Introduction: Thermodynamics is an exciting and fascinating subject that deals with energy,which is essential for sustenance of life

, and thermodynamics has long been an essential part of engineering curricula all over the world .It has a broad application area ranging from microscopic organism to common household appliance ,transportation vehicle ,power generation systems ,and even philosophy .This Course material contains sufficient materials for two sequential courses in thermodynamics . Objectives This course material is intended for use as a test book by undergraduate engineering students in their sophomore, and as a reference book for practicing engineers. The objective of this text are . To cover the basic principles of thermodynamics. !. To present a wealth of real world engineering examples to give students a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice . ". To develop an intuitive understanding of thermodynamics by emphasi#ing the physics and physical arguments. It is our hope that this book, through its careful explanations of concepts and its use of numerous practical examples and figures, helps students develop the necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply knowledge.

Unit – I Overview of Unit -01 This unit consists of seven lesson of teaching, in the first lesson we will study $asic of Thermodynamics, %acroscopic and microscopic approach .and its definitions, .In the second lesson we will study system types with pictorial representation, introduction to properties. In third lesson we will study &roperties i.e intensive and extensive properties with examples in addition to that we study the definition of state, path and process. In fourth lesson we study thermodynamic equilibrium, types of equilibrium with examples .In fifth lesson we study about 'iathermia wall, (uasi)static

process and some basic definition to solve the numerical problems like specific volume, pressure, temperature* +eroth law of thermodynamics etc. In sixth lesson we study Temperature scale factor conversion like ,ahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to ,ahrenheit and few -umerical problems were solved .In seventh lesson we study about %easurements and internal fixed points. Objective of Unit -01 .t the end of this unit we shall understand that/ $asic concepts about the Thermodynamics .pplication of Thermodynamics with examples Cycles, 0quilibrium and their types with examples and sketches Temperature scale factor conversion and its utility in engineering science ,ew numerical problems in 1niversity aspects.

Lesson -01 1.1 BASIC CONC !"S AN# # $INI"IONS Objective: .t the end of lesson you shall understand that The 2tatistical thermodynamics and classical thermodynamics are different based on the requirements the type can be chosen. The temperature and its fixing with numerical problems. .nd how the classification and definitions are varying in equilibrium, cycle with examples. In overall you will be able to through about what is thermodynamics how it plays its vital role . Introduction: In this lesson you will be able to solve the numerical problems in energy conversion and, in internal fix points. %ore over you will get thorough knowledge in $asic thermodynamics. 1.1 "%er&od'n(&ics:-

It can be defined as the science which deals with the relation between heat, work and properties of the system.

P, V, T, ρ

Q

W

A))*ic(tions:

'esigning work producing machine 3 4eat engine, 2team engine, 5as Turbine 'esigning work .bsorbing machine 3 6efrigerator, .ir compressor -o work transfer systems ) boiler, condenser, and furnace.

7here no work is transferred, the Thermodynamic problem involve the use of heat to produce the change in state or the transfer of mass with a chemical reaction, as in the combustion of a fuel. It is the science dealing with energy and its transformation. 0nergy can be viewed as ability to cause the change the name thermodynamics is derived from greek word 8Therm9 means heat and 8dynamics9 means power, which is the most descriptive of the earlier efforts to convert heat into power. 1.+ ,(crosco)ic (nd &icrosco)ic ())ro(c%: ,(crosco)ic ())ro(c%: In the study of the thermodynamics one can adopt two

