Vi. Developmental History A. J. Piaget’s Cognitive Development The client is under sensorimotor stage.

The sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages in cognitive development which extends to birth to the acquisition of language. In this stage, infants progressively construct knowledge and understanding of the world by coordinating experiences with physical interactions with objects. Infants gain knowledge from these physical actions they perform in it. They progress from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage. B. E. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development The client is under infancy stage. In this stage, the children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Trust as defined by Erikson is "an essential truthfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one's own trustworthiness." The infant depends on the parents, especially the mother, for sustenance and comfort. The child's relative understanding of world and society come from the parents and their interaction with the child. C. S. Freud’s Psychosexual Development The client is under the oral stage. During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others. D. J Fowler’s Spiritual Development The client is under primal or undifferentiated faith and is characterized by an early learning of the safety of the environment. If consistent nurture is experienced, one will develop a sense of trust and safety about the universe and the divine. Conversely, negative experiences will cause one to develop distrust with the universe and the divine. Transition to the next stage begins with integration of thought and languages which facilitates the use of symbols in speech and play. E. L Kholberg’s Moral Development The client is under obedience and punishment stage. The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see

rules as fixed and absolute. learning to take solid foods. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment. R. learning to talk. learning to control elimination of body wastes. learning sex differences and sexual modesty. Havighurst’s Developmental Task The client is under the tasks of infancy and early childhood which includes: learning to walk. F. . forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality and getting ready to read.