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Geopolitics Author(s): Charles B. Hagan Source: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Nov., 1942), pp. 478-490 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 02/10/2013 21:05
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597-618. pp.204. The step from economic and social geography to political geography is a short one. A brief summary may be found in Otto Maull. He wrote a number of works which treat of various aspects of geog1 A brief summary of the central points in these early theories may be found in A. topography.GEOPOLITICS CHARLESB. for political institutions and practices comprise a large part of social and economic organization. 1-31. The greatest name in the development of political geography in its modern connotations is Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904). 1925). Koller. pp. 29. Wisconsin.142. "Recent Developments in Political Geography. The Theory of Environment (Menasha. Maull was associated at least for a while with the geopolitical group on the Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. 1918). H. Eugen Oberhummer has an appendix to an edition of Friedrich Ratzel's Politische Geographie (Munich and Berlin. In more ambitious formulations it may study social organization as dependent on those natural phenomena and attempt to trace the casual connections between the conditions which are naturally provided and social practices and customs. HAGAN Harvard University The relation which subsists between man and his geographical environment has been the subject of speculation at least since the time of the Greeks. Later Montesquieu attempted to formulate a systematic theory of the influence which environment exerted on political practices. see Richard Hartshorne. 478 This content downloaded from 112. and the subject was revived by Jean Bodin in the sixteenth century. as well as the method of securing a livelihood. the topic becomes economic or social geography.' Geography may be considered as the study of strictly natural phenomena such as climate. The Environmental Basis of Society (New York. soil. pp. Karl Ritter in the early part of the nineteenth century wrote a gigantic work attempting to trace the relations between man and his geographic position. 1923). 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and resources. With these traits as central. Vol. The Greeks and the Romans treated of this matter. For a more extended treatment. The answers to the question have varied from time to time as well as the emphasis which attaches to that relation. 1925).87 on Wed. which summarizes the history of political geography. 943-966 (1935). see Franklin Thomas. 785-804. Politische Geographie (Berlin." American Political Science Review. For the recent period.

Here the state is exihibted in some of its practical problems. but the most important one in connection with the present topic is Political Geography. The manner in which the expansion over the frontier takes place may vary in different circumstances. of course. which is based on Ratzel's views. it may be by emigration. the latter is extremely important in political life. This content downloaded from 112. 1911). A growing state will expand and a dying state will contract in that organ.87 on Wed. It seems clear that 2 Friedrich Ratzel. there may be spheres of interest. Miss Semple is considered by many to be one of Ratzel's greatest students. pp. Decay and death are represented by static boundaries or a decrease in space. Vallaux is very critical of many of Ratzel's propositions. Some of his political views are there restated in modified form. is a fragment of humanity on a piece of soil. Geopolitics (New York. and on density of population comes under examination. See also Camille Vallaux.1942] GEOPOLITICS 479 raphy. The state. This conception is. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The fragment of humanity is organized and is bound to its soil by ties which take on the character of an organism. Geographie Sociale: Le Sol et L'Etat (Paris. 1942). and to problems created by position. or colonies. The first edition appeared in 1897 and a second edition in 1903.204. 1911). spheres of influence. He goes on to assert that the political community acts in very much the same manner as an individual being. A larger and more extended treatment is devoted to space (Raum). or it may take place by war. by the establishment of trading centers or cultural centers. Since the state cannot exist without its territory or space. With the organic theory as the backbone of the analogy. the organic theory of the state and its peculiar quality rests in. 1923). to climate.2 The core of political geography is the state.142. The forms of expansion also may vary. Politische Geographie. The influence of space on ideas. Ellen Church Semple brought out her book. A brief treatment of Ratzel may be found in Robert Strausz-Hupe. Use has been made here of Eugen Oberhummer's edition of 1923 (Berlin. the growth of a state is represented by its expansion. Influence of Geographic Environment: on the basis of Ratzel's system of anthropogeography (New York. according to Ratzel. the relation to territory. to space (Raum). on possibilities of expansion. In this section attention is given to neighbors. The frontier is a peripheral organ of the state. Ratzel devotes considerable attention to the position (Lage) of the state. 27-36. or as Ratzel prefers. to topography.