different approaches namely macroscopic and microscopic. In macroscopic approach

suppose a certain amount of gas is trapped in a container, one can measure the volume occupied by the gas by measuring the diameter and height of the cylinder. The pressure exerted by the gas by measuring the diameter and height of the cylinder. The pressure exerted by the gas can be measured with the help of pressure gauge and its temperature can be measured with the help of thermometer. Then the state of the gas can be described by specifying the pressure, volume and temperature. The values of these variables which can be measured very easily. Thus in macroscopic approach. . The structure of the matter is not considered. !. :nly a few variables are used to describe the state of the matter under consideration ". The values of the variables used to describe the state of the matter are easily measurable. In classical thermodynamics, we adopt macroscopic approach. ,icrosco)ic ())ro(c%: In microscopic approach a same gas can be considered as consisting of a large number of small particles each of which moves at random with independent velocity. The state of each particle can be specified in terms of position co) ordinates ;xi, yi, #i< and the momentum component ;&xi, &yi, &#i<. If we consider a gas occupying a volume of cm" at ambient temperature and pressure. The number of particles present in it is of the order of = != and the same number of position co)ordinate and momentum components are required to specify the state of the gas. .t a particular instant each particle has a definite position velocity and energy and these characteristics change very frequently due to collision between the particles. The overall behavior of the gas or matter is then predicted by the statistical averaging the behavior of the individual particles. 2o, thus in microscopic approach. . a large number of variables are required for complete specification of the state of the matter under consideration.

Surroundin-: The mass . The variables choose to describe the state of the matter cannot be measured easily and preciously. The boundary of a system can be fixed or movable. .!. 2ystem and its surrounding forms universe 2ystem . Bound(r': The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surrounding is called the boundary.matter< or a region outside the system is called surrounding or everything external to the system is called surrounding. The boundary has #ero thickness and thus it can neither contain any mass nor occupy any volume in space. ". S'ste&: 2ystem or thermodynamic system is defined as a quality of matter or a region in space upon which attention is concentrated in the analysis of a problem. In statistical thermodynamics. knowledge of structure of matter under consideration is essential. Note: The boundary is a contact surface sheared by both system and surrounding. we adopt microscopic approach.

1niverse $oundary 2urrounding 2ystem and surroundings from &iston cylinder arrangement 2urrounding Boundary system Surrounding Su&&er': 4ere we learnt the Classical and statistical thermodynamics and their explanation. 7e studied how the system is classified and what are surroundings and boundaries.t the end of the lesson you shall understand that 2ystems are being considered to study about the energy transformation Isolated system has fixed mass and energy . Lesson-0+ Objective: .

%aterial . The si#e. no mass can enter or leave a closed system. >ou will get introduction about properties and its lists with units. closed system consists of fixed amount of mass and no mass can cross its boundary i.mass< cannot cross the system boundary either or both direction. ". /(0 C*osed s'ste& /Contro* &(ss0: Closed system is a identifiable collection of matter on which attaintion is focused during thermodynamic analysis of problem.-o< 5as $oundary .a< Closed 2ystem ..&roperties are required to mention about the characteristics of the 2ystem Introduction: In this lesson you will study about system. "%ree c*(ssific(tions of s'ste&: . boundary with respect to a stationary observer can change.c< Isolated 2ystem. 1. shape and orientation of a system. !. . C%(r(cteristics of ( c*osed s'ste& bound(r': ..e.b< :pen 2ystem . There can be heat and ? or work interaction across the system boundary. &iston %ass . and its types with examples.

:pen system is a properly selected region in a space for thermodynamic analysis of problem. 4ot 7ater %ass .>es< 0nergy .0nergy .nother view of cylinder Q W b0 O)en s'ste& /contro* vo*u&e0: :pen system or control volume is an identifiable #one in space on which attaint ion is focused during thermodynamic analysis of problem. 0g/ 7ater heater.yes< Cold 7ater .>es< .

.boundary< In case of piston cylinder arrangements m m C%(r(cteristics of Contro* s'ste&: . There can be material flow . !. . There is no change in the si#e.mass< across the control surface in either or both the direction. /c0 Iso*(ted S'ste&: The isolated system is one in which there is no interaction between system and the surrounding it is of fixed mass and energy.nd there is no mass or energy transfer across the system boundary.Control surface . ". shape and orientation with respect to the stationary observer. There can be heat and? or work interaction across the control surface or system boundary.

