Ethical climate questionnaire Victor and Cullen (1987, 1988) developed the ethical climate questionnaire (ECQ) to measure

types of ethical climates in or ani!ations" #he ethical climate questionnaire contained $% items" Victor and Cullen (199&) also identified si' climate types (professionalism, carin , rules, instrumental, efficiency, and independence)" #he si' climate types are measured (y usin a five )i*ert scale, +ith & representin ,completely false- and . representin ,completely true-" / lo+ score sho+s the presence of a climate"

0espondents +ere as*ed to respond to these questions in terms of ho+ the climates of their or ani!ation actually are and not ho+ they +ould +ant the climate to (e" http122+++"s(a"muohio"edu2a(as2$&&$2san3ose24*para5#he6$&7nfluence6$&of 6$&Ethical6$&Climate6$&#ypes6$&on6$&8o(6$&9atis6E$68&6/%"pdf Ethical +or* climate is a popular frame+or* for assessin the ethical characteristics of human or ani!ations" 7t emer ed from the more eneral concept of or ani!ational climate" Climate in or ani!ations has proven (oth difficult to define and to measure" #his is illustrated (y the +ell:*no+n 0eichers and 9chneider definition that or ani!ational climate is ;the shared perception of the +ay thin s are around here";<1% #+o popular approaches to the study of or ani!ational climate are the co nitive approach and the shared:perception approach" #he former re ards the concept of climate as an individual perception and a co nitive representation of the +or* environment" =rom this perspective, climate assessments should (e conducted at an individual level and the results presented as such" #he second approach emphasi!es the importance of shared perceptions as underpinnin the notion of climate"< 7 >hile the results of the latter type of studies are often a re ated and presented as representin the or ani!ation, this approach continues to evaluate only individual perceptions that reflect (oth individual as +ell as or ani!ational concerns" 7n the mid to late 198&s, the team of Victor and Cullen too* the +or* climate concept a step farther and introduced an ori inal inte ration of concepts from the +or* climate literature and the moral atmosphere literature, +hich resulted in a frame+or* for investi atin ethical climates in the +or* place"18 >hile they attempted to represent the or ani!ation (y employin a shared:perception approach, their studies are often critici!ed as not (ein reflective of the or ani!ation, (ut of the individual"19 =ollo+in the +or* climate research of 9chneider, they or ani!ed their studies around normative systems in the +or*place" 7n order to reflect +or* climate accurately, these systems, accordin to 9chneider, must (e institutionali!ed and mem(ers of the or ani!ation must

it attempted to represent the prevailin norms of the roup rather than of the individual" #hey com(ined the ideas from moral atmosphere +ith those from +or* climate to produce the ethical +or* climate frame+or*" http122+++"sherivtross"com2+p:content2uploads2$&112&.20oss:8/):/rticle:$&&7"pdf . @o+er and Aohl(er " $1 Boral atmosphere focuses on the social conte't of moral and ethical (ehavior" Victor and Cullen +ere attracted to the concept (ecause. li*e +or* climate.perceive the norms +ith a certain de ree of relia(ility"$& Victor and Cullen +ere also influenced (y the notion of moral atmosphere introduced (y ?i ens.