PC HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ECE353

SHAHIDAH SADIMIN

MAHIZAN AB MANAN

SOLAHUDDIN YUSUF FADHLULLAH

Table of Contents
1 Computer operations and installation .................................................................................................. 4 1.1 Introduction to various hardware of a PC..................................................................................... 5 Input devices ......................................................................................................................... 5 Output devices ...................................................................................................................... 5 System Unit ........................................................................................................................... 7

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2

Installing PC hardware and software .......................................................................................... 17 Motherboard Installation.................................................................................................... 17 Install a processor ............................................................................................................... 18 Installing memory ............................................................................................................... 19 Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Installation ...................................................................................... 20 Floppy disk drive (FDD) installation .................................................................................... 25 CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Installation ......................................................................................... 27 Graphics card installation ................................................................................................... 29

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 2

Operating system fundamentals and administration ......................................................................... 31 2.1 2.2 2.3 Operating system components, functions and types ................................................................. 31 Understanding the characteristics of the Microsoft Windows operating systems .................... 32 System administration and security ........................................................................................... 34 System administration ........................................................................................................ 34 Security ............................................................................................................................... 34

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 3

Installation of operating system ................................................................................................. 37

PC Multimedia capabilities ............................................................................................................... 37 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Sound .......................................................................................................................................... 37 Video ........................................................................................................................................... 38 Applications................................................................................................................................. 38 Getting the Right Sound Card ..................................................................................................... 38 Speaker support .................................................................................................................. 38 Recording Quality ................................................................................................................ 38

3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5

Installation of various multimedia components and peripherals ............................................... 39 Installing Sound in a Window System ................................................................................. 39 Installing Sound Programs .................................................................................................. 39 2

3.5.1 3.5.2

3.6 3.7 4

Troubleshooting sound ............................................................................................................... 39 Videoconferencing ...................................................................................................................... 40

PC networking and network services .............................................................................................. 41 4.1 Introduction to networking......................................................................................................... 41 Client/Server Network ........................................................................................................ 42 Peer-to-peer (P2P) .............................................................................................................. 43

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2

TCP/IP Networking Fundamentals .............................................................................................. 44 IP addresses and domain name .......................................................................................... 44 IP Address Classes ............................................................................................................... 46

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3

Network Security ........................................................................................................................ 48 Firewall ................................................................................................................................ 48

4.3.1 5

Server hardware and print sharing ..................................................................................................... 49 5.1 Networked server requirements, hardware and installation ..................................................... 49 Servers................................................................................................................................. 49

5.1.1 5.2

Printer and print sharing ............................................................................................................. 49 Types of printers ................................................................................................................. 50 Create a perfect print.......................................................................................................... 52 Printer Sharing .................................................................................................................... 53

5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 6

Maintenance and troubleshooting ..................................................................................................... 58 6.1 6.2 Hardware and software maintenance issues.............................................................................. 58 Hardware and software troubleshooting ................................................................................... 59

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LABORATORY ATTACHMENT ............................................................................................................... 66

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copy data. It enables users to start and stop an application. and are smaller in size. Software is divided into two forms. monitor. It is used to get data and output data.e. It is used to store data. keyboard. They include cables.. It is made up of small consecutive memory locations where each has unique number known as address. Also known as Random Access Memory (RAM). In a computer system. It performs all the fundamental processing in a computer. printers. Examples: mouse. there are connections between hardware and software to make the system work. monitors. Software Operating system (OS) software Function An operating system. printer - Main memory - Secondary memory devices - Input/Output Software Software is a collection of programs and a program is a collection of instructions that the computer hardware executes. Main Hardware Component Central processing unit (CPU) Function "The brain” of a computer. Example: Hard disk. translates keyboard strokes into codes and perform lots of other job. or OS. CD. It is usually volatile (i. The first modern computers developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945) were the size of a large room. Modern computers based on tiny integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines. is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Hardware Hardware are physical pieces of the computer system.1 Computer operations and installation A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. They are usually nonvolatile. and so on. Data is stored in these locations. if power is lost information is lost as well). 4 . floppy disk. delete data. keyboards.

The next section will discuss about the input and output devices. which are input. Monitor. Monitor A monitor connects to the video connector on the system unit.1 shows 15 pin female VGA port that can be found on a video card. output and storage. Examples of application software:  Word processors  Web browsers  Games 1. Some motherboards have on board VGA ports as shown in Figure 1. All of the other parts of the PC that are connected to the system unit are called peripherals.2 Output devices Output devices are hardware or peripherals used to get information out of a computer. System unit is a device where all the other parts are connected to.1. Figure 1. The mouse uses either a USB port or light green coloured mini-DIN port. the hardware that make up the system unit and the storage.1. There is no need for a video card if the motherboard has on board VGA port.1 Input devices Input devices are hardware or peripherals that send information to CPU. where the video connector connects to the system unit. Figure 1. Most keyboard and PS/2 ports are coloured purple. processing.Applications software Examples of OS:  Windows XP  Apple Macintosh OS X  Linux Software other than the operating system that get work done. printer and speaker are examples of output devices. The most common input devices are the keyboard and mouse. 1.1: 15 pin female VGA port 5 .3. 1.1 Introduction to various hardware of a PC A computer functions through four stages. The keyboard connects into PS/2 keyboard port or a USB port. Video cards with two connectors can support two monitors. Every peripheral connects to the system unit through one of the many types of ports. All the processing and storage takes place in the system unit.

Figure 1.3: A motherboard with on board VGA port LCD Monitor A LCD monitor is more preferable due to their shape compared to CRT. To minimize that problem. the screen refresh rate need to be adjusted higher. You should select a refresh rate of at least 75 Hertz or as maximum as possible. But it lacks the colour saturation and contrast of a CRT. Dead Pixels can be spotted in the same place every time you switch on your system. CRT Monitor Screen flicker as shown in Figure 1. Dead Pixels are not repairable hence they stay there for good. Figure 1.2: A Video card Figure 1.4: Screen Flicker 6 . Compared to LCD. It uses less than half the electricity that a CRT uses.4 is one problem in CRT which can cause eye strain and headaches. LCDs offer high refresh rates and thus less eye strain. Dead pixel is also one problem in LCD.

1 bit will produce 21 colours.1. Inside the case are the motherboard. 7 . Figure 1. The floppy disk drive connects to a computer system via a ribbon cable. Some better models even use FireWire connections.To adjust the screen flicker:    Go to control panel Adjust the monitor setting. This is the universal color of ports connecting to the sound card. Bit 1 2 4 8 16 32 Number of colours 2 (mono) 4 16 256 64K 16. The higher the bit.7 million Printer Almost all printers nowadays use USB connector.3 System Unit A system unit is encapsulated in a case. green and blue light (RGB) when they are added together. CPU.screen refresh rate Adjust to the maximum frequency possible (to minimum 75 Hertz ) The colour quality in the display settings is measured in bits. The port is usually green in color. RAM. Speaker Speaker is connected to the port on a soundcard. Older models use parallel connector.5: Speaker chords and a sound card 1. 2 bits will produce 22 colours. CD writer is also a typical device that is attached to the system via cable. the broder the colour array will be produced from red. power supply and hard disk drive.

A bigger case provides more bays for drives and peripherals than a smaller case. Midi and Full tower.6 : ATX Midi Tower case Figure 1. A motherboard contains a number of special sockets that accept various PC components. hard drives. BTX has not yet made much of impact on the industry. The CPU and RAM. Mini. Mini-Tower. Figure 1. The type of case to be chosen depends on the form factor.Case The case comes in various size depends on user requirement ranging from Desktop. There are several form factors and the most common is the Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) form factor. If the case is really small and cramped then it will have less air flow. However. Balanced Technology extended (BTX) is a new form factor which can provide better ventilation than ATX. and Full Tower Motherboard A motherboard is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that connects the processor.7 : Desktop. The form factor determines the physical size of the motherboard and the location of components and ports. are plugged directly into the motherboard. which means the case temperature would be higher than having a larger case with good air flow. Midi-Tower. and the BTX motherboards. Floppy drives. cases and thermal units are still rare. for example. CD drives are connected to the motherboard through short 8 . memory and all expansion cards together to assemble a PC. This could lead to an unstable PC.

The chipset determines the type of processor the motherboard accepts. DDR3 Memory slots for RAM and ATX 2. The Intel based motherboards have the Northbridge chip to help the CPU work with RAM.0 24pin power connector. Most chipsets are composed of two primary chips.8 shows a standard ATX motherboard. the type and capacity of RAM and what sort of internal and external devices the motherboard supports. Asus. ATX motherboard fits into a standard ATX case. Chipset Every motherboard has a chipset. USB ports. The other connectors include Intel LGA 1366 Socket for processor. The PCI Express slot is where a PCI-E graphics card would be connected. so they get their own heat sink and fan assembly. Most 9 .cables. modem. The AMD based motherboards have the Northbridge chip to work with video card. Some chipset manufacturers named the Northbridge chip as Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and Southbridge chip as I/O Controller Hub (ICH). The Southbridge handles some expansion devices and mass storage drives.8 : A standard ATX motherboard Figure 1. Figure 1. Popular motherboard manufacturers include Intel. etc. parallel port. such as hard drives. tv card would be connected. serial port. The PCI slot is where cards such as sound card. The chipset facilitates the communication between the CPU and other devices in the system. It also provides onboard connectors for a mouse. printer or keyboard. terms used by AMD based motherboards. built onto the motherboard. An ATX motherboard has the standard I/O (Input/Output) connectors such as PS/2 ports. Current Northbridge chips do a lot of work that they produce a lot of heat. chipset and components. Biostar. Most motherboards made nowadays are ATX. two PCI buses and two PCI Express slots. Abit. A motherboard is defined by its form factor. MSI and Shuttle. Gigabyte. It comes with four different expansion slots. the Northbridge and the Southbridge.