The existing seapowers operated on the periphery 3 Camille Vallaux.4 According to Mackinder. Within the World Island was the Heartland: The Heartland. 23. 1942).' In this area were manpower and resources capable of supporting a great land army and also of supporting sea power. were Brandenburg-Prussia and Austria-Hungary. 421-444 (1904). pp. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The book is titled Democratic Ideals and Reality (New York. the planetary surface should be regarded as divided into islands. Armenia. One of the main sources of geopolitical ideas derives from the English geographer. The other continents could be regarded also as islands and satellites of this great land mass. The Heartland is the region to which. though the western part of it lies without the region of Arctic and Continental drainage.480 THE JOURNAL OFPOLITICS [Vol. 5. Vol. Geographie Socicle: Le Sol et L'Etat (Paris. 4 to Ratzel space possesses some intrinsic value independent of its content and that space takes on what Vallaux calls a metaphysical character and value. 6 Mackinder. They were expanded into a volume published during the peace negotiations following World War J. sea power can be refused access. for the purposes of strategical thinking. 135-136. Mackinder (born 1861). In any event Ratzel's theory of the organismic character of the state in its relations with soil and the high value which he attributes to space reappear in contemporary geopolitics. He called the land mass including Asia. Persia. 1911).87 on Wed. republished. and Europe the World Island. as well as Russia-a vast triple base of manpower." The Geographical Journail. which was lacking to the horse-riders of history. under modern conditions. the Black Sea.204.8 It would seem that Vallaux is correct in his further observation that Ratzel's chapters on position (Lage) contradict his theory of the importance of space. whereas the concept of space (Raum) locates the important influence within the state's territory. pp. Africa. This content downloaded from 112. Within it. Halford J. Asia Minor.142. Tibet. 1919. Democratic Ideals and Reality. ch. includes the Baltic Sea. the navigable Middle and Lower Danube. For position would leave the inference that all important influences proceed from outside the state. 4 The article: "The Geographical Pivot of History. and Mongolia. Two other main streams and a subsidiary one must be traced before the modern school of geopolitics emerges from its background. The essential features of his views were published in an article in 1904. therefore.

He wrote a number of books on the problems 6 Ibid. 6. pp. 185-186. In seeking to provide the state with more substance. pp. 7Ibid. 9 It is interesting to note that Nicholas J. 1942).204. even though they be the written constitution of a League of Nations. Rudolf J. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 236-243 (1942). Thus. if the Heartland could be united into a single great political authority. Mattusch. 185-196.9 A second line of political speculation that has contributed materially to the content of contemporary geopolitics stems from the Swedish political scientist. The essence of Spykman's argument is that American policy should be aimed at preventing any country or combination of countries from dominating either the Far East or Europe. it would dominate the World Island and would thereby dominate the whole world. He argues a case for a foreign policy of the United States based on a balance of power principle. he found the potentialities of geography. This content downloaded from 112. Spykman does not argue so clearly from a geographic basis as does Mackinder. and in the last analysis that was why every considerable state was drawn into World War I. was now a closed system. "Geopolitics-'Science' of Power Politics. He commented on international organization to handle the problem: "No mere scraps of paper. For a discussion of this book.87 on Wed. R. p...8 In any event. are under the conditions of today a sufficient guarantee that the Heartland will not again become the center of a World War. 39-40.. see K. Kjellen was influenced by Ratzel's geography and by his own dissatisfaction with contemporary analyses of the state which degenerated into merely legalistic discussion and a juristic science.1942] GEOPOLITICS 481 of this area and could penetrate only a short distance inland. Mackinder is engrossed with discussing the problem from the point of view of British power politics.6 The planet. 8 Ibid. America's Strategy in World Politics (New York. 87-89." Ibid. whether regarded from a physical. 140. No considerable state could permit the unification of East Europe with Asia. economic. And the argument for an American foreign policy would vary in its details from that of a policy of Great Britain. utilizes a similar approach to that of Mackinder. Vol. pp. military. Spykman in his book. or political point of view." Amerasia. Kjellen (1864-1922)..142.7 In answer to the question as to how Britain was to maintain its power in the world situation thus outlined. a method should be devised for preventing a unification of the Heartland. pp. Mackinder replied that an independent tier of states should be created between Germany and Russia and thus provide for a balance of power in eastern Europe.