specific energy .!ro)ert': property of a system is an observable. Cyclic and non cyclic process Introduction: . The salient aspect of the thermodynamic property are/ .2<. enthalpy . specific enthalpy .4<. temperature . ". thermodynamic property refers to the characteristic which can be used to describe the condition or state of the system.v<. T<.Cv. energy . It is dependent only on the state of the system. path and process and indication in sketches. Objective: . specific entropy . density .t.&<.t the end of the lesson you will be able to understand Intensive * 0xtensive properties with examples. properties and their lists with units. 1(&)*e: &ressure .e<. Cp<. measurable or calculatedly characteristic of a system.. entropy . 2tate. 2pecific volume . Lesson-0. !.∫<.A<. It has a definite unique value when the system is in particular state. specific heat . it does not depend on @path or route of the system follower to attain that particular state.0<. It is measurable characteristics describing a system and helps to distinguish one system from other. Su&&er': 7e learnt about the systems and its classification and examples. point.s<. Aolume .h<.

we study about Cyclic and non Cyclic process 1. . St(te: The condition of the system at any given instant is called its state 2tate of system is nothing but the totality of the properties of the system."')es of t%er&od'n(&ic )ro)erties: /(0 Intensive !ro)ert'. specific volume. St(te di(-r(&: it is a diagram on Cartesian co)ordinate with any two independent properties being marked on x)y axis that represents the state of the system at any given instant.In this lesson we will study about the Intensive and 0xtensive properties. /b0 1tensive !ro)ert'. density. specific energy. entropy. temperature. ↑ A > v! ! system or mass of the system.2 . path and process definition which are necessary for this lesson. Intensive properties are those that are independent of si#e of system or independent of mass. specific entropy. 0x/ 2pecific heat. energy. specific enthalpy. pressure. /(0 Intensive !ro)ert': . It is the complete description of a system in terms of its properties.nything comes per kg is an intensive property. and point. /b0 1tensive !ro)ert': 0xtensive properties are depending on si#e or extent of the 0x/ Aolume. enthalpy. Note: .ny property comes with specific is an intensive property.

To describe a process one should specify the initial and final states of the process. Non-C'c*ic )rocess: . In other words after system being subjected to a cyclic process would experience no change in any property.↓ v B p! p→ p * ! are state points. !rocess: 7hen a path is completely specified the change of state is called a process. C'c*ic !rocess: In a cyclic process the initial and final state point after a certain happenings are the same. system is said to be execute a non)cyclic process if its initial and final points are not the same after happening. St(te !oint: This is a point in a state diagram showing the condition of the system at any given instant in terms of two properties B and >. path and process and indication in sketches. !(t%: &ath is a line joining the successive state points on a state diagram during a change of state. point. 2tate. . Cyclic and non)cyclic process. as well as the path it follows and the interaction with the surrounding. Su&&er': 7e learnt the Intensive * 0xtensive properties with examples.

t the end of the lesson you shall understand that 2tudy of Thermodynamic equilibrium gives vast knowledge about other equilibrium like %echanical . 1.Thermal equilibrium. .part such as diffusion. no temperature gradient and no chemical reaction or transfer of materials from one part of system to another . system is said to be in mechanical equilibrium when there is no unbalanced force within the system and also between system and the surrounding. . chemical . 1. we will be studying about various equilibrium involving in thermodynamics.:r< . we will understand about Types of 0quilibrium of 2tability Criteria."%er&od'n(&ic 4ui*ibriu&: Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states. 1nderstanding aboutTypes of 0quilibrium or stability Criteria. In an equilibrium states there are no unbalanced potential with the system.3. In such a case there would be no unbalanced force.Lesson -02 Objective: . system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if no change in any of its properties occurs when it is isolated from its surrounding.ec%(nic(* 4ui*ibriu&: . . The word equilibrium implies the state of balance. Introduction: In this lesson.

.If any unbalanced force exists either of the system alone or both the system and the surrounding will undergo a change of state till mechanical equilibrium is reached.

+. (usi)static process is also called reversible process it is also nothing but successions of equilibrium state. . In other words a system is said to be in thermal equilibrium if there is no change in any of its properties occurred. equilibrium.. "')es of 4ui*ibriu& or st(bi*it' Criteri(: The equilibrium states of the system can be classified as/ . "%er&(* 4ui*ibriu&: . system is said to be in thermal equilibrium if its temperature is uniform with in the system and that is equal to the temperature of surrounding during a process. C%e&ic(* 4ui*ibriu&: If there is no chemical reaction or transfer of matter from one part of the system to another such as diffusion. 2table 0quilibrium/ The system is said to be exist in a state of chemical .

