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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 17, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1995

**Shape Modeling with Front Propagation: A Level Set Approach
**

Ravikanth Malladi, James A. Sethian, and Baba C. Vemuri

Abstract - Shape modeling is an important constituent of computer vision as well as computer graphics research. Shape models aid the tasks of object representation and recognition. This paper presents a new approach to shape modeling which retains some of the attractive features of existing methods and overcomes some of their limitations. Our techniques can be applied to model arbitrarily complex shapes, which include shapes with significant protrusions, and to situations where no a priori assumption about the object’s topology is made. A single instance of our model, when presented with an image having more than one object of interest, has the ability to split freely to represent each object. This method is based on the ideas developed by Osher and Sethian to model propagating solidhiquid interfaces with curvature-dependent speeds. The interface (front) is a closed, nonintersecting, hypersurface flowing along its gradient field with constant speed or a speed that depends on the curvature. It is moved by solving a “Hamilton-Jacob?’ type equation written for a function in which the interface is a particular level set. A speed term synthesizpd from the image is used to stop the interface in the vicinity of object boundaries. The resulting equation of motion is solved by employing entropy-satisfying upwind finite difference schemes. We present a variety of ways of computing evolving front, including narrow bands, reinitializations, and different stopping criteria. The efficacy of the scheme is demonstrated with numerical experiments on some synthesized images and some low contrast medical images.

wherein the boundary of the model is represented in a parametric form. These parameterized boundary representations will encounter difficulties when the dynamic model embedded in a noisy data set is expandinghhrinking along its normal field [ 101 and sharp corners or cusps develop or pieces of the boundary intersect. By exploiting recent advances in interface techniques, our modeling technique avoids this Lagrangian geometric view and instead capitalizes on a related initial value partial differential equation. In this setting, several advantages are apparent, including the ability to evolve the model in the presence of sharp corners, cusps and changes in topology, model shapes with significant protrusions and holes in a seamless fashion, and extension to three dimensions in an extremely straightforward way.

A. Background

An important goal of computational vision is to recover the shapes of objects in 2D and 3D from various types of visual data. One way to achieve this goal is via model-based techniques. Broadly speaking, these techniques involve the use of a model whose boundary representation is matched to the image to recover the object of interest. These models can either be rigid, such as correlation-based template matching techniques, or nonrigid, as those used in dynamic model fitting techniques. Shape recovery from raw data typically precedes its symbolic representation. Shape models are expected to aid the recovery of detailed structure from noisy data using only the weakest of the possible assumptions about the observed shape. To this end, several variational shape reconstruction methods have been proposed and there is abundant literature on the same (see [4], [27], [35], [38], [17] and references therein). Generalized spline models with continuity constraints are well suited for fulfilling the goals of shape recovery (see [ 6 ] ,[331). Generalized splines are the key ingredient of the dynamic shape modeling paradigm introduced to vision literature by Kass et a1 [15]. Incorporating dynamics into shape modeling enables the creation of realistic animation for computer graphics applications and for tracking moving objects in computer vision. Following the advent of the dynamic shape modeling paradigm [ 151, [34], considerable research followed, with numerous application specific modifications to the modeling primitives, and external forces derived from data constraints [391, [181, [I 11, [241, [%I, [W. The final recovered shape in these schemes can depend on an initial guess which is reasonably close to the desired shape. One solution to this problem in the one-dimensional case has

Index Terms - Shape modeling, shape recovery, interface motion, level sets, hyperbolic conservation laws, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, entropy condition.

I. INTRODUCTION

level set approach for recovering shapes of objects in two and three dimensions from various types of image data. The modeling technique may be viewed as a form of active modeling such as “snakes” [ 151 and deformable surfaces [34] since, the model which consists of a moving front, may be molded into any desired shape by externally applied halting criteria synthesized from the image data. The “snakes” or deformable surfaces may be viewed as Lagrangian geometric formulations

Manuscript received May 17, 1993; revised June 21, 1994. R. Malladi’s and J. Sethian’s research supported in part by the Applied Mathematical Sciences Subprogram of the Office of Energy Research, USDept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC03-76SD00098 and by the NSF ARPA under grant DMS-8919074. B. C. Vemuri’s work sponsored in part by NSF grant ECS-9210648. R. Malladi and J. Sethian are with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Department of Mathematics, University of Califomia, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. B. Vemuri is with the Department of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville,FL 32611 USA. IEEECS Log Number P95015.

