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In one of his ﬁnal works Kepler returns to the ideas expressed in his Mysterium Cosmographicum. By this time, years after the publication of the Astronomia Nova, Kepler has completely revamped planetary astronomy with his elliptical orbits and his Law of Areas. He has made accurate determinations of the orbits of all six planets (which he presented in his textbook Epitome of Copernican Astronomy ). He is now armed with better information than he had when writing the Mysterium. Unfortunately, he ﬁnds that his new distances don’t agree with the Platonic solid ratios much better than the old distances did. He doesn’t give up on this idea, but takes it to be only an approximate rule. The Creator was guided by the principle of the regular solids, but not ONLY by this principle. Kepler’s ultimate goal in his ﬁnal book,1 Kepler explains that the REAL principle underlying the Creation is musical harmony. He explains the idea of harmony as it relates to music, geometry, astrology, and ﬁnally astronomy. His main astronomical idea is that the speed of a planet’s motion along its orbit is related to the pitch of a musical note. The range from the planet’s maximum speed (when it is at perihelion) to its minimum speed (when it is at aphelion) produces a range of musical notes. Together the planets produce celestial music. The ﬁgure below shows the sets of musical notes that Kepler uses to represent the motion of each planet, so each planet has its own little motif. It’s not exactly Mozart, but still Kepler thought the planetary motions represented the mathematical principles of harmony at their best (he goes through many pages of argument to explain why these harmonies are the best ones) .

One interesting note (pardon the pun) is that Kepler’s main resource for his musical research was a treatise written by the Italian musician Vincenzo Galilei. Vincenzo’s son, Galileo, will enter our picture shortly.

1 After Harmonices Mundi Kepler published his astronomical tables (the “Rudolphine Tables”) and what is essentially the ﬁrst science ﬁction novel, known as the Somnium. He also published a second edition of the Mysterium. But the Harmoncies Mundi represents his last new astronomical treatise.

1

But this one is of great historical importance since it played a key role in the development of Newton’s theory of gravity.The most historically important result in the Harmonices Mundi is what has now come to be known as Kepler’s Third Law of Planetary Motion. It is delivered as an oﬀ-hand remark: “But it is absolutely certain and exact that the ratio which exists between the periodic times of any two planets is precisely the ratio of the 3/2th power of the mean distances. would you say that Kepler’s Third Law holds? 2. 2 This does NOT ﬁt with our modern deﬁnition of mass. By the time he wrote Harmonices Mundi Kepler had reﬁned the physics of his Astronomia Nova. In particular. he had decided that the force on a planet would be proportional to the planet’s volume because a planet with a larger volume could “soak up” more of the anima motrix. which makes the constant in our proportionality relationship equal 1 as well.00 1.00 1.524 5. If we square both sides of the equation we ﬁnd: T 2 ∝ a3 .” We might express this idea as an equation: T ∝ a3/2 where T is the period of a planet’s orbit and a is the mean distance of the planet from the Sun (actually we should use what is called the semi-major axis of the planet’s elliptical orbit). That way both T and a have the value 1 for Earth. This is but one example of a “harmony of the spheres” out of many examples that Kepler gives. and units for lengths are AU. Compute T 2 and a3 for each planet and record your results in the table.86 29.20 9. ma Rewrite this equation in terms of the density of the planet (ρ = m/V ).46 a (AU) 0. The table below shows the periods of the planets (essentially as determined by Copernicus) and the lengths of the semi-major axes of their elliptical orbits (as determined by Kepler from Tycho’s data).724 1.51 T 2 (yrs2 ) a3 (AU3 ) ♀ ♁ ♂ 1. 2 .388 0. so F ∝ V /r. This is because Kepler was still relying on Aristotle’s terrestrial physics. He reasoned that the speed of an object subject to a given force should be inversely proportional to its mass.616 1. He also came to a clearer understanding of mass (rather than moles ) as the total quantity of matter in an object. but it’s pretty easy to verify. Kepler didn’t provide any evidence for this assertion in Harmonices Mundi. He still thought the force would be inversely proportional to distance. Based on this data.88 11.2 The resulting equation for the speed of a planet is: kV v= .241 0. Units for period are years. Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn T (years) 0.

5. If the planets all had the same density then T 2 would be proportional to (a) a (b) a2 (c) a3 (d) a4 .3. 6. Compare your equation for T to Kepler’s Third Law. 4. What does this indicate about the density of the planets? Which planet is the most dense? Which is least dense? 3 . for approximately circular orbits) divided by the speed it travels. ﬁnd an equation that gives the period as a function of distance and density. Since the period of a planet’s orbit is just the distance it travels (2πa. Square both sides of your equation for T and record the result below.

7. Suppose there was another planet between Mercury and Venus. then what must be the period of this planet’s orbit (in years)? What is the period in days? 10. Assuming the comet follows the same orbital laws as the planets. Shade the region swept out by the planet-sun line as the planet moves from aphelion (a) to ﬁrst quadrant (q1). 9. Approximately what fraction of the orbits total area is swept out? 11. How many days does it take for this planet to travel from aphelion to ﬁrst quadrant. Halley’s comet orbits the sun just like the planets do. what is the shape of its orbit? 8. assuming it has the nearly circular orbit shown in the previous question? 4 . The comet has an orbital period of 76 years. Use Kepler’s third law to ﬁnd the length of the semimajor axis of the comet’s orbit (in AU).55 AU. If the orbit of this planet has a semimajor axis of 0. Suppose the planet has a nearly circular orbit like the one shown below.

12. Shade the region swept out by the planet-sun line as the planet moves from aphelion (a) to ﬁrst quadrant (q1). A planet with an elliptical orbit (with the sun at one focus) takes to travel from aphelion to ﬁrst quadrant. How many days does it take for this planet to travel from aphelion to ﬁrst quadrant. Approximately what fraction of the orbits total area is swept out? 13. (a) more than 1/4 (b) exactly 1/4 (c) less than 1/4 of its orbital of its orbital period 5 . (a) more than 1/4 (b) exactly 1/4 (c) less than 1/4 15. assuming it has the nearly circular orbit shown in the previous question? 14. A planet with a perfectly circular orbit (with the sun at the center) takes period to travel from aphelion to ﬁrst quadrant. Now suppose the planet has an elongated orbit like the one shown below.

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