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AN INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICAL PROOFS NOTES FOR MATH 3034
Jimmy T. Arnold
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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: The Structure of Mathematical Statements 1.1. Statements 1.2. Statement Forms, Logical Equivalence, and Negations 1.3. Quantiﬁers 1.4: Deﬁnitions CHAPTER 2: Methods of Proof 2.1. Basic Proofs with Quantiﬁers 2.2. Basic Proofs with Mixed Quantiﬁers 2.3. Implications 2.4. Proofs by Contradiction and Equivalent Statements 2.5. Summary: Form!! Form!! Form!! CHAPTER 3: Introduction to Sets 3.1. Operations on Sets 3.2. Relations Between Sets 3.3. Indexed Families of Sets CHAPTER 4: The Integers 4.1. Mathematical Induction 4.2. The Division Algorithm and Greatest Common Divisors 4.3. Relatively Prime Integers CHAPTER 5: Equivalence Relations and Equivalence Classes 5.1. Equivalence Relations 5.2. Equivalence Classes 5.3. Mappings 5.4. Binary Operations 5.5. Composition and Invertible Mappings

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NOTATION Symbol R R+ R# Q Q+ Q# Z Z+ Z# Mm×n (S) Set of all of all of all of all of all of all of all of all of all of all The The The The The The The The The The set set set set set set set set set set real numbers positive real numbers nonzero real numbers rational numbers positive rational numbers nonzero rational numbers integers positive integers nonzero integers m × n matrices with entries from the set S . 3 .

The negation of P . This is an example of an open statement and we will consider these later. Deﬁnition 2: Let P denote a statement. Abe Lincoln was a great president. 3. 5. Mathematical English Term Expression Negation not P Symbolic Truth Table Form Deﬁnition P ∼P T F ∼P F T Exercise 1: (a) (b) (c) In each of the following. The following truth table relates the truth values of P and ∼ P . x ≤ 5.CHAPTER 1: THE STRUCTURE OF MATHEMATICAL STATEMENTS Section 1. 2400 + 1 is a prime integer. Solution: (1) Yes (2) Yes (3) No (4) No (5) This is not a statement until x is assigned a particular value. In the meantime. 4 is a prime integer. P : π < 4.1: STATEMENTS Deﬁnition 1: both. is the assertion that P is false. P : ln(e2 x2 ) = 2(1 + ln(x)) P : 9 is an even integer. A statement (or proposition) is an assertion that is true or false but not Example 1: Which of the following is a statement: 1. 2400 + 1 is a large number. we will use open statements in examples as if they were statements. 2. 4. write ∼ P in English. 4 . denoted by ∼ P .

(b) The mathematical “or” is always used in the “inclusive” sense. write each of the statements in (a) – (f) symbolically and state whether the statement is true or false. one or the other. Exercise 2: With statements P and Q as deﬁned below. “or” is sometimes used in an “exclusive” sense. √ P : 4 is an even integer.” is likely meant in the exclusive sense. Let P and Q be statements. √ (d) 4 is an even integer or 3 < 17. is true. √ (e) 4 is an odd integer or 3 < 17. if both P and Q are true then P ∨ Q is also true. 5 . that is. In common English usage. Conjunction and Disjunction (“and” and “or”) Mathematical English Term Expression Symbolic Truth Table Form Deﬁnition P Q P ∧Q T T T T F F P ∧Q F T F F F F P T T F F Q P ∨Q T T F T T T F F conjunction P and Q disjunction P or Q P ∨Q Comments (a) Other terms that mean “and” are but and also. √ (b) 4 is an even integer and 3 ≥ 17. but not both. √ (f) 4 is an odd integer or 3 ≥ 17. that is.We now introduce “connectives” that can be used to combine two or more given statements to obtain a new statement. A statement such as “You may have coke or pepsi. √ (c) 4 is an odd integer and 3 ≥ 17. Q: 3 < 17 √ (a) 4 is an even integer and 3 < 17.

For example the statement “If 4 is an odd integer then 18 is prime. • P only if Q. • If P then Q. certain key words always refer to the hypothesis and others to the conclusion. The following table summarizes some of these. Terms for P and Q in the implication P → Q P Q hypothesis conclusion only if if necessary suﬃcient 6 . One way to remember these is to remember that in an implication. • P implies Q. (b) Following are some of the various English expressions that translate to P → Q.” is a true statement. • P is suﬃcient for Q. • Q is necessary for P . • Q when P .Exercise 3: Write the statement “19 is neither even nor divisible by 3” in symbolic form using the notation: P : 19 is even Q: 19 is divisible by 3 Implication Mathematical English Term Expression Symbolic Truth Table Form Deﬁnition P Q P →Q T T T T F F P →Q F T T F F T implication If P then Q Comments (a) Note that the implication P → Q is true whenever P is false.