I

N this paper, we describe a modeling technique based on a

0162-8828/95$04.000 1995 IEEE

an important concern in object tracking and motion detection applications is topological change resulting from tracking the positions of object boundaries in an image sequence through time. particles can be added and deleted dynamically to enlarge. I(c)). They use a discrete form of dynamic programming to optimize the univariate variational problem. In Sec1 1and IV.MALLADI. we briefly explain the level set approach to front propagation problems and the accompanying numerical algorithms. The scheme described in this paper can be applied where no a priori assumption about the object’s topology is made. In this paper. however. and trim the surface respectively. narrow band formulations. 13). more recently. initial hypersurface placed inside (or outside) it. This hypersurface is then made to flow along its gradient field with a speed F(K). we present some experimental results of applying our method to some synthetic and low contrast medical images. In Section V. It is. We conclude in Section VI. we first consider a closed. . not always possible to specify the topology of an object prior to its recovery. I . AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 159 (a) CT image Fig. where K is the curvature of the hypersurface. To begin. when presented with an image having more than one shape of interest (see Fig. Test bed for our topology-independent shape modeling scheme. (b) DSA image ( c ) Shapes with holes been presented by Amini et al [2]. [29]. We show that by using our approach. The challenge in these problems is to devise numerical schemes for the equations of the propagating front which will accurately approximate these highly unstable physical phenomena. Most existing shape modeling schemes require that the topology of the object be known before the shape recovery can commence. which grew out of work in Sethian [28]. thereby undergoing a topological transformation. A single instance of our model. in which the speed of the moving interface normal to itself depends on transport terms modified by the local curvature. This is done by synthesizing a speed term from image data which acts as a halting criterion. we present a technique which overcomes this problem and accurately models bifurcations and protrusions in complex shapes. For details and an expository review. [20]. SETHIAN. One such example is the splitting of cell boundary in a sequence of images depicting cell division. and consider various speed functions and approaches to the problem. Cohen [lo] suggested the use of an inflation force which makes the snake behave like an edge seeking active model. we note that a separate study also applying a level set approach has been performed independently by Caselles et a1 [7]. Although the inflation force prevents the curve from getting trapped by isolated spurious edges. For example. nonintersecting. particle systems have been used to model surfaces of arbitrary topology [ 3 2 ] . we adopt these level set techniques to the problem of shape recovery. the convergence to the final result is relatively independent of the shape initialization. Finally. we discuss the application of this technique to tions 1 shape recovery problems. The outline of this paper is as follows. In the context of static problems. Osher and Sethian [23] achieve this by viewing the propagating surface as a specific level set of a higherdimensional function. During their evolution. to model propagating fronts with curvature-dependent speeds. A heuristic criterion for splitting and merging of curves in 2D which is based on monitoring deformation energies of points on the elastic curve has been discussed in [26]. In our work. reinitialization and stopping criteria. it is also pos- sible to extract the bounding contours of shapes with holes in a seamless fashion (see Fig. PROBLEM 11. has the ability to split freely to represent each shape [19]. l(b)) without resorting to cumbersome resampling techniques. see Sethian [29]. The framework of energy minimization (snakes) has been used successfully in the past for extracting salient image contours such as edges and lines by Kass et a1 [15]. To isolate a shape from its background. these closed contours may change connectivity and split. The equation of motion for this function is reminiscent of an initial value “Hamilton-Jacob?’ equation with a parabolic right-hand side and is closely related to a viscous hyperbolic conservation law. To make the final result relatively insensitive to the initial conditions. such as the effect of global speed laws. Unknown shapes are recovered by making the front adhere to the object boundaries. Our method is inspired by ideas first introduced in Osher and Sethian [23]. The algorithm allows branches to sprout automatically as the front moves. the active contour model cannot be made to extrude through any significant protrusions that a shape may possess (see Fig. In Section 11. Two such examples are flame propagation and crystal growth. FRONT PROPAGATION In this section we present the level set technique due to Osher and Sethian [23]. The schemes described in this paper offer a new approach to some of the above problems. Here.

we wish to (4) produce an Eulerian formulation for the motion of the hypersurface propagating along its normal direction with speed F. where F can be a function of various arguments. singularities develop in the propagating front. f E [0. be the position vector which parameterizes $t) by s. We imagine that the circle is the level set { I// = 0 ) with a given value of y(x. y(x. and then discretize the parameterization with a set of discrete marker particles lying on the moving front. that is. x (t=O) is a point on the initial front and an entropy condition must be observed to extract the cor. we obtain the standard Hamilton-Jacobi with a one-parameter family of moving surfaces in such a way equation. closed initial curve in Euclidean plane S2. The main idea is to embed where xi is the ith component of x . 2(a)). As an alternative. as discussed in Sethian Fig. and (c) and (d) show the curve y and tremendously amplified by the curvature term. a given scalar function of the curvature K . merge.&I t) always remains a function as long as F is smooth. where x E 91Nis defined by Since where d is the distance from x to $it = 0). VOL. normal to the front rect weak solution. Here. including the curvature. in the absence of a smoothing curvature in [22].$t = 0). 2. First. =) be the path of a point on the propa(viscous) term. and advancing their positions. Level set formulation of equations of motion . there are several problems with this approach. Since the evolving function w is always zero on the manage as the evolving interface breaks and merges. t). normal direction. and x. The first is that the evolving function Our goal is to now produce an equation for the evolving . given a moving closed hypersurface fit). that is. Let this propagating interface as the zero level set of a higher dimensional function W.160 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. f). significant bookkeeping problems occur in the extension of this technique to three dimensions. Thus. consider the example of an expanding circle. and let $t) be the one-parameter family of curves generated by moving $0) along its normal vector field with speed F(K). 2(c) and Fig. break. However. That is. NO. t) which contains the embedded motion of $t) as However. t = 0) in 913 (see Fig. level set { W = 0) of a function W. These discrete markers are updated in time by approximating the spatial derivatives in the equations of motion. t = 0). Let x(t). we must have fourth. y. We ton-Jacobi “type” equation because. let $0) be a smooth. 2(d)). the level surface ( W= 0}. Suppose the initial front y at t = 0 is a circle in the xy-plane (Fig. Third. -) + S N . the central idea in the level set approach of Osher and Sethian [23] is to represent the front $f) as the By the chain rule. $t = 0) : [0. etc. and calculations the corresponding surface w(x. t = 0 ) : 91N+ % with the property that y(t=O)=(xI W(X. Let y(x. that the level set { t. namely As illustration. t = 0). And propagating hypersurface. are prone to instability unless an extremely small time step is employed. and hence the propagating the level set { v/ = 0). Let x(s. = F(x ( t ) ) with the vector x.(a) and (b) show the [28].u = 0) always yields the moving front (see There are four major advantages to this Eulerian HamiltonFig. topological changes are difficult to at x(t). We refer to this as a Hamilof an initial surface z = H x . FEBRUARY 1995 As a starting point and motivation for the level set approach. 17. Jacobi formulation. we have an initial function surface $t=O). and . Second. y ) at t = 0. for certain forms of the can then match the one-parameter family of moving curves r(t) speed function F. (5) t=O)=O) (2) we then have the evolution equation for W. y ) at time t. 2. produce equations of motion for the position vector x(s. 2(b)). One numerical approach to this problem is to take the above Lagrangian description of the problem. we follow the derivation presented hypersurface $t) may change topology. function w(x. gating front. consider a closed curve moving in the plane. and the plus (minus) sign is chosen if the point x is outside (inside) the initial hyperThus.0 5 s S S. small errors in the computed particle positions are curve y and the surface Hx.

