- "YUKTIDIPIKA

VOL. II

DR.

smv
and

KUMAR

Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona

DR. D.N. BHARGAVA
Deptt. of Sanskrit, Joudhpur University

EASTERN BOOK LINKERS
DELHI .. (INDIA)

Published by : EASTERN BOOK LINKERS 5825, New Chandrawal, Jawahar Delhi-l10007

Nagar,

First Edition

1992

@

Author

Price

Rs. 400.00

ISBN

81-85133-67-0

Printed bv : Delhi OftSet Press
I

19915, Chaudhery Braham Singh Marg. Mauj Pur Ghounda, Delhi-110053

!

PROLOGUE The system of Sarnkhya is honoured in the ancient Indian literature and is considered to be an important system by the opponents of S'imkhya. The other systems have utilised the theories of Samkhya in the course of their development. The YlIktidipika (:- YD) serves as a decisive testimony for it. Basically, Samkhya stands for the highest knowledge attained through intensive \ deliberation. It is derived from the word samkhya which is in turn derived from sam+ ..;khyii. It comes to mean number or philosophical investigation. The system of Sarnkhya explains the facts of experience through enumeration of categories and also culminates into the highest knowledge. Inspite of its great antiquity it has suffered a lot for the gaps in literary continuity and finally is so much overpowered by other systems that no powerful author undertook the task of its defence from the onlaught of other systems. Its origin is oblivious and the pre-systematised form of it available iJ;1 the references to it in the ancient literature suggests its rich tradition. It was considered necessary for all intellectuals and thinkers. The other systems with their stress on different specialised aspects invited the attention of the later thinkers interested in particular aspects and the Samkhya giving a general framework was reduced to the position of the opponent in the development of many doctrines. The earliest authentic work on Sarnkhya available to us is the Samkhyakarikii of Isvarakrsna. This text, however,systematises the theories of Samkhya in such a brief that its import cannot be understood without a detailed commentary on it. The Y D is the earliest commentary to satisfy this need. The other commentaries like Ma!haravrtti, Gau~apadabha~ya, Jayamangala and the

4

etc., are very brief and, hence, are not sufficient to provide the details required for the understanding of the Samkhya system. The Saritkhyatattvakaumudi of Vacaspati Mi§ra is the only commentary which explains the karikas of IsvaraknQa in detail. The Y D, however, excells over it in many respects. Since it was not available for a very long time to the scholars of Samkhya, its importance has not been fully realised.
Siiritkhyacandrikii,

The Y D adopts a most comprehensive approach to the karikas as containing aphoristic statements and justifies it with all possible details. It re~ards the Samkbyakarikas as containing all the excellences of a complete philosophical text, such as aphorisms, means of knowledge, components, completeness, statement of uncertainty and decisiveness, brief enunciation, detailed statement, succession, naming the objects and advice. It illustrates all these clements in the text of the Sathkhyakarika.! Moreover, its approach to the wording of the karikas is quite critical and analytical. It suggests amendment in the karikiis as in 28th .that the reading should be JabdadiiU instead of originally found rupadifu terming the latter as reading adopted through carelessness. In this case, it can be rightly termed a varttika, It justifies its another name as Rajavarttika. The propriety of such a name will be discussed later on. Here, the author resorts to the grammatical rules to discuss the wording of the karikas, He analyses the problem of compound in the expression tadapaghtuakeP The author gives the etymological meaning of the technical terms to justify their use by HvaraknQa. The technical terms are used to expound the nature of the object denoted. The author of the Y D believes that the! technical terms were coined by the acdryas after having realised the nature of the objects. Thus, the author of the YD explains pradhana as the -resorting place of all the evolutes (at the -time of dissolution) and
1. YD on Kiirika I. 2. Ibid.


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purusa as the entity which rests in the body." The later followers of these acsryas use the same terms as these terms were enough to serve the purpose of the intended meaning. The YD justifies not only the reading of the Siirhkhyakarika but also the contents of the Samkhya system. Such a purpose is served in two ways. It is the only text which saves the system of Samkhya from the intellectual onslaught at the hands of the other systems. The Samkhya system has been severely criticised by the other systems. There is no other existing text than the YD which undertakes the issue of defending the Samkhya doctrine from such a criticism. Secondly, the YD adopts the method of criticising the theories of other systems also to justify the position of the system of Sarnkhya. Such a unique approach makes the YD essential for the complete understanding of Samkhya. Sometimes the text enters into so minute details that it becomes difficult to make out the statement of the opponent or of the Samkhya. The YD does not leave the topic until it squeezes no more out of it. The. author spares no argument to justify the tenets of Samkhya, The name Yuktidipika is given with the same background. It is illuminator of (all possible) reasoning (to justify the system of Isvarakrsna), The YD recognises that such a task of refuting the contention of the opponents was shouldered by the authors of Samkhya before Isvaraknr;ta also. The controversy had become so subtle that its import could not be grasped easily.
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Since such a purpose was not carried on by Isvarakrsna or his followers. the YD undertakes the continuation of the same intelle3.
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ignores tbe statement about various opponents of Samkhya as srHrq-en: ~~~lf ~~q~Tur. It may casually be observed that P.6 ctual warfare with the other systems. SiJmkhyakiJrlka 72 . IsvarakJ1l)a wrot~ the SiJmkhyakiirikii without making the reference to the stories as also the theories of other systems.:qTlf)qq~lf ifiT~UlfT~tlf~if~t ~t srf~~fi'~~: I II This was also a practical need of the time. as the light serves twofold purpose of removing the darkness and revealing the objects. however. Such a purpose was served by Isvarakrsna. 6.' Thus. He expounded the Sarhkhya doctrines along with their technical details. He himself recognises that the SamkhyakiJrikii is summary of the text called $ailitantra which dealt with a -----------4." The controversy between the Siirilkhya and the other systems could not be grasped without having the knowledge of the doctrines of Samkhya. Such a restriction.crTfG<f: I II cf<rTf~ifiT:srTfif~ifiT fcrifif{~qrt~qr The author recognises in the introduction of the text that the YD proposes to expound the Sarilkhyakarika with an intention of justifying it with all possible arguments : ~tlf Olf~qt ifif~lSlfrflf lfln. B. p. the YD also serves twofold purpose of descarding the opponent's stand and of throwing light on the doctrines of Samkhya in a true perspective. Chakravarti': thinks that thJ YD proposes to reply to the hostile criticism of the Paramathasaptati of Vasubandhu.160. The appellation Yuktidipikii also suggests the same as the author considers the text as proposing to dispel the darkness of the wrong doctrines through the light of reasoning by the noble persons of unconfused mind. Y D on karikii 72 Origin and development of the Siimkhya System of Thought. S.

purposefulness. Ibid.f<fzi fqlJ)q) lJ'tlT~q :q II ~qqf~ ~~a-·~ci :qft1CfiTiiV: ~iTa-T ~~ I •. plurality. 8.rrfmit~~qiT~a-~qiT~Ti'lJa-r' q~~.P Regarding the transmigration of the subtle body. subservience. distinction.rTiT«TiT¥:1iiT~m(ftfT iTa~ I ~(f q~c: q-~iiT~Tf1f: "'i! f".flJ q~:qfq"f~aii)1fflT . ~ c fqqr. It mentions that the seers like Pancasikha experienced the existence of elIect in the cause.rcr ~: u 'ti~(!JT. Hence. According to Pancadhikarana the sense-organs are elemental in nature'? and ten in number. They are compared to the dry rivers and can operate only with the influx of the Prakrti. the YD is an attempt to explain the karikas in a right perspective." Isvarakrsna followed thoroughly the views of Pancasikha. Y D on klirikli 22 11. Ibid. Isvarakrsna deals with all these topics in his own way in very brief.:r a-~s. Y Don klirikli 9 10. union. twenty eight types of disability of organs. The YD is the only source to have a glimpse of various schools in the Samkhya itself before the advent of Isvarakrsna during the gaps in its literary continuity. srtfr.1 sixty topics. and eight types of attainment. duration. The unique feature of the text which raises it to the height of importance is the reference to the views of pre-Isvarakrsna Samkhya teachers." Being elemental in nature these cannot function of their own. singleness. nine kinds of contentment. disunion. •. and the fivefold error. Pancadhikarana holds that the subtle hody enters the organs of the father and the mother at the time of their intercourse and gets 7. Y D on klirikli 32 12. the works of whom are lost to us.f~f<r: II 9.' The YD enumerates these sixty topics as existence of the cosmic matter. . lack of agency (forming the basic topics).

He believes that the sensation of I is by the intellect itself and. the others also do so. he rejects the separate existence of egoism. A new subtle body is produced which takes the organs to the womb and vanishes." The senses operate of tbeir own without any external influx." The YD criticises Paurika's view of multiplicity of the Prakrti. When the Prakrtis of the divine personalities create. therefore. The subtle bodies.. twelve in number according to him. Again.8. It creates the body. IS The manifest world deviates from its derived form and not from its existence at the time of dissolution. Y Don karika 5 19. These subtle bodies vary in each birth. etc. Y Don karika 39 17. Y D on kiirikii 22 16. or the Prakrtis attached to divine personalities desist from activities. merged into the semen and blood of the father and mother and grows in the womb. a new subtle body is produced which continues up to death. Y D on karika 17 13." Varsaganya along with the other Y D on kiirikii 39 14." The Purusa imitates the intellect existing as knowledge when commingled with the functioning of the intellect. there is a separate Prakrti assigned to each Purusa. hence. Y Don kiirikii 10 20. are many. . Having pushed the organs to the heaven or the place of torture. Patafijali holds a peculiar view about the subtle body and the transmigration. It helps in uniting the 'organs to the womb suitable to the past impressions of acts. The organs are." The YD records the views of Patanjali also in various contexts. according to him. The activity and desisting from activity of this particular Prakrti is governed by those attached to the divine personalities. Y D on kiirikii 32 15. According to Paurika. for that particular Purusa. ear and the rest." The YD refers to the views of Viir~agal. it vanishes.lya who defines perception as the functioning of the sense-organs. Y D on kiirikii 56 18.

of all the objects and Unlike all other arises the the subtle feel the need of admitting organs are all-pervasive functioning fication is birth while the classification of the state of their rejects the classi- its adandonment of the dispositions.. Unlike while the ordinary all other are not authorities and authorities of a single he holds from in form and the domithat the is an the five in the holds ones co-operate Varsaganya form.2S subtle Unlike important One of them dominates and the dominated . 22. but sama siddhtka (existing 21. 23. he holds that the does not the same As regards in mind. at the Vindhyavasin of natural (prakrta) -dispositions innately 22 in a composite three-tattvasama (arising in the intellect very time of its production)." The senselocated at eleven points and are teachers. the bifurca- the egoism subtle elements are produced tion into the elemental products of egoism according the intellect. according to him. Still there mutual relation dominant function nants. are all-pervasive knowledge in nature. is no mutual proceed has intellect the unprompted and some other element forth.It the that elements other Vindhyavasin and teacher specially for explaining theory of knowledge. while it happens so in the to Vindhyavasin. attainment Vindhyavasin He holds that is death." into body products of intellect according organs. Ibid . Ibid 26.9 authorities illustrate Var~aga~ya sexual other does not subscribe to the view that out of which the spontaneous woman Varsaganya constituents.P of three two. body. Thus. Those having contradict. 24." To of the Prakrti each other (for explained between the the the comes out of Prakrti comes activity towards beautifully contradiction intensity holds that the Prakrti proceeds to activity as the insen- tient bodies of man intercoursej. psychological aspects takes place to others. Y Don karlka requiring Y Don karika 57 Y D on karika 13 Y D on karika 22 25.