√ (b) 4 is an odd integer if and only if 3 < 17.Exercise 4: In each of the following you are given statements P and Q and an implication involving P and Q. 7 . determine if the statement is true or false. In each problem determine if the given statement is P → Q or Q → P . √ (a) 4 is an even integer if and only if 3 < 17. (2) P is equivalent to Q. √ P: 5 = 7 Q: 3 = 2. (b) 3 is even only if 6 is prime. Also determine if the given statement is true or false. (3) P is necessary and suﬃcient for Q. P : 10 is prime Q: 4 is even (d) For 10 to be prime it is suﬃcient that 4 be even. P : 10 is prime Q: 4 is even Equivalence Mathematical English Term Expression Symbolic Truth Table Form Deﬁnition P Q P ↔Q T T T T F F P if and only if Q P ↔ Q F T F F F T equivalence Following are some of the various English expressions that translate to P ↔ Q. (1) P if and only if Q. Exercise 5: In each of (a) – (c). √ (a) 5 = 7 whenever 3 = 2 . P : 3 is even Q: 6 is prime (c) For 10 to be prime it is necessary that 4 be even. √ (c) 4 is an odd integer if and only if 3 ≥ 17.

and state whether the contrapositive is true or false. √ (d) If 3 ≥ 17 then 4 is is a prime integer. In each case. √ (b) If 3 ≥ 17 then 4 is not a prime integer.The Converse and Contrapositive An implication P → Q has converse Q → P and contrapositive ∼ Q →∼ P . determine whether the given statement is true or false. √ (a) If 3 < 17 then 4 is not a prime integer. state whether the converse is true or false. 8 . Exercise 6: For each statement in (a) – (d) write both the converse and contrapositive of the given statement. √ (c) If 3 < 17 then 4 is a prime integer.

The solutions to x3 − 3x2 + 4x − 6 = 0 are diﬃcult to ﬁnd. true. 3 is prime if 4 is even. If 2 < 3 then b = 6.3. If a = 4 then 3 < 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 1.1 EXERCISES 1. (a) (b) (c) Which of the following is a statement? 2300 > 3200 . Identify the hypothesis and conclusion in each of the following implications. Write the converse and contrapositive of each of the following. √ √ If 5 > 17 then 7 = 2. 3 must be prime. There is a prime integer larger than 1010 .1.1.1.1.5. √ √ If 3 ≤ 17 then 7 > 2. 4 is an even integer only if 3 is prime. In each of (a) – (i) determine the value(s) of a and/or b for which the statement is 3 < 2 and b = 6. 4 is even when 3 is prime. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) 1. If 3 < 2 then b = 6. a = 4 if and only if 2 < 3. 853 = (56)15 + 13. For 4 to be even. 10 9 . 3 < 2 if and only if b = 6. a = 4 or 3 < 2. √ √ If 3 ≤ 17 then 7 = 2. If a = 4 then 2 < 3.1.2.4. a = 4 or 2 < 3.1.5. For 4 to be even it is suﬃcient that 3 be prime.5. 4198 + 7432. For 3 to be prime it is necessary that 4 be even. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1.

5.1. #2. • Bill is staying home but Sue will not go with Robbie.7. 10 . and #3) each is either a knight or a knave.1. Explain your reasoning.” Which are knights and which are knaves? Explain your reasoning. • • • Suppose the following statements are all true: If Joe passes Math 3034 then Joe will graduate.1. Each makes a statement: #1: “We are all three knaves. Either Joe will pass Math 3034 or he will get a job ﬂipping hamburgers.” #2: “Two of us are knaves and one of us is a knight. Determine whether or not Joe will get a job ﬂipping hamburgers.“ #3: “I am a knight and the other two are knaves.6.1. Is Mike taking Jen to the prom? Justify your answer. In a group of three individuals (who we will label as #1. • If Jason goes with Debbie and Bill stays home then Sue will go with Robbie. 1. The prom is Saturday night and the following facts are known: • Either Mike is not taking Jen or Jason is going with Debbie. Joe will not graduate. Knights always tell the truth but knaves never tell the truth. 1.