For a discussion of Kjellen's views at greater length than is given here. 63. 1942). see Robert Sieger. Kjellen brought the external or foreign relations of the state into an integrated relation with domestic policy. management for promoting the national welfare. It has not been translated into English. The former was published in 1917 and the latter in 1920. and the same author. Moreover. Kjellen invented the word. This content downloaded from 112.72. and autarkie or self-sufficiency became an ultimate ideal. pp. It was translated into German under the title Der Staat als Lebensform. the main features remain the same. 1. its shape and form. he thought he had resolved the conflict between individualism and 10 The Swedish title was Staten som lifsform. Kjellen was a follower of Ratzel and many of Ratzel's basic notions reappear. 339-345 (1924).142. geopolitics. 1937). By way of this system. social organization." Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. is introduced in the Foundations to connote the matters involved in the situation of the state's territory." The union between the state and its territory was that of an organism.87 on Wed. and governmental structure. The term. pp. It was envisaged as being concerned with territory.). "Rudolf Kjellen. see Johannes Mattern. "From Geopolitik to Political Relativism. and the present-day school of geopolitics in Germany appropriated it. In Kjellen's revision of the content of political science. emphasis was placed on the several aspects of the state. Essays in Political Science (Baltimore.482 THE JOURNALOF POLITICS [Vol. Vol. " For an evaluation of Kjellen by one of the German members of the geopolitical group.204. Although there are some modifications and changes introduced in the Foundations for a System of Politics which are not found in the earlier volume. Geopolitik: Doctrine of National Self-Sufficiency and Empire (Baltimore. 4 of the Powers in Europe. Kjellen treated the state as an actual organism rather than as a useful analogy. and he emphasized the growing and expanding traits of that organism. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Mathews and James Hart (eds. people." in John M. the state was concerned with the character and quality of its citizens both in the present and in the future. but the ideas which he contributes to geopolitics are to be found in two volumes: The State as a Form of Life10 and Foundations for a System of Politics. and from this union several inferences resulted: the state should seek to preserve the conditions for healthy living and space for growth. and its natural and physical resources.

1921). 1936). This book has appeared in several editions. 16. ter Veen (Dutch) who agree that geopolitics is merely German nationalism. The Earth This content downloaded from 112." Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. in general the French and American geographers have not tended to develop the political aspects of geography. 1916). 22. "Geography and Foreign Policy. Vol. N. Fairgrieve observes: "In the long run the geographical conditions are more powerful than the genius of individuals. One of the typical examples of this type of literature is James Fairgrieve's Geography and World Power. 28-50.. see Nicholas J. Spykman. In these. Vol. 32.. pp. 9. p. C.87 on Wed. and H. the issues were avoided by shifting the central theme to the welfare of the state.'3 The study of the relations between geography and 12 James Fairgrieve. more powerful even than racial characters. Geopolitique (Paris. Thomas H. Fairly typical is Lord Curzon. For recent materials.142. B. Derwent Whittlesey. unless the racial characters are due to geographical " 12 The students of geography have not controls. The history of most of the world is passed in rapid review and the shifts in the centers of political power are traced to geographic bases. Until recently there has been little produced by Americans beyond Miss Semple's work mentioned earlier. efforts had been made to trace geographical influences and causes into human society. see Jacques Ancel. there is reprinted the comments of Albert Demangeon. 640-656 (1939). See Isaiah Bowman. Fawcett. Here an attempt is made to trace world power to a search for energy. 1918). Political Frontiers and Boundary Making (London. 594-601 (1932). Y. The monthly numbers of the Zeitschrift filr Geopolitik have extended notes on bibliography. For a general review of the literature here suggested. Frontiers (Oxford. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . supra note 1. A few English geographers have attempted to delineate the political influences of natural environment. Holdich. in Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. 1924). The New World (New York. This volume was translated into German with an introduction by Karl Haushofer. Vol. 1908).204. agreed upon the degree of importance which attaches to natural environment. pp. The subsidiary influence mentioned earlier is to be found in the multitude of geographical discussions. M. 213-236 (1938). This volume was first printed in 1915 and has had several later reprintings.. There have been a number of English writers who have ventured into this field.1942] GEOPOLITICS 483 socialism. Geography and World Power (London. Goblet. see Richard Hartshorne. Frontiers (Oxford. 13 For a discussion of geopolitics from the French point of view." American Political Science Review. pp. "Die franz6sische geographische Schule und die Geopolitik. Jacques Ancel.