or any kind of data. browsing the web or other basic tasks A processor also determines what the system is going to be used for. Data and instructions are stored in cache while they await processing. It performs calculations on binary numbers to make the computers work. the capacity of the cache increased. which means they have two CPU cores in one Chip. As CPU advanced. that is how many cores can fit in each CPU. They are also 64 Bit and support 64 bit Operating System. A cache is a block of memory for temporary storage of data likely to be used again. i) Word-processing. browsing the web or other basic tasks. So having a 3 GHz single core CPU is not better than having 2. Popular chipset manufacturers include Intel. The commands a CPU knows how to perform are dictated from instruction sets. L2 or L3 cache. it may be sufficient to use an Intel Celeron or AMD DURON. For example a user may be running a virus checker in the background while playing games without slowing the system down. Data and addresses are stored in registers while processing. CPU is dependable on PC usage. The more cores it has the better it is. 10 . The new CPUs are judged on the number of core a processor can have. Intel Core 2 Duo and Athlon 64 X2 are both Dual Core. NVIDIA and VIA. the faster it will execute instructions and run the programs. as the CPU can access data in cache more rapidly than data in motherboard RAM. CPU cache is also known as L1. ii) Spreadsheet. CPU Cache Modern CPUs contain small amount of high speed Static RAM (SRAM) called cache. graphics and moderate video game If the system is going to be used for spreadsheet. For word-processing. The list below suggests the type of suitable processor for different usage.Southbridge chips do not need extra cooling and there are usually left exposed on the motherboard. The register is a small set of data holding places that are part of a computer processor. Motherboard Components a) Central Processing Unit (CPU) The processor also known as CPU is the brain of a computer. CPU contains several areas of internal memory known as registers. Each core works separately hence the CPU can process two intensive tasks at the same time without slowing down the system. databases. The faster the processor. They are low-end processors and are available at a very competitive price. AMD. which means they can execute 64 bit instructions and run 64 bit operating systems.4 GHz Dual Core CPU. graphics and playing some moderate video games then an Intel Core 2 Duo or an AMD Athlon 64 X2 processor should be considered. Once the data is stored in the cache. databases. The L1 cache performs faster than the other. a storage address. A register may hold a computer instruction. Dual core for example is a CPU with two layers of CPU core. This increases performance. it can be used in the future by accessing the cached copy rather than re-fetching or recomputing the original data.

but they are using one cache memory for the two cores. CAD. or playing the latest 3D video games or other CPU intensive tasks then a higher end quad-core or multi-core processor such as AMD Phenom X4. 11 . They are intended to be used in a PC with multiple processors. but each core has one cache memory.9 : A processor manufactured by Intel iv) Server or power-user Intel Xeon and AMD Opteron are high-end processors aimed at the serve or power-user market. Intel i7 has 4 cores but each core can process two threads so your operating system will treat it as 8 different processors. Difference between Intel Dual Core and Core 2 Duo: Intel Core 2 Duo works faster than Intel Dual Core because: Intel Core 2 Duo processors:  have two cores in one package. All of these modern processors are 64 bit. Intel Dual Core processors:  have two cores in one package. Figure 1. This makes it work faster than Dual Core. CAD or 3D games If the system is going to be used as an advanced workstation for doing work such as Video Editing. AMD Phenom X4 and Intel Core 2 Quad has four cores. They are all very fast and are capable of handling most of computing needs. Intel Core 2 Quad or Intel i7 would be needed.iii) Advanced workstation for Video Editing.

b) Random access memory (RAM) Figure 1. RAM modules are either single. then it will support Dual-channel DDR2 800.sided. RAM comes in many forms. 667 or 533. The amount of data or programs it can store is measured in units called ‘bytes’. For example for an Intel motherboard with Intel Core 2 Duo CPU.sided or double. 1 ‘byte’ consists of 8 bits. while the current systems use DDR2 or DDR3 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) which is faster than the old SDRAM and use less power.10 : RAM stick RAM stores data and programs currently being used by the CPU. For example. It is recommended to get the highest memory speed the motherboard can support in order to get the maximum performance. System RAM Recomendations Operating System Minimum Windows 2000 32 MB Windows XP 64 MB Windows Vista 512 MB Solid Performance 256 MB 512 MB 1 GB Power User 512 MB 1 GB 2 GB 12 . For the latest Intel i7 motherboard then a triple-channel DDR3 1600. 1333. PC66 RAM can only be used on a motherboard running at or below 66MHz. RAM speed must match or exceed the speed of the system. A motherboard with a frontside bus of 100MHz needs at least PC100 RAM. Single sided sticks have chips only on one side. or 1066 will be needed. Most RAM is single-sided. whereas both-sided have chips on both sides. The type of RAM to be chosen depends on the compatibility with the motherboard. The older systems use SDRAM.

applications. Floppy disk is ideal for storing small files and documents. Most type of hard drive fall under the ‘AT Attachment (ATA)’ standard. d) Floppy Disk Drive Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) is extinct due to the development of modern type high density data storage like USB Flash drives.CL2 is faster than DDR 3200 . Two types of ATA hard drive: i) Parallel ATA (PATA)  Older type of hard drive. a power supply unit is typically designed to convert 220-240 V AC power from the mains to usable lowvoltage 3. creating boot disks up to 1. 13 . but special PCs that need to store large amount of data. For example DDR 3200.Latency RAM responds to electrical signals at varying rates. such as a large corporation’s main file storage can have 8 to 16 hard drives.3V – 12 V DC power for the internal components of the computer. including the operating system.  Use a ribbon cable for its connection. It is a non-volatile storage. which means the contents of the HDD is not lost if the PC is switched off.CL3. Floppy drives are connected to the motherboard through a ‘ribbon cable’. This delay in RAM’s response is called latency. RAM with a lower latency is faster than RAM with higher latency. It stores much more data than a typical PC’s RAM. user files and documents. which is up to hundred of gigabytes. Figure 1. More specifically. c) Power Supply Unit A power supply unit (PSU) is the component that supplies power to a computer.44 Mb only. There is a slight delay when the memory controller starts to grab a line of memory. It is used to access floppy disks.11: A floppy disk e) Hard Disk Drive Hard disk drive (HDD) stores programs and data that are not currently being used by the CPU. An average PC has one hard drive.

14 .  Use a narrow cable.Figure 1.12: PATA Cable and Port ii) Serial ATA (SATA)  Modern type of hard drive.

The major HDD manufacturers are IBM.15 : CD Writer Difference between CD-R and CD-RW CD-R: CD-R will only allows user to write data onto it once. Figure 1. A 32 speed drive can write a full 650MB CD in around 4 mins and a 52 speed drive can write it in around 3 mins and so on. It allows user to backup the contents of HDD onto a CD-R. Seagate. 15 . CD-RW & DVD-R disc.13: SATA Cable and Port Most motherboards have connection for both type of hard drives. As blank CD's are very cheap.14 : IBM ATA100 drive f) CD Writer CD Writer is a very good option for a backup device. CD-RW: CD-RW disc allow data to be written. It also allows user to backup the existing application CD's. Maxtor. Western Digital and Fujitsu. rewritten and erased. Like all other PC hardware a CD Writer comes in various speeds.Figure 1. Figure 1. it is an affordable backup device.

For PCs that will be used solely as a computer to a standard computer monitor. Jacks and connectors Mini-DIN connectors USB connectors FireWire connectors HDMI connectors DB connectors RJ connectors Audio connectors High-definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) connector Figure 1. HDMI is a cable simplification compared to older technologies. g) External Connectors Below are some external connectors that can be found on the motherboard. 16 . Those looking to use the computer in a home theater environment with a high definition TV set can greatly benefit from the single cable that can carry both the audio and the video.16: HDMI connector HDMI is a Digital audio/video connector for transmission of digital data. Whereas VGA connectors are used solely to carry analog video signals. it is not necessary to look for one with an HDMI connector. ii) The write laser of a CD burner is used to burn the dye layer. iii) To record the data. It allows the transmission of uncompressed data. so all light reflects. The transmission of digital audio and video is accomplished through one single HDMI cable. the dye layer is completely translucent. the burner simply turns the laser writer on and off in synch with the pattern of 1s and 0s od the data to be stored.         Plugs. iv) The write laser darkens the material forming non-reflecting spot to encode a 0 and leaves the unburnt area translucent to encode a 1.How data is stored on a CD i) On a blank CD-R disc. there will be no deterioration of video quality due to "Digital -> Analogue -> Digital" conversions that were necessary using older interfaces to connect a DVD player to a Digital TV set for example. Hence. Ports.

If you do not have an anti-static wrist strap you can discharge yourself by touching the metal edges of your PC case. The motherboard is now securely mounted to the case.1 Motherboard Installation The first thing you should do is unpack your ATX case.2 Installing PC hardware and software Before unpacking all components from the original anti-static bags. HD DVD players. Take off the cover of your ATX case so that you can access the inside. Have all the mounting screws that come with the motherboard and a screw driver handy as you would need them during the later stages.2. Place your screws that came with the case into the appropriate holes and gently screw it on using a screw driver. Camcorders. every devices should fit easily into its corresponding cut out.17: External ports must face towards back plate cut out. You can now place the ATX power connector to the motherboard. 17 . The screw holes on your motherboard should align with the screw holes on your case. Make sure your ATX devices on the motherboard such as PS/2 and parallel port are facing towards ATX back plate cut out.HDMI can be found on many common devices such as DVD players. which will discharge yourself. Gently push your motherboard towards the cut out. Your case should come with motherboard mounting screws. put on the anti-static wrist strap. as shown below. Blu-ray Disc players. The ATX power connector is shown on image below. Gaming Consoles (PlayStation 3) & Digital Cameras. Place the ATX case on a desk so that you are looking down towards the open case. although this is not recommended. It is important to discharge yourself to avoid damaging your components by anti-static shock by touching the components. Figure 1. 1. Your ATX case should come with a power supply unit (PSU) and should already be mounted to the case. Now place your motherboard on top of the mounting screw holes. 1.

