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**Temperature Transient Analysis of
**

Asymmetric Element Linier Using Finite

Element Metod

Elfrida Saragi

Computational Division Centre for Nuclear Informatics Development, National Nuclear Energy

Agency of Indonesia

Email: frida@batan.go.id

Abstract! Transient of temperature distribution is found in many physical and engineering

events that affect the state of the end of a process. Transient state in the form of geometry

and complex boundary conditions is generally difficult to be solved analytically and can

only be solved by a computer code. This study is aimed to develop a software code using the

finite element method for the analysis of temperature transient distribution with the form of

field element discretization asymmetric linier. The completion of the temperature

distribution in the transient state is essential following the same procedure on the conditions

of temperature distribution at steady state. The main difference is the load at which the load

transient analysis is a function of time. Resolution process using finite element method

(FE! involves three stages" namely# the provision of data (preprocessor!" problem solving

(processor$ solver!" interpretation of the results in the form of graphs and contour

(postprocessor!. Stages of the software development process start from the preprocessor

program as ma%ing patterns$geometric shapes to be analyzed" discretized field with shape of

element asymmetric" writing the number of nodes and elements" loads" initial conditions and

boundary conditions. The process of the program code includes completing the matrix

stiffness coefficient (&!" and matrix load (a! time'based" or called the discretization time.

The completion of time discretization uses the (aler%in ethod. The stiffness of coefficient

consists of stiffness geometry" capacitance matrices" or matrix moisture" and the burden

imposed as transient loads" such as heat flux load boundary" centralized heat load of

boundary" and the initial temperature. )n this way the expected completion of temperature

transient distribution can be done more easily" *uic%ly" and inexpensively. The code is

written using +isual ,asic.

"ey#ords$ Temperature Transient Distribution" Element Asymmetric" FEM" %isual

&asic

'(T)*DUCT'*(

-ctual physical events or techni*ues are not applicable to steady'state

temperature conditions but a transient condition. Transient thermal analysis of a

system used to calculate the time'varying temperature and other thermal

parameters. )t is generally used in the field of engineering calculation and analysis

of transient heat loads as the load on the thermal stress analysis. ,asically transient

temperature distribution should be controlled as much as possible" because the

temperature changes too *uic%ly can lead to changes in the structure of the material

$ component which resulted in bro%en $ bent or damaged. This happened on

engineering e*uipment that suddenly loses heat load" for example in power plants

or nuclear power plant in addition to the many heat transfer applications such as

heat treatment" nozzles" engine bloc%s" piping systems" pressure vessels" etc.

.ompletion of the transient temperature distribution using finite element method

(FE! involves three (/! stages of the process of providing data (preprocessor!"

problem solving (processor $ solver!" interpretation of the results in the form of

graphs and contour (postprocessor!. Transient thermal analysis essentially follows

the steady'state thermal analysis. The main difference is in the load as a function of

time for transient thermal analysis. To reveal the time'varying load" the function

can be used to describe the load curve function of time. Transient state is generally

difficult to be solved by analytical method because of the geometry and the load as

a function of time. The need for rigorous analysis" fast and cheap" so that the safety

of the mechanical components $ materials used to stay awa%e it is necessary to

modeling and simulation. Software for the completion of the transient temperature

distribution is developed based on the software for 0'1 distribution temperature

steady state analysis of asymmetric element linier. This section will be developed

to influence the process transient" while others can still be maintained. )n this way

the expected development of the software can be done more *uic%ly and cheaply.

The purpose of this activity is to increase the local content analysis software for 0'

1 distribution temperature transient analysis of asymmetric element linier using

finite element method and able to analyze it.

+eneral teory of finite element metods

-nalysts finite element method is identical to the node or connection point. For

analysis at one point can be done manually" but to many point do not allow done

manually therefore need the help of computers. Finite element method is one

method of computation (numerical! are widely used for heat transfer and structural

analysis. Finite element method using the approach of the prices are not %nown at

each discrete point. Started modeling an ob2ect" then divide it into smaller parts

called discretization. 3ith the help of computers" the finite element method is able

to solve problems involving complex geometries" such as the issue of load of

complex structures that are generally difficult to be solved through mathematical

analysis. This is because the mathematical analysis need the magnitude or the price

that must be %nown at every point in the structure under study. .haracteristics that

distinguish the FE numerical procedure using integral to produce a settlement

system of algebraic e*uations and partial continuous functions to detect the

*uantity or some un%nown *uantity.

Metodology

athematical models of transient temperature distribution generated using

(aler%in theory into the e*uation below#

4 5 5 5 ! ( $ ! ( $ ! ( ·

1

]

1

¸

− − +

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

∂

∂

∂

∂ − ∂

∂

∂

∂ −

∂

∂

∫

drdz t ! ! " z

z

!

r

r

!

#t

!

t C N

f p

!

τ

ρ

... 6!

.

p

is the specific heat (heat $ %g.

o

.!" h is the convection coefficient" 7 85is a hot

volume" T is temperature" t is the thic%ness" 9 is the process time. Furthermore"

e*uation 0 is solved using (reen'(auss theory gives the following e*uation as

.

e

a:

e

; &

e

a

e

< f

e

...

/!

The element capacitance matrix (.

e

! for axisymmetric" transient thermal analysis

have two shape function is lump mass and capacitance matrices. E*uation / must

be completed in order to obtain price T as a function of position and time

functions. )n addition to boundary conditions" in this case the initial condition is

also necessary. Finite element method is using discretization of time" where the

elements as a function of time is called temporal element (to distinguish the ob2ect

element!. )n this case the element of time is seen as an element of a line that has

two nodes" namely that τ and τ;∆τ. For the time discretization using linear

functions. Resolution process e*uation / using the principle of weighting function

as follows

, - .