Geopolitik des Pazifischen Ozeans (BerlinGrunewald. F. 247-258 (1942). Vol. C. Elements of Political Geography (New York. but the one tends to merge into the other.14 Karl Haushofer.'7 The theory rests on political and the State (New York. p. "Coal and Political Power in Europe." Economic Geography. Geopolitics. 13. 9-11. Samuel Van Valkenburg. 1939). "Richard Hennig. 688-693 (1936). writes that geopolitics formulates the scientific foundation of the art of political transactions in the struggle for existence of political living forms on the living space of the earth. There have appeared in the United States several books dealing with raw materials in their bearing on international relations. The latter is a monthly periodical devoted to a discussion of topics of interest to geopoliticians. it is thought. It observes states as dynamic phenomena. pp. This volume is a statement of the leading members of the geopolitical school. These studies have implications that reach into geopolitics. 16 Karl Haushofer. "Geopolitik und politische Geographie. Voskuil.'5 Another formulation of the scope of geopolitics is to be found in Baustein zur Geopolitik.484 THE JOURNAL OF POLITICS [Vol. the leading figure in German geopolitics. The above translation. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . World Minerals and World Politics (New York. Selections from it have been inserted from time to time in the Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik.'6 Geopolitics is there stated to be the theory of political events integrated into their geographical setting. and it observes states in a condition of rest.142. 1931). K. 1931). for an example. gives the sense of the statement. 1924). see Walter H.204. There is a large amount of periodical literature on this topic. 1934). Kurt Vowinckel. " (Berlin-Grunewald.87 on Wed. The Strategy of Raw Materials (New York. 1. Simonds and Brooks Emeny. pp. observes and speculates upon the influence of geographical necessities upon political events and changes in the political forms of states. 17 The German statement is: Die Geopolitik ist die Lehre von der Erdegbundenheit der politischen Vorgange. 1928). Broadly speaking political geography is concerned with a historical and factual account of changes in the circumstances of states. 1935 and 1939). 18. The distinction between political geography and geopolitics may be drawn in broad generalizations. The Great Powers in World Politics (New York. Vol. Geopolitics is the latest of these fashions in the intellectual sphere. 4 politics and their implications both in policy and theory has proceeded further in Germany than elsewhere. Examples are: Brooks Emeny. pp." Zeitschrift fiir Geopolitik. Geopolitik: die Lehre vom Staat als Lebewesen (Berlin. H. Leith. on the other hand. 1939). This content downloaded from 112.

W. This content downloaded from 112. pp. 183.." Foreign Affairs. have been created to avoid some of the difficulties inherent in other types of 18 The German is: Die Geopolitik wilt und muss zum geographischen Gewissen des Staates werden. This leads to a discussion of frontiers and an examination of the varieties of boundaries that have prevailed in history. Vol. Vol. Buffer states. "Geopolitik intends to and must come to be the geographic conscience of the state. "Geopolitics." Journal of Central European Affairs. deserts. cit. p. pp. 20. and sometimes rivers."' Fortune. Karl Haushofer.204. 732-742 (1942). op. 24. geopolitics examines the character of the state as a living organism. of a strategic character." Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. Vol. pp. of an economic character.142. Mattern. H. op. political history is thus a laboratory from which the geopolitician derives his fundamental principles. "German Geopolitics. growth. "Haushofer and the Pacific.87 on Wed. 180-189 (1942). at least in its German formulations. cit. Hennig.. lists other American discussions. life functions. 2. There are artificial frontier lines. None of these has prevailed perpetually. 167. Weigert. 111 (1941). pp. 12. Weigert. that there is a compelling urge to move from narrower to wider spaces. S. Roucek. There are frontiers of an ethnic character. Vol. pp. such as walls and embankments or mathematical survey lines. 314-321 (1941). The conditions of birth.1942] GEOPOLITICS 485 geography and particularly on political geography as a theory of spatial organisms and their structure." 18 As a systematic discipline. op. Physical conditions come under scrutiny in order to trace the interrelations between those phenomena and human events. A discussion of the propositions above translated may be found in Strausz-Hupe. W. See also H. cit. It is intended to provide knowledge for the conduct of state policy and to bridge the gap between theory and action. and all have some deficiencies. Vol. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 8-9. Frontiers have varied in history. J. and death are studied empirically in order to determine the operative laws.. in fact." Atlantic Monthly. op. pp. W. cit. that states exhibit a tendency toward expansion. pp. the seas. A. 443-448 (1935). Finally. which are said to be mountains. 74-75. swamps. 586-597 (1941). 7-8. "Pflicht und Anspruch der Geopolitik als Wissenschaft. It is firmly held by adherents of geopolitics. pp. Vol. Mattern. "Paving the Way for Hitler." Harpers. Griswold. Robert Strausz-Hupe. there are natural frontier lines. "German Geopolitics..