Slot1 PIII CPU. Figure 1. Push down the power connector and it should clip onto the socket. Do not try to force it in. Now close the brown lever which will securely hold the CPU in place.Place the ATX power connector on top of the power socket on the motherboard. 18 . Socket AM2 CPU etc. Core 2 Duo Socket 775.18: Processor socket Make sure the fan for the CPU has the correct speed. P4 Socket 478. The installation would be slightly different if you have a different processor i. AMD Slot A / Socket A. It will go in gently if you fit it correctly. You have to make sure the pin 1 of your CPU goes into the pin 1 of your CPU socket otherwise the CPU would not get into the socket. Now place the CPU fan on top the CPU and push down the metal clips on the fan so that it clips onto the CPU socket. otherwise your CPU will get overheat and behave abnormally or could be damaged.2 Install a processor Locate the processor socket on your motherboard.e.18 shows a socket 370 (Intel PIII 866 processor). 1. Raise the brown lever on the socket and slowly put the processor in place.2. Figure 1. Take off the plastic cover from the bottom of the CPU fan that covers the heat transfer pad.

Finally. which will the run the CPU at 866Mhz. you have to specify what frequency (speed) your CPU is running at. the motherboard Abit BX133 has a dip-stick jumper setting and it can be setup in the BIOS. You will notice that the SDRAM has a cut at the bottom side. Please refer to your motherboard manual for more details. The jumper is set to default.3 Installing memory Installing memory is quite simple. This is a guide to install a SDRAM. they should look similar to the banks below. For example. or your motherboard may have automatic detection for your CPU frequency. 1. Figure 1. Find the SDRAM banks on the motherboard. Hold each corner of the SDRAM placing it on top of the bank 1. Make sure you release the clips so it bends to each side. The CPU runs at the bus speed of 133Mhz therefore the setting to use is 133 * 6.Figure 1. Notice the memory banks have a white clip on each side.19: A CPU fan placed on top of processor socket CPU fan has a power connector which needs to be connected to CPU fan power socket on your motherboard as shown in Figure 1.2. or on some modern motherboard it can be done in the BIOS. it is there to prevent the memory going in the wrong way round. This can be done using jumper settings. If you are holding 19 .20: Gently fit the SDRAM into the memory bank.5(multiplier) under the BIOS.19. since the BIOS will be used to specify the CPU frequency.

Figure 1. If you have more than one SDRAM perform same steps as above but placing the SDRAM in memory bank 2 and so on. Different HDD has different jumper settings. If there are two HDDs. The HDD jumper should be set to Master. Gently push down the SDRAM and it should clip on to the memory bank.2. Any other device sharing the same IDE cable should be set to Slave.22 shows the example of jumper connection for Seagate ATA drives. 1. set the second HDD to slave. . The two white clips will now become straight holding each corner of the memory. Next to the IDE connector is the jumper setting for the drive. Please refer to your HDD manual for more information. next to the jumpers is the power connector. Figure 1.4 Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Installation Install IDE Hard Drive The rear side of an IDE hard drive should look similar to the image below.the SDRAM the incorrect way you will not be able to insert it. 20 . which is the default setting for a new HDD.21: IDE HDD The IDE/ATA connector is on the left hand side which consists of many pins. On the right hand side.

which offers higher performance and data integrity than the standard IDE cable. ATA 33 and a power cable looks like. The ATA 66 cable which is also known as UDMA 66 cable is an advanced IDE cable. ATA 66 cable consists of 80 conductors cable whereas the standard IDE cable such as ATA 33 consists of 40 conductors cable.25 shows how an ATA 66 .23 and Figure 1.22: Connection for Seagate ATA drives Figure 1. 21 .Figure 1.

25: Power Cable Place your hard drive into the HDD mounting slot of your case. 22 . Screw the HDD to the case using screws provided with the HDD or the ATX case.23: ATA Cables Figure 1.24: Connection of ULTRA ATA cable Figure 1. make sure the IDE/ATA connector is facing outwards.Figure 1.

Figure 1.26: Hard Drive is placed into the HDD mounting slot

Insert the ATA 66 cable into the ATA connector of the HDD. Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the HDD connector. Pin 1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an ATA cable. Most new IDE/ATA cables are designed so that it will only go in one way which will correspond to pin 1.

Figure 1.27 : Inserting ATA 66 cable into the ATA connector of the HDD

Push the power cable into the power connector as shown below. The power cable is designed to go in one way, so there should not be any problems.

Figure 1.28: Push the power cable into the power connector

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Connect the other end of the ATA 66 cable to the primary ATA socket of the motherboard as shown below. Make sure the pin 1 on the cable connects to the pin 1 on the ATA socket.

Figure 1.29: Connect the other end of the ATA 66 cable to the primary ATA socket of the motherboard

Install SATA Hard Drive Installing SATA HDD is easier than installing IDE/PATA HDD. There is no Master-Slave relationship. Only SATA HDD, SATA interface cable and power adapter are needed for the installation. There is no need for jumper setting. Figure 1.30 shows the difference of cabling between PATA and SATA HDD.

Figure 1.30: Different cabling connection between IDE/PATA (above) and SATA HDD (below)

The magnetic space on the hard drive is divided into small storage areas. These storage areas are known as 'sectors', however for efficiency purposes the sectors can be grouped together into 'clusters'. A sector is the smallest addressable unit of a hard disk. A cluster is a fixed number of contiguous sectors (but not necessarily physically contiguous).

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If you save a very small file to your computer it will all fit within 1 storage cluster on the hard drive. If you save a very large file it may fill up many clusters, that is, as many clusters as it takes to hold all the content of the file. Hard Drive Partitioning; i) To organize a hard disk drive. ii) Enable a single HDD to store more than one OS. Hard Drive Formatting: After a HDD has been partitioned, it must be formatted to enable it to hold data.

1.2.5 Floppy disk drive (FDD) installation The rear side of a floppy drive looks similar to the one shown in Figure 1.31.

Figure 1.31: Rear side of a floppy drive

The black connector on the left hand side is the floppy disk connector. It is different from the IDE connector and uses a different cable. The small white connector on the right hand side is the power connector for the floppy drive. Figure 1.32 and Figure 1.33 shows what a floppy drive cable and floppy drive power connector looks like.

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Most floppy drive cables are designed so that it will only go in on way. Screw the drive securely into place.Figure 1. 26 . Make sure the pin 1 on the cable connects to the pin 1 on the floppy drive connector.34: Placing the floppy drive into FDD mounting slot Insert the floppy drive cable into the floppy drive connector. Figure 1.33: Floppy drive power cable Place the floppy drive into the FDD mounting slot as shown.32: Floppy drive cable Figure 1. As you already know by now that pin 1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of the floppy drive cable.

Make sure pin 1 on the cable connects to pin 1 on the connector.36: Connecting the other end of floppy drive cable to floppy drive connector on the motherboard Finally connect the other end of the floppy drive cable to floppy drive connector on the motherboard.6 CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Installation The rear side of a CD / DVD-ROM should look similar to image shown on Figure 1. 27 . Figure 1. Figure 1.37. This will only go in on way. On the left hand side near the IDE connector you have the jumper settings for the DVD-ROM.35: Connected cables Push the floppy drive power cable to the power connector.37: The rear side of a CD/DVD-ROM On the right hand side you have the power connector. Next to power connector you have the IDE connector.2.Figure 1. 1.

as your HDD would be set to Master. One side of your audio cable connects to this socket and other side connects to the sound card cd-in socket. Connect the IDE cable to the drives IDE connector. However if the IDE cable is shared with another device like HDD. Next to the jumpers you have the CD Audio-Out socket. Figure 1. Figure 1.39. Connect one end of the audio cable to the CD Audio-Out socket and the other end to the sound card (audio card) cd-in socket as shown on Figure 1. If your HDD is on the primary IDE socket and your secondary IDE socket is free.The jumper is set to Master by default.40. then it is better to use your secondary IDE socket for the CD/DVD-ROM. This would allow you to listen to Audio CD's on your computer. Connect the other end of the IDE cable to the IDE socket on your motherboard as shown in Figure 1. make sure you connect the cable to pin 1. The IDE socket could be your primary or secondary socket depending which socket you choose.39: Connecting the other end of the IDE cable to the IDE socket on your motherboard Finally connect the power cable to power connector. 28 .38: Mounting the CD/DVD-ROM drive into its mounting socket Mount your CD/DVD-ROM drive into its mounting slot. then you would have to set the jumper to Slave. Use the supplied screws to screw the drive into position. Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the drives IDE connector. Pin 1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an IDE cable. Again.

40: Connecting the power cable and the audio cable 1.42: Placing the graphics card into the slot All you need to do now is to screw the metal plate on the front of the card to the ATX case. The brown slot is where you connect your AGP graphics card. Figure 1. An AGP bus (slot) looks like the following image.2. Use the screws supplied with case and screw the card to the case. 29 .Figure 1. The card should firmly sit into position. Figure 1.41: Graphics card slot Place your AGP card on top of the slot and gently push it down.7 Graphics card installation Most modern graphics cards are AGP based and connects to the AGP bus of the motherboard.