Fourthly. the assumption of which is gathered from the statements of Jayantabhatta in his Nyayamanjarl. there are some differences of interpretation of the kiirikiis in the Y D and the Siirhkhyatattvakaumudi. there is a reference to manY doctrines of other systems which require deep consideration separately. Thirdly. The authorship of the Y D has posed a complicated problem still unsolved. which hinder the assumption of admitting the same author of the two. The Y D classifies the text into four Prakaranas and eleven ahnikas." Besides. That is why the knowledge in lord Kapila was manifested after hearing from the teacher. Y D on klirikli 39 Y D on karika 42 . 28." The admittance of Vacaspati Misra's authorship of the Y D involves a lot of valid objections. the Samkhyatattvakaumudt of Vacaspati Misra does not show any sign that he has already written a commentary on the Siimkhyakiir. They require the stimulus for their manifestation and. Secondly. we do not understand the need of writing the two commentaries on the same at the hands of the author like V!caspati Misra. Nyayamanjari p. 29. The crux of the problem lies in the mention of Vacaspati Misra as the author of the Y D in the colophon at the end of the manuscript as also the mention of some Raja. The difference between them is not less than a century according to 27.kii. If it is presumed that he wrote it after the Siimkhyalallvakaumudi. Firstly. are of the nature of accomplished. the style of the two is so different that one cannot accept the same author of the two when read side by side. consequently. there are ample evidences to prove that the Y D was written long before Vacaspati Misra. Such a division is not observed in any other commentary of the Samkhyakartk«. Varanasi 1936 .10 stimulus). Vindhyavasin holds that the dispositions cannot be tattvasama and samsiddluka. 100.

31. C. Pandey" puts forward three proofs in favour of the existence of the Y D long before Vacaspati Misra. To discard the authority of the mention of Vacaspati Misra's name in the colophon. Pandey considers it an error on the part of the scribe. xiv . Introduction to the Y D p. (2) Vacaspati Misra quotes three verses towards the end of the Samkhyatattvakaumudi from a text named Riijavarttika. These verses occur in the beginning of the Y D. or. Pandey'» feels that the identification of Raja with Bhoja is too naive. The author of the Y D. 161. B. Jayantabhatta refers to the elucidation of the same by some Raja. (I) The Y D quotes the definition of perception offered by Dinnaga while Vacaspati Misra refutes the Dharmaklrti's revised defioition of the same. 30. p. R. Ibid . It is certainly a work of varttika class and resembles to a certain extent to the Nynyavarttlka of Uddyotakara. It may be assumed that it was called Riijavarttika because it is the most eminent explanation of the Siimkhyakiirikii. Since Jayantabhatta is a contemporary of Vacaspatl Misra. C. C. The addition of the term rllja in the beginning begs justification. R. Origin and Development of Sathkhya System of Thought. though the latter is a varttika on the Bhnsya while the earlier is a varttika on the karikas treating them as siitras. and is prompted by the tendency of attributing any good thing to Bhoja and to identify any raja with Bhoja. A similar statemeot is fouod in the Y D.II while R. The authority P. nowhere names his work as the Rnjavnrttika. the Y D must be earlier to him. because it was written by some person known as Raja. (iii) While refuting Isvarakrsna's definition of perception. The latter finds support from the statement of Jayantabhaua. It must have been given by someone else. Chakravar1i30 of the second and the third argument leads us to assume that Rajavaritika is another name of the Y D and its author was some Kaja respectively. There is no decisive evidence to identify that Raja with the famous kind BhOja or Bhartrhari.• p. however. xv 32.

however.35 The style of the text. 35. leads one to think that it may be contemporary of Uddyotakara. In this regard we find no definite proof and. even having raised a piirvapaksa the author raises some plausible reply and then the plausible objection with these words and it becomes difficult to analyse where the views of the opponents begin and where the reply to it ends." upper limit is the advent of thinks that its upper (first half of the seventh century) R. B. therefore.. C. cit . however. B. 33.12 It is equally difficult to find out the date of the YD. This turns the style of the author highly polemical. Chakravarti is inclined to think that it cannot be put later than the eighth century A. B. no Dinnaga. 0. On the basis of the style of the text and different authorities quoted therein P. (Calcutta. On~ is lost in the arguments of attacking. counter attacking and re-attacking continuously till the final conclusion is reached. 34. cit op. But. have to be satisfied with mere conjectures. This difficulty led the translators to arrange the text in a different manner. Chakravarti. Pandey feels that since the offered by Dinnaga. For the same reason it was felt useful to give the Sanskrit text also. Chakravarti limit cannot be before Bhartrhari padiya with slight variation. In presenting the Sanskrit text we have consulted three available editions-by P. P. the There is. cit op. Generally the opponent's views are presented with aha and the reply with ucyate. It is interesting to note that the author of the Y D spares no argument in his fierce intellectual warfare with others in defence of Samkhya. op. as the author quotes some couplets which are found in the VakyaY D quotes the definition of perception satisfactory criterion to decide the lower limit of the date of the YD.

T3 1938). The translators are thankful to him. by R. Prop. it could not be placed before the readers until the work of Its publication was shouldered by Shri Sham Lal Malhotra. 1967) and by Ramashankar (Varanasi. C. The next part is expected to see the light of the day soon. Pandeya (Delhi.. 1970). . Eastern Book Linkers. Delhi. Trlpathl The herculean task of translating the YD was undertaken in 1970 and was completed within a couple of years. However.

CONTENTS Karika 9 Objections against pre-existence effect in the cause of 1 7 15 cannot be produced 16 18 18 19 20 22 24 24 25 26 27 Non-difference between a composite and the components Argument of success of the effort of agent refuted That which is non-existent Relation of effect with couse proves pre-existence effect Because there is relation of the causes (with the effect) Because everything is not possible (Everything) Non-existence of the effect in the selected cause refuted Usage pf 'born' does not go against pre-existence of effect Efficient cause gives rise to efficient effect Because the efficient cause can give rise to efficient (Effect) only Usage of cause proves pre-existence of effect And because of its (Cause's) being the cause. the effect pre-exists Buddhist theory of non-existence criticised of composite .

etc..16 Criticism of Jain View Foot-Notes 28 29-32 Karika 10 Cause of mentioning Dissimilarity between and its evolutes Having a cause Having a cause does not contradict pre-existence of effect Refutation of the theory of momentariness dissimilarity first 33 35 36 38 39 50-51 cosmic matter Foot-Notes Karika 13 Nature of the three constituents and illumination and mobility and enveloping occur in 11 52 52 52 53 single object 53 Buoyancy Exciteness Sluggishness All the constituents Though opposite in nature the constituents 55 work for a single purpose And (their) Function is for a single purpose just like that of the lamp Mention of six characteristics imply the six constituents Foot-notes does not 56 57 61-63 Karika 14 Undistinguishableness. in cosmic matter 64 .

17 Because of their absence in the opposite of that 64 66 Foot-notes Karika 15 Similarity between manifest and cosmic matter presupposes the existence of cosmic matter Proofs for the existence of cosmic matter 67 68 69 70 72 72 75 is due to potency 75 75 80 81 81 86 87 89 94 94 103 105 106 106 Finiteness of objects : because of finite nature of the specific objects Homogeneity Because of homogeneity Potency of functioning Because the functioning Potency is not born at the time of activity Difference between cause and effect between Because of the difference cause and effect Constituents are mutually cause and effect Merging of effect in the cause Because of the re-union Atoms cannot of the World of effect be the cause of the universe The conscious entity as also Isvara cannot be the cause Negation of existence of Isvara be cause Atoms of actions cannot Time is not the cause Accidence Negation or chance is not the cause is not the cause .

18 Power. Favour and Separation are not the causes Foot-Notes 107 108-111 Karika 16 Cosmic matter acts through three constitnents It operates through and in combination Cosmic matter Through Nature the 112 112 113 113 114 115 116 118 119 120-121 the three constituents • does not move but modifies modification of modification Change in form or quality does not change the original Generality and particularity give rise to various objects to the The constituents Like water. on account of resorting one or the other of the constituents Foot-Notes Karika 17 Esistence of conscious Entity through 123 123 124 124 126 127 122 The Existence of soul established inference based on analogy Composite Because Causcious Opposition is meant for others the composite is meant for other in nature entity is non-composite to the properties of the manifest Because of opposition to the three constiuents and the other properties .

there is the tendency Controversy does not prove non-existence conscious entity Foot-Notes {arika 18 Multiplicity Definite of the conscious entity of birth. death and organs adjustment of birth.19 ) Control Because Control over non-sentient of the control is metaphonical entity exists as an enjoyer the conscious 127 127 127 128 128 128 129 131 134 137 for isolation of 138 140-141 137 Conscious Because of the enjoyership entity exists Enjoyment consciousness Resolution Conscious Tendency of conscious entity is mataphonical can belong tosoul only and consciousness entity is not an agent resolution for isolation And because. 143 144 142 142 adjustment Because of the definite death and organs Non-simrltaneity Because plurality of action of the non-simrltaneity activities the of the conscious entity is established of non-simrltaneity of 144 Another interpretation activities Opposition 145 146 to the qualities of the manifest .

etc.20 Because of the opposition constituents. Foot-Notes to three 146 147 Karika 19 Nature of conscious entity 148 150 156 157 157 157 157 161-162 Witness-hood Isolation Neutrabity Seerness due to absence of constituents of the conscious entity of the conscious entity of the conscious entity of the conscious entity of the active agency Non-doership Non-agency Foot-Notes Karika 20 False appearance conscious entity Transference The contact Foot-Notes of qualities in the 163 164 167 170 of qualities is metaphonical Karika 21 Purpose of the contact between matter and the conscious entity Perception cosmic 171 171 of the 172 purpose of isolation 173 174 of the conscious entity purpose isolation Cosmic matter's conscious entity And for Cosmic matter's (of the conscious entity) The Contect of the two is like that of the lame and the blind .

• 21 The creation Foot-Notes is caused by that (Cor. Different views of the outhorities Process of evolution Intellect comes out of the cosmic matter 177 178 179 179 179 179 180 From that issues the egoism From that comes out the set of sixteen From five of that set of sixteen come out five gross elements Foot-Notes [(arika 23 Nature of intellect of the intellect expression of Sattva 181 181 186 ]89 192 194-195 Momentariness Because of the metaphonical From of intellect with the dominance Form of intellect Foot-Notes of tamos with dominance Karika 24 Nature of egoism from egoism 196 197 Evolution The set of eleven consisting of the senses.tact) 175 176 Karika 22 Evolution of the universe. and the group of the five subtle elements 198 Significance Foot-Notes of three forms of egoism 199 201 .

illuminating and understanding .22 "Karika 2S Evolution Evolution from the sattva dominating from tamas dominating egoism 202 202 203 206 egoism Taijas form of egoism Foot-Notes Karika 26 Sense organs Organs of knowledge Organs of action of the senses from their locus of considering the sense as one 207 207 208 208 210 212 Difference Refutation Foot-Notes Karika 27 Definition Separate of mind existence of mind and action 213 213 214 217 Mind is both sense of knowledge Foot-Notes Karikii 28 Function Objects Nature of the senses of the senses of function of the organs is not the knowledge of 219 and do not il221 222 218 218 219 Obstruct apprehension generality The senses get the form of the objects lumine it Grasping.

of that (Group of those four) successive (functioning) only is mentioned In the case of the penceptible Similarly in the case of the imperceptible (Objects) .23 Meterial Function origination of the senses refuted 223 224 226 of the organs of action Foot-Notes Karika 29 Function of the internal organs 227 229 229 229 230 232 233 234 235 235 236 238 240 243 The functions of three internal organs are their respective characteristic features (Definition) Definition as the peculiar function to each of all the senses This is peculior Common Prana. Prana Samana Udana Vyane function etc. are not a single air Life of eight Pranas Source of action Control over the vital airs Foot-Notes Karika 30 Oppnent's view of simultaneous function of the organs Simultaneous functions of the orans refuted 244 245 246 247 And..