Geopolitique (Paris. frictional issues between states. Russia. see Mattern.1 The examination of frontiers can afford some basis for the notion of expansionistic tendencies of states. At this point. 4 boundaries. pp. Wilson. op. 454-459 (1942). Vol. wherein may be found a critical discussion of geopolitical notions of frontiers. and it has the great advantage of 19 C. Coker... races.20 The subject matter of geopolitics includes also consideration of population problems. Of all these regions it is true to say that they pass gradually one into the other. that somehow and in some manner Germany.. "The Revival of Organic Theory. 1910). or states-as lines is purely subjective. Fawcett. op. It may be added that it depends on the kind of growth and the kind of organism as to whether increasing size is either healthy or sound physiologically. geomedicine." Columbia University Studies in History. for clearly a growing organism is healthier and sounder than a contracting one. But in the world as it is the objective fact is the existence of frontier zones. and almost any other topic that bears upon the expansion of states. op. geopolitics has also advanced a basic strategy for German foreign policy. cit.204. See also Francis G. the conception of the growing organism provides a solution. This content downloaded from 112. pp. the reverse conclusion may be drawn. "Organismic Theories of the State. He concludes that no geographical formation provides an absolute frontier. 55). B. if looked at from one point of view. of human races. cit. see Strausz-Hup6. cit. of plant or animal regions. etc. 20 For a discussion of the organic analogy applied to social and political organizations.486 THE JOURNAL OF POLITICS [Vol. see Lord Curzon. but if looked at from the point of view of the contracting state." American Political Science Review. 86-100. 36. or cultures. and Japan (occasionally China is included) should unite in the great overland area between the Rhine and the Amur and Yangste. 24. 21 For example. and Public Law (New York. For a general account. This would provide a great source of manpower and resources. op. That is. Vol. where he says. Francis W. nationalism. cit. 1936). 38. 21 In becoming the "geographic conscience" of the state. For a further discussion of frontiers..142." See also Jacques Ancel.. "The conception of frontiers-between inanimate things. there had appeared in the Zeitschrift articles dealing with geojurisprudence. and that frontiers are a result of the equilibrium between the vital forces of the peoples which inhabit the area (p. the generative instincts of a people which lead to colonization in its various forms.87 on Wed.. p. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Economics. The substance of this strategy rests upon an adaptation of Mackinder's theory of the Heartland.

psychic. and the article.1942] GEOPOLITICS 487 being unassailable by the Anglo-Saxon seapowers. 142-144. Geopolitik des Pcazifischen Ozeans (Berlin. Temporarily this would mean that Germany should forego any idea of advancing into the sea space via western Europe. 11. 732-742 (1942). "Zur Theorie des Raumes. 24 Rupert von Schumacher.23 It is in connection with this projected expansion that the discussion of space (Raum) becomes so vital to geopolitics. which may include either water or land. pp. pp. 243-264. cit.. 1940. pp. 11. pp." Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. and strategic problems. Vol. of the development of a great seapower from this land base. 23 For an excellent discussion of this aspect of geopolitics and some of its implications. 773 et seq. An insight into the Germany feeling about space may be gained by recalling that ultimately it 22 Karl Haushofer. to extremely subtle forms of human relations to that surface either as an individual matter or as politically organized groups. economic.142. This content downloaded from 112. pp. (1939). 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Vol. Space possesses for them intrinsic values independent of its contents. 17. as Mackinder foresaw. pp. a great state needs great space and the citizens of a great state should comprehend the importance and signicance of great areal development. Also Hans W.22 Haushofer's persistent use of Mackinder's analysis gives rise to the suspicion that this has become a sound foreign policy for Germany because it disturbs the British so greatly. 11. The program thus indicated for Germany provides a way around the dominant seapowers and offers the possibility.87 on Wed. Vol. see particularly volume 16. Weigert. and "Zur Theorie der Raumstrategie.24 There are various conceptions of space which vary from mere surface. pp." Vol. but in the main they are concerned with space as a political phenomenon. 20. "Haushofer and the Pacific. It is safe to assert that the geopoliticians have delved into all of these aspects.204. 573-580 (1934). 779-788 (1934). 635-652 (1934) . "Geopolitischer Neujahrs-Ausblick. and it would offer Japan a secure rear for any advance that it might want to make into the south Pacific. 1924). The literature on space is enormous and not without its difficulties. see Strausz-Hupe. racial. Haushofer constantly refers to Mackinder's thesis in his monthly observations in the Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. The treatment may consider in infinite detail the physical and climatic problems or may extend to ethnic. "Zur Theorie der Raumdarstellung. pp. 1-5 (1940). op." Vol." Foreign Affairs.