43: Screwing the graphics card to the case 30 .Figure 1.

enable user to type commands directly to the OS. Provide user interface Provide a visual representation of the computer of the computer on the monitor that makes sense to the people using the computer. Communicate with hardware OS provides a method for other program to communicate with the hardware of the PC. files. Operating System Types Below is a basic list of the different types of operating systems. Whereas. Allows communication with the operating system via a control language. ii. the OS will responds to the commands. iv. A textbased or command line interface (CLI). User can add.2 Operating system fundamentals and administration 2. main inputs/outputs and communication functionalities. The following elements are generally included in this set of software: Component Kernel Function Represents the operating system's basic functions such as management of memory. File System Allows files to be recorded in a tree structure.1 Operating system components. move and delete the installed programs and data. Graphical User Interface (GUI) draws pictures on the screen with which user interact using a mouse or similar device. 31 . iii. management of physical addresses. processes. use and shut down the programs of their choice via the user interface. Shell Operating System Functions An operating system performs four basic functions: i. functions and types Operating System Components The operating system comprises a set of software packages that can be used to manage interactions with the hardware. text based and graphical. Operating system accomplish all tasks above with two user interfaces. Many computer OS will fall into more than one of the below categories. Enable user to manipulate programs and data. etc. User can run. Lets the user to control the peripherals without knowing the characteristics of the hardware used. Provide a structure for accessing applications.

The only problem with NT was that it had high hardware requirements and did not get along well with the older version of Windows. There are several different versions of Windows 2000 Server. The newest version of Windows is Windows Vista. a user can open MS Word and browsing at the same time. Windows XP comes as a workstation OS only.2 Understanding the characteristics of the Microsoft Windows operating systems Windows is the trade name for a very large family of Microsoft operating systems created over 20 years ago. 2. It comes in five varieties. 98 and Me.1 in 1993. and XP Professional designed for business environments and power users. Multiprocessing An operating system that is capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. 2000. each targeting at different users. There is no XP Server. Multi-user A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and/or different times. Professional was aimed at the business workstation user while Server was meant for Servers. Windows as a full-blown OS really got its start with Windows NT 3. Professional and Server. while it is trying to upload another and print some other file. ii. It came in two versions. for example. Multithreading /Time-sharing A program that is capable of doing multiple things simultaneously. 32 . This ability of a program to do multiple things simultaneously is implemented through threads. XP and Vista are all based on Windows NT and offer substantial benefits over Windows 9x editions.i. iv. might want to download one file in one window. Multitasking /Multiprogramming An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processors to run at the same time. Windows 2003 comes only in a server version. iii. Workstation and Advanced Server. For example. Windows Versions Windows 9x includes windows 95. Windows NT. The two main version of XP are XP Home designed for home users. Windows NT went through a number of upgrades. Windows 2000 comes in two basic varieties. A browser.

transparent look with impressive graphic quality. networked environments. separating the OS into three distinct parts: the drives. Improvement of Windows Vista over Windows XP a) Windows Aero (Graphical Interface) Windows Vista features a totally different look for its interface—a cleaner. NTFS has powerful security functions. if you're using Windows Aero) that displays your selection of Windows gadgets—mini-applications that perform useful functions. you can now search for files or applications from almost anywhere. such as a clock. Unlike in Windows XP. groups and permissions. d) Windows Search One of the most helpful new features in Windows Vista. and currency exchange. Every Windows 2000/XP has a “super” account called administrator that has access to everything. the NT Executives and the subsystems. Windows XP is based on Windows NT/2000 and support NTFS file system.File System (NTFS). a calendar. The three major features of NTFS security are accounts. NTFS offers the following excellent features:  Long filenames  Redundancy  Backward compatibility  Recoverability  Security NTFS filenames can be up to 255 characters. c) Microsoft Windows Media Player 11 Media Player 11 has a new graphics-oriented interface. This is most evident in the file system – 2000 and XP use a powerful and robust file system called NT. Microsoft designed and optimized every aspect of Windows 2000/XP for multiuser. such as support for plug and play and an improved interface. and the results appear on the fly—a helpful feature when looking for a file or application from the Start menu. b) Windows Sidebar Windows Vista offers a panel (transparent.Characteristics of Windows 2000/XP Windows 2000 was basically Windows NT with several improvements. with Window Search. 33 . you can simply type a few letters of your search request. a Microsoft Office Outlook inbox representation. Windows 2000/XP takes an object –oriented approach.

software. Again. leaving infections as it travels. this type of authentication is quite costly. voice or facial geometry. Authentication i) Something you know: The type of authentication that falls into this category is the password.3. Some viruses cause only mildly annoying effects while others can damage your hardware. iii) Something you are: Using Biometrics is the type of authentication that make use of our physical traits. users and groups and security policies. ii) Something you have: Using Smart Card can reduce the risk of someone guessing a password. A virus is a part of malicious software that gets passed from computer to computer and is designed to attach itself to another program on a computer. Users and Groups Windows uses user accounts and groups as the bedrock of access control. Trojan Horses and spyware. A user account gets assigned to a group such as User or Administrator. NT file system (NTFS) must be used. gets certain permission and password.2 Security Malware includes viruses. It is important to note that a virus cannot be spread without a human action. Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file. which means the virus may exist on your computer but it cannot infect your computer unless you run or open the malicious program. worms. People 34 .1 System administration Control over local resources must be established to create a secure computing environment. retina identification.2. the file system.3 System administration and security 2.3. Access control is about physical security. It may be using the fingerprints. But the cost is high and the risk also can arise when the card is stolen. File system On a Windows machine with multiple users. or files. Physical security The first order of security is to block access to physical hardware from people who should not have access. This is not a good type of authentication since password can be guessed. authentication. (such as running an infected program) to keep it going. 2.

Run up to date antivirus software Download updates frequently to ensure your software has the latest fixes for new viruses. the worm has been designed to tunnel into your system and allow malicious users to control your computer remotely.continue the spread of a computer virus. or . .pif. such as expecting a game to run but erasing CMOS Settings instead. iii. network servers. It can reconfigure dial-up settings to use different phone number at higher connection charge.scr. A firewall can be either hardware or software. adding silly active desktop icons) or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. In more recent worm attacks such as the much talked about Blaster Worm. the worm replicates and sends itself out to everyone listed in each of the receiver’s address book. To help protect the computer from malware. A worm is a freestanding program that takes advantage of security flaws and copies itself over and over again which can slow the network. Then. It disguises itself as useful utilities. One example would be for a worm to send a copy of itself to everyone listed in your e-mail address book.com. by sharing infecting files or sending emails with viruses as attachments in the e-mail. . and individual computers to stop responding. Hardware firewalls provide a strong degree of protection from most forms of attack coming from the outside world and can be purchased as a stand-alone product or in broadband routers. Some Trojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop. Spyware can capture keystrokes to steal password. Run Windows update automatically Antivirus program Antivirus programs use different techniques to combat different type of viruses. The Trojan horse itself would typically be a Windows executable program file. and the manifest continues on down the line. 35 . Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate. mostly unknowingly. and Trojan Horses. Use firewall A firewall is a system which prevents unauthorized use and access to your computer. . the following should be used: i. ii. Apply all security patches/security updates iv. Unlike viruses and worms. possibly allowing confidential or personal information to be compromised. and thus must have an executable filename extension such as . Additionally you want to make sure your anti-virus program has the ability to scan e-mail and files as they are downloaded from the Internet.bat.exe. causing Web servers. Trojans are also known to create a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to your system. Trojan are freestanding programs that do something other than what a user expects it to do when run. Due to the copying nature of a worm and its ability to travel across networks the end result in most cases is that the worm consumes too much system memory (or network bandwidth). worms.

the will use the back up copy to replaced the infected boot sector. If they detect viruses. Macro viruses Antivirus program detects macro viruses through the presence of virus signatures or certain macro commands that indicate a known macro virus. Some antivirus programs make a backup copy of the boot sector. A signature is the code pattern of a known virus. The programs will compare the executable file with the list of signatures. Boot sector viruses The detect boot sector viruses by comparing the drive’s boot sector to a standard boot sector.   36 . Executable viruses These viruses are difficult to find because they can be on any file in the drive. Antivirus programs will use their library of signature to detect the viruses.

The newer version of MP3 is known as MP4. Commonly a Windows PC comes with Windows Media Player.EXE on the CD-ROM. The sound card will play the notes according to the 37 MIDI . MIDI file is a text file. There is always opportunity to partition and format the hard drive and then install Windows. In Table 3. the pulse code modulation (PCM) which was modified to suit the use in PC. and known as WAV format. desktop colours. the new OS replaces the old OS but retains all saved data inherits the previous settings such as the font style. b) Upgrade Installation The new OS installs into the same folder as the old OS. locate WINNT32. If not .1 Sound A number of software can play sounds on Windows computer. MP4 support audio and video Recorded file.1 is a list of common sound file formats. and run it manually. This installation allows user to choose which Windows version to boot. just insert the upgrade version CD-ROM and the installation will start automatically. To begin upgrading. Better than WAV in term of file size. called by its extension. Recorded file.2. This new format is known as MPEG-1 Layer 3 codec. Table 3.1: Sound file formats Sound File Format  WAV     MP3       Description The first sound format . background and so on. it may be better to download more player since not all players can play all sounds. c) Multiboot Installation For example a PC can have both Windows 2000 and Windows XP as its OS.4 Installation of operating system There are several types of OS installation: a) Clean Installation Clean installation is installing OS onto a completely empty hard drive. Clean installation is performed by resetting the CMOS to tell the system to boot from the CD-Media drive before the hard drive. A new format was introduced to compress/decompress the WAV file. MP3. 3 PC Multimedia capabilities 3. However. But WAV file can be huge in size.