thereby bringing the computation to an end. t ) remains a function as it evolves. and employing the standard notation that I.)=0 . while the remainder is approximated using central differences. see [231.EK. The fundamental Eulerian perspective presented by this approach has since been adopted in many theoretical analyses of mean curvature flow. As brief motivation for these schemes. [22]. Some of these applications include the generation of minimal surfaces [8]. Our goal now is to define a speed function from the image data that can be applied on the propagating front as a halting criterion. In order for the propagating front to correspond to the boundary of an expanding region. SHAPE RECOVERY The advection component Fo of the speed function is then approximated using upwind schemes. y i be some appropriate finite difference operator for the spatial derivative. In one space dimension. given a speed function F(K). the above level set approach has been used in a wide collection of problems involving moving interfaces. flame propagation [25]. where At is the time step.ndt). This entropy condition yields the front which corresponds to the limiting solution as E + 0 of the smooth case. Finally. we use the version given in [30]. Since its introduction in [23]. is. Extensions of the basic technique include fast methods in [ l ] and extensions to triple points in [3]. For E = 0. with grid nodes ij. the front should be forced to stop in the vicinity of the desired objects' boundaries. The front uniformly expands or contracts with speed FA depending on its sign and is analogous to the inflation force defined in [lo]. then once a particle is burnt. Since the idea is to'extract objects. In order to build a correct entropy-satisfying approximation to the difference operator.that is. where K is the curvature. Following [23]. As before. we exploit the technology of hyperbolic conservation laws. we use a modification of an Engquist-Osher scheme [12]. This is analogous to the force criterion used to push the active contour model towards desired shapes [15]. we update the front by the following scheme.ys 'I " At +(F)(Vuy. For example. we have Extension to higher dimensions are straightforward. we have used forward differences in time. (7) Here. The second term FG. separate F(K) into a constant advection term Fo and the remainder F I ( K ) . it stays burnt. SETHIAN. we may use a discrete grid in the domain of x and substitute finite difference approximations for the spatial and temporal derivatives. note that the front represents the boundary of an evolving shape. propagating surfaces are easily handled. such as its local curvature. at any point of the front.given by and the curvature is easily obtained from the divergence of the gradient of the unit normal vector to front. This problem has been discussed extensively in [28]. Because yfx.MALLADI. That is. This (diffusion) term smoothes out the high curvature regions of the front and has the same regularizing effect on the front as the internal deformation energy term in thin-plate-membrane . the front stays smooth for all time. WITH FRONT PROPAGATION 111. and fluid interfaces [31]. referred to as the advection term. the normal vector. For E > 0. is independent of the moving front's geometry. discussed in detail in [29]. in particular. we split the speed function F into two components: F = FA + FG. we might write y " ' . [40]. singularities and geodesics in moving curves and surfaces in [9]. see [13]. W(ih. By simply extending the array structures and gradients operators. shapes from a given image. For example. The second advantage of this Et~kian formulation concerns numerical approximation. AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 161 form sharp corners as the function yevolves. we invoke the entropy condition.Y~ is the approximation to the solution from the level function y. a model for shape theory based on this work has been presented in [ 161. we describe how the level set formulation for the front propagation problem discussed in the previous section can be used for shape recovery. the parameterized analytic solution corresponds to a front which passes through itself and develops a swallowtail solution. First. The third advantage of the above formulation is that intrinsic geometric properties of the front may be easily determined In this section. is the part which depends on the geometry of the front. We define the final shape to be the configuration when all the points on the front come to a stop. consider a periodic cosine curve propagating in its normal direction with speed F = 1 . and let V .jh. namely that if the boundary is viewed as a propagating flame. using a uniform mesh of spacing h. In computer vision. the fourth advantage of the above level set approach is that there are no significant differences in following fronts in three space dimensions. The correct technique for approximating the spatial derivative in the above comes from respecting the appropriate entropy condition for propagating fronts. The term FA. First. that is.

The term k. If one desires a speed function that falls to zero faster than the reciprocal function. then at any time t. we require that the evolution equation has a consis- A. then it is not possible to find an additive speed term from the image that will cause the net speed of the front to approach zero in the neighborhood of a desired shape. which is the original image convolved with a Laplacian-of-Gaussian filter whose characteristic width is Q.F 162 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. 2. The same argument applies to the coefficient k. Define a negative speed F. from a geometrical standpoint. The zero-crossing image is produced by detecting zero-crossings in the function V’G. 3. With the extensions so defined. FEBRUARY 1995 splines [15] (see the Fig. that is. the level set equation of motion is written for the function ydefined over the entire domain.y)l’ and when F = FA+ FG. Thus. 17.. that is. I v . Instead. VOL. then the front gradually attains zero speed as it gets closer to the object boundaries and eventually comes to a stop. on ( = 0 ) . NO. for FG # 0. that is. FG = 0. Observe that the above statement is a rephrased version of H u y gen ’s principle which. j)I. at every point (x. This follows from the fact that they were designed to force the propagating y = 0) to a complete stop in the neighborhood of an level set ( t object boundary. Consequently. Huygen’s principle construction.(L/)reduces to FI (k. k. Note that the level set ( 0 ) lies in the image plane and therefore must @. is a distance C away from the level set ( y = 0) (see Fig. 3).) on { y = 0). such that point Q is closest to P and lies on the level v=0). 01 as the value of image gradient varies between M I and MZ. which is defined as 1 k f ( x . the following definition can be employed: Fig. 9). The value of F. the equation of motion for the case F = FA is given by where M I and M2 are the maximum and minimum values of the magnitude of image gradient IVG.)at a 4(iI) at a point Q. y ) = 1+(VGU* I(x.. on the level set { v = 0 ) . EXTENDING THE SPEED FUNCTION The image-based speed terms have meaning only on the boundary y(t). On the other hand. our goal is to construct an image-based speed function that is globally defined. More sophisticated stopping criteria can be synthesized by using the orientation dependent “steerable” filters [ 141. The speed function FI derives its meaning not from the geometry of y but from the configuration of the level set ( w = 0 ) in the image plane. stipulates that the position of a front propagating with unit speed at a given time t should consist of only the set of points located a distance t away from the initial front. that is.* I(x. if IVG. (x. off the level set { y = 0) because it extends the meaning of F. * I . to other level sets [30]. we could use a smoothed zero-crossing image to synthesize the negative speed function. However. * I(x. y)I approaches the maximum M I at the object boundaries. to be tent physical meaning for all the level sets. we multiply the speed function F = FA + FG with a quantity k. 4) letting the value of point P lying on a level set { y = C) be the value of set { kI(i. Thus. has values that are closer to zero in regions of high image gradient and values that are closer to unity in regions with relatively constant intensity. we require that the external (image-based) speed function be such that level sets moving under this speed function cannot collide.. FG = 0 3 F = FA. y) E R. equal F. the level sets will not remain a constant distance apart. lies in the range [-FA. We can construct one such extension to the image-based speed function by (see Fig. We rewrite Equation 6 by splitting the influence of F as First consider the case when the front moves with a constant speed.Alternately. Global Extension As a first attempt. If FG # 0. . C E R. With this in mind. We call it an extension of F. If the level curves are moving with a constant speed. The expression Go* I denotes the image convolved with a Gaussian smoothing filter whose characteristic width is 6. a typical level set { y = C) . y ) E R. there are several Gays to extend the speed function to the neighboring level sets. From this argument it is clear that.