24 The function of the three follows that (function of the respective external organs) Another interpretation of the Karika 247 248 249 Foot-Notes Karika 31 Each senses performs No blending together its individual function of function of senses 250 251 252 253 253 256 Senses do not have understanding Another interpretation of mutual intention the senses Mind does not physically operate Foot-Notes Kiirikii 32 Number of organs is thirteen 257 258 259 259 261 Activity of the organs Another mode of assigning seizing. retaining and illuminating Objects of the organs Foot-Notes Kiirikii 33 Internal External External organs organs organs and objects of internal organs 262 263 264 The external organs act at present only while the internal at. the three points of time Foot-Notes 265 266 .

Karika 38 Phase of the objects Subtle elements are called non-specific Gross elements are called specific and evolve from subtle elements From these five the five gorss elements 282 282 283 284 .25 Karika 34 Objects Objects of organs of senses of organs of action 267 268 268 269 273 The acts of organs of action are not restricted The objects in operation or unreal Foot-Notes are not non-existent Karika 35 Relation of wander and gates between and external organs Foot-Notes the internal 274 275 Karika 36 Mind and egoism submit the objects Foot-Notes to intellect 276 277 Karikii 37 Mind and egoism come in contact conscious entity indirectly Intellect discriminates between cosmic matter and conscious entity Foot-Notes of the 278 279 281 .

All-pervasiveness Foot-Notes of the senses criticised 298 303 Karika 42 Transmigration of subtle body 304 Karika 43 Dispositions Sule-dinisions of disposition of 307 .309 311 306 306 Different views about the sub-division dispositions Three Kinds of dispositions Foot-Notes ..26 Mutual favour in gross elements Cause of terming gross elements through qualities specific 285 287 288 289 (They are) Colm terbulent Foot-Notes and deluding Karika 39 States of specific objects The specific work as sheaths Kinds of living beings Perishable Different and imperishable specific 290 290 291 292 293 295 views about subtle body Foot-Notes Karika 40 Characteristics Foot-Notes and constituents of subtle body 296 297 Karika 4:.

Kiirikii 44 Results of disposition 312 Through knowledge only is acquired the liberation 313 Bondage is intended (to ensue) from the reverse (of knowledge) 314 Foot-Notes 314 Kiirikii 45 Natural bondage Personal bondage Propriety of the term abounding in Rajas Non-obstruction through supernatural power Absence of knowledge is the root of dispositions Result of absence of lordly powers Foot-Notes 315 316 317 317 318 318 320 From the reverse (results) the opposite (there of) 319 Kiirikii 46 Creation of the intellect Kinds of dispositions Due to the mutual suppession of the Gunas because of their relative inequalities. its kinds come to be fifty Foot-Notes 321 322 323 324 Kiirikii 47 Kinds of dispositions Kinds of perverted knowledge Kinds of disability 325 325 327 .

28 Kinds of contentment Foot-Notes 327 328 Kiirikii 48 Kinds of ignorance Kinds of delusion Kinds of great delusion Kinds of gloom Kinds of utter gloom Further division of error 329 329 330 330 330 330 331 Foot-Note Kiirikii 49 Kinds of disability Disabilities of intellect 332 333 334 Division of contentment Kiirikii 50 Internal contentment of cosmic matter between contentme.nt and ignorance 335 335 337 338 339 340 341 343 345 345 Contentment Distinction Salila Ogha or Time Vr~ti or destiny Time and destiny External Suparam Sunetram contentments .

in355 357 352 354 Kirika 52 Interdependence of subtle body and dispositions two kinds of creation Foot-Notes and 358 361 Kirika 53 Creation of the living beings 362 Kirika 54 Division of creation Creation Creation Creation into three justified 363 363 364 364 366 in upper order abounds in Sattva in lowe-r order abounds in the middle abounds in tamas in Rajas Foot-Notes Kariki 55 Pain caused by old age Pain caused by death Pain caused by birth need not be mentioned 367 367 368 .29 Sumaricam Abhayam or uttama 346 347 350-351 Foot-Notes Kiriki 51 Attainments Curbs for attainments Attainments removes perverted capability and contenment Foot-Notes knowledge.

.380 381 383 379 God does not inspire' for the activity Activity towards the one not causing it Foot-Notes Karika 58 Activity is natural in cosmic matter Foot-Note 384 385 Karika 59 Cosmic matter knowledge Foot-Note desists from activity afte-r rise of 386 387 Karika 64 Rise of true knowledge On account Difference absence of Error between pure and absolute first after 389 389 388 388 389 The body is not destroyed attaining knowledge .. Foot-Notes .30 The world is full of misery Foot-Notes 371 373 Karika 56 Creation meant for conscious entity of the cosmic matter refuted 374 375 378 Multiplicity Foot-Notes Karika 57 Activity of the non-sentient Evolution does not contradict theory of Satkarya cosmic matter the 380 .

31. they are the topics of the Sastitantra. Kiirikii 67 Foot-Notes 390 391 Kiirikii 68 Merging of the objects Attainment of liberation into cosmic matter 392 392 392 Foot-Notes Kiirikii 69 Purpose of the Sarnkhya philosophy Kapila expounded the Sarnkhya system matter 394 394 395 395 Secrecy of the subject Contents of the Sarnkhya philosophy Kiirikii 70 Kapila related Compassion Asuri Asuri related Foot-Notes the Sastra to Asuri 397 397 the Sastra to Paficasikha 398 399 made Kapila to relate the Sastra to Karikii 71 Authors between Paficasikha and Isvanakrsna 400 400 Purpose of the Sarnkhyakarika Kiirikii 72 Whatever topics are in this text of Seventy verses. excluding the narratives and without the (Discussion of) Theoritesof others 402 .

~ 'qCf(j":'liT stf(jqf~f{fcl ? Opponent: In that case. Therefore. The authorities Like Kagada and Gautama hold that the effect is non-existent before its origination.:rofffif I ~s~ I f4. Why? Because there is the difference of opinion amomg the authorities.1T-lT"<Tfcf'llfcf ~ }lfcl\. the doubt is justified.f illfc:I{l4Hw~Pffll' ~ st'h{OIl~Rsf'lltil~I1Hfll f. You are introducing another irrelevant topic. The others hold that it is neither existent nor non-existent. If it is asked why does the doubt arise? It may be like this. The Buddhists hold that it is both existent and non-existent. what is your opinion? ~I l1sfq~4Hfll 4~<Ie:f&'hl{fll ~t. ~-3ffiq ~:~~~~ ~:mr:r:1 ~~I~ICI'hI~I:I~ ?3ili'll4fqstfclq~: I~~: I~ 'h144~f~I ~<~f~fcl~: ~:>tI~f~<"4~I~' Proponent: There is certainly the scope for the doubt.{i\LlHII{i###BOT_TEXT###quot;4fT. The authorities do not consider it right to consider a doubt which is not connected and is stated indirectly in connection with some other topic because there is no possibility of its scope. stl!l~~{f«1 ~ -m&fl41i1I~f~ opponent : Let us stop for the time being the consideration of dissimilarity and similarity.3lT«fhIlCl. We shall first examine the effects like intellect and the rest as to whether the effect exists earlier to its manifestation or not.KARIKA-9 (objections against pre-existence of effect in the cause) 3lffl.l'k11 I 'h14f~<~CI<11C1044~<I~ ~ I mftr? ~: mr:r ~ ~ flll044<1&{ ~~ st'h{OIl'k1{~q~ I '.lI414% I .

Bf~~~lrqiltll1l51I'1q '1111('{l('Cfl14ftlf"n:f<t I Opponent: The reason is false (lit. The object cannot be established (through the other unestablished object).. would not arise. -.f When this sort of supposition is accepted.r:CfiRI1Tl-e:~ cW:ft(~~d~'1'fTT11:? ~ qffi fcl'l:llC'iChHi ~«1I1BII1'ldfcdl~lfqil~l: ~~: Slf<lf-1.3tfcmI1H~d11~? ~. desist from the activity of modifying themselves (into the universe)1 and in their entirety (lit. rajas and tamas which form the essential nature of the world are endowed with thesubtlepotencies (inthe state of unmanifest)which are devoid of similaror the dissimilar differentia. only .. where is the occasion for the origination of the non-existent? By this only the origination of nonexistent should be understood to be refuted in the case of the external objects like cloth. unpartitioned in the form of various effects)? The manifest is merely the particular arrangement of the potencies in whom the activitj leading to modification has arisen due to their being entitled for it (or due to the acts of living beings) and which have attained a collected4 form in the orderly succession of their mere existence. am.jI~Bd~:~~ Proponent: We accept that the effects like intellect which would not exist in the cosmic matter.rJ?:Ii~Hf~"': I~ fu Bf'l~~lfq- il~I1I51~~ ~ ~ \@y~~ ~-~'1q'II1I~B5>~~{sIB'~· Wr I dfClftl<&1{ I'5::&lHH'I(<lfl'llcFlfq. We do not hold that there originates an effect which is altogether different from its cause.2 Yuktidlpikii ~ ?Bf~~~lfclil~I1I51I'1q'l4l(tr~fu-. Why? Because it is not established. the effects of the threads. because of their being merely the particular arrangement (of their respective material cause). etc.in an accumulated form having the characteristics of existence only. non-applicable).!'dqn:UIII1&llql{l: ~\jl'lgqtjSlIc{\I: ~~: ~: I "d'fmllf~l!4i5>q"1ldqn:UIII1&llql~"uli ~Pll5ll1s:tl~UI Slilllgqtj q~I1HHi Bf~~~Ifqil~l1l~ ~ ~ I~ Cfl~(HllIII1Bd ~ Cfi: ~ Wr? ~ ~ I d+'4lf(!oCflllliuli Bf~~'?lfqil~I1IM. the sattva. etc. Why? Because we accept only a particular arrangement (to be the effect).f\ f-1&lf'd4f<l~HI11 ~ CflICflfq~IUII1 mrfif~lulf~r"q~~ij.. On the contrary. Had it been established that the effect is the mere particular arrangement (of the cause).