R. Proof: P Q ∼P T T F F T F T F T T F F ∼ Q P → Q ∼ Q →∼ P F T T T F F F T T T T T Theorem 2: An implication and its converse are not logically equivalent.2.Section 1. The proofs of the following theorems will illustrate. is called a statement form. and S represent unassigned statements. Notation: If R and S are statement forms. STATEMENT FORMS. 11 . we will write R ⇐⇒ S to mean that R and S are logically equivalent. where P . that is. Q. One method for determining whether two statement forms are logically equivalent is to construct a truth table that compares their truth values for all possible truth values of the component variables. (P → Q) ⇐⇒ (∼ Q → ∼ P ). (P → Q) ⇐⇒ (Q → P ). that is. a statement form has no meaning and no truth value until each variable is replaced by a speciﬁc statement. While a statement must be either true or false. Deﬁnition 1: Two statement forms are logically equivalent provided they have the same truth values for all possible truth values of the component variables. Theorem 1: An implication and its contrapositive are logically equivalent. for components P and Q. for components P and Q. LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE. AND NEGATIONS Logical Equivalence An expression such as (P ∧ ∼ Q) → ∼ (R ∨ S ).

For instance. Rules for Negations In mathematics we must routinely formulate and understand the negation of a given statement. Proof: P Q ∼P T T F F T F T F T T F F P →Q ∼P ∨Q T T F F T T T T Comment: Equivalence (represented by ↔) and logical equivalence (represented by ⇐⇒) are not the same. . not statements. . and √ “If 5 is not prime then 3 ≥ 17” are equivalent. Only statement forms. the ∼ has been distributed across all connectives and 12 . (P → Q) ⇐⇒ (∼ P ∨ Q). Recall that particular statements are equivalent provided both are true or both are false.” the resulting statements are always equivalent. the negation of a statement is trivial to formulate. By a useful negation we mean that in the corresponding form. it automatically follows that the statements: √ “If 3 < 17 then 5 is prime”. Theorem 3: For symbolic statements P and Q. are logically equivalent.Proof: P Q P →Q Q→P T T T T F T T F T F F T T T F F Note that in the second and third rows the implication and its converse have diﬀerent truth values. “it is not true that . . In one sense. since the statement forms P → Q and ∼ Q →∼ P are logically equivalent. Formulations such as those above are not particularly useful. For example we can merely say. The importance of logically equivalent forms is that when speciﬁc component statements are “plugged in.” For statement forms we can merely write the negation of [P → (Q ∨ R)] as ∼ [P → (Q ∨ R)].

∼ [(P ∧ ∼ Q) → R] b. Example 1: Give a useful and logically equivalent formulation for the statement form ∼ [P → (∼ Q → R)]. ∼ [P ∧ (Q → R)] 13 . a. Theorem 4: Let P and Q be statement forms. Proof of (b): P T T F F Q ∼P T F F F T T F T ∼ Q P ∧ Q ∼ (P ∧ Q) ∼ P ∨ ∼ Q F T F F T F T T F F T T T F T T Using Theorem 3. Exercise 1: Give a useful and logically equivalent form of each of the following. ∼ (P ∨ Q) ⇐⇒ (∼ P ∧ ∼ Q). and parts (a) and (c) of Theorem 4. Solution: ∼ [P → (∼ Q → R)] ⇐⇒ [P ∧ ∼ (∼ Q → R)] ⇐⇒ [P ∧ (∼ Q∧ ∼ R)].there are no double negatives. The following theorem provides the basic rules for writing useful negations. ∼ (P → Q) ⇐⇒ (P ∧ ∼ Q). note that Proof of (d): ∼ (P → Q) ⇐⇒ ∼ (∼ P ∨ Q) ⇐⇒ (∼ (∼ P )∧ ∼ Q) ⇐⇒ (P ∧ ∼ Q). ∼ (P ∧ Q) ⇐⇒ (∼ P ∨ ∼ Q). ∼ [P → (Q∨ ∼ R)] c. (a) (b) (c) (d) ∼ (∼ P ) ⇐⇒ P .