C. the two curves are the level sets ( ty = f &2).j and Y:. as the ini4)Replace n by n + 1 and return to step 1. make the computation exceedingly slow. Extension of image-based speed terms to other level sets. This band techniques for interface propagation may be found in [ 13. Since. finite In the limit as k + m. This is required to visualize the current position of the front in the image plane. An alternative to this reconstruction is provided by [31]. the extension of image-based speed term is computed. that is. where Ax and Ay are step sizes in either coordinate directions. Algorithm 1 1) At each grid point (iAx. In the case of reinitializing using the above iteration formula. AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 163 By updating the level set function on a grid. Which boundary the front collides with depends on whether it is moving inward or outward. this convergences to the distance function. by searching for a point q which lies on the level set { ty= O ) . The value of imagebased speed term at the current point is simply its value at the point q. provides two nodes on r(t) and thus. either way. Moreover.u~. individually and compounded. and is closest to the point (iAx. during a given time step or the value of wj is not updated at points lying outside the narrow band. For the full Equation (12). calculate I. the front can be which form the approximation to $t). the current zero set configuration. Given a cell C(i. see [ 5 ] . The most expensive step in either of these algorithms is the computation of the extension for image-based speed term.' using the upwind. In Fig. The value of 6 determines the number of grid points that fall within the narrow band. plus approximately O(N) points on the interfaces. the level sets [lM > 6'2) remain stationary. For details. else. j ) @ $t) and is ignored. either inward or such line segments constitutes the approximation to the level outward. we observe that the front can be moved by updating the level set function at a small set of points in the neighborhood of the zero set instead of updating it at all the points on the grid. A piecewise linear approximation constructed as follows. The narrow band is bounded on either side by two curves which are a distance 6 apart. the stability requirement is At = O(Axz). this is an O(N3)operation. for the front ~ tis ) j ) . we must search for the closest point lying on the level set { ty = 0).~. it cannot then C(i. A complete discussion of the narrow points where y = 0 are found by linear interpolation. Therefore a straightforward algorithm consists of advancing from one time step to the next as follows: extension away from the zero level set. based on an idea of Morel. if we assume that there are N points in each coordinate direction. 5 the bold curve depicts the level set { ty= 0) and the shaded region around it is the narrow band. SETHIAN. tial curve $0). This is because at each grid point. We reinitialize the tyfunction by treating based speed term in the update equation. 3) Construct an approximation for the level set ( ty = 0) from yts' . jAy).. if . The collection of all moved through a maximum distance of 8 2 . we are moving the level sets without constructing them explicitly. { ty = 01. These two effects. that is. This is done in accordance with the construction described in the previous section. Chopp [8] observed that the reinitialization step can be made cheaper by treating the interior and exterior mesh points as sign holders. 2) With the value of extended speed term ($')i. which is used for future evaluation of the image. The above construction can create a discontinuous velocity This procedure will restore the meaning of ty function by cor- difference schemes given in [30]. 4. One solution to this is to reinitialization the level set function every fixed number of time steps to keep the level sets evenly spaced around the front. the entry and exit move past the narrow band. with some error in relocating the original zero level set. Note that the reinitialization procedure B. The idea is simply to iterate on the level set function at a given time according to the following equation: I X Fig. at which point we must rebuild an appropriate (a set [ ty= 0}. Narrow-Band Extension with Reinitialization As a efficient alternative. one of the line segments As a consequence of our update strategy. then the stability requirement for thi explicit method for solving our level set equation is At = O(Ax).This could potentially force a very small time step for fine grids. However.~ MALLADI. A straightforward way to do this is to recompute the distance from each point of the grid to the zero level set. The zero set which lies inside moves until it collides with the boundary of the narrow band. that is. additional labor is involved. if FG = 0. Global Extension with Reinitialization must account for the case when ( ty = 0 ) changes topology.jAy). since the distance function is not differentiable.new) narrow band.

calculate y : ’ ’ using the upwind. the words. Fig. making the reinitialization step necessary in equal to &2. 5) Increment m by one. Once a new function is defined on the grid. Given a cell (i. In other cell which contains $t). we can ignore the previous extension velocity the polygonal approximation to In general. A polygonal approximation is required all around the zero level set. Also. With our relatively simple speed motion. finite D. were obtained by applying the narrow-band level set algorithm In this approach. we show the initial curve along with the level sets (Iv/l e 0.00003 was employed. Since the narrow-band mechato obtain a polygonal approximation.2). since we only update at points lying in to image data. FEBRUARY 1995 the narrow band. and it attains a smooth circular configuration after four the extension k. the narrow-band reinitialization resets them level set { w = 0). Of image-based ’peed term. our method requires the user to wr. the results of repeatAlgorithm 2 edly applying the same strategy are shown. The values are picked directly from their corresponding image loset of nodes visited during this tracing process constitutes cations. this procedure traces the contour by ply move each level set with the speed determined by the imscanning the neighboring cells in order to find the next age gradient as given in Equations (14) and (15). the above tracing procedure is gradient. w w . This will ensure that the zero in step 2 for the evaluation of image-based speed term level set is drawn close to the object boundary as well as retain other desirable properties of the level set approach. Fig. such as and more importantly. allows us to return to the original construction of the speed function extension and replace it with a more mathe[ VI=0) from . reinitialization steps and a total of 200 time steps. 6(f). cell which contains the temporarily stop. Thus. we show the result of applying narrow-band algorithm to a star shaped front propagating with speed F = -K. 6(c)). say I. Although this may cause many other level sets to started at a new. we can create a new narrow band around the zero set. the free-end boundary condition is adequate. We now show that this new faster approach provides a correct approximation to the propagating front problem. a more general V. 3) With the above value of extended speed term and yTj. . 6(a). 1. The calculation was done on a unit box with 64 points in either direction. We currently use this computationally 6)Compute the value of signed distance function by efficient algorithm and suggest it for others interested in this treating the polygonal approximation of { = 0) as the work. propagation algorithm. for points inside the narrow band. In Fig. 6(b)). to collect and provide a purely geometric one based on the local image all the closed contours. SHAPE RECOVERY RESULTS method of reinitialization is required when { ly = 0) In this section we present several shape recovery results that changes topology. After 40 narrow-band updates (Fig. as yet unvisited. In Fig.164 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. 4)Construct a polygonal approximation for the level set efficient. else. and flame propagation. NO. We note by a distance equal to &2. If the value of m equals I. and go through another set of. and the function 5 was recomputed once every (I =) 40 time steps. a faster algorithm for shape recovery consists of the reinitialization step. only the level sets {lv/l e 0. the external speed process is repeated until the contour closes on itself. Given an image. the time complexity of this approach is identical to that of a basic narrow-band front step 6. which “diffuses” the high curvature regions of the front even further. and a time step of At = 0. go to step 2. we can in fact simwhich contains $t). in 1) Set the iteration number m = 0 and go to step 2. Go to step 1. fused. A narrow band of width 6around the level set ( y = 0). VOL.’ st).1 The narrow-band approach.075. A contour tracing procedure is used matically appealing version. In subsequent figures. Following the Thus. The value of I is set to the number the inconsistency between the level sets lying on either side of of time steps required to move the front by a distance roughly the narrow band. since the extension compufunction. This choice depends on some experimentation. 2. j ) lying inside the narrow band. Finally. initial contour $0). The width of the narrow band has been set to 6 = 0. in more complex applications such as crystal growth. accurate specificationof boundary conditions is necessary [ 13. however. 17. iterations in time to move the front ahead w IY w (@). As mentioned earlier. the issue of specifying boundary conditions for points lying on the edge of the band becomes pertinent. where K is the curvature as in Equation (1 1).0375) move and the rest remain stationary. another 40 update steps are applied following steps: (Fig. the peaks and troughs on the front get completely dif2)At each grid point ( i . 6. in step 6 for reinitializing the topological merge and split. 5.Straighqorward Narrow-Band Extension recting the inaccuracies introduced as a result of our update algorithm. Once such a cell is found. J ) nism periodically “recalibrates” the front. order to restore the meaning of the t y function. in addition to being computationally difference scheme given in [30]. go to tation does not involve any search.