." American Politicat Science Review. Vol. "Large supra-national economic areas are 25 Karl Haushofer. pp.27 Other variations of the spatial concept appear in the terms. and food requirements. As Haushofer put is. Literally translated. 27 Kurt Vowinekel. 12. It embraces all kinds of issues based upon prestige." Strausz-Hup6. pp. "Pflicht und Anspruch der Geopolitik als Wissenschaft. Compare: "Nowhere in all of Haushofer's writings is there a master plan for German foreign policy. 28 For an interesting and informed discussion of the bearing of these theories on the reorganization of Europe under German hegemony.28 In the opinion of the geopoliticians. 4 is hoped that Germany will be economically self-sufficient so that a blockade by sea will not contribute to her downfall. p. writes that Lebensraum has implications of a biological.204. Das hochste Gut des Mannes ist sein Volk. Grossraumwirtschaft. Lebensraum means "living space. historical. cit. 964-975 (1940). raw material needs. Vol. p. and Neuordnung. op. pp. but it would be unsafe to assert that they have any particular meaning beyond a greater political and cultural domination for the German state in the world as they envisage it. "Germany's Lebensraum. Vol.87 on Wed. give a hint as to their significance. 26 Charles Kruczewski. Such literal translations of these as great space organization. economical. This content downloaded from 112." and when interpreted by anyone in Germany it is taken to indicate all that which is necessary for guaranteeing the life and development of the German people-physically. Grossraumordnung. 638-639 (1939). Thus Kurt Vowinckel. and further by recalling that the state is considered as an organism in which every individual gains added significance. free trade and world markets are anachronisms. 34. 70. 1941). urbanism. "Zum Begriff Lebensraum. Lorwin. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Lewis L." Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik. great space economy.142." Zeitschrift filr Geopolitik. because of technology. 448 (1935). politically. one of the geopolitical group.26 This definition is borne out by the German discussion.488 THE JOURNAL OFPOLITICS [Vol. 16. industrial specialization. and geographical considerations. and new order. 55-64. and economically. and cultural character. Economic Consequences of the Second World War (New York.25 Lebensraum appears frequently in geopolitical discussions and its meaning varies from commentator to commentator.

142. p. and that. therefore. sound.. and at this point the "geographic conscience" comes into operation and becomes a guide for policy. Geopolitics is here making a determination based upon human values and is normative rather than scientific as the latter term is ordinarily defined. The unifying purpose that runs throughout the discussions is the restoration of Germany to the position of a great power which was lost following her defeat in World War I. 63. And that ultimate goal is a world 29 Ibid. and some of those ways have been by force and violence to existing political societies. The literature describes the heterogeneous character in which state expansion has occurred throughout history. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the "geographical conscience" of the state implicitly leads to war has not been discussed in the literature. and healthy state would strive to achieve control and domination of such essentials to its continued superiority. history.87 on Wed. The basic determining factor upon which it has come to rest is that of geographic conditions.204. The idea that other states can have geopolitical intentions of domination. This content downloaded from 112. and it is materialistic in large degree." 29 A growing. the geopoliticians of the German school have interwoven with their geographic materials an incalculable amount of national psychology. Geopolitics may be summed up as an attempt to find a deterministic principle which controls the development of states. By implication the geopolitician assumes that expansion may continue to occur in the same ways as in the past. However. and by implication approves of war as a means to the end of increasing a state's power and prestige and space. The manner of securing control of the resources and space necessary to maintain a satisfactory geopolitical state is an issue that is seldom discussed. The explanation of the lack of discussion of this issue may probably be found in the hope of victory for Germany with world domination as the result. This would constitute a satisfactory demonstration of the inevitable need for such a state to expand. and military strategy. Practically all of the ideas and all of the suggested courses of action contribute to that ultimate goal.1942] GEOPOLITICS 489 thus necessary as a new basis for modern economic life.

490 THE JOURNALOF POLITICS [Vol. A believer in democracy and a peaceful international order can find little comfort in this world outlook. 2 Oct 2013 21:05:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .87 on Wed.142.204. 4 organization based on domination and not on cooperation between equal states. This content downloaded from 112. Or in other terms geopolitics is a contemporary rationalization of power politics.