+. Neutr(* 4ui*ibriu&: .

.et( st(b*e 4ui*ibriu&: 7hen it is communicated with the surrounding through a diathermicwall. Su&&er': .. Unst(b*e 4ui*ibriu&: 2. .

it is called a (usi)static or (usi)equilibrium process. . C 0quality of temperature is in thermal equilibrium. C 0quality of chemical potential is in chemical equilibrium.7usi – st(tic )rocess or 7usi-e4ui*ibriu& )rocess: 7hen a process proceeds in such a manner that the system remains infinitesimally closed to an equilibrium state at all times. C 0quality of force .pressure< is in mechanical equilibrium. Lesson-03 Objective: . (usi)equilibrium process can be viewed as sufficiently slow process.t the end of the lesson you will answer 'iathermic wall is suitable for heat transfer (uasistatic process with equilibrium state &roperties of the system with its units +eroth law of thermodynamics dealing of Thermal equilibrium #i(t%er&ic 5(**: It is one which when brought between a system and its surrounding allows only heat transfer across it.6. but no work transfer.0quilibrium study in thermodynamics is very important for solving the numerical problems. 1. that allows the system to adjust itself internally so that properties in one part of system do not change any faster than those at other parts. 2tability theory gives more information about the involvement about the equilibrium in stability theory. .

Time F. Cd A→ -on 3 (usi static process. Dength !.mpere Candela m Eg 2 . . %ass ".↑ & ! ↑ & ! A→ (usi 3 static process Units (nd #i&ensions: Units: There are seven basic units are there/ . Duminous intensity ) ) ) ) ) meter Eilogram 2econd . 0lectric Current G.

mount of substance ) ) Eelvin mole E mol 1.= " bar ." E&a. .tmospheric pressure J = .tmospheric pressure .bsolute pressure J 5auge pressure K .J ma J kg m ? sec! J+. !ressure: &J F A N m! . $orce: . . J .H. Temperature I.&a< E&a %&a .∝m ∝a .&abs J &g K &atm< 7here.

watt< 6.orce × displacement J ..× m J -m JL 2. !ower: The rate of doing work.bsolute pressure J atmospheric pressure ) Aacuum pressure &abs J & atm 3 & Aacuum . . #'n(&ic 9iscosit': . "or4ue: Torque J . &ower J J s J 7 . 5or8 or %e(t or ner-': 7ork J .orce × &erpendicular distance J-×m J -m J L 3.bar J =G &a If negative gauge pressure is there then.

.:.>erot% *(w of "%er&od'n(&ics: It is the basic law of thermodynamics.µ J Ns m! . S)ecific %e(t: Kg m − sec J Kg E J o Kg C ..3 sec?m!< / J Eg ) m sec / sec m ! ! / J :. It states that two systems on thermal equilibrium if they are separately in thermal equilibrium with the third system. "%er&(* Conductivit': .E<JW mK (W m C ) o <. =e(t tr(nsfer Co-efficient: /%0: W   !o   m C W m! K 1. /Or0 .

Thermometer< junctions as the third body and compares the unknown temperature with the temperature of the system at a known thermal level . The #eroth law of thermodynamics provides basis for the temperature measurement. . Dength of metallic rod increases and so on. "e&)er(ture: Temperature is an important hot and cooled body is measured by using thermometer. if body one is thermal equilibrium with body three with separately and body two in thermal equilibrium with body three with separately. Su&&(r' .fixed points< . The temperature is known to bring about certain changes in system for e. Then body one and two are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. 'epending upon its made of operation thermometer reads changes in certain property and the change is the related to temperature through certain calibration done using the concept of #eroth law of thermodynamics and by reference datum points .g. The temperature measuring device . 7ith increase in temperature volume of fluid increases. ".In other words. !. 6esistance of an electrical resistance increases.reference temperature<. property or characteristics which changes in value as a function of temperature is called thermometric property and the corresponding substance is known as thermometric substance.