U at a grid point (idx. Narrow-bandalgorithm applied to a star-shaped front propagating with speed F = -K. The magnitude of is set to this value. . 6 . Calculations were done with a 64 x 64 grid with a time step Af = 0.0012 ( c ) t = 0. j ) to y(0). SETHIAN. Our front seeks the object boundaries by either propagating inward or outward in the normal direction.U that is. provide an initial contour y(0).00003. it must be placed inside a desired shape or enclose all the constituent shapes. On the other hand. where Ax and Ay are step sizes in either coordinate directions.We first discretize the level set function won the image plane and denote as the value of I.j A y ) . This choice is made at the time of initialization.0000 (b) t = 0. The initial contour can be placed anywhere in the image plane. Hx. AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH I65 (a) t = 0. Ywas recomputed after every 40 time iterations. However. The initial value of the function I. 0) is computed from $0). our algorithm does not require any further user interaction.MALLADI. We define the distance from a point (i. j ) to the initial curve to be the shortest distance from (i. the user may interact with the model by varying the smoothness control pa- rameter E until a desired amount of smoothness is achieved in a given shape. Note that after the specification of initial shape of y(O).0060 Fig. We use the plus sign if wij w.0024 (d) t = 0.0036 (e) t = 0.0048 (f) t = 0.

we show the closed contour that the user places inside the desired shape at time t = 0. y) from these curves.O .25 in Fig. as shown in Fig. case. observe how the front overshoots all the isolated erations. we use algorithms from the previous section to move the front. and the yfunc. j ) is inside. Clearly. kdx. calculations are performed at every second pixel. controlled by choosing an appropriate curvature component in This is due to the snake’s arc-length length (elasticity) and curthe speed function F = 1 . lO(g)). despite a good initialization (Fig. This is analogous to the smoothness provided by the second order term in the internal energy of a thin flexible rod [ 151. the final speed which diffuses regions of high curvature on the front and result depends on the initial guess. 7. 2. 8(a).pletely fails to account for the branches.EK). 9(a) through Fig.0. This feature is a consequence of EK component in the which the numerical procedure explicitly minimizes. ture of an arterial tree. 8(b) through Fig. even after 1000 time itaddition. Observe how. 1O(i) corresponding to nal result is achieved after 575 time iterations and is shown in three distinct initializations.. In three cases the active contour model. The function y i s then made to propagate in the normal direction with speed . 10(a) through Fig. an attempt is the image-based speed term which is synthesized according to made to reconstruct the arterial structure using a snake model Equation (14). Initialization was performed by drawing a curve enclosing each one of the three shapes.vature (rigidity) minimizing property. 1 I+IVG. the level set ( ly= 0} attains a configuration that is relatively smoother. lO(i). In Fig. we the interval [0. 9(b) and 0. lO(f). lO(c). 9(c). The level sets of are then made to propagate with speed F = k.0005. In this experiment we compare the performance of tion was recomputed after every 50 time steps. 17. 7(b). in the third forces it to attain a smooth shape. Once the value of yjj is computed at time t = 0 by following the above procedure. we perform shape recovery with the value of E = 0. barely recovers the main stem of the artery and comspurious edges present inside the shape (see Fig. In Fig.166 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. The process is repeated with different values of E. 7(a). The fi.snake in Fig. 8(e) we depict the configuration of in the image. First. (1.025K). that is. each better than the preceding one Fig. Fig. synthesized from the CT image.255]. The objective of our next ex. with the goal of recovering the shape of the stomach in this particular slice. 9(a). We emphasize that our method does not require that .in terms of the closeness to the desired final shape. 9(c). 0. the snake snaps As mentioned in Section 111. y) values lying in with inflation forces [lo]. with (T = 3.25.EK. we consider a 256 x 256 CT (computed tomography) image of an abdominal section shown in Fig.protrusions. First. *I(X. show a sequence of pictures depicting the snake configuration In Fig. NO.1] have been mapped into the interval [0. VOL.(-1. This is We employed the narrow-band update algorithm to move the an example of a shape with extended branches or significant front with a time step size set to At = 0. Image-based speed term kdx. In all the initial contour be placed close to the object boundary. We present the final equilibrium state of the the level set { y = 0) at four intermediate time instants.05. We compute the signed distance function ytx. 8(f). and Fig. FEBRUARY 1995 ( a ) Original image Fig. we show the results of applying our narrow-band shape recovery algorithm to an image consisting of three synthetic shapes. We now present our shape recovery results in 2D.0 . with every increment in the value of E. Note that in Fig. smoothness of the front can be back into a relatively bumpless configuration in Fig.Y)l of shape recovery. The function yhas been discretized on a 128 x 128 mesh. y) = ( b ) Image-based speed term . In our third experiment we recover the complicated strucF = k. 10(h). 7(b)) and set. In Fig. Fig. First.. 7(b) shows our scheme with the active contour model. Snakes prefer regular periment is to demonstrate smoothness control in the context shapes because shapes with protrusions have very high defor is outside y(0) and minus sign if (i. Due to the existence tles in the neighborhood of edges which correspond to the true of multiple local minima in the (nonconvex) energy functional shape.75 in Fig. The real image has been obtained by clipping a portion of a digital subtraction angiogram.