30 to 50 decibels which make them unacceptable for recording. Video files also have sound built into them.2 Video Recorded audio files and MIDI files are not the only files that play sounds on the computer. 3. Sound cards come with many built-in features and basically they have: a) Two separate processors (one for recorded sound likes WAV file and one for MIDI file format) b) Support chips for joysticks and other pointing devices that plug into the game port. the worse the card is for recording. 3. 3.4. You need good quality speakers to hear good quality sound or music.end and mid-range soundcard have SNR.Audio Video Interleave b) MPEG . The quality of the input port is measured by signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and expressed in decibels.text file.Moving Pictures Expert Group c) MOV . recording quality. To play the sound that accompanies the video. A popular speaker addition is a subwoofer which provides the amazing low frequency sounds.Windows Media Video 3. 38 .4 Getting the Right Sound Card All sound cards can play music and drive a pair of speaker. a level near to what professional musicians use.1 Speaker support Every sound card supports two speakers or or a pair of headphones. play sound too. Most applications. MP3 or MIDI files. The smaller the number. 3. Low. Below are the most common video formats in the PC world: a) AVI . High-end sound card offers a 96 to more 100+ SNR.3 Applications Many other applications.4. They differ in five basic areas: processor capabilities.2 Recording Quality Almost sound card has input for a microphone. jacks and extra features. including games use standard WAV. speaker support .Advanced Streaming Format e) RM . especially games.Quick Time d) ASF . but better sound cards support multiple speakers up to eight speakers to provide surround sound.Real Media f) Flash g) WMV . But the sound card itself is just not enough. the video player program must support the particular video file format.

5. you must install the driver first before connecting the USB sound card.3. check the volume control in Windows by clicking on the speaker icon on the system tray. start the system and let Windows install the card’s driver. With onboard sound .6 Troubleshooting sound a) Volume Check the volume controls on the speakers. 39 . After the sound card and the driver are installed. and plug the other end into the CD audio port. you need to make sure the sound is enable in your CMOS and then load the driver. Device Driver Installation Once the sound card is installed. b) Speakers Make sure the speakers are turned on and getting the power. To install a sound card. unplug it and open the case 2) Find an open PCI slot and snap in the sound card 3) If installing into an older system. 3. device driver installation and configuration.5. Physical Installation 1) Shut down your computer.2 Installing Sound Programs A program is needed to play sound on your PC.5 Installation of various multimedia components and peripherals 3. If the speaker volume is ok. 3. the installation of sound card include three major parts: Physical installation. load a driver and you are done. It is always best to install the driver that comes in on a CD ROM with your sound card. This applies to expansion cards and onboard sound. Make sure the speakers are plugged into the proper connection of the sound card. connect the CD audio cable to the back of the optical drive. Examples are Windows Media Player. check the Device manager to ensure that the driver was installed correctly.1 Installing Sound in a Window System There are two choices available for sound hardware on PC nowadays: onboard sound built into the motherboard or a separate sound card. plug some speakers into the card. Configuration Your final step is to configure the sound card using configuration programs and test it using an application. just snap the card into a slot.For USB sound card.Winamp or something similar. The same with most devices. You may adjust the volume of the sound.

c) Configuration Problems Check the Device Manager. reinstall the driver. If a question mark appears as shown in Figure 3.1: Device manager panel 3.7 Videoconferencing A videoconference is an interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. This videoconference involves equipment like camera.1 . Figure 3. microphone and PC. It uses telecommunications of audio and video to bring people at different sites together for a meeting. 40 .

2. 3. 41 . Some advantages of networking are: a) File sharing File sharing is the most common function provided by networks and consists of grouping all data files together on a server or servers. It is possible. 5. Network operating systems such as Windows Server 2003 allow the administrator to grant or deny groups of users access to certain files. No need to travel long distances for the conference. With more advanced services. Virtual whiteboards allow people from different locations to add in their own thoughts or ideas into one collaborative space. It is also an excellent way for the entire office to keep files organised according to a consistent scheme. When all data files in an organization are concentrated in one place. Expensive 2. to allow them to exchange information and cooperate.1 Introduction to networking A network is simply a collection of computers or other hardware devices that are connected together. No eye contact 4 PC networking and network services 4. Allows large number of people at different locations to interact with one another effectively. PowerPoint and other visual displays can be shared with everyone attending the conference at the same time. Disadvantages 1. a document can even be changed and typed into directly from other computers connected into the conference.2: Videoconferencing Advantages 1. seeing whatever is on that computer screen. for everyone to gain access to another computer. it is much easier for staff to share documents and other data. 4. either physically or logically. using special hardware and software. with some services.Figure 3.

Servers are powerful computers dedicated to provide certain services. c) Flexibility . Advantages of a Client-Server network a) Centralized . c) Internet Access Allow for access to the outside world.Resources and data security are controlled through the server. Among them are client/server network and peer to peer network. b) Scalability . On the Internet clients. 4. access web sites that are hosted on servers. multiple users can print to the same printer. high level of protection and organization that permits extensive control of the data.1 Client/Server Network Client / Server network contains servers as well as client computers. Characteristics of Client/Server network One machine is dedicated as a server. or computer with web browsers.Any or all elements can be replaced individually as needs increase. The username and password can be configured at the server side. When printers are made available over the network. such as files.New technology can be easily integrated into the system. Once done.Server can be accessed remotely and across multiple platforms. web services. Clients are PCs or workstations on which users run applications. devices and sometimes even processing power. including file services. email services.1. with powerful caching software that enable high speed file access. A great example of the Client-Server network model is actually the World Wide Internet. It is designed for large number of computer. maintain and supply. This can reduce the number of printers your organization must purchase.Server can manage access lists and restrict certain areas and/or files. d) Accessibility . e) Security . domain name lookup services. and the workstations usually do not act as servers. These services can consist of many different roles. This model differs from the Peer-to-peer network model in that the servers usually do not dually act as a workstation. Clients rely on servers for resources. it will be set for the entire network. The server has Network Operating System (NOS) optimized for sharing files.b) Hardware Sharing An example of hardware sharing is the Print Sharing. etc. There are several types of network. Internet sharing services. 42 .

d) Weak security Advantages of a peer-to-peer network a) Less initial expense since there is no need for a dedicated server. Many P2P network are set up to share music.Figure 4. d) Each PC can make backup copies of its data to other PCs for security. video. rather than through a central point.2 Peer-to-peer (P2P) Basically. The combined bandwidth of participants is used to transfer data. b) Every server can perform both server and client functions. c) Network is fast and inexpensive to setup and to maintain. e) Easiest type of network to build. and text files. Characteristics of P2P a) Enable any of the machines to act as a server.1. c) Not designed for a large number of computers. b) No need for a network administrator. 43 . maximum is 15 PCs. a P2P network is an ad hoc network that connects participants directly.1: Client/Server network 4.

1. then to regional networks. for Internet Protocol.2.2 TCP/IP Networking Fundamentals TCP and IP were developed by United States Department of Defense (DOD) research project to connect a number different networks designed by different vendors into a network of networks (the "Internet").00111101. and finally to the global Internet.10001001 44 .61. and IP. TCP.27. for Transmission Control Protocol. Several computers in a small department can use TCP/IP (along with other protocols) on a single LAN.TCP/IP is the protocol used for communication over the Internet and on most computer networks today. The IP component provides routing from the department to the enterprise network.1 IP addresses and domain name 4.2. It was initially successful because it delivered a few basic services that everyone needs (file transfer. But computers communicate in binary form. Look at the same IP address in binary: 11011000.2: Peer to peer network 4. 4.137.Figure 4.00011011. remote logon) across a very large number of client and server systems. TCP handles packet flow between systems and IP handles the routing of packets. TCP/IP is made up of two acronyms. electronic mail.1 IP addresses IP addresses are normally expressed in decimal format as a "dotted decimal number" like 216.

you get 32.2. Combine the four octets and you get 232 or a possible 4. It takes the place of an IP addresse. making it easier for people to remember it. It is used to identify the network that a computer belongs to.45.com”.296 unique values.The four numbers in an IP address are called octets. government or other entity based on size and need.2 Domain names Domain names were born to enable people to work with names rather than numbers. The server where Yahoo!’s main website is deployed has an IP address.89.255.com” instead of the IP address. There are five IP classes plus certain special addresses. 45 . They are used to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned to a particular business.com”. The Net section always contains the first octet. This is handled by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).255 is used for broadcasts.1.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255. There are two ways of assigning IP addresses: a) Static addressing The IP address for a computer never changes and is assigned manually by a network administrator. This IP address is temporary and may or may not be the same from session to session. The Host section always contains the last octet. So each octet can contain any value between 0 and 255. certain values are restricted from use as typical IP addresses. The octets are split into two sections: Net and Host. the IP address 0. If all the positions are add together.967. “www.3 billion possible combinations. This type of addressing is better than static addressing because it provides better security measures to keep hackers out of the computer system. Since each of the eight positions can have two different states (1 or 0) the total number of possible combinations per octet is 28 or 256.255. Out of the almost 4.0. b) Dynamic addressing A computer is assigned an address from an available pool of IP addresses.294. which is why IP addresses are considered 32-bit numbers. because they each have eight positions when viewed in binary form. 4. Consider this URL.yahoo. Host (sometimes referred to as Node) identifies the actual computer on the network. For example.67. but it is rather easier to recall “yahoo.0. such as 123. The octets serve a purpose other than simply separating the numbers. The domain name is “yahoo.

073. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class.2.4.777. your computer converts the URL into an IP address. The other three octets are used to identify each host.0. What important is only the IP address of the computer hosting that URL.147. This means that there are 126 Class A networks each with 16.1 is used as the loopback address. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to 191 are part of this class. Class A This class is for very large networks. In Class A networks. A good example is a large college campus. The other two octets are used to identify each host.214 (2 24 -2) possible hosts for a total of 2.384 (214) Class B networks each with 65. To do this.648 (231) unique IP addresses.The IP address of 0.2 IP Address Classes a) Default Network .0.3 DNS servers URL is not important to a computer.824 (230) unique IP addresses.0. When you enter a URL in a browser.The IP address 127.0.1.2. Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net identifier. 46 .741. which functions like a phone book for the internet.483. 4.0 is used for the default network. Class A networks account for half of the total available IP addresses. such as a major international company might have. Loopback . the high order bit value (the very first binary number) in the first octet is always 0. your computer consults a database that is maintained on a DNS server. This means that there are 16. Class B Class B is used for medium-sized networks.534 (216 -2) possible hosts for a total of 1.