. Thermocouple . !. 1.ahrenheit to Celsius vice versa . 6esistance thermometer . ."%er&o&eter: Thermometer may be defined as the act of measuring temperature with accuracy and precision.which measures the e. The Types of equilibrium and (uasistatic process also covered. . "..rom this lesson the important +eroth law and some important properties which are related with thermodynamics were studied.ost Co&&on*' used t%er&o&eters: .7e will be studying about %easurement of temperature and its scale. and its uses in thermal industry will be studied and its related problems of conversion from . .m.which measures the change in resistance with change in temperature<.t the end of the lesson you will understand 7hat is thermometer how it is used in 6eal life and 6*' %easurement of temperature and temperature scale Temperature conversion and few problems related to it Introduction: The thermometer.f generated at the junction of two dissimilar metals<.which measures the change in volume of mercury with change in temperature<. Lesson-06 Objective: . %ercury in glass thermometer..

%easures the change in pressure thermometer.nd their thermometric properties be xi and xs respectively.t steam point ts J axs K b 2olving . Considering linear Co)relation. Det temperature represented at this states be ti and ts corresponding to ice point and stem point.!< t s − ti xs − xi t s − ti xi xs − xi at constant volume in a constant volume gas )))))))))))))))) . . Ideal gas thermometer or gas thermometer which measures the change in volume at constant pressure as in the case of constant pressure thermometer< . .F.!< aJ b J ti ) .:r< . 1. $efore MGF there were two fixed points one is ice point and another one is steam point.t ice point ti J axi K b ..<. quantitative measure of temperature of the system requires reference to some datum plane or reference conditions or fixed points. < and . T J ax K b $etween temperature t and thermometric property 2.e(sure&ent of te&)er(ture or te&)er(ture sc(*e: . < ))))))))))))))) .

. Ts J ==oC  x − xi  ∴ toC J ==  x −x   i   s $(%ren%eit Sc(*e: .ts 3 ti<  x −x   i   s Centi-r(de Sc(*e: .t ice point Ti J "!o.t ice point. Ti J =oC .nd at stem point.. xs − xi < == . J "! K . x − xi < t oC J . x − xi  t J ti K .  x − xi  To. N=<  x −x   i   s 6elation between oC and o.

new temperature scale in o.N toC. J "! K .nd at steam point Ts J F==o7e know.is designed with free#ing point at ==o.J ti K .ts 3 ti<  x −x   i   s  x − xi  To.and o.. .  x − xi  T J ti K . N=< t oC == to.and boiling point at F==o-.ts 3 ti<  x −x   i   s . . J "! K .to. 2olution/ 5iven at ice point Ti J ==o. 0stablish a co)relation between oC and o.

N toC t o F − "! J toC ."< we get . J "! K ."toC K ==< 7e know To.F< )))))))))))))) .J ti K "==  x −x   i   s  x − xi  To.F< in ."< )))))))))))))))))) .J . < and .N ))))))))))))) . < ))))))))))))))) . x − xi  To.J == K "==  x −x   i   s x − xi  t o N − ==   J   "==  xs − xi  7e also.!< we get t o N − == t oC J = /= / "= /= / to. know  x − xi  ToC J ==  x −x   i   s Comparing .!< 2ubstituting the value of toC from .

m J "! K . To. N m ) "! J .ind the identical numerical value.N mJ Therefore at 3 F= the both thermometer reads equals.N 3 < m −"! J ) F=.H t o F − "! K ==. =.fter the thermometer reaches equilibrium with the fluids.t o F − "! T-J "× K == . . =. . Two thermometers one oC and other o. .H to. J "! K .J !. are immersed in a fluid.N toC -ow if m is the point where both the readings are same.N o =. 2olution/ 7e know. . it is noted that both the thermometer indicate the same numerical value.

7here a and b are constants. The instrument gives values of & as .NH &s J H.N & J !. the temperature at ice point and steam points are = oC and ==oC respectively. 2olution/ 5iven/ &i J .".N at ice and steam point respectively evaluate temperature corresponding to a reading of & J !.G Ti J = ts J == tJO ti J a loge&i K b ts J a loge &s K b t s − ti log e Ps − log e Pi t s − ti × loge&i log e Ps − log e Pi aJ b J ti ) . .G. temperature T on thermometric scale is defined in terms of property & by a relation T J a log e & K b.NH and H.