Calculations were carried out on a 128 x 128 grid and a time step At = 0. mation energies. After the initialization in Fig. We employ the narrow-band algorithm with a band width of 6 = 0.1500 ( e ) t = 0.025 K ) and the time step At was set to 0. Now. . . SETHIAN. This however is a cumbersome solution to the problem.2875 Fig. It can be seen that in subsequent frames the front evolves into the branches and finally in Fig.Recovery of the stomach shape from a CT image of an abdominal section. a single instance of our shape model sprouts branches and recovers all the connected components of a given shape. Narrow-band computation was done on a 128 x 128 grid . we apply our level set algorithm to reconstruct the same shape. the front is made to propagate in the normal direction. 1 l(a).the front was made to propagate with speed F = k.0. Thus.0 .OOOS. AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 167 (a) t = 0.0500 ( c ) t = 0.0000 (b) t = 0.0875 (d) t = 0.(-1.2250 (f) t = 0. 8.ylwas recomputed once every SO time steps. we cannot increase the latter arbitrarily.045 to move the front.MALLADI. 1 l(h) it completely reconstructs the complex tree structure. Therefore.00025 was used. One possible way to account for significant protrusions in a shape is via an adaptive resampling of the first order “balloon-snake” model. The . Note that it is important to maintain a b a l ance between the image-based force and the inflation force.

it splits into two separate contours. the k. The image shown in Fig. A sphere. The image-based speed term kI is computed from these images according to an equation in 3D which is analogous to Equation (14). In the next experiment. we could perform the initialization by placing a curve in each one of the individual shapes and propagating them in the normal direction. Fig. The function v/ was discretized on a 64 x 64 grid and At was set to 0. by updating the value of w on a discrete 3D grid. 9. We adopt the level set techniques first introduced in Osher and Sethian [23] to the problem of shape recovery. the reader is referred to Malladi and Sethian [21]. all the points on our shape model are stopped. This is a very desirable feature to have. In our last experiment. 13(f) as an initial state. The calculation comes to a halt when. CONCLUDING REMARKS In this paper we have presented a new shape modeling u r approach retains some of the desirable features of scheme. In Fig. z) = 2 + yz+ zz-O. values are close to zero and cause the zero set to locally come to stop near the boundary of the superquadric shape. Moreover. The outer and inner boundaries of a given shape are recovered without requiring separate initializations. (1. 13(g). 12(i) shows the final result.00025. For an extension of this work to a level set based shape description and recognition scheme. VI. FEBRUARY 1995 ( a ) E = 0. and its easy extensibility to higher dimensions. Again it should be noted that a single instance of our shape model dynamically splits into three instances to represent each object. Smoothness control in shape recovery can be achieved by varying the CUImature component in the speed F = k.Ol. in Fig. t = 0) and w(x. which is the level surface { w= O } of a function Nx.05 (b) E = 0. . We choose the former option. respectively. Calculations were done on a 32 x 32 x 32 grid with a time step A f = 0. Vol- ume data for this experiment consists of 32 slices each with a particular cross section of the superquadric. Subsequently it changes connectivity and splits twice . y. our scheme makes no a priori assumption about the object’s topology. 1l(b) and Fig. 12(g) and Fig.168 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. thereby recovering three shapes. we show the initial contour which encloses both the shapes. 14(e). In the second stage of our computation. especially in applications such as automatic shape recovery from image data. Fig. The front is then advanced in the direction of the negative normal. wherein the initial spherical shape transforms into a flat superquadric. This situation is depicted in Fig. 14(a)). 13(f). thereby recovering the entire shape of the flat superquadric. t = 0. 13(e). At points with high gradient. The shapes in the Fig. O existing methods for shape modeling and overcomes some of their deficiencies.25 ( c ) E = 0.0025. 12(d) through Fig. 13(b) through Fig. NO. 13 are examples of shapes with holes.00025. The final result in our method is relatively independent of the initial guess. Next.0 . This initial surface is moved with speed F = i. 14(f). VOL. 12(h). we show that our approach can also be used to recover shapes with holes. 14(b) through Fig. 2. and recover the holes. 12(a) consists of three distinct shapes. in Fig.EK) . We believe that this shape modeling algorithm will have numerous applications in the areas of computer vision and computer graphics. 13(d) are intermediate stages in the front evolution. In Fig. Finally. 12(f)). The initial surface expands smoothly in all directions until a portion of it collides with the superquadric e boundary. This causes the zero set to move into the shapes as shown in Fig. thereby achieving a complete shape recovery (see 13(h)). and propagate the front inward by momentarily relaxing the image-based speed term.75 Fig. Other salient features of our shape modeling scheme include its ability to split and merge freely without any additional bookkeeping during the evolutionary process. and the time step At was set to 0. The calculations for this experiment were done on a 128 x 128 grid. 1l(i).in Fig. The level set { ty= 0 ) first wraps itself tightly around the objects (see Fig. 13(a). complex shapes can be recovered from images. plots of w(x. forms our initialization (see Fig. This contour is then made to propagate inward with a constant speed. we depict a situation when the front undergoes a topological transformation to reconstruct the constituent shapes in an image. we treat the zero set configuration in Fig. we recover the shape of a flat superquadric using the level set front propagation scheme in 3D. Alternately. the level set { v/ = 0) recovers the outer boundaries of two disconnected shapes. 17.375) are shown in Fig. With this approach. Initial curve is placed in such a way that it envelopes all the objects.

coefficientof inflation force = 0.035. and coefficientof image force = 2. (0. SETHIAN.The following parameter values were employed in this experiment:y (damping) = 1.50. W I (elasticity)= 0.and (i) correspondingto three distinct initializationsin parts (a). AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 169 (a) Initialization 1 (b) 500 iterations (c) 1000 iterations (d) Initialization 2 (e) 500 iterations (f) 1000 iterations (g) Initialization 3 (h) 500 iterations (i) 1000 iterations Fig. 10. Three different results are shown in parts (c). respectively.50. w2 (rigidity)= 0. (d).015. . At = 0.50. and (g).MALLADI. An unsuccessfulattempt to reconstruct a complex shape with significantprotrusions using an active contour model.0.