Exercise 2: In each of (a) – (d): (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (a) (b) (c) (d) Write the statement in symbolic form. Either 5 is odd or 5 is a multiple of 3.) Write the negation in useful symbolic form. R. 9 is neither even nor prime. 2 is even but 2 is also prime. Distributive Laws 4. More Equivalencies Terminology: A statement form T that is true for all truth values of its components is called a tautology. Identity Laws . Theorem 5 (Basic Equivalencies): Let P . (This requires assigning labels to the components. where T is a tautology and C is a contradiction. Q. the statement or its negation. Commutative Laws (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) P ∧ Q ⇐⇒ Q ∧ P P ∨ Q ⇐⇒ Q ∨ P (P ∧ Q) ∧ R ⇐⇒ P ∧ (Q ∧ R) (P ∨ Q) ∨ R ⇐⇒ P ∨ (Q ∨ R) P ∧ (Q ∨ R) ⇐⇒ (P ∧ Q) ∨ (P ∧ R) P ∨ (Q ∧ R) ⇐⇒ (P ∨ Q) ∧ (P ∨ R) P ∧ P ⇐⇒ P P ∨ P ⇐⇒ P P ∧ T ⇐⇒ P P ∨ C ⇐⇒ P 14 2. Associative Laws 3. and C be statement forms. it is suﬃcient that 8 be a multiple of 4. Which is true. Example 2: If P is a statement form then P ∨ ∼ P is a tautology and P ∧ ∼ P is a contradiction. T . For 8 to be odd but not prime. A statement form C that is false for all truth values of its components is called a contradicition. 1. Idempotent Laws 5. Write the negation in useful form as an English statement.

6. Note that there are three components in the statement form and for each component there are two possible truth values – true or false. Absorption Laws Proof of 3(a): We will prove 3(a) with a truth table. 15 . (P ∧ ∼ Q) → R. the total number of possibilities (that is. P T T T T F F F F Q R T T T F F T F F T T T F F T F F Q∨R T T T F T T T F P ∧ (Q ∨ R) P ∧ Q P ∧ R T T T T T F T F T F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F (P ∧ Q) ∨ (P ∧ R) T T T F F F F F Note that columns 5 and 8 of the table have the same truth values. Comment: We will later ﬁnd the equivalence given in Example 3 to be quite useful. Example 3: Use the basic equivalences of Theorems 3 and 5 to prove that the statement forms P → (Q ∨ R) and (P ∧ ∼ Q) → R are logically equivalent. If we substitute the equivalent form. the number of lines in the truth table) is 23 = 8. thus proving 3(a). Universal Bound Laws (a) (b) (a) (b) P ∨ T ⇐⇒ T P ∧ C ⇐⇒ C P ∨ (P ∧ Q) ⇐⇒ P P ∧ (P ∨ Q) ⇐⇒ P 7. Thus. P and ∼ Q. and need only to prove the single conclusion R. Proof: P → (Q ∨ R) ⇐⇒ ∼ P ∨ (Q ∨ R) ⇐⇒ (∼ P ∨ Q) ∨ R ⇐⇒ ∼ (∼ P ∨ Q) → R ⇐⇒ (P ∧ ∼ Q) → R. To prove a statement of the form P → (Q ∨ R) involves assuming P and trying to conclude the awkward form (Q ∨ R). we begin with two hypotheses.

2. (Same symbols as (c). P : Mike is healthy Q: Mike is wealthy R: Mike is wise (d) Mike is healthy.2: EXERCISES 1. and wise. and ∨ to write the statement in symbolic form. If |x − 4| > 2 then either x < −2 or x > 2.2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (P ∨ Q) → R (P ∧ Q) → R P → (∼ Q ∧ R) (P → Q) → R P → (Q → R) Write a useful negation of each of the following statements. (a) ∼ (P → Q) and ∼ P → ∼ Q. Use truth tables to determine whether or not each of the following pairs of statement forms are logically equivalent.5.2. 1. Give the converse.3. (i) (ii) (iii) In (a) – (d) do each of the following steps: Use the assigned variables and the symbols ∼.2. 1.) 1. (Same symbols as (a). (b) (P → Q) → R and (P → R) → Q. If 3 is even and 7 is prime then 3 > 2. Use a truth table to prove Theorem 4(c). and Write a useful negation of the statement in English.) (c) Mike is neither healthy nor wealthy.SECTION 1.1. If |x − 4| < 2 then −2 < x < 2. wealthy. If 4 is even then 5 is neither odd nor prime.2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1. P : 9 is an odd integer Q: 9 is a prime. and the negation (in useful form) of each of the following statement forms. but Mike is wise. ∧.2.4. (a) 9 is an odd integer but is not a prime. (b) 9 is neither an odd integer nor a prime. Write a useful (simpliﬁed) negation of the statement in symbolic form. the contrapositive. 16 .

17 .2 to prove the following equivalencies. • Either Miss Scarlet did not commit the murder or the weapon was a candlestick. 1. Use the Theorems of Section 1. Mustard did not commit the murder then neither Miss Scarlet nor Mr. Hercule Poirot. has arrived at the following facts.7. Mustard committed the murder.2. [(P ∨ Q) → R] ⇐⇒ [(P → R) ∧ (Q → R)] [P → (Q → R)] ⇐⇒ [(P ∧ Q) → R] [(P → Q) → R] ⇐⇒ [(∼ P → R) ∧ (Q → R)] 1.2.1. Who committed the murder? Explain how you know.6. • The statement. part 3(b). • If the weapon was a candlestick then Col.8. “if Col. The famous detective. (a) (b) (c) Use a truth table to prove Theorem 5.2. Green committed the murder” is false.