as it (the object) is into the contact of the senses. therefore..'IC:::~'dif¥if<t ~<L ~ filftf I IJ>ctC:::UOl9)'diG I ~? (jfditi~tll«11f<t ~ ~ ~: &lq~rl'1 W"1Cr: I ct~IC:::{l~ct11 CflI(OIl~(Hrq~ I 3Rf~ ~CflI(OIl{l'l?\lql(ifl14fJ01l!'ltolfl1~ct: .r I 3Tf'l:>\~~1«:. I ~ ~ ~ ~ fcftl<1~ ~~HIC:::iH4 'ct'"c:::ftr ~b1IfC!O{l~~ ~ ~I . If the effect were existent before its origination.:r"dSl{l<l'R <l"ft ~~fCfq~~qlf«1 ~ I mITS04:>\IWI~~qIIRl~ I ~~ ~~ ~~ I ~.lI'C"lI~- !11. etc. I (j~I. This is..~'di¥iiq<1f<iitjCflI<OI{l'l?\lqlffi(j: CflI4fJ01l!'ltoIfGf<t I >I¥iIOIl~(f+. <J~ l1TffiftFsMI!l°I&lq- qr.Kiirik'ii9 3 then it would have been proper to say that because of the acceptance of this position there is no occasion for the origination of the non-existent. it would also be perceived as it comes into the contact with the senses like the ear.l1111J><t. the-effect is non-existent (in the cause) because it is not perceived. however.r ~ ~ "ITsf<t~<lf<!O&lf<trhMjq<1aIT CflI(OIl~(Gt:ft~ «<flSfJ01l!'ltoj~ I CflI(°Il!'ltOI>l{l#: I ~? i. However. not established because we have declared the origination of the composite as different from the components..l11 fl!((1«:. There is the cause of the non-perception of the effect before its origination. There must arise the knowledge of the object of the senses like ear. it is not perceived even though it exists.r TI~: ~ (j~1C:::{l(ifl14&{I It may be argued that it is so (not perceived) on account of the (other) causes of its non-perception? It may be like this. the effect is non-existent (before its origination). CflI~if<!O'11 <J~f-S:~lfUl I .ffq<1~ ~ ~ . the establishment of the prior existence of the effect through the acceptance of the particular arrangement (in case of the effect) is improper like the establishment of the horn of the hare through the horn of the crow. etc. ~ ~ ct~ct~l<L 3lftf~: I~ ~~lfCftP"l~ CflI4fJ01ljq<1f&'ti{lfllf<t~{lf<!Or'l(jq<1f&'tiI CfiRUt ct~lC:::fJ01 ~~ w:r. Therefore.1 \fcffif I ~ ctfsPIGI1 Qtolfl1f<t I QJ!'C"lljqq- ~? ~ I ~ CflI<~.7 ~~ ~ ~ ~ 'lfCfct&l&{ I <l'R ~ ~: I ct~IC:::{l(ifl14&{I 3f!WlmI.li I <J~ tR1iqF~(jHj fRi~I!l0I&lq~~II{lPlfClTilI \iOIHI:L't'1I'I~:~. .:1ICflf-s:~fCfq~fJ01ljGHfJ01 f1'tf"dSlHfj": I 3ff. it is not perceived and.f-S:~!'lI~«:. Therefore. Later on it is perceived on account of the removal of that (cause of non-perception). TI Moreover.

undesirable contingency of refusal of the other means of knowledge? It may be if it is held to be the object of perception only. undesirable. its non-perception is caused by the causes of non-perception like extreme distance. the effect is non-existent. This is also wrong. If it is argued that the argument is wrong because it involves the . because of the non-mention of some other cause.. it is non-existent." Therefore. etc.4 Yllktidpika It is also not proper. The objects not cognised through perception are inferred through their activity just as the air is indicated by its activity of lifting up of the straws lying in the court-yard. There is (however. are perceived through the same sense and are gross (i. property or name. ~IaI*l(ifi141{ I CflJSf~m*lIq. undesirable. butstill. Why? Because they are located at the same place. Why? Because there is no possibility of activity.!r is indicated by its smell. In case of the one who intends the absence of the knowledge of the effect on account of the presence of the cause of non-perception. you have Dot recognised some cause other than extreme distance. property and name in case of the effect before its origination. Hence. This is..lOor through the name. the effect is non-existent. there arises the undesirable contingency of non-perception of the cause. Moreover. That kind of object is not perceived. Why? Because there is no possibiliry. through property-just as the jasmine creep'. however. Therefore. it is not proper to say that the effect is not perceived due to the cause of non-perception even though it exists. . Therefore. however. This involves the undesirable contingency of the refusal of inference which is the means of cognising the non-perceptible objects. Therefore. There is no possibility of activity. etc.f It may be like this.) no possibility of these in that case. due to the undesirable contingency of non-perception of the cause. due to which it may not be perceived. etc.e1111 ~ >WI 0llIQIU'"'ISiflYI1 4l<1hWtJ'lI«fl- . This is. the effect is not non-existent because of its non-perception. It is indicated through result as the sense. Moreover.e. it is admitted (through it) that there is no other means (to cognise). not subtle or minute).

because of the success in the effort of the agent.. 1 should also be summed up.l"1il"f?t-~- ###BOT_TEXT###gt;rcrfu~ I ~ I~ (f. the operation meant for that purpose will serve no purpose.fT~- ~ ~ ttJy>ql~ ~lWI. and the significance of agent. It is not possible to postulate like this. it is observed that the agents with the desire of getting the fruit with that (cause) acquire before the commencement of the operation the particular means having the capability of producing a particular effect and employ them in operation..rv~ I Cfi ~ I q:. Similarly. joining together. would not be useless because they bring about the characteristics of the cause like transformation.1I1qlC::ltI oq!F>ltI. the effect is held to be non-existent.f "B"dT ~I"ff~{f<l ~S9qtii\J611I: RU~'1q'lI"fIC::@~«lf~S{f(1~I"1I~C::I"f~f~{I"fI{qf{olll"flfc::f~'Il\f<ffit C::{i(i:fl141{1 (f?.1 q[tOIlI"fO/{fjB~: I ~ ~ ~ ~-1" <wmt ~ trftr CfiBffil? I"fl'lf~{I:iqq~: ~fu m: ¥fRr 1T. what would be the fault? .1$l. etc.. The transformation is. When this is the position. If it is argued that this defect does not arise because of the possibility of the transformation. Why? Because of the impropriety of some other way out. on account of the dominance by the transformation.5 B1f1f~4'P"lHI: Olljql{l(( ~~ ~ l?~~6ljfq.{JI I 3Tf. etc.SliPkl~ CfiT~ 1" f. etc. because of the giving up of some existing qualities and the origination of some other non-existing qualities there is (no) ~roduction of some different object.14f:qil~f-14dBII"fI~ ~~~ ~ m~. etc.1Sl4IBBICfiRUW. In that case. Therefore. the structure.? It may be like this. the giving up of some qualities and introduction of some new qualities in the already existing object. structure.fi ~ dcilC5ll'lf 3iB(i:fl14'l1 qf{olli1I'{!qq~4 m wftr ~ ~? I CW1R( q:.51h:. not desirable.. It is stated also: .rR ~ CfitAf<Ol I 1'1 "1II"fIClff21df<l ~ I~ ~l"ff~{f-1crf"d:~q:. however. etc. This is. The existence of the effect is not contradicted. If that (fruit) would exist even before the causal operation. because of the success of the operation of the agent the effect is nonexistent. I (1~Ie:SI~ ~ q('(01l4: tr~ II Moreover. Here. manifestation (or visibility) and increase in the cause. The agent. Therefore. in fact.

ij f<rolf: ~ 3TIGfI ~? *l<Fctil'4I«1 .difference between the beginning and the stopping of the commencement and the cessation.f~ $d~~I*l~14'{ ~4(4ltHt41<f~il~s\*lIi\·It( I~ ~ f"1f1l'lWl(qf-Q~~: (f~ ~ ~ I 1.r ~~ And.f~~: I ~'I*l~. the cessation (of the operation) found at the end would be present at the commencement as well. Or. experienced at the state of commencement and the end respectively.ijsN~ '1Tf'i*l~"'H~ltHt4l: I d{l'lI<*l~lq'{ I Here is another reason for the non-existence of the effect. the effect does not exist.ijsfq ~ I qr ~s. Because there is the contradiction between the two terms-origination .. This is not the case. the quality of origination would be related to the object in the beginning also in a way it is related to the accomplished state. If the effect would be existent.6 Yuktidipika When an object takes over new properties giving up the earlier but without deviating from its essential nature. 1. Therefore. I~ . the effect does not exist.. . that is called transformation. why does the effect not exist? Because there would arise the undesirable contingency of the non. The relation and the non-relation (of the quality of origination) is. If the effect would be existent. ~ *l~14'{? an~nfIq<wofl~ltHlIf~il'4S\(Oj%(1 ~ ~"f!ffil 1.*l~~ ·FsMHt~S(qlilt.r~d<f«t I d{l'll<~ffi~lfu I I ~ mtl ~ ~: JITTT~~ ~~:"f!ffill Here is another reason for the non-existence of the effect. $d~~dl*l~14'{ I 'il41*l~4lffi~~ 'IIClSiIllililt.. I . Therefore.(f "f!ffil ~ (f~s. *l1~111Ilil~ ~: ms.f:fsiIlqy!1f. The type of relation with the origination found in the beginning would be found at the end also. however.r~~ I d{l'lI<*l~14'{ I ~. the operation of the instruments employed for the activity at the commencement would be found at the end also. Why? Because there is no differentiation with regard to the existence of the effect (at both the stages). There would arise the undesirable contingency of the non-difference between the states of commencement and that of the stopping in the case of (the relation of) the quality of origination.

OI1HH"i<1flllcPOlfcHl f-itllf~>lf(1~I"1I~flf$l~~lfcdlttYI~~~~~err q<!OHHYlrud ~~ that since we have declared as different from the comof the cause. it is not something different. The word origination (janana) denotes the coming into existence of an object which does not exist earlier. It is. however.OI1Y~~lfi1dflyql~11 ~ (fBf ~~: This argument is.1IG ~ I ~ ~~ I~ ~ l.S:lj~ I dfl"ll. however. mSWJmlI f.(11 CfT<: I Cffi'[ I lOitllqf{Ylojl.. The term existent "(sat) denotes the instrumentation of some other action. It is.Ol/Hw{ I : As regards your argument is produced Proponent that the composite ponents. however. Therefore. it is improper to say that the existent originates.12 flyql~I(!}h. origination threads. Hence. .KOrika9~ 7 and the existent. both the terms would become synonymous. not observed {jtOfllofl~OI1tO: ~muiT<:r~ q~olf~f(1I thus. (Non-difference ~-~ ~ ~ (f~~ between a composite and the components) l. The reason does not hold good at all because it is not known as different.raffif:"{<:ffi( ~ <J~ d'tlCfl<.S:(i:j111 ~ ~~sCPOlf<'l"l«1()llcJl ~~ ~~dffl"l"1~ ~ flct~MP:1111d'(i:jF~. improper. The two substances related through conjunction (sarnyoga) and consequently there being the relation of located and the location. they are not cognised as different.Olf~fC1~ ~ ~ ~ 'lCffu I flyql~<. If the existent would be subject to origination. is that of inherence (samavaya). we fI(qi14f~fll~ ~:-~:. ~~ "'Cf ~ I ~? 3jf~.1~~ >l1f\d«1'tlq<!o~l: I dfl"ll~lf«1 ~ If it is argued that it is not found (as different) due to the relation of inherence? It may be like this. The relation between the threads and the cloth. of some altogether If there would have been the different composite out of the as different just as it is the cloth would be observed observed so when it is placed in the collection of threads or just like another cloth placed there. not the case. Therefore.~ijl~d11 f<i>~1~1~'1T? ~ ~1@lj"li. different the effect does not pre-exist on account of its being from the particular arrangement reply as follows. however. are ccngnised as different.

Why? Because this is to be established. M oreover.1 ~? mu.{ !H.tfl9. There is the mutual pervasion between the threads and the cloth because they are related through causality (or because there is the cause-effect relation between them). similar may be the case-with threads. Only after proving the composite as different object (than the components) and the relation of inherence between them.. . etc. etc.olfl1F(I~ fI01l~dY<ti14<tiI(OI'[(f'~ I ~ ~: ~". account of the lack of example also. This is. all this would be said.{~- CfiRUT'TfCf: m'l:Zf: ~~ (f<[1 This IS also improper.r~ I 3Rf ~ ~: I ~~SqllFclS::Ol!H1{Ct<t 'fI01l<t I m "l1>!FB4::1 ~ Cfi'I'4".. your argument ISwrong. un.{ ~ I ••. your argument is not proper. they arenot cognised as different. The substance is cognised as different from the substance which is neither its cause nor its effect because one does not pervade the other even though they are mutually related. ~ . Therefore. lIj1C::Y·I:J. etc. Here.IJ III fJJ "Il 11_ . what example can be cited by you in case an enquiry is made from you? The discussion without an example is not discussion at all.nJt~. are the cause of the composite even though they are different. Then only there can be the mutual pervasion. the causal relation and the inherence are yet to be established just as it was to be proved that the composite is different substance. It . ~".8 Yuktidlpikii Why? Because it is not proved. ~TKcfIt ~~SNI m~ ~-<i?lT ~~ ~S<W<R: ~ If it is argued that it may be like loom. however. To prove that substance of big magnitude put at some other substance is not cognised to be different due to the relation of inherence.. however.r .Iiu. ISwrong on prove.? Just as the loom. Both of these are.. ~~ I~ ? 3R'Rf4Tll1l'O I a.d13H ence.n •• ~ ~ fu ~ (j~qG41*1<ti14<til(ol~ ~!ll?oIF!OiF(I'1 If it is argued that the difference is not cognised between the composite and the components on account of their pervasion? It may be like this. Therefore. not well known..

