Development of Code for 2-D Distribution

Temperature Transient Analysis of
Asymmetric Element Linier Using Finite
Element Metod
Elfrida Saragi
Computational Division Centre for Nuclear Informatics Development, National Nuclear Energy
Agency of Indonesia
Email: frida@batan.go.id
Abstract! Transient of temperature distribution is found in many physical and engineering
events that affect the state of the end of a process. Transient state in the form of geometry
and complex boundary conditions is generally difficult to be solved analytically and can
only be solved by a computer code. This study is aimed to develop a software code using the
finite element method for the analysis of temperature transient distribution with the form of
field element discretization asymmetric linier. The completion of the temperature
distribution in the transient state is essential following the same procedure on the conditions
of temperature distribution at steady state. The main difference is the load at which the load
transient analysis is a function of time. Resolution process using finite element method
(FE! involves three stages" namely# the provision of data (preprocessor!" problem solving
(processor$ solver!" interpretation of the results in the form of graphs and contour
(postprocessor!. Stages of the software development process start from the preprocessor
program as ma%ing patterns$geometric shapes to be analyzed" discretized field with shape of
element asymmetric" writing the number of nodes and elements" loads" initial conditions and
boundary conditions. The process of the program code includes completing the matrix
stiffness coefficient (&!" and matrix load (a! time'based" or called the discretization time.
The completion of time discretization uses the (aler%in ethod. The stiffness of coefficient
consists of stiffness geometry" capacitance matrices" or matrix moisture" and the burden
imposed as transient loads" such as heat flux load boundary" centralized heat load of
boundary" and the initial temperature. )n this way the expected completion of temperature
transient distribution can be done more easily" *uic%ly" and inexpensively. The code is
written using +isual ,asic.
"ey#ords$ Temperature Transient Distribution" Element Asymmetric" FEM" %isual
&asic
'(T)*DUCT'*(
-ctual physical events or techni*ues are not applicable to steady'state
temperature conditions but a transient condition. Transient thermal analysis of a
system used to calculate the time'varying temperature and other thermal
parameters. )t is generally used in the field of engineering calculation and analysis
of transient heat loads as the load on the thermal stress analysis. ,asically transient
temperature distribution should be controlled as much as possible" because the
temperature changes too *uic%ly can lead to changes in the structure of the material
$ component which resulted in bro%en $ bent or damaged. This happened on
engineering e*uipment that suddenly loses heat load" for example in power plants
or nuclear power plant in addition to the many heat transfer applications such as
heat treatment" nozzles" engine bloc%s" piping systems" pressure vessels" etc.
.ompletion of the transient temperature distribution using finite element method
(FE! involves three (/! stages of the process of providing data (preprocessor!"
problem solving (processor $ solver!" interpretation of the results in the form of
graphs and contour (postprocessor!. Transient thermal analysis essentially follows
the steady'state thermal analysis. The main difference is in the load as a function of
time for transient thermal analysis. To reveal the time'varying load" the function
can be used to describe the load curve function of time. Transient state is generally
difficult to be solved by analytical method because of the geometry and the load as
a function of time. The need for rigorous analysis" fast and cheap" so that the safety
of the mechanical components $ materials used to stay awa%e it is necessary to
modeling and simulation. Software for the completion of the transient temperature
distribution is developed based on the software for 0'1 distribution temperature
steady state analysis of asymmetric element linier. This section will be developed
to influence the process transient" while others can still be maintained. )n this way
the expected development of the software can be done more *uic%ly and cheaply.
The purpose of this activity is to increase the local content analysis software for 0'
1 distribution temperature transient analysis of asymmetric element linier using
finite element method and able to analyze it.
+eneral teory of finite element metods
-nalysts finite element method is identical to the node or connection point. For
analysis at one point can be done manually" but to many point do not allow done
manually therefore need the help of computers. Finite element method is one
method of computation (numerical! are widely used for heat transfer and structural
analysis. Finite element method using the approach of the prices are not %nown at
each discrete point. Started modeling an ob2ect" then divide it into smaller parts
called discretization. 3ith the help of computers" the finite element method is able
to solve problems involving complex geometries" such as the issue of load of
complex structures that are generally difficult to be solved through mathematical
analysis. This is because the mathematical analysis need the magnitude or the price
that must be %nown at every point in the structure under study. .haracteristics that
distinguish the FE numerical procedure using integral to produce a settlement
system of algebraic e*uations and partial continuous functions to detect the
*uantity or some un%nown *uantity.
Metodology
athematical models of transient temperature distribution generated using
(aler%in theory into the e*uation below#
4 5 5 5 ! ( $ ! ( $ ! ( ·
1
]
1