1) is a true statement.Section 1. the given statement has 18 . The truth set of P (x) is the set of values in Ux for which P (x) becomes a true statement. but we cannot tell whether it is true or false. 2 }. it becomes a statement. Note that the universal sets for x and y are given to be the set R of real numbers. y ): 2x + y = 3. Q(x. In each case the assertion may be either true or false depending upon the value assigned to the variables. assertions that contain variables. When appropriate values are assigned to the variables in an open statement. that is.3: QUANTIFIERS Consider the assertions: P (n): n is a prime integer. Thus. where R denotes the set of all real numbers. P (n) and Q(x.” Write the statement in symbolic form and verify that the statement is true. Example 2: Consider the statement: “There exist real numbers x and y such that 2x + y 2 = 6. y ) are examples of open statements. • P (5) is a true statement. that is. Let P (x) denote an open statement. Associated with the variable x is a universal set (or domain) Ux such that for each a ∈ Ux . is deﬁned to be true provided the truth set of P (x) is not the empty set. • Q(1. • P (223 + 1) is a statement. P (a) is either true or false. The statement “There exists x in Ux such that P (x). Solution: Let Q(x.” written symbolically as (∃x ∈ Ux ) P (x). P (a) is a statement. For example: • P (4) is a false statement. Deﬁnition 1: (The Existential Quantifer) Let P (x) be an open statement. Example 1: Let P (x) denote the statement: x2 − 4 = 0. • Q(1. Let Ux = R. 2) is a false statement. The truth set of P (x) is the set { −2. y ) denote the open statement 2x + y 2 = 6.

y ): x2 + y 2 ≥ 0 Write each statement symbolically and state whether it is true or false.symbolic form (∃x. is deﬁned to be true provided Ux is the truth set of P (x). y ). Since Q(3. y ): x2 + y 2 = 0 R(x. y ). Comment: translates to “For all x in Ux . y ∈ R) Q(x. A statement of the form “If x ∈ Ux then P (x)” Use the assignment of symbols: Ux = Uy = R P (x. P (x). Example 3: Consider the following statements: (a) There exist real numbers x and y such that x2 + y 2 < 0. The statement is true (take x = y = 0). y ∈ R) Q(x. (b) (c) (d) There exist real numbers x and y such that x2 + y 2 = 0. Is the statement true or false? Up : all prime integers Q(p): p > 10 R(p): p is even Deﬁnition 2: (The Universal Quantifer) Let P (x) be an open statement. The statement “For all x in Ux . 1) is false. 19 .) (∀x. If x and y are real numbers then x2 + y 2 = 0. y ). y ): x2 + y 2 < 0 Q(x. y ∈ R) Q(x. The statement is true. Q(1. Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (∃x. y ). y ∈ R) R(x. y ). Exercise 1: Consider the statement: “There exists a prime integer p such that p > 10 and p is even. (∃x. the given statement is also true.” written symbolically as (∀x ∈ Ux ) P (x). (∀x. The statement is false. The statement is false. P (x)” . 0) is a true statement. y ∈ R) P (x. If x and y are real numbers then x2 + y 2 ≥ 0. (For instance.” Use the following assignments to write the given statement in symbolic form.

Exercise 2: In each of the following open statements. R(x) h. y ∈ R) S (x. S (x. each variable must either • be assigned a speciﬁc value. Q(x) f. y ) j. ∼ [(∀x ∈ Ux ) P (x)] ⇐⇒ (∃x ∈ Ux ) ∼ P (x). (∀x ∈ R) R(x) g. In a mathematical statement that contains variables. (∀x ∈ R) (∃y ∈ R). that is. (∀x.or • be quantiﬁed and have its universal set indicated in the statement. y ) i. (∀x ∈ R) Q(x) e. y ) ⇐⇒ (∃y ∈ Uy ) (∀x ∈ Ux ) S (x. each variable must be properly introduced. (∃x ∈ R). Then (a) (b) ∼ [(∃x ∈ Ux ) P (x)] ⇐⇒ (∀x ∈ Ux ) ∼ P (x). (∃x. (∃y ∈ R) (∀x ∈ R). P (x): x2 − 5x + 6 = 0 R(x): x2 < 0 S (x. (∀x ∈ R) P (x) c. and determine if the statement is true or false. (∃x ∈ R). Theorem 1 (Rules for Negations): Let P (x) denote an open statement. y ∈ R) S (x. y ) (ii) a. y ) Comment: (cf (i) and (j) in Exercise 2 above) Note that (∀x ∈ Ux ) (∃y ∈ Uy ) S (x. y ). 20 . b. P (x) d. the universal sets are Ux = Uy = R. where R denotes set of all real numbers. S (x. (∃x ∈ R). Comment: An open statement becomes a statement when each variable appearing is either assigned a speciﬁc value from the universal set or is quantiﬁed. y ) : Q(x): sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 x + y = 10 In each of (a) – (j) below: (i) write the statement as an English sentence that communicates the universal set for each variable.