:a:lIf1'lWi!1ffi&{ I ~ ~~: I (1~IY<'RI~(11 ~ !Oh.r~- "'I1. in case of those who 'hold that the threads are different from the cloth. there would be the undesirable contingenc~ of absence of mutual pervasion as in the case of those (loom.~:? (F1 (fTCf([~ ~ I ~? c.f: 9 "t!O~ I~ q(!I~Hl'~ ~ ~s-4~: I fcf. 5 There would arise the undesirable contingency of absence of pervasion between the threads and the cloth as it is in the case of loom and the cloth.. their mutual pervasion does -not hold good. Because it is improper tv hold their existence either in all the components or in every component part (separately). Hence.ll41~~(l('ClI- .Our theory is that the loom. Hence. etc). form and a weight. If it is present .i<~f\qISHh I 'f~Cfl~~I'tF"dSlfl"lj-~il <tl11~Cfl('ClSlfl"lj-111 ~~I<qf{fll1lcd W1H: I (W1R ~ *"1CM~ qf{fll1lC(J1Sq4c()~(1RiljQl ~ fc::qf{fll1lC(1('ClI~Cfls::a:j ~ ~ (fTq(IT~'lfu~ ~ I "Wf~~~: til1l1~~I: T. it is proper to say that the composite is not a different substance because differences are not cognised.Karika 9 lf~". ~ I f\Hifs.T~ Bmt 1ffil1ctll1fll1l1~~I('Clf~Ftt QB:f~Sq4qqf{1110i I Wf¥I ~ I ct~Hlq4cf1 S::OlII1~Cfls\OlII1s::a:j <ITQB:f~S::0lI1"'ct{&{ I Due to this reason also the composite is not a different substance. etc.. like loom.::~Hqct«1'ftt SI<1114lctlfc!Oftt I ~ f4~li"'ct{qftt f4~IY"'ct<qQ'l<1114Id) ~: I ~-I {Xi:tli"'ct{qi¥I ~ ~P:i ~~ ctc.14 Moreover.l" ~ ~ S::0lI1"'ct<&{ I 'f~Cfl~~I'tf'41qqij: I ri~c@rr. The cloth is of a touch different from the threads. should be explained.Cfl~~I!W~ WJIT\ilqSlR~-111 ~ ~ QB:f ~~ tffif 1lWlt ~ I <m~ 1t<'ClT~ I ~ ~ tffif Fqt'HOIIFC::4lltI! rTIS4ll0ISl(:H\-: I fcf. are the instruments for the cloth and not the material causes. It is experienced that the object having different type of touch is obstructed by the other just as the pot is obstructed in the presence of a stone. because the object is obstructed by the other object having different type of touch.:qt!OOlIIMSHi~-:I fcf. Hence. Moreover. the illustration is odd...""'"'" i 0lIIlj~«1'4Fdl:4>Ollq4ql"'ct<I'I1RT([ ~ ~S~ ~ ~ 0lI1lj411? ~ 3WlCll"'ct<I~ qf{flI1IQl~.r~I F~ill"'41~: I I Wf¥I I . ~ I (1't!OOlII~SHi~'I(ll ~~c:hH~C. activity. etc.UIHlq4cf1 ~~ I <m~ ~~ fsi.:~ <IT~ SI('1F~4~ <IT? fcf. In this way activity.<rr- This is wrong? Why? Because it is not accepted by us. etc. "'IWlql1qf\qISlR~-111 ~ .

The undesirable contingency in case of its existence in the composite and the parts is the same. it will involve the undesirable contingency. which pervade many substrata are many.2o And. etc·17 In this case. manifold or absence of substance will be violated because it involves the fault in all circumstances. Why? Because it will involve the undesirable contingency of its nonperception through the perception of a part. Therefore. the two-ness (dvitva). Hence. etc. it would lead to the infinite regress in the case of the components. for example.. it would also imply the magnitude of the component as that of the composite. it may be present in all the components or in the individual component (separately). the scriptural statement regarding substance. The composite pervades the components. but by whom the components will be pervaded because the (supposed) pervasiveness is not something different from the components ? If the pervasive is admitted to be different. it does not pervade all. The composite would have the same substratum as the components which is corporeal in nature. What does it prove? It does not exist in all parts. Nor does it pervade each component because in that case it will involve the undesirable contingency of its being manifold. etc.18 Moreover. the composite is not a different substance. It will contradict the scriptural statement that the objects possessed of form do not have the same substrata.f 'l<fftr ~~ CfiI{OII~{fllI1I'4ij: I ~~jln~1{CfiI~ TI 'i'Cfftr I CfiI{0ItiICilNl fCltlCiI~~q"f ~ fCl'1I~I:!qlllf(j I fcf~l!lf~{lqf14l~ "f[1!l'Rr~l'4f~fCl'1I~ft ~ I cml!lT fl\Ciq<::q~ m: I ~~~~ ~ I If it is argued that the two (composite and components) are different because the one is observed as being produced and . It is observed that whatever exists in many is cognised through congising all of substrata.19 It is observed that the colour. the scripture would be violated. Moreover. It will not hold good with the idea that the composite is a single substance because it pervades the large magnitude. in the theory of one who intends (to establish) that the composite pervades each component. 3fl!lf~{lqf14I~Sl!lf~~l'4f~fCl'Wm::~f'1I<::~(qf'if(j ~ ~fCltPil~~ ~ W '. If this sort of existence is admitted in its case.10 Yuktidipikii in the components. there will arise the undesirable contingency of non-perception of cow through the perception of the horns.

The similar is the case with dvandva as in plaksa and nyagrodha (both meaning the fig tree).nl!:lr~<~(q{l~ fCl'W'lfa err? atl?lfB:l'd'tl~G1 WiG1fl>:lHfCli1qlq~ 'CfGTf'1~ *{f'df1'1m ft"lIG1"lG1i\. tatpurusa . the forest conflagration (originates and gets destroyed) while the Himalaya (covered with snow which is opposed to fire) is present. d<g. Qj1~Cll~~ I ~? m~ I mt-1:f ~-fcf. as is the case with army (which is the collection of the soldiers) or the forest (which is the collection of the tress). These compounds are observed to take place in the case of threads and the cloth also. Same is the case with the bahubrihi as found in the case of expression 'Who has spotted cows' or 'Who has brindledcows'.. The cloth gets destroyed even in the presence of the threads by the totality of causal conditions (of destruction). As for example. bahubrihi and dvandva? It may be like this.mmfcfftr I 31fuf ~ d<g. Why? Because it is still to be proved. ~: ? d~l~d~N "l1G1~fCl'11 ~&II~<~ fWTl{ I This is also wrong. Whether that which originates and is destroyed is the different object or the activity (leading to origination) and withdrawl from activity (leading to destruction) belong to the cloth which is based upon the particular arrangement of the threads. the cloth comes into existence after the contact is produced (in the presence of the threads).l:f. the cause of the cloth.Karika 9 11 destroyed in the presence of the uther? It may be like this.{lqGls"lilf~\. The cloth does not exist in the presence of the threads because the contact. It is observed that the tatpurusa is used in case of different objects just as the sense of the 'Man of the king' is conveyed through the term rajapurusa.as in the expression cloth (made) of threads.as in the expression (the cloth) 'that has strong threads' or the cloth' . Hence. This also does not serve as a probans in proving that the composite is a different object.:. And.{lQ«f'i'1i'YG: I ~~~: crfcffd I d~liillG1~OlI~ I ~<R'1(j1): I H~~- If it is argued that it should be held to be different for the propreity of the compounds like tatpurusa. the cloth is different from threads. is not produced. The origination and destruction of an object are differently observed in the presence of the other object on account of their difference. bahubrihi .~Wil~lqq~{'4 mr ~ BlI~(j~ W~ m=cr ~ ~:I<Rr~nT~:~~mrl~~~:~:IH~~a.

Because of this reason only we doubt. By this only the differences in the capacity of denotation are refuted.:~H'lcP'lc:il ~ I ~ U q. These also are observed in the case of (components of) army. we reply that it is also wrong.f '{l1: I tJ:(1~ClJg'h11{ I ~? N~ ~: I IroI!!T I ~"lI'R~(1"1q2Iql'1~Fd I <Wn"iR~"Wd Wn- F161F~5!Fd~l'1l<L ~ mrU llCflROI(qT~ I "fI" "f ~~: I ~~(1{J"1I~q ~<11«"1i~IFllCflI ~ I~ f.12 Yuktidipikd that has white threads'.22 Therefore. Because it is non-conclusive.t is doubtful. etc.. Why? . 1l<g. the composite is not different substance. Hence.. Why? Because . QJ1""llgffi1{ I ~? ~~CflH1I(ll ~sfq ~:CfiR1'{~mr I ~w~~~mr Wnl!li. it is only a wishful thinking. the composite is different (from the components). the theory of pre-existence of effect cannot be proved on the basis of considering the composite as a particular arrangement (of the causes).f~(q2Iqf\!l11l1?p4 ~ "'lof1{I!I'lISlq(1~ I~ ft'll@llftl'l~~:~: I~ ~ ~~: I ~~ ~0ll1"d{1{I ~SqllFqof1 ftF71~ ~IFq~f. If there would be the dvandva compound.f{(15)'h1'l1q(1~~. The non-perception in this case pertains to the already existent object.as in the expression 'threads not the cloth'. and the army which has intoxicated elephants. Therefore. it is wrong to argue that since the origination is observed in case of the composite which is different.rW'lll~'lqW4'llof1 ~ gFUiI1Pll1jlllFdI As regards your statement that the effect does not exist because it is-not perceived (to he existent in the causes). The argument taking that (non-perception of the non-existent) as certain does not stand before logic?3 . the dvandva . (but) no one uses the expression bring the threads and the cloth in the state of the cloth.1'lISl(ClI~ "fI('wfF&t~(1~~ I This is also wrong. though there is no difference.21 The bahubrihi also (takes place) as in the expression an army which has brave men. the composite would really be different. 3f. The tatpurusa is observed even when there is no difference in the expression like the elephant of the army and the tree of the forest. Therefore.