INoC. 1.=G  e  .ahrenheit and temperature points are calculated..NH  J ) FI.10.G< 3 FI.NH< bJ=) log e    .== − = a J log  H. .NH  ==  H.G × loge . Lesson-0: Objective: .et%od in use (fter 1<32: T J !!.N H J !!.N  × loge .N  J II.ahrenheit and Celsius Introduction: In this chapter the gas temperature how its calculated by converting in to Celsius and .INoC Su&&(r': In this lesson we studied about the thermometer and temperature scale conversion by solving numerical problems.N H T J a loge & K b J II.!.t the end of this last lesson we will be familiar with 4ow gas temperature being measured by Thermometer 4ow to solve the problems with respect to . .

The temperature at which this state exist is arbitrarily assigned to a value of !I"."HH J P tP →= P TtP tP Ttp :xygen air P PtP nitrogen . liquid. water and water vapour co)exist in equilibrium. HoC J ! I". Ttp J aBtp Ttp aJ X tp TJ X B tp ?(s "%er&o&eter: Ide(* -(s te&)er(ture: P T J TtP PtP T lim P J . H E and thermodynamic property at that stage is Btp. H E.2ince after MGF only one fixed point has been in use. Temperature at triple point. the state at which ice. T J ax Ttp J =. that is the triple point of water.

"HH Ta Tt& ≈ Ti Ts J ."HH ))))))))))) .!! E ≈ !I" E ."HH Ts J "I" E  x − xi  ToE J !I" K ==  x −x   i   s . H T J .!< ==oC K Ti J ."HH Ti == J Ti J !I".= mm &t& &rove that ToE J toC K !I" ."HH Ti )))))))))))))))) . < Ti Ts 3 Ti J ==oC ==o C + Ti J .

N=  x − xi  To6 J FM ."HH Ti 3 Ti J N= N= J FM .and boiling point at F==o-. ."HH ))))))))))) M < Ti Ts 3 Ti J N= )))))))))) .!< .N= =.t o K − !I" t oC J = /= / = /= / toE J toC J !I" Convert .N= K N=  x −x   i   s t o R − FM .6ankine</ Ts J . 2olution/ . new temperature scale in o.N=.arehait scale into absolute scale .is designed with free#ing point .ice point< at ==o. . K FGM. 0stablish Co)relation between its absolute unit and o-."HH Ti J Ts J HI .N= t o F − "! J /N /N /= / /= / to6 J to.

"HH Ti 3 Ti J "== ))))))))))))) .HI % =.J == at ice point. < Ti J "== J N M.HI ≈ M%  x − xi  To% J N M K "==  x −x   i   s t o M − N M t o N − == J "== "== to% J to.J == K "==  x −x   i   s Ts 3 Ti J "== .J F== at steam point  x − xi  to. < ))))))))))) ."HH Ts J M."HH Ti ti o.K I M . ti o.Ts J .

Take room temperature to be !GoC where 6o is resistance at =oC. ".""oC. 'etermine the temperature of the system ∝ J =.F. $y the time it is showing resistance F= Ω and it obey.IG  ε − εi  T J ti K  ε −ε   .m.ts 3 ti< i   s ε    G T J ==  TJ == ε G t J GN. 2olution/ 2ystem Ice point 2team point 5as $y mercury T J =oC T J ==oC T J G=oC Thermo couple = ==oC GN.f in a thermocouple with test junction at toC on gas thermometer scale and reference junction at ice point is given by e J =. 2olution/ 6 J 6o . K ∝t<. the expression. 6 J 6 = . K ∝t< . The e. 7hat will this thermometer reads in a place where gas thermometer reads G=oC.! t 3 G × =)F t! mA The mill voltmeter is calibrated at ice point and steam point. 6esistance thermometer at room temperature shows G Ω and its kept equilibrium with another system whose temperature is to be measured."" ε = G N.!F.