Class C networks make up an eighth of the total available IP addresses. Class D is slightly different from the first three classes. third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0. Class C addresses also include the second and third octets as part of the Net identifier. Class D Used for multicasts. Class C networks have a first bit value of 1. The last octet is used to identify each host.912 (229) unique IP addresses.Class B networks make up a quarter of the total available IP addresses. second bit value of 1 and a third bit value of 0 in the first octet.152 (221) Class C networks each with 254 (28 -2) possible hosts for a total of 536. second bit value of 1. This means that there are 2. Class B networks have a first bit value of 1 and a second bit value of 0 in the first octet. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast message is intended for. IP addresses with a first octet from 192 to 223 are part of this class. It has a first bit value of 1. Class C Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size businesses.097.870. Class D accounts for 1/16th 47 .

4. Class E Class E is used for experimental purposes only.(268.435. Like Class D. It has a first bit value of 1. the Firewall enables you to: a) Control incoming and outgoing traffic between the Internet and your protected networks b) Hide your internal IP addresses from the external network c) Control User Authentication d) Configure access rules by user or group e) Filter by user. and is the front line of defense against viruses. Broadcast Messages that are intended for all computers on a network are sent as broadcasts.435.3. second bit value of 1. 4. it is different from the first three classes. group. a stateful firewall enforces access policies such as what services are allowed to be accessed by the network users.255. Trojan Horse attacks and hackers.1 Firewall It is a software or hardware used to prevent unauthorized access to your network. keeping the potential hackers out.456 or 228) of the available IP addresses. time-of-day or content category 48 . worms. third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 1.255. Network security starts from authenticating any user.456 or 228) of the available IP addresses. Once authenticated. Class E accounts for 1/16th (268. Today’s firewall can even deliver web content filtering. Using a combination of hardware and software solutions.3 Network Security Network security is generally taken as providing protection at the boundaries of an organization. intrusion prevention services and antivirus protection. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast message is intended for.255. These messages always use the IP address 255. commonly with a username and a password.

2 Printer and print sharing A printer is a peripheral device.1. 5. the main server becomes an authentication server and/or a file server. dedicated servers are also added to lessen the burden of the main server.1 Servers Servers serve many different network users and assist them with accomplishing a variety of task. Common types of dedicated servers are : i) ii) iii) iv) Print servers Application servers Database servers e-mail servers When dedicated servers are deployed. Any repetitive tasks requested by users is a good candidate to relegate to a dedicated server.1.1 Dedicated servers Dedicated servers are used to fulfill one specific function such as handling e-mail. As more users are added to a network.2 Authetication servers Authetication servers keep track of who is logging on to the network and which services on the network are available to each user. 5.Figure 4.1. The number and types of servers on client/server network depend on the network’s size an workload. hardware and installation 5.1. When you write a word document you send input and when 49 .3 File servers File servers store and manage files for network users.1.1 Networked server requirements.1. 5. 5.3: Firewall hardware 5 Server hardware and print sharing 5.1. which is attached to the computer to produce written material or graphics on paper or other print material.

b) Characters printer 50 . pins hit the ribbon to insert ink on paper to create text. As the head moves across the paper.you take a printout of this document via the printer you get a hard copy output. or some just stated by 600 dpi. Printing speeds vary by model and range from 8 to 30 ppm for both inkjet and laser printers. pins and ribbon. b) Resolution A printer’s resolution is measured in dot per inch(dpi) or number of dots of ink in one-inch line.2.1 Types of printers Printers are made by using different technologies. Choosing a printer may be based on some of the following: a) Speed A printer’s speed determines how many pages it can print per minute (ppm). Many inkjet printers have the speed of those of laser jet printers. For photo printing 1200 dpi or higher is better. The dpi may be represented as 600 x 600. Higher dpi produces higher quality printing. a) Dot matrix printers These printers consist of print head. 5. The following are several types of printer that are available in the market. For general-purpose printing 300 dpi is already enough.

It consists of inkjet print cartridges or ink boxes. Just like the typewriter. c) Ink jet printers This type of printer is popular among home PC users because of high quality. Ink from the nozzle in the form of tiny droplets is used to create text and images on the paper. it consists of alphabets or characters.You cannot print graphics by these printers. d) Laser printers 51 . Your colour ink jet printer needs two ink jet cartridges one black and other tri or four colour to produce a colour print copy. less expensive and photo quality output copy. Each character strikes the ribbon to insert a character on the paper.

d) Maintaining your printer To get flawless and good quality prints it is necessary that your printer should be in first-class condition.2. thick paper is used so that the text or image of one side of the paper cannot appear on the other side.2 Create a perfect print After setting up the printer your first task is to know how to create a perfect document.   Keep away dust and smudge from your printer. Now click the "page size" tab and if you want to print an envelope select envelop from the paper size list box. Following are few tips to keep your printer in good condition. Here are few points that you should keep in mind before you start printing. This option gives you opportunity to print the text or image in portrait or landscape style. Never try to clean the inside of the printer with a wet cloth. greeting cards and envelopes. two options for page orientation are given. To print a photograph you need shiny glossy paper. etc. It consists of electrostatic charge. Print icon is always seen on the tool bar of the program file.These printers give high speed and high quality output by using laser technology. But before you click it remember that you must setup the page size and some other details because without completing these formalities you cannot print a document. c) Types of printing paper It is very important to the choose right kind of printing paper because if you try to make a print of a photograph on a plain sheet of paper you are bound to get poor quality prints. b) Set the orientation At the bottom of the page size tab. 52 . a) Click on page setup Go to the file menu option and click "Page setup". As you know from the printer you can print word documents. On the right side "preview" of your selection helps you to take the finale decision. 5. laser beam and toner. rotating drum. For double-sided printing.

It also requires that one (or both) computer has a standard parallel port.  To clean colour cartridges. or educational setting.3 At times it is necessary to connect the same printer to more than one computer in a home. The printer must have ports and cables for connecting it to both USB and parallel ports at the same time. However. Select properties and then select the services tab. a) USB/Parallel Figure 5. Now click "clean the print cartridges" button. office.1: A printer connected to computer using USB and parallel cable This is the easiest. it is limited to sharing a printer with no more than two computers. select your printer and right click to open-up the short cut menu. Printer Sharing 5. least expensive way of sharing a printer. You can get more information about your printer from the user guide. this should allow both computers to send print jobs to the same printing device. b) Using printer switch 53 .2. and the other has a USB port. ranging from the inexpensive and simple to the more complex. After proper port and driver configuration. using their separate cables. There are several different hardware options available for sharing a printer.

a printer switch lets multiple computers be connected to the same printer. and is more likely to be compatible with different computer models.0 High Speed Four Computers Device Sharing Switch with Manual Push Button Selector Unlike other options. 54 . Figure 5. This hardware is easier to set up than a networked hardware sharing system. usually via parallel or USB cables. or "auto switch". "A-B switch". Most units are limited to either two or four computers. It also does not require any different software configuration or settings.Figure 5.2: A printer connected to multiple computers using switch Referred to under various different names. some are available which automatically connect the printer to the computer that is requesting to print. many of these units require a knob to be turned or a button pressed each time a different computer is used to print. including "parallel switch".3: The USB 2. However.

1) On the computer that is wired to the printer (called the host computer). first navigate to the Printers and Other 55 . It is usually more expensive than the above-mentioned options. and the right type of networking cables. However. If using the Category View for Control Panel. and uses slightly more electricity. Figure 5.c) Networking Figure 5. an appropriate network interface card installed in each computer. and allows for a much greater number of systems to be connected. This technique requires a router.4: A printer connected to a network One of the various types of computer network systems can be set up to enable this type of hardware sharing.5: A printer connected to a network through a router Enable Printer Sharing in Windows XP Follow these instructions to share printers connected to a Windows XP computer on a local network. open Windows Control Panel (from the Start menu). 2) Open (double click) the Printers and Faxes icon from within the Control Panel window. it makes other functions possible (like sharing an internet connection or easily transferring files from one computer to another).

for example. 5) In the Printer Properties window.. Alternatively. The share name chosen above identifies this printer on the local network. 56 . Close the Control Panel window when finished. In the Share name field. In Classic View. At this stage. the printer will now be accessible to other devices on the local network. if at this stage you receive an error message starting with Printer Properties cannot be displayed. you can navigate to the Printers and Faxes section of Control Panel and click the Add a printer task. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections Click OK or Apply to complete this step. click Share this printer. attempt to access it from a different computer on the local network. To test sharing is configured properly for this printer. a new Printer Properties window appears. From another Windows computer. select (single click) the icon for a printer you wish to share. 3) In the list of printers and faxes within the Control Panel window. However. You must physically connect the computer and printer to complete this step. this indicates the printer is not currently connected to the computer. In both cases. click on the Sharing tab and select the Share this printer radio button. simply scroll down the list of icons in alphabetical order to find the Printers and Faxes icon. Enable Printer Sharing in Windows Vista Windows Vista uses a default workgroup name of WORKGROUP. 4) From the Printer Tasks pane (left hand side of the Control Panel window).Hardware category to find this icon. option from this menu.. you can right-click on the selected printer icon to open a popup menu and choose the Sharing.