z ) → (∃y ∈ Uy ) P (x. logically equivalent form for the negation of each of the following: (a) (∀ x) [(∃ y ) P (x. z ) . label each component statement with a symbol. y ) . z ) ] Exercise 4: In each of (a) and (b) below: (i) Assign a universal set to each variable. y ) → (∀ z ) Q(x. y ) . y ) ∨ (∀ z ) Q(x. y ) ∧ (∃ z ) ∼ Q(x. Exercise 3: Give a useful. The negation is: (∃x ∈ Ux ) (∃y ∈ Uy ) P (x. y ) ∧ (∀ z ) (∃ w) Q(x. The converse is: (∀x ∈ Ux ) (∀z ∈ Uz ) Q(x. w. and (iii) Give a useful written negation of the statement. and write the given statement symbolically. (ii) write a useful negation of the statement symbolically. y ) ∧ (∃z ∈ Uz ) ∼ Q(x. z ) → (∀y ∈ Uy ) ∼ P (x. (a) For every real number y there is a positive real number x such that y = ln x. Example 5: Consider the statement form: (∀x ∈ Ux ) (∃y ∈ Uy ) P (x. z ) . z ) ∧ (∃ w) ∼ R(x. w)] (b) (∀ x) [(∃ y ) P (x. The contrapositive is: (∀x ∈ Ux ) (∃z ∈ Uz ) ∼ Q(x. z )]. z. 21 .Example 4: Give a useful logically equivalent form for the negation of: (∀ x) [(∃ y ) P (x. (b) For every positive real number y there exist real numbers x and z such that y = x2 − 1 and y = ez . z )] Solution: (∃ x) [(∀ y ) ∼ P (x. y ) → (∀z ∈ Uz ) Q(x.

(i) Assign a universal set to each variable. Exercise 5: In each of (a) and (b) below: (i) Assign a universal set to each variable. if m + n is even. 22 . (v) Written Contrapositive: For all real numbers x. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (a) (b) For√ every positive integer n. Q(x): x = 2 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Solution: (i ) Ux = R P (x): x2 − 5x + 6 = 0 R(x): x = 3. and write the given statement symbolically. write the contrapositive of the implication symbolically. if x = 0 and x = 3 then x2 − 5x + 6 = 0. if x2 − 5x + 6 = 0 then either x = 2 or x = 3. if n is not prime then there exists a prime integer p such that p ≤ n and p is a factor of n. Symbolic Statement: (∀ x ∈ R) [P (x) → (Q(x) ∨ R(x))] (ii) Symbolic Negation: (∃ x ∈ R) [P (x)∧ ∼ Q(x)∧ ∼ R(x)] (iii) Written Negation: There exists a real number x such that x2 − 5x + 6 = 0 but x = 2 and x = 3. label each component statement with a symbol. write a useful negation of the statement symbolically. and write the given statement symbolically. and write the contrapositive as an English sentence. and write the contrapositive as an English sentence. then both m and n are even. give a useful written negation of the statement. give a useful written negation of the statement.Example 6: Consider the statement: For all real numbers x. write a useful negation of the statement symbolically. label each component statement with a symbol. For integers m and n. write the contrapositive of the implication symbolically. (iv) Symbolic Contrapositive: (∀ x ∈ R) [(∼ Q(x)∧ ∼ R(x)) →∼ P (x)].

