Vi. Developmental History A. J. Piaget’s Cognitive Development The client is under the pre-operational stage.

Piaget's second stage, the preoperational stage, starts when the child begins to learn to speak at age two and lasts up until the age of seven. During the Pre-operational Stage of cognitive development, Piaget noted that children do not yet understand concrete logic and cannot mentally manipulate information. Children’s increase in playing and pretending takes place in this stage. The pre-operational stage is sparse and logically inadequate in regard to mental operations. The child is able to form stable concepts as well as magical beliefs. The child, however, is still not able to perform operations, which are tasks that the child can do mentally, rather than physically. B. E. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development The client is under the initiative vs guilt stage. Within instances requiring initiative, the child may also develop negative behaviors. These behaviors are a result of the child developing a sense of frustration for not being able to achieve a goal as planned and may engage in behaviors that seem aggressive, ruthless, and overly assertive to parents. Aggressive behaviors, such as throwing objects, hitting, or yelling, are examples of observable behaviors during this stage. C. S. Freud’s Psychosexual Development The client is under the phallic stage. During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother’s affections.The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. D. J Fowler’s Spiritual Development The client is under the intuitive projective faith stage and is characterized by the psyche’s unprotected exposure to the unconscious, and marked by a relative fluidity of thought patterns. Religion is learned mainly through experiences, stories, images, and the people that one comes in contact with. E. L Kholberg’s Moral Development The client is under the individualism and exchange stage. At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the

F. Reciprocity is possible at this point in moral course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality and getting ready to read. learning to control elimination of body wastes. learning sex differences and sexual modesty. learning to take solid foods. . but only if it serves one's own interests. Havighurst’s Developmental Task The client is under the tasks of infancy and early childhood which includes: learning to walk. learning to talk. R.