~ ~ '1411%[1 ~ CfiI<Olll~oi~ I ~ ~~I~OI&lq~~II~A1qlC::l'"lHI'Wf mr (je::tqq~1{ 1 ~? ms~: stI'lIOIl~(F~<fFt1stHjtIFc:Fd ~ -cr~S".1'1i F~41~OICfiI4Cfil<ol~S~ Tl ~~F~G4~ 1fcf. fu ~~:~:~wrf~~mr stCJi(jQ~(j(j1 3i~CfiIF~Cfi(Cj Tl . It should be understood just as the stretching and expansion of the cloth or like the limbs of a tortoise.<:l~('lj4~ql~Af: tMCfiI~I: ~ I ~? 1 ~ qC!~41~OI!i~OIl~:JllI'1I'Wf CflI(ol&ll:!fllq *'1I(jIC::ICfiI<I~{qn:!ii!I~ err ~41~Oll'1i SlFilFdc4FUlF~~t?1 ~ ~qdl&l<l"l: 16llq~l(l«l CfiI4CfiI<0144fq:1 3i~CfiI~I<t I~- OI«:lCfiq«:lIa. This censure is applicable to those who speak of the effect as placed in the cause just as'the jujube fruit placed in a vessel (bowl-shaped).f M- ~. etc. CfiT<1JTlt s~ F<1i

4lftlf: I ".1'11&l~ 'WfRt CfiRUTTf'1l«fT 1 cw:rr- ~~~errftlmr'1Crcl~~c.l I~ ~I ~: v:<1~'41qq~1{ I ~~ 13 ~? aIT'1' JfIlIT~tmt ~<1~lile ~ ~I ~ I~ ~ ~ rmUt CfiI4&l«11- <f SH'tl~TlI~"l: ~H!CfiIn:~ICfflI'1d<11IICfiI<0IQqCfiI4f1:!flI1&lrlllq<'ll~I~I&lF~«II(cHL ll~oIF~q~di '{4~IHIij:.rt''i~Hlr~R1 ~ ~ ~~dlrlllr~<1If..f~: l Cf&l}. Similarly.j·f1:!q ~ q<'llWlq~~I<stR1~~I~I~I&lfc:l«lI~". ~~ <1~1<:.r~~'ilq~'dH4Im~$iT: 1t1~41Iq~1l~OII{I 1~ err".:q~oIlS!i~OIF~Cfi~: Your argument that the effect does not exist because you have not put forward some other reason of non-perception (other than extreme distance. The same is the case with the limbs of a tortoise. Those potencies are not perceived simultaneously because they obstruct each other.f m Cflt q4:tl(I'iIO'I1~\llqlC::~(i:fl14fl1Fd ?~ 1 FClstFd4u.f- 1 CfiI4CfiI<OI'iI!lCh€lqIF~'1~F(S:fl41~OIl'1i -cr1!lCh€l1Ol1&lltl1CR1Fl4fl1(j~.. Why? Because you have nof understood the import of our statement.Karikii9 ~ i'1'<1~ CfiI<UII~<Is.mrt Cfq~"'I~IF~. The stretching or the expansion of a cloth are not subjected to perception due to the obstruction of contracting and they do not deviate from the existence. We hold that the effect is the cause itself which is endowed with various potencies and through the assistance of the other assisting potencies the earlier potencies of whom disappear and the later potencies manifest. called the cause or the effect comes to be fixed in sequence serving as the cause of that (object) and serves as the cause for the perception or the non-perception of that object. the state of the threads. etc.) is also wrong.

therefore. The substance. hence. Why? Because we do not accept the difference in case of them. hence. and in that case only the censure that there is no inference for the action and property of the cloth are not perceived at the state of the threads would find scope.G:Slij1 ~ i: I fcf. is true or correct.r~~ ~ ~*'1~ I ~~ ~\lt'WlqllJ4a I fli44i10Ilffi'AlCl~~ IlfCffc!ClI~fli~SHi~'I<{ I ii{!!IOijfCl{l"¥i~ ~ qRlI1lf4¥iI~'1fli~~f~qtfdl ~&!~d{4i ~{'q'11tfi ij4fc!cMf(Olf. Your position is that wrR1{ I f. they are considered to be the existing elements and. Your statement that there is no inference because there is no possibility of action. the action and property are the accumulation or the particular manifestation. What is the reason? Because of the context.ltttftl'1Oij( ~&. ~ I~ ij¥il'1tql<{I ~~sfli ~ 'ii'ICI«I~~I~I<l'1i ~tqlffi(ifl14'1"!f1'IOijoq'{ I <W1R flitltfl !l0I&. serve as probans. The statement that your argument involves the undesirable contingency of non-applicability of the other means of knowledge. the non-conclusiveness is common. this fault does not arise in our case because we hold that the effect is the composite or the attainment of the other form of cause only and. cause and effect and. In case there is controversy we apprehend through probans the existence of the effect earlier to its origination.14 ~: I~ 3fTlTTlftr CI~'1I¥1"'1I~ ~~ f. Hence. Why? Because it is not conclusive. The denotation is the same in case of effect and the cause. the properties originate in the substance devoid of properties. This is improper. On the other hand. property and name is not proper. properti-ness and action-ness are related as property or activity.lq~~lIij¥O\jClI~ij(ifl14'{ I This only refutes the argument based on the acceptance of the instrumental causes. It is proper to infer the difference of action and property in case of those who maintain the difference between the effect and the cause. And.H41~tql"!fl·I¥1Ii~!l0jCItn ~ . we should not be questioned (for the purpose of refuting us) that the effect does not exist because there is no probans. and hence.l101'1C1faoaa lftrCf:W: I . this is the subject at hand. You maintain that the substance exists just after the origination (but without properties).

etc. Our position is that the effect in its causal state is perceived by lord paiicasikha.1l14PI: ~ 3f<T QMP'll~ ~ q.::t4I{ld: f9t.:ftftr ~ ~-1.j.. ~ ~:"«1<::LCf1ffil{ I ~7 at«GCb(Olitl ~~~Sir~4.*111 ~ "«1~11QQ7ll{I ~ ~~: 7~ err~ nS{lftf err 7 ~~ ~q. fisl3lS(OtM111 I". no probans in case of that kind of substance (because the supposed probans do not exist).l6i7l~1~~ ~?1T ~". it would not be right because there would arise the undesirable contingency of the establishment of all the subjects of controversy. After recognising the object which goes against the example. property and name in it. it would involve the undesirable contingency of establishment of all the subjects of controversy. it is similar in the case of the opponents also.{ ~ err? ~~: ? (Ff dICl6!C{r~CflI~ ~~: I ~? *Ir~CflI~ ~ FsMI~ol~Q~~II\jIClI<::CI«1~ mIfClqlol("(lI.f OQqf&. it is not that the effect does not exist (in [he cause) because of the impossibility of action..ffi ~ Wo err errCfiRUIRt"{<ffi[.da: II ~I . if you postulate that one should remember its objectivity to the knowledge of accomplished object even though it is objected to by others.yif Wo~: w:rrms. (Argument of success of the effort of agent refuted). There is. Hence.l"Ifuf(f?IT~~~~: I 3J~ r~6ir~CflI~sf~~mnf.r~ ~ I ~: Cfl{Oll"llqq7ll{ I d~I<::1ffiqd11 tqf'q~I1I<::fuf. Therefore.24 If you argue for its existence on the ground of the perception of its accomplishment or existence. Moreover.rtqftr~ CflI{CflOllIQI(~'lIulSi~II: I ~~ CflI{rilQI<::I1I('Cfl14r~6ir~SiHil"~ I ~~ t. however.{t~'1crnTI d~l<::r~r~fUa I ~tP!{l.("qI<::{l('Cfl14r~rd.{ ~ ~('l(lll"lqr~i) ~'l: l(~ CflI4t4I@: cmut oi\QQ7lr"rd -.fl4 Cf:~ T.f?IT f.fa:l71~lrGlllClll~r~f<rd ~ ~: I 3J~ I"Idl"l{l('l(N~ f. Butstill.KOrikii9 15 just after its origination the substance persists without property and activity because you have stated that the object is deviod of property or action in the initial state just after origination. ~~Cfl<fSiClI~{lIq. its existence is admitted by you. the existence of the effect (before its origination) should be accepted.f at«fC*HIf~ ~: ~: ftfC*{'ifilN': I at«4(q~flI J\(qfufqi0ffl '.

it would be right to say that the effort of the agent is purposeless when the effect (to be produced) is already present. If . we reply that this is also wrong. This kind of object cannot be related with some substance. etc.. it is improper. If that which is related to the operation would have been aamitted to be non-existent by both the parties.16 lUlctidipikQ.2S Therefore. This is also improper. Why? Because it is not a substance. etc. If you say that it is related in the accomlished state. You have. it will contradict your statement that the already existent object is already accomplished and there is no propriety of operation in that state. and consequently is not a substance. quality and name. the reason adduced by you is non-conclusive) . This is the argument adduced by us. if admitted. however. But (the idea of) the production of the non-existent is not proper. The pot which is capable of retaining honey. If one argues that it is not proved because of the absence of forwarding some reason? It may be like this. Is the object to be produced related to the instruments or not (while being produced)? The aforesaid relation with cause. in your theory is just like the horn of the hare because it is devoid of activity. may be in the state of causal operation or in the accomplished state. it amounts to the nonexistence of the reason (or therefore. not explained how it is improper to speak of the production of the non-existent. The effect at the time of operation of the agent.. What is the use of this consideration? This kind of relation is not possible in the state of causal operation. Why? THAT WHICH IS NON-EXISTENT CANNOT BE PRODUCED. As regards your statement that the effect is non-existent because ofthe success of the effort of an agent. Why? Because it involves the undesirable contingency of defect in admitting or not admitting the relation of the effect (with the cause). is not subject to production because it is already accomplished. Hence.

s:tllla ~: CflI4f~f(1 I C61(1I4'i!3r~II ~ I q. cti: lJ~n~llf'!:21ij: Cf.1I1f\:! cwf ~<u~ mr? ~ q41~~jln ~ m .ffi: I (If{4'lf.r. It is stated also: Because of the non-existence there is no relation (of the effect) with the instruments which are always related to the existing things only. because there is no reasonable ground for some other (third) state.Karika9 17 you hold that the origination takes place without the aforesaid relation. There is the state of non-existence before origina- .flf A I Opponent: The effect is created by the agent.ffi ~'l: q. is said to be intermediary because the effect is not yet accomplished.. When the instrumental causes are in some activity with the purpose of accomplishing some effect and until the-form of the effect is not accomplished. There is no ground for those who believe in the origination of the unrelated effect.27 Moreover. During that period the effect is created by the instruments.r~ (l1<'l. etc.fd I ~~ I ~I ~ ~lqR6RIS. it will involve the undesirable contingency of the production of the effect even earlier to the employment of the instruments.)f~r'dCflflll(1'l81'l:~~ Opponent: At the time in which the agents are engaged in activity after commencing it.1e:IlaJ'd~ ~ffi:~ 'lcH:gR~lI If'21ll: Cf.r ~CR1~(1fC.nfur 71Tlf'!:21ij: ~ I 3fffi. in the intermediary time. .f~~1I mr I (l~lfi'q. that is the intermediary time.:rlIlstfll B~~<'lfl!lI'lI&{ "TTBC:::rTB=-~nTql ~. 1'"i ~ lf~ q. ~..ffi mr ? Proponent: What is this intermediary time? ~~~r~41(:t~~:1 C6ld~If.r fchf"l«lRdd 'lCf(IT I i1~lqCR1~(l1 <J~sr~'"C::Bst ~mr I (lflll(1'l"ll "ffi~ CfriFt ~ ~ Proponent: No.flf. ~. it will involve the undesirable contingency of the uselessness of the operation of the instruments. ~<'lfl!lHHI1qq~: I sllfs~"1IIl~nri11 I f.