give the contrapositive of the given statement form. the set of all 2 × 2 matrices with entries from R. the set of all real numbers. the set of all positive integers. 1.) then give a symbolic representation of the statement using the given universal set.5.6.3: 1. Statement: There exist positive integers m and n such that 2m + 3n = 4. (ii) Give the symbolic form of a useful negation of the statement. z.3.3. w)∧ ∼ R(x.5: Do each of the following steps: (i) Label all the components (e. such 23 .3. Q(x): x2 = 1. give a useful negation of the statement form. w) . w) . In each of (a) and (b): (i) give a useful written negation of the statement. the set of all real numbers.2 – 1. 1. (a) (b) In each of (a) and (b). y ) → (∀z ∈ Uz ) Q(x.3. (∃x ∈ Ux ) (∀y ∈ Uy ) P (x.3.3.7. (a) For all real numbers x and y . y ) → (∀z ∈ Uz ) (∃w ∈ Uw ) Q(x. z )]. w) . Statement: For all real numbers a and b there exists a real number c such that a + c = 2 and b + c = 3. z.3.g. In Exercises 1. 1. 1. if 0 < x < 1 then there exists a positive real number that < x < 1 − . UA = UB = M2×2 (R). z.3. (∃x ∈ Ux ) (∀y ∈ Uy ) P (x. y ) → (∀z ∈ Uz ) Q(x. w)∧ ∼ R(x.SECTION 1. (∃x ∈ Ux ) (∀y ∈ Uy ) P (x. (b) For every real number x. Statement: For every 2 × 2 matrix A there exists a 2 × 2 matrix B such AB = BA.3. y ) ∨ (∀z ∈ Uz ) Q(x. z ) ∨ (∃w ∈ Uw ) R(x.2. 1. z. Um = Un = Z+ . and (ii) give a useful written contrapositive of the statement. (∀x ∈ Ux ) [(∃y ∈ Uy ) P (x. Statement: For every pair of real numbers a and b. (∃x ∈ Ux ) (∀y ∈ Uy ) P (x. either a < b or b < a. (a) (b) (c) EXERCISES In each of (a) – (c).4. Ua = Ub = Uc = R. if x < y then there exists a rational number r such that x < r < y.1. Ua = Ub = R. (iii) Give a useful written negation of the statement.3. y ) → (∀z ∈ Uz ) (∃w ∈ Uw ) Q(x. z ) ∨ (∃w ∈ Uw ) R(x. 1. P(x): x > 0. w) .

The English statement is: A real number r is a not rational number provided for all integers m and n either n = 0 or r = m/n.)] where N (x) introduces the term being deﬁned and D(x.” Solution: The symbolic form is: (∀r ∈ R) ∼ N (r) ↔ (∀m. Q(r. the set of all integers. is the corresponding deﬁnition of “x is not a term”. . n) denotes the statement (∃m. y1 . . n ∈ Z) P (n) ∧ Q(r. n ∈ Z) ∼ P (n)∨ ∼ Q(r.Section 1.) gives the deﬁnition of the term. n) . Thus. y2 . .)] Example 2: Continuing from Example 1. the set of all real numbers. Symbolic Form of the Deﬁnition: (∀r ∈ R) N (r) ↔ (∃m. m. m. m. y2 . m. Example 1: Express the following deﬁnition in symbolic form: Deﬁnition: A real number r is a rational number provided there exist integers m and n such that n = 0 and r = m/n. m. . n)] indicated above. This deﬁnition has the general form (∀x ∈ U ) [∼ N (x) ↔∼ D(x. . m. n) . . . We will not have occasion to negate an entire deﬁnition. Solution: Assignment of Symbols: Ur = R. y1 . where D(r. n) .” however. P (n): n = 0. give the symbolic form then the English statement of the deﬁnition of “r is not a rational number. 24 . Associated with every deﬁnition “x is a term. y2 . n): r = m/n. . . n ∈ Z) P (n) ∧ Q(r.4: DEFINITIONS The general symbolic form of a deﬁnition is (∀x ∈ Ux ) [N (x) ↔ D(x. Um = Un = Z. y1 . N (r): r is a rational number. the deﬁnition has general form (∀r ∈ R)[N (r) ↔ D(r.