/

0

· − +

∫

+

τ

τ

τ

d f Ka Ca W

i

... =!

Shape functions >

i

and >

i ;6

can be described as the following picture.

F'+U)E /! The two'node temporal element

For convenience let us define a local normalized coordinat ? as follows#

ξ < (τ

'

τ

i

! $

(τ

i;6

' τ

i

! < (τ

'

τ

i

! $ ∆τ

)f follows that shape functions >

i

and >

i;6

are given by

>

i

< 6 ' ξ and >

i;6

< ξ

Similarly" f may be represented as

f < >

i

f

1i!

; >

i;6

f

(i;6!

There for e*uation (=! may be written as

[ ( ) [ ] ( ) ] 4 6 6 ! (

6

6 6 6

6

· ∆ + − − + − +

,

_

¸

¸

−

∆

+ + +

∫

+

τ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ

τ

τ

τ

d f f a a # a a C $

i i i i i i

i

i

... @!

.ompletion e*uation (@! will further provide

[ ] [ ] τ θ θ τ θ τ θ ∆ + − + ∆ − − · ∆ +

+ +

- 2 / 1 . 2 / 1

2 / 1 2 / 1 i i i i

f f a K C a K C

... A! ... A!

.omputational process in e*uation .omputational process in e*uation (A! (A! done with re%ursion process" which results done with re%ursion process" which results

of (a! at step 2 to used as input in step 2 ;6. The recursion process is illustrated of (a! at step 2 to used as input in step 2 ;6. The recursion process is illustrated

schematically in figure /. schematically in figure /.

F'+U)E 2! Schematic diagram recusion process

Resolution process e*uation (A! by the method of BC decomposition or triangular

decomposition. )n principle" the stiffness matrix &

new

(&

new

< τ θ ∆ + K C ! split into

two matrices B and C. atrices B and C be a triangular matrix" wherein the matrix

B has a non'zero coefficients at the bottom (below the main diagonal are not

zeros!" while the matrix C has a non'zero coefficients at the top (the top main

diagonal are not zeros! as followesD

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

·

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

33

43 44

23 24 22

/3 /4 /2 //

33 34 32 3/

44 42 4/

22 2/

//

33 34 32 3/

43 44 42 4/

23 24 22 2/

/3 /4 /2 //

, , ,

, ,

,

,

, ,

, , ,

U

U U

U U U

U U U U

L L L L

L L L

L L

L

K K K K

K K K K

K K K K

K K K K

5)*+)AM 6T)UCTU)E

This processor program structure can be described as shown below.

F'+U)E 4! Erogram Structure

)E6ULT A(D D'6CU66

1evelopment software based on finite elemen method involve three stages namely

the preprocessor" processor" postprocessor as shown in figure ="@"A..

F'+U)E 3! 1isplay Ereprocessor Erogram

Ereprocessor program design according to the needs of the processor program.

Ereprocessor program development in Figure = starts from the settings of screen

whose function is used to ad2ust the screen according to the size scale of the

geometry" point $ multi point that according to the size of the drawing point of

geometry" lines function is used to connect two or more points" which connect

pattern line into fields" ie discretization divides the field into small areas with a

number of the desired node" node arrange the nodes reconstitute and write down

the number of nodes and elements" the write of material characteristics and data

load and etc. )n Figure @ is a display processor program that started early from

open file" ven diagram is to display the image geometry" read data time" )mage

filing cabinet that is processing the data using the e*uation 6 and e*uation 6 is

solved using e*uation / and test program execution processor use dummy data.

F'+U)E 7! Example of excecution processor program use dummy data

)n figure A is the display of postprocessor program .onsisting of open files of the

data" .onturFEBEFGG contour drawing is based on elements" .onturFGGF>H1E

contour drawing based on the node. graph drawing temperature vs node "

(rafi%F>H1FSCIC is drawing temperature chart on a particular node as a

function of time using dummy data as in Figure A" J.

Figure 8! Example of execution postprocessor program

Figure 9! Examples temperature chart on a particular node as a function of time

C*(CLU6'*(

astery of the basic theory of the finite element method (FE! which involves

three stages# preprocessor" processor and postprocessor and its programming will

facilitate the completion of the transient temperature distribution issues. Software

for the completion of the transient temperature distribution is developed based on

the software for 0'1 distribution analysis of asymmetric element linier temperature

steady state. The main difference is in the load as a function of time for transient

thermal analysis.

AC"(*:LED+EME(T

The author would li%e to than% r. Cta2a that he has helped to improve the

programs.

)EFE)E(CE6!

6. &laus'Kurgen ,athe" Finite Element Erocedures" Erentice Iall international ")nc.6LLA

0. 1avid Kung" Eierre ,out*uin" Khon 1. .onley )))" Boren Eidahl" Bowel auver" Kac% Eurdum"

+isual ,asic A Super,ible" Sams Eublishing" 6LLL.

/. )ntroduction To Finite Elements in Engineering" Tirupathi R. .handrupatla" ,elegundu -sho%.

1" Erentice Iall" >ew Kersey" 6LL6

=. Fran% B Stasa" -pplied Finite Element -nalysis For Engineers" Florida )nstitute of Technology

"6LM@

@. Saeed oaveni" Finite Element -nalysis" Theory and -pplication with ->SNS" Erentice Iall"

Cpper Saddle River" >ew Kersey 4J=@M "6LM/.

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