e.n" cwfrt ~: ~\fW4"l'ii \lcHfl('ll~q: I The defect does not arise in case of them who believe in the pre-existence of the effect.18 Yuktidlpikii tion. ect. We state that the term threads. Hence. Moreover. These are the two states. related to its instruments. (Relation of effect with cause proves pre-existence of effect) ~~:~~~~I~? aql<1\I'1~i:1oll<l 3ql~l'ir&lR1 ~ ~: ~ . Why? BECAUSE THERE IS RELATION OF THE CAUSE. hence. There is the state of existence for the originated effect. ~ ~~: Bffit I ~? qG:I ~ I ~~- 'q ~ dWjql~I'iI~~ ~"-f~ql<l4~ ~~~p1err I ~~~ qcm I ~ I ~~~~qGm d~r~"1{i« I ~~ Opponent: The effect arising of a particular material cause would be different from the material cause in case of those also who . Therefore. Thereelse (than the cause). because the inaccuracy pointed out earlier is not alleviated. the instruare related to the effect itself. d~I~lilam I ~ ~ CflI<<\l'ItiJ~ 3Tf~ CflI<CflCflluli ~ I ~ . That is grasped fore. ~-~ ~\l(lql~l'1j(ll ~"l(lql~4~ ~ upadana denotes the material cause like by. it is right to say that since the supposition of the presence or the absence of the relation involves inaccuracy. even after adducing such an interesting statement you could not alleviate something. Therefore. this is not proper. the non-existence is not brought into existence.S (WITH THE EFFECT). With what object will the proposed effect be related because it is already in its accomplished form? This objection also does not cease to apply. the effect is something ments related to the cause there is no inaccuracy. There is no state in the form of existence-non-existence which can be termed as intermediary time. Hence. i.

rc.lI"<lc:tJ\il"IftrC. The object does not exist in the other which is selected for the former just as the cloth does not exist in the loom.CI<lcflS:. Moreover.qlf~Clc. the objection is not appropriate.M ~ ~ f'i~~~I~T.28 In the case. just as the cloth is different from the loom. The threads are also selected by the desirous of the cloth. etc. BECAUSE EVERYTHING IS NOT POSSIBLE (EVERYTHING). Hence. etc. the cloth would be different in «e= . etc. your argument is not proper on account of the absence of possibility of production of .lqq. it would lead to the undesirable contingency of the distinction as well as of the origination of a completely different object. Moreover.'. the cloth is different from them also. By this only their pre-existence is rejected.ql~q'd~###BOT_TEXT###lt;f: Proponent: No.• Karikii9 believe in the pre-existence of the effect in the cause. ~.29 It is. however. there would be the possibility of the origination of the effect from every cause as there is the possibility from the threads because the characteristic of being a different object is common in all the' cases. In case of them who speak of the cloth as different from the threads as it is different from the loom.I.SI{'j'lIc.(fqJ~###BOT_TEXT###lt;f:qG:~ (fqJ ~ tIt <f"dCIlsfq Q210ij{qf(~~rOij«q&{ I 'q i~~df~eit.~rOij(I<&'iSlij'jj'Ici! aqIC.:.ijlO<l~- <'!'it I F4iT.lfi:. You hold that the cloth differs from threads as it differs from loom.IO<i". Why? Because it (the material cause) is taken by those who desire to get that effect. We have rejected the composite as a different substance.OlIIOij('!.l'1ijlql"<l.r:lI'1'T1ijTTlqrr.aI~'TIqn. not so..e we have rejected the composite as a different substance. however.f 19' ~C:P~fc:lSlfd~tmT.l'1ijlql"<ll..1 SlRlM'iH~IClC.1 ~ de4QIC.""q=c. on the ground of the similarity of selection..d«HlOtlC.U- ~1fct.everything from everything. etc. The object is different from that for which it is selected. Hence. because of the similarity of selection.M ~###BOT_TEXT###lt;f lftr ~ ('{'fcf{llI('CflI<OIl(ql14~ W"lCf: ~ ~###BOT_TEXT###lt;flfti~'1qJ~~f'i~"1ldl~l '1qJ TIT~ tIt~: I ~ ~qqf~ s ~rOij«q ij Iq I"<ll'd11qI d{llql('{'fcfijAfClT'iICllc. Hence. becaus.~1 ~S~I -:ramq lr.

the reason is non-decisive. cannot be established as different from threads as it differs from loom. On the contrary. The covering is directly perceived in case of the sesam seed. ~ ~ ~ aH- 'CfiRffil1 ~ err ~: Cfi~ itIClHR11~ctI4Ijqlc:. 3f:f ~:-3!~~d~ I I I I ~? WI f<l. because of the non-decisiveness of your argument. the oil does exist in them. etc. And. The vine is selected for juice. Why? Because we do not admit the relation of the substratum and the object located (in the case of the cloth and the threads). .~ ~ctlc:. the does exist in it. We have repeatedly stated that there is. however.l{. hence.j~ ~ m[ itill@Fo. and there is no covering of the effect there (in case of cloth).20 Yuktidlpikii' genus from threads and would occupy different space just as is the case with the loom.. etc. 3lftnU~'lTCfR~ <lffi (Rfq ~~: I~ I 3!flq.rrq ~I f<l.N ~~ I MIFo"4~- I OlllqlW~ Cfltl«tF"14111if ~ ~ CflI4fllICl{OI4fu1l ('w'IIF.i' am.cRi <mG4Ijqlc:. the operation by the agent is to destroy (remove) that. That is.j~.having accepted your opinion why the sesam seeds are selected for oil. nto acceptable to you because of your hatred towards the right way.~~Uf:I~~~sef~.l11~.~~~~1 u"r"'''''''''''U:J ~4Ijqlc:.5.l'1144~ ~:I I Foctifc::tCllcl{oj ~a.nothing like cloth in the threads. are not cognised. Obstructed by that the oil. The bundle of paddy is selected for rice.~~~ ~f(l~CflI~ril~: As regards your statement that the object does not exist in the one selected for the purpose of producing it.{hl5. the same threads would produce another cloth when the one is already accomplished just aas the same loom produces another cloth when the one is already accomplished. . And. however. etc. Thus. however. 'q<f<lT ~ 1~ qir . on the basis of the similarity of selection.j~. (Non-existence of the effect in the selected cause refuted) {.l{.Ck1&l{J1lf'ff ~ flriil'iFq~qli1.~ $ UU~ljqlc:. not desirable. This is. the juice does exist in it. the rice does exist there. The milkman selects cow for milk. Or.q&{) Opponent: your argument is wrong because of the cognition of covering. we reply that it is wrong. etc. the threads themselves are the cloth. Moreover. the cloth.l11~.

Related Interests

4lftlf: I ".1'11&l~ 'WfRt CfiRUTTf'1l«fT 1 cw:rr- ~~~errftlmr'1Crcl~~c.l I~ ~I ~: v:<1~'41qq~1{ I ~~ 13 ~? aIT'1' JfIlIT~tmt ~<1~lile ~ ~I ~ I~ ~ ~ rmUt CfiI4&l«11- <f SH'tl~TlI~"l: ~H!CfiIn:~ICfflI'1d<11IICfiI<0IQqCfiI4f1:!flI1&lrlllq<'ll~I~I&lF~«II(cHL ll~oIF~q~di '{4~IHIij:.rt''i~Hlr~R1 ~ ~ ~~dlrlllr~<1If..f~: l Cf&l}. Similarly.j·f1:!q ~ q<'llWlq~~I<stR1~~I~I~I&lfc:l«lI~". ~~ <1~1<:.r~~'ilq~'dH4Im~$iT: 1t1~41Iq~1l~OII{I 1~ err".:q~oIlS!i~OIF~Cfi~: Your argument that the effect does not exist because you have not put forward some other reason of non-perception (other than extreme distance. The same is the case with the limbs of a tortoise. Those potencies are not perceived simultaneously because they obstruct each other.f m Cflt q4:tl(I'iIO'I1~\llqlC::~(i:fl14fl1Fd ?~ 1 FClstFd4u.f- 1 CfiI4CfiI<OI'iI!lCh€lqIF~'1~F(S:fl41~OIl'1i -cr1!lCh€l1Ol1&lltl1CR1Fl4fl1(j~.. Why? Because you have nof understood the import of our statement.Karikii9 ~ i'1'<1~ CfiI<UII~<Is.mrt Cfq~"'I~IF~. The stretching or the expansion of a cloth are not subjected to perception due to the obstruction of contracting and they do not deviate from the existence. We hold that the effect is the cause itself which is endowed with various potencies and through the assistance of the other assisting potencies the earlier potencies of whom disappear and the later potencies manifest. called the cause or the effect comes to be fixed in sequence serving as the cause of that (object) and serves as the cause for the perception or the non-perception of that object. the state of the threads. etc.) is also wrong.

therefore. The substance. hence. Why? Because we do not accept the difference in case of them. hence. and in that case only the censure that there is no inference for the action and property of the cloth are not perceived at the state of the threads would find scope.G:Slij1 ~ i: I fcf. is true or correct.r~~ ~ ~*'1~ I ~~ ~\lt'WlqllJ4a I fli44i10Ilffi'AlCl~~ IlfCffc!ClI~fli~SHi~'I<{ I ii{!!IOijfCl{l"¥i~ ~ qRlI1lf4¥iI~'1fli~~f~qtfdl ~&!~d{4i ~{'q'11tfi ij4fc!cMf(Olf. Your position is that wrR1{ I f. they are considered to be the existing elements and. Your statement that there is no inference because there is no possibility of action. the action and property are the accumulation or the particular manifestation. What is the reason? Because of the context.ltttftl'1Oij( ~&. ~ I~ ij¥il'1tql<{I ~~sfli ~ 'ii'ICI«I~~I~I<l'1i ~tqlffi(ifl14'1"!f1'IOijoq'{ I <W1R flitltfl !l0I&. serve as probans. The statement that your argument involves the undesirable contingency of non-applicability of the other means of knowledge. the non-conclusiveness is common. this fault does not arise in our case because we hold that the effect is the composite or the attainment of the other form of cause only and. cause and effect and. In case there is controversy we apprehend through probans the existence of the effect earlier to its origination.14 ~: I~ 3fTlTTlftr CI~'1I¥1"'1I~ ~~ f. Hence. Why? Because it is not conclusive. The denotation is the same in case of effect and the cause. the properties originate in the substance devoid of properties. This is improper. On the other hand. property and name is not proper. properti-ness and action-ness are related as property or activity.lq~~lIij¥O\jClI~ij(ifl14'{ I This only refutes the argument based on the acceptance of the instrumental causes. It is proper to infer the difference of action and property in case of those who maintain the difference between the effect and the cause. And.H41~tql"!fl·I¥1Ii~!l0jCItn ~ . we should not be questioned (for the purpose of refuting us) that the effect does not exist because there is no probans. and hence.l101'1C1faoaa lftrCf:W: I . this is the subject at hand. You maintain that the substance exists just after the origination (but without properties).