Click the ‘Continue’ button. 2) Select ‘Printer’ from the Hardware and Sound group. 8) Enter a name for the printer in the ‘Share name’ field.Figure 5. 10) Close the printer’s Properties window and the Printers and Faxes window. 5) Click the ‘Change sharing options’ button. 4) Right-click on the icon of the printer you wish to share and select ‘Sharing’ from the pop-up menu. 9) Click the ‘Apply’ button. 6) The User Account Control system will ask for permission to continue. 57 . 3) A list of installed printers and faxes will display. 1) Select ‘Control Panel' from the Start menu. 7) Place a check mark next to the ‘Share this printer’ item.6: Dialog box for Printer Sharing in Windows Vista Use the 'Share name' field to give the printer a distinctive name.

Examples are Files in the Recycle Bin . You may need to defragment by using the same method used for Error-Checking.1 Hardware and software maintenance issues a) Maintaining Hard drives:  Checking disk for failed cluster  Keeping data organized for quick access i) Error Checking (Older names: ScanDisk and CHKDSK)  Check for bad cluster. If you do not run error-checking. This is a monthly maintenance. temporary internet files and temporary files 58 . The trash can be files that are kept by Windows without you knowing it. but choose the Defragment Now. you might lose data. It may be that a single file is stored in sectors or clusters on different parts of the hard disk.6 Maintenance and troubleshooting 6. The problem with a fragmented files is that it can slow your computer down as it needs to spend time sending the actuator arm to different parts of the hard disk to read the complete file. New name: Error-checking (available in Windows 2000 and above) MyComputer Hard Disk Driveright click Hard Disk Drive to checkpropertiesToolsCheck Now Run this check error once a week to keep your system in top shape. ii) Defragmentation A single file does not have to reside within contiguous clusters. If you do not run disk defragmentation. This is called a 'fragmented' file. your system will run slower. iii) Disk cleanup Hard Disk Drive may be filled with trash.  Look for invalid filenames  Look for and erase lost chains (clusters that have no filenames associated with them).

usually boosting system performance. properly cleaning it will make it easier to use and prevent the cursor from "jumping around" on the screen due to dirty rollers. h) Cleaning the inside of the computer Properly and safely cleaning the inside of your PC can be tricky but is one of the most important maintenance tasks you can perform.that remain when application is closed. c) Clean Out The Temp Folder Manually cleaning out the Temp folder in is often a necessary maintenance step when the Windows Vista Disk Cleanup utility fails to completely clean out the Temp folder. In this article. 6. Flat screen monitors require special care when cleaning because their displays are sensitive and easily scratched and damaged.check this is on 59 . e) Clear the Internet Cache Clearing the Internet cache is often necessary to solve certain web page and browser problems that sometimes occur. g) Defrag Your Hard Drive Defragging the data on your hard drive helps to properly reorganize how the data stored on the drive.2 Hardware and software troubleshooting a) Nothing happened   Check mains plug switched on at wall PSU may have its own power switch . This is an important part of proper maintenance. are a little different than their CRT cousins when it comes to cleaning. Cleaning helps remove debris buildup from fans and other components which can cause very serious problems if left to accumulate. also known as LCD monitors. you'll learn how to create a backup plan that's fast and easy enough to do on a regular basis. d) Cleaning a Mouse Aside from extending the life of and preventing damage to the mouse. f) Create a Backup Plan Backing up valuable data on your computer may be the single most important maintenance task you can perform but it's often the most overlooked. StartProgramsAccessoriesSystem ToolsDisk Cleanup b) Clean A Flat Screen Monitor Flat screen monitors. This is a monthly maintenance to keep plenty of space available on your hard disk drive.

RAM. sound card etc. remove and refit these components Check the motherboard manual and perform a BIOS reset procedure This may indicate a faulty motherboard d) PC is on but monitor shows no display and one beep emits from the PC      Check monitor is switched on at the wall socket Check monitor power cable is connected correctly Check that the monitor's signal cable is connected correctly to both the PC and Monitor Check that the monitor is switched on at its front panel This may indicate a faulty video card e) PC is on but there are no power and/or HDD lights on the PC case front panel   Check correct connection of front panel connectors to the motherboard (see motherboard manual) This 'may' indicate a faulty Motherboard f) PC is on but HDD does not spin up    Check power connector to HDD is properly connected Check that cable is correctly connected to both Motherboard and HDD This may indicate a faulty Hard Drive g) PC is on but CD-ROM shows no lights/will not eject tray    Check power connector to CD-ROM is properly connected Check that cable is correctly connected to both Motherboard and CD-ROM This may indicate a faulty CD-ROM Drive h) PC is on but the CPU fan/fans do not spin  Disconnect the power immediately to prevent damage to the CPU from overheating 60 . Video card. If necessary. Replace PSU c) PC is on but monitor shows no display and a sequence of beeps emits from the PC     Check fitting of CPU.    Check PSU-to-Motherboard cable(s) are correctly connected Check front panel power switch is correctly connected Check Reset button is not stuck 'in' Check mains cable fuse b) There was a loud bang (possibly with smoke) at the back of the PC Case PSU was faulty or set to incorrect voltage for mains supply system.

1) Power on the computer or restart it if it is already on. the Motherboard may support your CPU) This may indicate a faulty/old motherboard k) On boot up.FDD/Keyboard/Mouse not found (or similar)    Check correct connection of device described. display shows incorrect RAM total    Check correct seating of Memory Modules in slots In cases of two or more modules. it typically means that the system has encountered some kind of problem before it was able to display any kind of error information on the monitor.  61 . If there is any resistance to this movement. display shows . check its ribbon and power connections Check that the BIOS is configured correctly for the device described This may indicate a fault with the described device or Motherboard How To Troubleshoot Beep Codes   Beep codes are used by the BIOS to report certain initial system errors. In the case of the FDD. a motherboard FAN connector or one of the PSU power connectors) Disconnect the power and carefully spin the fan blades with a finger. RAM. Video card. remove and refit these components Check the motherboard manual and perform a BIOS reset procedure This may indicate a faulty Motherboard or Video card j) On boot up. this may indicate a faulty module This may indicate a faulty/old motherboard l) On boot up. sound card etc. 2) Listen very carefully to the beep codes that sound when the computer begins to boot. this may indicate a faulty fan unit i) On boot up. the monitor shows corrupted display    Check seating of CPU. Follow the steps below to determine what system problem the beep code is representing. If necessary.  Check fan power cables are correctly connected to the relevant power connector (in most cases. display shows incorrect CPU type/speed      Check the motherboard manual for the appropriate CPU jumper settings (where applicable) Check BIOS settings for CPU type (see Motherboard Manual) Perform a BIOS reset procedure Perform a BIOS update (with an updated BIOS. If you are hearing beep codes after you turn your computer on.

Seven beeps indicates a general exception error. if the beeps are long or short and if the beeping repeats or not. how the beeps sound. or the motherboard could be prompting this AMI beep code. Three beeps means there has been a base memory read/write test error. Six beeps means that there has been an 8042 Gate A20 test error. This is all important information that will help determine what issue the beep codes are representing. Five beeps means there has been a processor error. or a damaged CPU. This is an issue with the first 64KB block of memory in your RAM. Two beeps means there has been a parity error in base memory. What steps you take to solve a particular beep code will differ depending on the BIOS manufacturer. the CPU. You are not likely to make whatever problem you have worse by restarting a few times.3) Restart your computer if you need to hear the beeping again. There is a big difference between a "beep-beep-beep" beep code and a "beep-beep" beep code. This beep code is usually caused by an expansion card that has failed or the motherboard that is no longer working. This AMI beep code could be caused by an expansion card problem. Four beeps means that the motherboard timer is not working properly. Important: Pay close attention to the number of beeps. The solution is usually to replace the memory. Replacing the RAM usually solves this AMI beep code. Write down. 62 2 Beeps 3 Beeps 4 Beeps 5 Beeps 6 Beeps 7 Beeps . Choose the correct beep code troubleshooting guide below based on your motherboard's BIOS manufacturer:  AMI Beep Code Troubleshooting (AMIBIOS) BEEPS 1 Beep DESCRIPTION A single beep from an AMI based BIOS means there has been a memory refresh timer error. a motherboard hardware issue. Replacing the faulty hardware usually fixes the cause of this beep code. The solution is often to replace the RAM in the computer. in whatever way makes sense to you. A hardware failure with an expansion card or the motherboard itself could be the cause of this beep code. A damaged expansion card.

1 Low Pitched Beep (Repeating) 1 High Pitched Beep A single. 1 Long Beep. Literally.8 Beeps Eight beeps means that there has been an error with the display memory. although it could be caused by a damaged expansion card in rare situations. 9 Beeps 10 Beeps  Award Beep Code Troubleshooting (AwardBIOS) BEEPS 1 Short Beep DESCRIPTION A single. A motherboard replacement will usually solve this problem. The CPU could be overheating or malfunctioning in some other way. Replacing the video card usually clears this up. since replacing a BIOS chip is sometimes impossible. You'll need to figure out why the CPU is 63 . Ten beeps means that there has been a CMOS shutdown register read/write error. One long beep followed by three short beeps means that either the video card isn't installed or the memory on the video card is bad. This beep code is usually caused by a faulty video card. However. This beep code is usually caused by a hardware issue with the AMI BIOS chip. this is a beep code you want to hear and that you've probably been hearing each time your computer comes on since the day you purchased it. short beep from an Award based BIOS is actually an "all systems clear" notification. Replacing the video card is usually the most you'll have to do to fix this one. Nine beeps means that there has been an AMIBIOS ROM checksum error. No troubleshooting necessary! One long beep followed by two short beeps indicates that there has been some kind of error with the video card. 2 Short Beeps 1 Long Beep. this would indicate an issue with the BIOS chip on the motherboard. this AMI BIOS issue is usually corrected by replacing the motherboard. Reseating or replacing the video card will typically fix the cause of this Award beep code. A repeating high pitched / low pitched beep pattern is an indication of some kind of CPU problem. 3 Short Beeps 1 High Pitched Beep. high pitched beeping sound means that the CPU is overheating. repeating. In other words.