1250 ( e ) t = 0.045. 17.375) Fig. 0. FEBRUARY 1995 (a) t = 0.170 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE.2500 (g) t = 0. The narrow-band algorithm was used with a band width of (h) t = 0.3750 (i) $(x. Reconstruction of a shape with significant protrusions: an arterial tree structure.0000 ( c ) t = 0.00025. 2. VOL. NO. 11. Computation was done on a 128 x 128 grid with a time step S= 0. .0625 (d) t = 0.3050 At = 0.1875 (f) t = 0.

Computation was done on a 64 x 64 mesh with a time step A t = 0.0000 (b) t = 0.1625 (f) 2 = 0. 12. .MALLADI. SETHIAN. AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 171 (a) t = 0.2000 (i) t = 0. Topological split: A single instance of the shape model splits into three instances to reconstruct the individual shapes.00025.0250 ( c ) t = 0.1750 ( 9 ) t = 0.1875 (h) t = 0.1250 ( e ) t = 0.0875 (d) t = 0.2500 Fig.

1750 ( e ) t = 0. .0000 (b) t = 0. 13.2950 Fig. Computation was performed on 128 x 128 grid and the time step A t was set to 0.2500 (h) t = 0. Shapes with holes: A two-stage scheme is used to arrive at a complete shape description of both simple shapes and shapes with holes. FEBRUARY 1995 (a) t = 0. 17. NO. 2.172 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. VOL.2137 (f) t = 0.00025.2700 (i) t = 0.1000 (d) t = 0.0500 ( c ) t = 0.2400 (g) t = 0.

A.MALLADI. A N D VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 173 (a) t = 0. No. 9.wul Reconstruction. on Punem Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Osher. Amini. Calculations were done on a 32 x 32 x 32 grid with a time step At = 0. T.”to be submitted.2250 (f) t = 0. 1994. Bence. Zisserman. A. M.1000 (d) t = 0. V.1750 (e) 1 = 0. C. 1. Vi. J. of Compututionul Physics.3000 Fig. B. Sethian. “Using dynamic programming for solving variational problems in vision. REFERENCES D.” submitted for publication. CEREMADE.No. 9210. and S . Adalsteinssonand J. A. “A geometric model for active contours in image processing. “Projection mthods coupled to level set interface methods. E. “A fast level set method for propagating interfaces.0500 ( c ) t = 0. Bok and B. T.0025. A. Bourlioux and 1. PAMI 13. - .” IEEE Tn“. F. Sethian.pp. vol. Cambridge. pp. Blake and A. qf’Computuhonal Physics.0000 (b) t = 0. 1994. c# Compututionul Physics.’’ to a p p r in J. France. SETHIAN. 1-13. and F. Coll. 855-867. 14. C. Dibos. A. and R. Jain. 1990. 1994. Shape recovery in 3D: a flat superquadric shape. vol. A. Meniman.” IEEE Truns. 12. R. Universiti de Paris-Dauphine. MA. MIT Press. 1991. Caselles. on Panem Analysis and Muchine Intelligence.” Internal report no. “On three-dimensional surface reconstruction methods. Catte. J. Vemuri. Weymouth. “Motion of multiple triplejunctions: A level set approach.J.