K =. of silver 3 MH=.) N!. F.!F t< N. Triple point of water ) =.HM − =.G Ω J 6o .NoC . . fixed points and the temperature shown in oC.Intern(tion(* fi1ed )oints: These are all reproducible temperature usually phase change temperatures of certain substances. -ormal $. K =.&. -ormal boiling point of water 3 ==oC.!F × !GoC< 6o J !.GoC H. The following is the list of temperatures. 1. -ormal boiling point of .MIoC< !. boiling point temperature< . F Ω F= Ω J !.ntimony 3 H"=.!F J t J I". F Ω . -ormal boiling point of sulphur 3 FFF.HoC G. They are not measured by using any thermometer but are assigned to a certain value which are universally accepted their primary purpose is to serve as standard or reference temperature in calibrating thermometer in various temperatures.I oC. :xygen .11.= oC ".

!GoC.'efine 0ngineering thermodynamics. Celsius thermometer both immersed in fluid. 7hat is temperature of fluid expressed as o6 and oE.or o.2tate +eroth law of thermodynamics ".I 6. In I=" sir Ijack -ewton proposed a linear temperature scale for which he choose the ice point and human point temperature as the two fixed point and assigned numerical values of =o2 and ==o2 respectively. Su&&(r': In this last lesson we studied about the Internal fixed points and gas temperature measuring by thermometer and we solved few problems .II toC . 1se the relation. 5ive applications of it.< Universit' 7uestions .0xplain %easurement of temperature or temperature scale.ind the temperature of the system when e.7hat is international fixed pointsO4ow it is being fixedO G. . 7U S"ION BAN@ .m..< ".m."oC.7hat is thermometer list most commonly used thermometer F. .f is "A. !.ns/ Tos J !. . .f in a thermocouple is =A when the test junction is at = oC ."H to-.< !.ahrenheit..I. . of 5old 3 =H. ToC J =.ahrenheit reading numerically twice that of centigrade reading..&. If the human body temperature is in centigrade "HoC. J !oC . "utori(* )rob*e&s: . -ormal $.TJ FFH.ns/ t J H. The e..ns/. :btain the relation between -ewton scale and oC.ice point< and ! A when it is at steam point.

7hich thermometer is correct.'ec =N? Lan =M < G.Thermodynamic state ii. and $ agree at ice point ! and steam point..Intensive and 0xtensive &roperties iii. 'etermine the reading on .If at the ice point and steam points the values of pare found to be F and != respectively.=="M" t Q 7hen 6= is the resistance at = P C .%.&ath and &oint function H.'efine the following . 2ystem and control volume ii. AT1)Lune ?Luly =N< "%eor': F.. Lune?Luly !==N < i. The Temperature t on a certain Celsius thermometric scale is given by means of a property through a relation t J a ln p K b 7here a and b are constants and p is the property of the fluid .is found to be MN= ohms. J D K %t$ K . . Lune?Luly !==N< i.t B . The resistance of the windings in a certain motor is found to be N= :hms at room temperature .are constant. 7hen both thermometer are immersed in a system of fluid.The windings are made of copper whose resistance at temperature tP C is given by 6t J 6= @ K =. ii.7hat will be temperature reading corresponding to a reading of p J H.)rob*e&s: .%ention the Characteristics of a thermodynamic &roperty .(uasi)2tatic &rocess .AT1 'ec =N ? Lan =M < ".7hen operating at full load. when $ registers "I.the motor is switched off and the resistance of the windings immediately measured again .7here.'ifferentiate between the following with suitable examples .ind the temperature attained by the coil during full load. $ut else where are related by equation t .. The readings T.. registers o C while $ registers =oC.FoC. D. !G=P < . AT1)-ov !==I< !.1nder steady state conditions. and T$ of two Celsius thermometers .

'ec ?Lan !==N < i.'istinguish between.&oint function and path function iv.:pen system and closed system ii.iii.%acroscopic and %icroscopic approach iii. I.Cyclic and -on 3 Cyclic &rocess.'iathermic and adiabatic walls .Intensive and extensive properties v.