¸

− − +
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹



∂ − ∂


∂ −



drdz t ! ! " z
z
!
r
r
!
#t
!
t C N
f p
!
τ
ρ

... 6!
.
p
is the specific heat (heat $ %g.
o
.!" h is the convection coefficient" 7 85is a hot
volume" T is temperature" t is the thic%ness" 9 is the process time. Furthermore"
e*uation 0 is solved using (reen'(auss theory gives the following e*uation as
.
e
a:
e
; &
e
a
e
< f
e
...
/!
The element capacitance matrix (.
e
! for axisymmetric" transient thermal analysis
have two shape function is lump mass and capacitance matrices. E*uation / must
be completed in order to obtain price T as a function of position and time
functions. )n addition to boundary conditions" in this case the initial condition is
also necessary. Finite element method is using discretization of time" where the
elements as a function of time is called temporal element (to distinguish the ob2ect
element!. )n this case the element of time is seen as an element of a line that has
two nodes" namely that τ and τ;∆τ. For the time discretization using linear
functions. Resolution process e*uation / using the principle of weighting function
as follows
, - .
/
0
· − +

+
τ
τ
τ
d f Ka Ca W
i
... =!
Shape functions >
i
and >
i ;6
can be described as the following picture.
F'+U)E /! The two'node temporal element
For convenience let us define a local normalized coordinat ? as follows#
ξ < (τ

'

τ
i
! $


i;6
' τ
i
! < (τ

'

τ
i
! $ ∆τ
)f follows that shape functions >
i
and >
i;6
are given by
>
i
< 6 ' ξ and >
i;6
< ξ
Similarly" f may be represented as
f < >
i
f
1i!
; >
i;6
f
(i;6!
There for e*uation (=! may be written as
[ ( ) [ ] ( ) ] 4 6 6 ! (
6
6 6 6
6
· ∆ + − − + − +
,
_

¸
¸


+ + +

+
τ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ
τ
τ
τ
d f f a a # a a C $
i i i i i i
i
i
... @!
.ompletion e*uation (@! will further provide
[ ] [ ] τ θ θ τ θ τ θ ∆ + − + ∆ − − · ∆ +
+ +
- 2 / 1 . 2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 1 i i i i
f f a K C a K C
... A! ... A!
.omputational process in e*uation .omputational process in e*uation (A! (A! done with re%ursion process" which results done with re%ursion process" which results
of (a! at step 2 to used as input in step 2 ;6. The recursion process is illustrated of (a! at step 2 to used as input in step 2 ;6. The recursion process is illustrated
schematically in figure /. schematically in figure /.
F'+U)E 2! Schematic diagram recusion process
Resolution process e*uation (A! by the method of BC decomposition or triangular
decomposition. )n principle" the stiffness matrix &
new
(&
new
< τ θ ∆ + K C ! split into
two matrices B and C. atrices B and C be a triangular matrix" wherein the matrix
B has a non'zero coefficients at the bottom (below the main diagonal are not
zeros!" while the matrix C has a non'zero coefficients at the top (the top main
diagonal are not zeros! as followesD
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

33
43 44
23 24 22
/3 /4 /2 //
33 34 32 3/
44 42 4/
22 2/
//
33 34 32 3/
43 44 42 4/
23 24 22 2/
/3 /4 /2 //
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, , ,
U
U U
U U U
U U U U
L L L L
L L L
L L
L
K K K K
K K K K
K K K K
K K K K
5)*+)AM 6T)UCTU)E
This processor program structure can be described as shown below.
F'+U)E 4! Erogram Structure
)E6ULT A(D D'6CU66
1evelopment software based on finite elemen method involve three stages namely
the preprocessor" processor" postprocessor as shown in figure ="@"A..
F'+U)E 3! 1isplay Ereprocessor Erogram
Ereprocessor program design according to the needs of the processor program.
Ereprocessor program development in Figure = starts from the settings of screen
whose function is used to ad2ust the screen according to the size scale of the
geometry" point $ multi point that according to the size of the drawing point of
geometry" lines function is used to connect two or more points" which connect
pattern line into fields" ie discretization divides the field into small areas with a
number of the desired node" node arrange the nodes reconstitute and write down
the number of nodes and elements" the write of material characteristics and data
load and etc. )n Figure @ is a display processor program that started early from
open file" ven diagram is to display the image geometry" read data time" )mage
filing cabinet that is processing the data using the e*uation 6 and e*uation 6 is
solved using e*uation / and test program execution processor use dummy data.
F'+U)E 7! Example of excecution processor program use dummy data
)n figure A is the display of postprocessor program .onsisting of open files of the
data" .onturFEBEFGG contour drawing is based on elements" .onturFGGF>H1E
contour drawing based on the node. graph drawing temperature vs node "
(rafi%F>H1FSCIC is drawing temperature chart on a particular node as a
function of time using dummy data as in Figure A" J.
Figure 8! Example of execution postprocessor program
Figure 9! Examples temperature chart on a particular node as a function of time
C*(CLU6'*(
astery of the basic theory of the finite element method (FE! which involves
three stages# preprocessor" processor and postprocessor and its programming will
facilitate the completion of the transient temperature distribution issues. Software
for the completion of the transient temperature distribution is developed based on
the software for 0'1 distribution analysis of asymmetric element linier temperature
steady state. The main difference is in the load as a function of time for transient
thermal analysis.
AC"(*:LED+EME(T
The author would li%e to than% r. Cta2a that he has helped to improve the
programs.
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