Kass. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. vol.” PatlernRecognifionLeners. NY.” Computer Vision.1990.” J. C. Baba C. vol. and M. qf ICCV. Comp. pp. R. computer graphics. Nov. “Snakes: Active contour models. pp. Sethian. W. L. “One-dimensional regularization with discontinuities. New York: Academic Press.FL. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. and his work received best peer reviews at the Third European Conference on Computer Vision. 467472.” IEEE Trans. 4. A. pp. 3-13. Vemuri and R. His research interests include computational physics. J. and joined the Department of Computer and Information Sciences at the University of Florida. pp. 15. 1986. During the spring of 1988. DLR Oberpfaffenhofen. 1991. Vemuri was a Visiting Faculty Member at the IBM Thomas J. “Motion of level sets by mean curvature. Berkeley. representation. W. “A unified framework for shape segmentation. and material science. p ~91-123. ‘lie computation of visible surface representations. R. A. Malladi and J.”Proc. pp. qf ECCV. 1988. image analysis. “Constmints on deformable m d els: Recovering 3D shape and nonrigid motion. H. vol. 800. A. “A level set approach for computing solutions to incompressibletwo-phase flow. Schumaker. vol. pp. Malladi. Univ. Engquist and S. of Computational Physics. A. 1992. B. Sethian. “Evolutionary fronts for topology-independent shape modeling and recovery. pp. “Dynamical behavior of a premixed turbulent open V-Flame. vol. o f Computational Physics. 53. 337-343. Zhu and J. ‘Toward a computational theory of shape: An overview.” IEEE Trans. vol. 487499. on Panern Anulysis and Machine Intelligence. of DifJerential Geometry. No.” Report LBL-36069. A. Dept. till fall 1993. and has been a recipient of the Presidential Young Investigator Award and a Sloan Foundation Fellowship. Maui. Pentland and S. Gainesville. pp. vol. W. “ChW”ting intrinsic parameters with active models for invaiant surface nxonstruction. of IEEE Con$ on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. K. 2. pp. 1990. “Curvature and the evolution of fronts. Graphics. 7. B. Terzopoulos. . Strain. Sethian. R. both in computer vision from the University of Florida. [36] B. and J. Stockholm. Sweden. California. [38] B. A. S. Adelson. pp. T. modeling for vision and . 231-253. qf Comp~tatioml Physics. 211-218. “Shape representation and image segmentation using deformable models. Vemuri and R. D. NO. 1990.. Kass. “Changes in connectivity in active contour models. “Crystal growth and dendritic solidification. July 1991. 185194. L. USA. Berkeley. 1994. and J. and L. France. L. Osaka.” in Proc.” in Proc. pp. H. of Computer Vision. of Florida. pp. “Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulation. tion of objects from range W Int’l. 10. of Fluid Mech. California. 668-681. l(n-114.” Master’s thesis. C. Dept. “Surfacereconstruction using deformable models with interior and boundary constraints. 79. C. Chui. Witkin. Imine. In the summer of 1985 he worked at the National Geophysical Research Institute. and B. Mitiche.” in Approximation Theory II.). of CIS. 406415. Terropoulos. University of California. pp. pp. A. Sethian and J. Gainesville. vol. Malladi. 3W303. Spruck. Mulder. India. “Steerable filters for early vision. 31.” J. [40] J. 12-49. 1992. Tonnesen. [37] B. 34. in 1988. 8. and wavelet decomposition. “On active contour models and balloons. Vemuri. Hebert. Osher. M. Samadani. 26..” J. L.” IEEE Trans. Osaka. He subsequently received the MS degree in 1991 and the Ph. [35] D.” Proc. USA. B. 413424. USA. degree in physics from Birla Institute of Technology and Science.4. vol. 131-161. “Closed-form solutions for physically based shape modeling and recognition. 1988. His research interests include computational vision. Antibes. Malladi. Ikeuchi.” UCLA CAM Report 93-18. Germany. James A. 2. Schumaker. qf Computational Physics. where he is currently an associate professor of computer and information sciences and electrical engineering. associated with the Exploratory Computer Vision Group there. “Fitting surfaces to scattered data. in May 1994. A. R. R. Malladi was awarded the NSF Postdoctoral Fellowship in Computational Science and Engineering in June 1994. CA. R.Sweden. “A topology-independentshape modeling scheme. of Florida. 2. India. 805-812. Gainesville. A. Cohen. Japan. Tempoulos. He is currently working at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. R. Freeman and E. and recognition. During the academic year 1989-1990. “Regularization of inverse visual problems involving discontinuities. J.” IEEE Trans. Tannenbaum. vol. Osher and J. [34] D.’’ Artificial Intelligence. he held a research assistant position with the semiconductor physics group at the Central Electrical and Electronics Research Institute. Pavlidis. in Math. Wang. Sclaroff.1988. degree in 1993. “Surface modeling with oriented particle systems. FEBRUARY 1995 L. ”Curvature-basedr e p m t a f Image and Vision Computing. J.1988. “Deformable models: Canonical parameters for surface representation and multiple view integration.1992. Univ. 98. 1980. 1993. vol. A.vol. G. 13.”Math. Gainesville. His research interests ace focused on computational vision. Sethian. vol. D. Smereka. 417438. 101.” J. vol. ‘’Pmjection methods coupled to level set interface techniques. No. 203-267. 36. Malladi. of ICCV. C. degree with honors in electrical engineering and an MSc. Sethian. vol.” submitted for publication.Japan.D. 1986. From summer 1990. Szeliski and D. vol. image processing. Rhee. Lorentz. and S. 1994. pp. K. December 1993. 10. June 1991. P. 2. and J. Zucker. no.45. and senior scientist in the physics division at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. shape modeling and recognition. A. No. M. May 1991. S. G .’’ Doctoral dissertation. Florida. pp. No. Prof. A. on Pattern Anulysis und Machine Intelligence. July 1993. pp.” Comm. ofDifJerentia1 Geometry.”J. no. He received a Ph. March 1991. 13. Vemuri received the PhD degree in electrical and computer engineenng from the University of Texas at Austin in 1987. 1990. J. Talbot. 1985. on Panern Analysis andMachine Intelligence. No. Dr. May 1994. Evans and J. 100.” Computer Graphics SIGGRAPH. C. Watson Research Center. he was a Visiting Research Scientist with the German Aerospace Research Institute. VOL. “Surface griding with intrinsic parameters.D. and medical image interpretation.” J.” Int’l. F.” in Proc. Aggarwal. LNCS vol. Terzopoulos. Berkeley. Before coming to Berkeley.” IEEE Trans. In the summer of 1988 and 1992.1986. 7. (eds. Osher. Stockholm. pp. Hawaii. Osher. parallel processing. he was a graduate research assistant at the University of Florida. Lee and T.Berkeley. “Computing interface motion in compressible gas dynamics. C. pp.pp. A. Univ. Wang and J. 635-681.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. A. and was affiliated with the Center for Computer Vision and Visualization. o pp. 33. D. Malladi. 209-228. Kimia. Yorktown Heights. and Imuge Processing. L. of the Workshop on Visual Motion. and S. India. of CIS. Aug. Sussman. 822-829. 1976. FL. 1992. Ravikanth Malladj received his B. no. o f Third European Con$ on Computer Vision. F.’’ in Proc. Witkin. 102(1).Eng. of California. J. vol. [39] Y. C. in mathematics from the University of California. and K. J. pp. Vemuri. 321-331. Sethian. Physics. 11. “Stable and entropy satisfying approximations for transonic flow calculations. 17. J. Sethian is professor of mathematics at the University of California. 2. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. March 1989. I. Sethian. 128-138. he was at the Courant Institute of Mathematics. and D. Delingette. “Numerical algorithms for propagating interfaces: Hamilton-Jacobiequations and conservation laws. M. July 1992. Sethian.

In the past several years.MALLADI. AND VEMURI: SHAPE MODELING WITH FRONT PROPAGATION: A LEVEL SET APPROACH 175 graphics. He subsequently received the best review scores for his co-authored paper in ECCV ‘94. respectively. Dr. Vemuri served as a guest editor for the April 1992 special issue on Range Image Understanding of the Joumal of Image and Vision Computing. Dr. respectively. Dr. SETHIAN. medical imaging. . He also served as a program committee member for the IEEE Conference on CVPR in 1993. and applied mathematics.. Vemuri received the NSF Research Initiation and the Whitaker Foundation Awards in 1988 and 1994. He was a recipient of the first priu: for best intemational paper in Computer Vision from the Norwegian branch of the IAPR in 1992. his research has focused primarily on efficient algorithms for 3D shape modeling and recovery from image data. He has published numerous refereed journal and conference articles in the field of computer vision and its applications. and was the chairman of the SPIE-sponsored conferences on Geometric Methods in Computer Vision in 1991 and 1993. Vemuri is a member of the IEEE Computer and Signal Processing Societies. ACM SIGGRAH and the SIAM.

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