This means that there is some kind of motherboard issue. this would indicate an issue with the BIOS chip on the motherboard. Technically. A 1-3-1-3 beep code pattern means that the 8742 keyboard controller test has failed. this Phoenix BIOS issue is usually corrected by replacing the entire motherboard. Replacing your RAM is the most you'll need to do to fix this problem. All Other Beep Codes Any other beep code pattern you hear means that there has been some kind of memory problem. The longer your CPU is running hot. A 1-3-1-1 beep code pattern on a PhoenixBIOS system means that there is some kind of issue with the RAM. A 2-1-2-3 beep code pattern means that there has been a BIOS ROM error. Literally. A 1-3-1-1 beep code pattern indicates some kind of issue with the memory. This could be a problem with the system memory.  Phoenix Beep Code Troubleshooting (PhoenixBIOS) BEEPS 1 Beep DESCRIPTION A single beep from a Phoenix based BIOS is actually an "all systems clear" notification. 2 Short Beeps 1-2-2-3 Beep Code Pattern 1-3-1-1 Beep Code Pattern 1-3-1-3 Beep Code Pattern 1-3-4-1 Beep Code Pattern 1-3-4-3 Beep Code Pattern 1-4-1-1 Beep Code Pattern 2-1-2-3 Beep Code Pattern 64 . Replacing the system memory usually fixes this problem. Since replacing a BIOS chip is often not possible. or the motherboard. meaning an issue with the BIOS chip on the motherboard. A 1-4-1-1 beep code pattern on a PhoenixBIOS system means that there is an issue with the system memory. This Phoenix BIOS 1 Long Beep. an expansion card. Important: Turn your computer off immediately if you hear this beep code. it's an indication that the Power On Self Test is complete. Replacing the RAM usually fixes this problem. No troubleshooting necessary! One long beep followed by two short beeps indicates that there has been a checksum error. A 1-3-1-1 beep code pattern on a PhoenixBIOS system means that there has been an issue while testing the DRAM refresh. A 1-2-2-3 beep code pattern means that there has been a BIOS ROM checksum error.(Repeating) getting too hot before this Award beep code will go away. Replacing the RAM is the usual recommendation for solving this problem. Replacing the motherboard should fix this problem. This usually means that there is a problem with the currently connected keyboard but it could also indicate a motherboard issue. the higher the chance that you will permanently damage this expensive part of your system.

Code 29 This device is disabled because the firmware of the device did not give it the required resources. Code 31 This device is not working properly because Windows cannot load the drivers required for this device. Device Manager Error Codes Device Manager error codes are special error codes and error messages that are reported in Device Manager.issue is usually corrected by replacing the motherboard. Below are some examples of Device Manager error codes: Code Description Code 24 This device is not present. 65 . or does not have all its drivers installed Code 28 The drivers for this device are not installed. Error codes in Device Manager are generated when the computer is experiencing device driver issues. or other hardware problems. system resource conflicts. 2-2-3-1 Beep Code Pattern A 2-2-3-1 beep code pattern on a PhoenixBIOS system means that there has been an issue while testing hardware related to IRQs. An alternate driver may be providing this functionality. This could be a hardware or misconfiguration problem with an expansion card or some kind of motherboard failure. Code 32 A driver (service) for this device has been disabled. is not working properly.

7 LABORATORY ATTACHMENT 66 .

5. 8.FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA PC HARDWARE & SOFTWARE (ECE353) EXPERIMENT 1 BASIC COMPUTER SETUP OBJECTIVES 1. Motherboard & PC casing. Screwdriver 67 . Hard disk & IDE/PATA cable. 2. 3. 2. RAM. 4. EQUIPMENTS 1. 3. 9. Microprocessor & heatsink. Power supply and 2 power cables . 10. To be familiar with the basic components of a PC. 7. Monitor. 6. Mouse. Floppy disk drive (FDD) & FDD cable. Keyboard. To understand how the PC works. To learn how to install and setup a personal computer (PC).

*The hardware used in this lab is obsolete. Be extra careful to ensure that the connections are tight. 10. 68 . Switch on the power source. 14. Connect the FDD cable from the motherboard to the floppy disk drive. 12. The Basic Input Output System (BIOS) will start up. Attach the microprocessor fan and heat sink on top of the microprocessor and see that every components have been fastened correctly to the motherboard. Mount the floppy disk drive to the casing. 2. Put in the RAM stick into the DIMM slot on the motherboard. Connect the monitor power cable to the power source. press F8 to enter the BIOS setup screen. find the revelent informations in order to answer the questions in DISCUSSION section. Check that each devices and cables are connected properly and firmly in place. 13. DO NOT SAVE any changes you made in the BIOS. 5. Ensure that the cable is attached firmly on both ends.PROCEDURES 1. Connect the monitor data cable to the motherboard. Apply pressure accordingly on the RAM so that the RAM is slotted nicely onto the motherboard. Connect the IDE/PATA cable from the motherboard to the hard disk. 8. In the BIOS loading screen. 3. 6. Repeat step 10 to 12 after fixing the problem. Connect the keyboard PS/2 cable to the motherboard. Attach the power supply to the motherboard. Connect the mouse PS/2 cable to the motherboard. Boot up the PC. In the BIOS setup screen. 7. Ensure that the cable is attached firmly on both ends. 11. 4. If the PC doesn’t boot up properly. Install the microprocessor into the appropriate slot on the motherboard. 9. Mount the harddisk to the casing. switch off the power source and carry out a troubleshooting session.

Boot up your PC and enter the BIOS Setup Screen. In the BIOS Setup Screen.FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA PC HARDWARE & SOFTWARE (ECE353) EXPERIMENT 2 OPERATING SYSTEM INSTALLATION OBJECTIVES 1. PC 2. To ensure that the installation is correct. To learn how to create an administrator account for Windows. EQUIPMENTS 1. Bootable Windows XP installation CD. 2. To learn how to install Windows XP operating system. 3. Ensure that the First Boot Drive is set to CD-ROM. PROCEDURES 1. 69 . Insert your Windows XP CD into the CD-ROM drive. 2. find the Boot section.

Save your settings and exit BIOS. Wait until the formatting ends. 13. Next. press L to confirm the deletion. When you are asked for the Network Setting. you need to repeat step 1 and 2 correctly until your PC boots from your CD-ROM.3. enter the required partition size and press ENTER. insert the password as you have set before and press ENTER. 14. Windows will change the screen resolution automatically. Select partition C: and press ENTER to install Windows XP into it. If not. press ENTER to restart the PC. The product key can usually be found at the back of the Windows XP CD case. Choose “Format using the NTFS file system” to format the partition using NTFS. Now that you have an Unpartitioned Space. To create the partition. In the Windows Log On screen. 5. 4. 9. Note: Deleting the partition will remove all data in it! 7. 11. Change the Computer Name into “ECE353” and Administrator Password as “abcd”. If you can read the text on the screen. Fill in the product key. press the key C to make a new partition. 12. 8. choose Typical Settings. 70 . 10. Press F8 to accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. Choose your desired partition (normally c:) using the keyboard arrows in order to install your operating system. when you are asked for it. Enter relevent and suitable information for Name. Next. After installation. 6. Press any key to enter Windows XP installation screen and wait for the setup files to load. Organization etc. If your desired partition is already in use. Your PC will restart and boot from your CD-ROM. Windows XP will show the available partition in your harddisk. Wait for the installation to complete. delete the partition by pressing the D key. Adjust the time and date accordingly. Click OK. Wait for the setup to complete. Windows XP configuration will commence. click OK once more. Congratulations! You have succeed in installing Windows XP operating system.

PROCEDURES 1. Screw driver. Screw it up to the motherboard. To be familiar with PC multimedia devices and peripherals. Connect the speaker’s serial cable to the motherboard. 3. 5. 4. 3. Screw it up to the motherboard. To install multimedia components into the PC. PC. Put in your graphics card into the motherboard’s AGP slot. 71 . To recognize multimedia related settings in the PC. Speaker. Graphics card & software driver. Slot in the sound card into the motherboard’s PCI slot. Sound card & software driver. 2. 2.FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA PC HARDWARE & SOFTWARE (ECE353) EXPERIMENT 3 PC MULTIMEDIA CAPABILITIES OBJECTIVES 1. 3. EQUIPMENTS 1. 2.

10. RIGHT CLICK on the desktop and select PROPERTIES. After you have done tampering with the settings. sound card driver and speaker is working correctly. 12. Try to adjust the volumes and see all the options available. Adjust the COLOR QUALITY and see the differences between each settings. click on DESKTOP. to ensure that your sound card. Try to change the screen saver picture. 8.4. 13. 11. In the same PROPERTIES tab. Install the sound card’s driver software into your Windows. After the installation is finished. 16. 14. In the same PROPERTIES tab. Install the graphic’s card driver software into your Windows. Once inside Windows. click on SETTINGS and try to change the screen resolution by adjusting the SCREEN RESOLUTION from 640x480 to 800x600. 72 . find the Volume icon the the right side of your Windows taskbar. 9. 6. using Windows Media Player or other softwares. After the installation is complete. 15. click on SCREEN SAVER. 5. Put in the sound card’s CD driver into the CD ROM drive. Try to change the Background picture. Run any media files. Boot up your PC and enter your Windows XP operating system. Try other available resolutions and see the difference between each settings. Right click on it and select OPEN VOLUME CONTROL. 7. put in the graphic’s card CD driver into the CD ROM drive. In the PROPERTIES tab. set your resolution to 800x600 and color quality to 32 bits.