A): u is a least upper bound for a set A of real numbers P (a. x)]. (b) (∀f ) [ ∼ N (f ) ↔ (∀M ∈ R+ ) (∃x ∈ R) ∼ P (f. N (f ): f is bounded on the real numbers. x)]. Write out a useful deﬁnition of: f is not bounded on the real numbers. For (a) (b) (c) the deﬁnition above: Write the deﬁnition in symbolic form. Ux = R. (c) A function f is not bounded on the real numbers provided for every positive real number M there exists a real number x such that |f (x)| ≥ M . U = R+ . M. the set of positive real numbers. Ua = Ub = A. P (f. Give the symbolic form of the deﬁnition of: f is not bounded on the real numbers. u): a ≤ u. (a) For the deﬁnition above use the assignment of symbols below to write the deﬁnition in symbolic form. Symbolic Form: (∀f ) [ N (f ) ↔ (∃M ∈ R+ ) (∀x ∈ R) P (f. N (u. M. UM = R+ . (b) Give the symbolic form of the deﬁnition of: u is not a least upper bound for a set A of real numbers. (c) Write out a useful deﬁnition of: u is not a least upper bound for a set A of real numbers.Example 3: Deﬁnition: A function f is bounded on the real numbers provided there exists a positive real number M such that for every real number x. where R is the set of all real numbers. . 25 . UA is the set of all subsets of R. x): |f (x)| < M . Uu = R. the set of all real numbers. the set of positive real numbers. M. |f (x)| < M . u): u − < b. Solution: (a) Uf is the set of all functions deﬁned on the set of real numbers. Q(b. Exercise 1: Deﬁnition: A real number u is a least upper bound for a set A of real numbers provided a ≤ u for every a ∈ A and for every positive real number there exists b ∈ A such that u − < b.

Other terms (which perhaps better ﬁt the deﬁnition) are: a is a multiple of b.Some Deﬁnitions We conclude this section with some deﬁnitions that will be useful in our later proofs. Deﬁnition 5: An integer n is composite provided n = 0. and b = ±1.e. unnamed) variable in this deﬁnition. and b is a factor of a. An integer p is prime provided p > 1 and the only positive divisors of p Comment: Note that there is a hidden (i. 4 divides 12 since 12 = (4)(3). Deﬁnition 1: Deﬁnition 2: n = 2k + 1. An alternate form of the deﬁniton of prime is: An integer p is prime provided p > 1 and for every positive integer d. Note that the deﬁnition of “divides” does not include the fraction a/b. Deﬁnition 3: a = bc. An integer n is even provided there exists an integer k such that n = 2k . speciﬁcally. no symbol is given for a positive divisor of p. It is best to follow the deﬁnition and avoid introducing fractions when using the term “divides. For example. An integer n is odd provided there exists an integer k such that The integer b divides the integer a provided there exists an integer c such Comment: Will will write b|a to denote symbolically that b divides a. 26 .. and a = ±1. if d divides p then either d = 1 or d = p. n = ±1 and there exists integers a and b such that n = ab.” Deﬁnition 4: are 1 and p.

3. . .4.1. Complete the following deﬁnition: The integer b does not divide the integer a provided . .SECTION 1. Consider the following deﬁnition.4. Complete the following deﬁnition: An integer n is not odd provided . (a) Write the given deﬁnition in symbolic form. . Complete the following deﬁnition: An integer n is not even provided . M ): a > M .5. Given deﬁnition: For a function f and real numbers a and L we say that the limit of f as x approaches a is L (hereafter written as limx→a f (x) = L) provided for every positive real number there exists a positive real number δ such that for every real number x. (So P (m. 1. 1.2. . Deﬁnition: An integer n is a perfect square provided there is an integer k such that n = k2. 1.4. n. . M ) is: m > M ) Q(m. . (a) Write the given deﬁnition in symbolic form using the following assignments: U{ xn } : all sequences of real numbers.4.7. Argue that if an integer n > 1 is not prime then it is a composite.4: EXERCISES 1. (b) Give the symbolic form of the deﬁnition of: (c) Write out a useful deﬁnition of: n is not a perfect square. n is not a perfect square. . . Given deﬁnition: A sequence { xn } of real numbers is a Cauchy sequence provided for every positive real number there exists a natural number (that is.6.4. 1. 27 . 1.4. UM = Um = Un = Z+ .4. N ({ xn }): { xn } is a Cauchy sequence P (a. if m > M and n > M then |xn − xm | < . if |x − a| < δ then |f (x) − L| < . 1. the set of all positive integers. { xn } is not a Cauchy sequence.4. a postive integer) M such that for all natural numbers m and n. ): |xn − xm | < (b) Give the symbolic form of the deﬁnition of: (c) Write out a useful deﬁnition of: { xn } is not a Cauchy sequence. U : The set of all positive real numbers.

L. a. 28 . ): |f (x) − L| < (b) Give the symbolic form of the deﬁnition of: (c) Write out a useful deﬁnition of: limx→a f (x) = L. L): limx→a f (x) = L P (x. a. δ ): |x − a| < δ Q(f. Ua = UL = Ux : all real numbers. U = Uδ : all positive real numbers N (f.(a) Write the given deﬁnition in symbolic form using the following assignments: Uf : all functions that map the reals into the reals. limx→a f (x) = L. x.