etc. Our position is that the effect in its causal state is perceived by lord paiicasikha.1l14PI: ~ 3f<T QMP'll~ ~ q.::t4I{ld: f9t.:ftftr ~ ~-1.j.. ~ ~:"«1<::LCf1ffil{ I ~7 at«GCb(Olitl ~~~Sir~4.*111 ~ "«1~11QQ7ll{I ~ ~~: 7~ err~ nS{lftf err 7 ~~ ~q. fisl3lS(OtM111 I". no probans in case of that kind of substance (because the supposed probans do not exist).l6i7l~1~~ ~?1T ~". it would not be right because there would arise the undesirable contingency of the establishment of all the subjects of controversy. After recognising the object which goes against the example. property and name in it. it would involve the undesirable contingency of establishment of all the subjects of controversy. it is similar in the case of the opponents also.{ ~ err? ~~: ? (Ff dICl6!C{r~CflI~ ~~: I ~? *Ir~CflI~ ~ FsMI~ol~Q~~II\jIClI<::CI«1~ mIfClqlol("(lI.f OQqf&. it is not that the effect does not exist (in [he cause) because of the impossibility of action..ffi ~ Wo err errCfiRUIRt"{<ffi[.da: II ~I . if you postulate that one should remember its objectivity to the knowledge of accomplished object even though it is objected to by others.yif Wo~: w:rrms. (Argument of success of the effort of agent refuted). There is. Hence.l"Ifuf(f?IT~~~~: I 3J~ r~6ir~CflI~sf~~mnf.r~ ~ I ~: Cfl{Oll"llqq7ll{ I d~I<::1ffiqd11 tqf'q~I1I<::fuf. Therefore.24 If you argue for its existence on the ground of the perception of its accomplishment or existence. Moreover.rtqftr~ CflI{CflOllIQI(~'lIulSi~II: I ~~ CflI{rilQI<::I1I('Cfl14r~6ir~SiHil"~ I ~~ t. however.{t~'1crnTI d~l<::r~r~fUa I ~tP!{l.("qI<::{l('Cfl14r~rd.{ ~ ~('l(lll"lqr~i) ~'l: l(~ CflI4t4I@: cmut oi\QQ7lr"rd -.fl4 Cf:~ T.f?IT f.fa:l71~lrGlllClll~r~f<rd ~ ~: I 3J~ I"Idl"l{l('l(N~ f. Butstill.KOrikii9 15 just after its origination the substance persists without property and activity because you have stated that the object is deviod of property or action in the initial state just after origination. ~~Cfl<fSiClI~{lIq. its existence is admitted by you. the existence of the effect (before its origination) should be accepted.f at«fC*HIf~ ~: ~: ftfC*{'ifilN': I at«4(q~flI J\(qfufqi0ffl '.

it would be right to say that the effort of the agent is purposeless when the effect (to be produced) is already present. If . we reply that this is also wrong. This kind of object cannot be related with some substance. etc.. it is improper. If that which is related to the operation would have been aamitted to be non-existent by both the parties.16 lUlctidipikQ.2S Therefore. This is also improper. Why? Because it is not a substance. etc. If you say that it is related in the accomlished state. You have. it will contradict your statement that the already existent object is already accomplished and there is no propriety of operation in that state. and consequently is not a substance. quality and name. the reason adduced by you is non-conclusive) . This is the argument adduced by us. if admitted. however. But (the idea of) the production of the non-existent is not proper. The pot which is capable of retaining honey. If one argues that it is not proved because of the absence of forwarding some reason? It may be like this. Is the object to be produced related to the instruments or not (while being produced)? The aforesaid relation with cause. in your theory is just like the horn of the hare because it is devoid of activity. may be in the state of causal operation or in the accomplished state. it amounts to the nonexistence of the reason (or therefore. not explained how it is improper to speak of the production of the non-existent. The effect at the time of operation of the agent.. What is the use of this consideration? This kind of relation is not possible in the state of causal operation. Why? THAT WHICH IS NON-EXISTENT CANNOT BE PRODUCED. As regards your statement that the effect is non-existent because ofthe success of the effort of an agent. Why? Because it involves the undesirable contingency of defect in admitting or not admitting the relation of the effect (with the cause). is not subject to production because it is already accomplished. Hence.

s:tllla ~: CflI4f~f(1 I C61(1I4'i!3r~II ~ I q. cti: lJ~n~llf'!:21ij: Cf.1I1f\:! cwf ~<u~ mr? ~ q41~~jln ~ m .ffi: I (If{4'lf.r. It is stated also: Because of the non-existence there is no relation (of the effect) with the instruments which are always related to the existing things only. because there is no reasonable ground for some other (third) state.Karika9 17 you hold that the origination takes place without the aforesaid relation. There is the state of non-existence before origina- .flf A I Opponent: The effect is created by the agent.ffi ~'l: q. is said to be intermediary because the effect is not yet accomplished.. When the instrumental causes are in some activity with the purpose of accomplishing some effect and until the-form of the effect is not accomplished. There is no ground for those who believe in the origination of the unrelated effect.27 Moreover. During that period the effect is created by the instruments.r~ (l1<'l. etc.fd I ~~ I ~I ~ ~lqR6RIS. it will involve the undesirable contingency of the production of the effect even earlier to the employment of the instruments.)f~r'dCflflll(1'l81'l:~~ Opponent: At the time in which the agents are engaged in activity after commencing it.1e:IlaJ'd~ ~ffi:~ 'lcH:gR~lI If'21ll: Cf.r ~CR1~(1fC.nfur 71Tlf'!:21ij: ~ I 3fffi. in the intermediary time. .f~~1I mr I (l~lfi'q. that is the intermediary time.:rlIlstfll B~~<'lfl!lI'lI&{ "TTBC:::rTB=-~nTql ~. 1'"i ~ lf~ q. ~..ffi mr ? Proponent: What is this intermediary time? ~~~r~41(:t~~:1 C6ld~If.r fchf"l«lRdd 'lCf(IT I i1~lqCR1~(l1 <J~sr~'"C::Bst ~mr I (lflll(1'l"ll "ffi~ CfriFt ~ ~ Proponent: No.flf. ~. it will involve the undesirable contingency of the uselessness of the operation of the instruments. ~<'lfl!lHHI1qq~: I sllfs~"1IIl~nri11 I f.

e.n" cwfrt ~: ~\fW4"l'ii \lcHfl('ll~q: I The defect does not arise in case of them who believe in the pre-existence of the effect.18 Yuktidlpikii tion. ect. We state that the term threads. Hence. Moreover. These are the two states. related to its instruments. (Relation of effect with cause proves pre-existence of effect) ~~:~~~~I~? aql<1\I'1~i:1oll<l 3ql~l'ir&lR1 ~ ~: ~ . Why? BECAUSE THERE IS RELATION OF THE CAUSE. hence. There is the state of existence for the originated effect. ~ ~~: Bffit I ~? qG:I ~ I ~~- 'q ~ dWjql~I'iI~~ ~"-f~ql<l4~ ~~~p1err I ~~~ qcm I ~ I ~~~~qGm d~r~"1{i« I ~~ Opponent: The effect arising of a particular material cause would be different from the material cause in case of those also who . Therefore. Thereelse (than the cause). because the inaccuracy pointed out earlier is not alleviated. the instruare related to the effect itself. d~I~lilam I ~ ~ CflI<<\l'ItiJ~ 3Tf~ CflI<CflCflluli ~ I ~ . That is grasped fore. ~-~ ~\l(lql~l'1j(ll ~"l(lql~4~ ~ upadana denotes the material cause like by. it is right to say that since the supposition of the presence or the absence of the relation involves inaccuracy. even after adducing such an interesting statement you could not alleviate something. Therefore. this is not proper. the non-existence is not brought into existence.S (WITH THE EFFECT). With what object will the proposed effect be related because it is already in its accomplished form? This objection also does not cease to apply. the effect is something ments related to the cause there is no inaccuracy. There is no state in the form of existence-non-existence which can be termed as intermediary time. Hence. i.

rc.lI"<lc:tJ\il"IftrC. The object does not exist in the other which is selected for the former just as the cloth does not exist in the loom.CI<lcflS:. Moreover.qlf~Clc. the objection is not appropriate.M ~ ~ f'i~~~I~T.28 In the case. just as the cloth is different from the loom. The threads are also selected by the desirous of the cloth. etc. BECAUSE EVERYTHING IS NOT POSSIBLE (EVERYTHING). Hence. etc. the cloth would be different in «e= . etc. your argument is not proper on account of the absence of possibility of production of .lqq. it would lead to the undesirable contingency of the distinction as well as of the origination of a completely different object. Moreover.'. the cloth is different from them also. By this only their pre-existence is rejected.ql~q'd~###BOT_TEXT###lt;f: Proponent: No.• Karikii9 believe in the pre-existence of the effect in the cause. ~.29 It is. however. there would be the possibility of the origination of the effect from every cause as there is the possibility from the threads because the characteristic of being a different object is common in all the' cases. In case of them who speak of the cloth as different from the threads as it is different from the loom.I.SI{'j'lIc.(fqJ~###BOT_TEXT###lt;f:qG:~ (fqJ ~ tIt <f"dCIlsfq Q210ij{qf(~~rOij«q&{ I 'q i~~df~eit.~rOij(I<&'iSlij'jj'Ici! aqIC.:.ijlO<l~- <'!'it I F4iT.lfi:. You hold that the cloth differs from threads as it differs from loom.IO<i". Why? Because it (the material cause) is taken by those who desire to get that effect. We have rejected the composite as a different substance.OlIIOij('!.l'1ijlql"<l.r:lI'1'T1ijTTlqrr.aI~'TIqn. not so..e we have rejected the composite as a different substance. however.f 19' ~C:P~fc:lSlfd~tmT.l'1ijlql"<ll..1 SlRlM'iH~IClC.1 ~ de4QIC.""q=c. on the ground of the similarity of selection..d«HlOtlC.U- ~1fct.everything from everything. etc. The object is different from that for which it is selected. Hence. because of the similarity of selection.M ~###BOT_TEXT###lt;f lftr ~ ('{'fcf{llI('CflI<OIl(ql14~ W"lCf: ~ ~###BOT_TEXT###lt;flfti~'1qJ~~f'i~"1ldl~l '1qJ TIT~ tIt~: I ~ ~qqf~ s ~rOij«q ij Iq I"<ll'd11qI d{llql('{'fcfijAfClT'iICllc. Hence. becaus.~1 ~S~I -:ramq lr.

the reason is non-decisive. cannot be established as different from threads as it differs from loom. On the contrary. The covering is directly perceived in case of the sesam seed. ~ ~ ~ aH- 'CfiRffil1 ~ err ~: Cfi~ itIClHR11~ctI4Ijqlc:. 3f:f ~:-3!~~d~ I I I I ~? WI f<l. because of the non-decisiveness of your argument. the oil does exist in them. etc. And. The vine is selected for juice. Why? Because we do not admit the relation of the substratum and the object located (in the case of the cloth and the threads). .~ ~ctlc:. the does exist in it. We have repeatedly stated that there is. however.l{. hence.j~ ~ m[ itill@Fo. and there is no covering of the effect there (in case of cloth).20 Yuktidlpikii' genus from threads and would occupy different space just as is the case with the loom.. etc. 3lftnU~'lTCfR~ <lffi (Rfq ~~: I~ I 3!flq.rrq ~I f<l.N ~~ I MIFo"4~- I OlllqlW~ Cfltl«tF"14111if ~ ~ CflI4fllICl{OI4fu1l ('w'IIF.i' am.cRi <mG4Ijqlc:. the operation by the agent is to destroy (remove) that. That is.j~.having accepted your opinion why the sesam seeds are selected for oil. nto acceptable to you because of your hatred towards the right way.~~Uf:I~~~sef~.l11~.~~~~1 u"r"'''''''''''U:J ~4Ijqlc:.5.l'1144~ ~:I I Foctifc::tCllcl{oj ~a.nothing like cloth in the threads. are not cognised. Obstructed by that the oil. The bundle of paddy is selected for rice.~~~ ~f(l~CflI~ril~: As regards your statement that the object does not exist in the one selected for the purpose of producing it.{hl5. the same threads would produce another cloth when the one is already accomplished just aas the same loom produces another cloth when the one is already accomplished. . And. however. etc. Thus. however. 'q<f<lT ~ 1~ qir . on the basis of the similarity of selection.j~. (Non-existence of the effect in the selected cause refuted) {.l{.Ck1&l{J1lf'ff ~ flriil'iFq~qli1.~ $ UU~ljqlc:. not desirable. This is. the juice does exist in it. the rice does exist there. The milkman selects cow for milk. Or.q&{) Opponent: your argument is wrong because of the cognition of covering. we reply that it is wrong. etc. the threads themselves are the cloth. Moreover. the cloth.l11~.

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