouLflow Lhrough Lhe subgrade ls neglecLed, Lhe deslgn
lnflow can be deLermlned by one of Lhe followlng
comblnaLlons:
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Lst|mat|on of Inf|ow: ueslqo loflow
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty
1he capac|ty of boLh Lhe dralnage layer and Lhe collecLor plpe
musL be deslgned so LhaL Lhe outf|ow rate |s greater than the
|nf|ow rate and Lhe waLer can be carrled ouL safely from Lhe |nf|ow rate and Lhe waLer can be carrled ouL safely from Lhe
sources Lo Lhe ouLleL slLes.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: utolooqe loyet
1here are Lwo deslgn requlremenLs for a dralnage layer.
llrsL, Lhe steady-state capac|ty musL be greaLer Lhan Lhe llrsL, Lhe steady-state capac|ty musL be greaLer Lhan Lhe
lnflow raLe.
Second, Lhe unsteady-state capac|ty musL be such LhaL Lhe
waLer can be dralned qulckly afLer each preclplLaLlon evenL.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: utolooqe loyet
SLeady-SLaLe llow
1he sLeady-sLaLe capaclLy of Lhe dralnage layer can be compuLed
(8aber and Sawyer, 1932)
ln whlch
q ls Lhe dlscharge capaclLy of Lhe dralnage layer,
k ls Lhe permeablllLy of Lhe dralnage layer,
S ls Lhe slope of Lhe dralnage layer,
P ls Lhe Lhlckness of Lhe dralnage layer, and
L ls Lhe lengLh of Lhe dralnage layer .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: utolooqe loyet
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: collectot llpes
A sysLem of longlLudlnal collecLors wlLh some Lransverse
collecLors aL crlLlcal polnLs ls generally used Lo remove Lhe
free waLer from Lhe dralnage layer (and from groundwaLer, lf free waLer from Lhe dralnage layer (and from groundwaLer, lf
any).
1ransverse co||ectors may be used when Lhe comblnaLlon of
Lransverse and longlLudlnal grades ls such LhaL f|ow tends to
take p|ace more |n the |ong|tud|na| d|rect|on Lhan ln Lhe
Lransverse dlrecLlon.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: CollecLor Þlpes
1he co||ect|on system conslsLs of a seL of perforaLed, sloLLed,
or open-[olnLed p|pes LhaL are used Lo remove waLer from Lhe
pavemenL sLrucLure and Lo convey lL Lo sulLable ouLleLs
ouLslde Lhe roadway llmlLs. ouLslde Lhe roadway llmlLs.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: CollecLor Þlpes
1he deslgn of such sysLems should conslder:
• Lhe type of plpe used,
• Lhe |ocat|on and depLh of Lransverse and longlLudlnal • Lhe |ocat|on and depLh of Lransverse and longlLudlnal
co||ectors and Lhelr ouLleLs,
• Lhe s|ope and s|ze of Lhe collecLor plpes, and
• Lhe prov|s|on of adequate f||ter proLecLlon for Lhe plpes .
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: CollecLor Þlpes
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: collectot llpes
1he requlred permeab|||ty k can be deLermlned dlrecLly from
uarcy's law by assumlng a hydraullc gradlenL of unlLy, or
LquaLlon 8.31 can be used Lo deLermlne Lhe wldLh of Lhe Lrench
lf Lhe permeablllLy of Lhe aggregaLe ln Lhe Lrench ls glven.
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: collectot llpes
1he d|scharge capac|ty of Lhe collecLor plpes can be
calculaLed by Mannlng's formula for channel flow as
ln whlch
C ls Lhe dlscharge ln fL/day,
n ls Lhe rlughness coefflcxlenL,
A ls Lhe area of plpe ln fL,
8 ls Lhe hydraullc radlus of plpe ln fL,
S ls Lhe slope ln fL/fL. 1able 8.6
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: collectot llpes
1o deLermlne Lhe dlameLer of Lhe plpe
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
ueslgn Þrocedures
Determ|nat|on of Dra|nage Capac|ty: collectot llpes
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004
MldLerm Lxam on 1ues (leb 3)
Coverage:
Chapter 7 Mater|a| Character|zat|on
Chapter 8 Dra|nage Des|gn
Cpen noLes
?ang P. Puang, Þavement Ana|ys|s and Des|gn (2nd LdlLlon), ÞrenLlce Pall, lnc., 2004