# Mat235

4/13/2010

Objectives: Compute and classify critical points for a function of two variables Compute the relative extrema for a function of two variables Solve applied extrema problems
Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

8 Extremum E t of f functions

Graph of function of two variables

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

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y) be a function of two variables.steps Compute fx and fy fx = 0 or fy = 0 Solve fx = 0 or fy = 0 simultaneously Determine the critical points Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 2 . b) is a critical point of f(x.y) if either fx (a. (a. A point (a. ) = 0 or fy ( 2 =− 0 f (f xx.b) .b) y ) = 4 xy 2 xor +y fy (a.Mat235 4/13/2010 Critical points • Definition : Let f(x.b) = 0 and (a.b) = 0 does not exist Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Critical points .

the critical point is ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎜ − 4 .Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 1 Find the critical points for the function f ( x . y ) = 4 xy − 2 x 2 + y Solution: fx = 4 y − 4 x Let fy = 4x + 1 f x = 0 and f y = 0 fx = 4 y − 4 x = 0 fy = 4x + 1 = 0 Solve f x = 0 and f y = 0 simultaneously 4y −4x = 0 y=x 4x +1 = 0 1 x=− 4 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 1 Find the critical points for the function f ( x .− 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 3 . y ) = 4 xy − 2 x 2 + y Solution: Determine the critical points y=x x=− y=− 1 4 1 4 Therefore.

0 ) ⎛4 4⎞ ⎜ .− ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 4 . y ) = 3 + 4 xy + 2 x 2 − y 3 Solution: Solve f x = 0 and 4 y + 4x = 0 f y = 0 simultaneously 2 4 x − 3 y2 = 4 x − 3 (− x ) = 0 x (4 − 3 x) = 0 x = 0. 4 3 y = −x Determine the critical points x =0 4 x= 3 y=0 y=− 4 3 ( 0 .Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 2 Find the critical points for the function f ( x .) Find the critical points for the function f ( x . y ) = 3 + 4 xy + 2 x 2 − y 3 Solution: fx = 4 y + 4 x f y = 4 x − 3 y2 Let f x = 0 and f y = 0 fx = 4 y + 4 x = 0 f y = 4 x − 3 y2 = 0 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 2 (cont.

the critical points are: (0.3).Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 3 Find the critical points for the function f ( x . (-1. y) = 3 y + x3 − y3 − 3 x Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 5 .3) and (-1. −1 Therefore.9).9) Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 y 2 − 12 y + 27 = 0 ( y − 9 )( y − 3 ) = 0 y = 9. y ) = 2 x 3 + y 3 + 3 x 2 − 18 y 2 + 81 y + 5 (1) (2) Solution: fx = 6 x2 + 6 x = 0 f y = 3 y 2 − 36 y + 81 = 0 From (1) From (2) 6 x ( x + 1) = 0 x = 0 .3 Warm up exercise f ( x . (0.

Let D = D ( a .b)=0.b ⎦ 2 D>0 • And fxx > 0 D>0 • And fxx< 0 D<0 D=0 • Inconc lusive Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 6 .b) ) and suppose that fx(a.b) ) = 0 and fy(a.b a.b b ) = f xx ( a . )=0.b a.b a.b b) − ⎡ b )⎤ ⎣ f xy ( a .b b ) f yy ( a .Mat235 4/13/2010 Extremum Minimum point Maximum point Saddle point Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Second partial derivative test Suppose the second partial derivatives of f are continuous continuou s on critical point ( (a.

Classify the critical points 2 3 Solution: Identify the critical points ( 0 . evaluate Fxx (a. -4/3). (a.0) (4/3. 0) and (4/3. Fyy (a. fyy and fxy fx = 4 y + 4 x f xx = 4 Critical point (0.b) Compute discriminant.Mat235 4/13/2010 Second partial derivative test Discriminant : D = D ( a . fyy and fxy At critical point.b) (if necessary) Classify as minimum.b ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Identify critical point.0 ) ⎛ 4 . y ) = 3 + 4 xy + 2 x − y The critical points for the function are (0.b ) f yy ( a . − 4 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ Compute fxx.b).b ) = f xx ( a . discriminant D = f xx f yy − ⎡ ⎣ f xy ⎤ ⎦ Check D and fxx (a.b) and Fxy (a. maximum. -4/3) f y = 4 x − 3 y2 f xy = 4 f yy = −6 y f yy = −6 y f xx = 4 f xy = 4 4 4 0 8 4 4 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 7 .b) Compute fxx. saddle point or no conclusion Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 2 2 Example 4 f ( x .b ) − ⎡ f xy ( a .

.( 1 ) f xx = 6 Critical point (2.Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 4 (cont.. -4/3) 4 4 0 8 4 4 -16 16 Check D and fxx (if necessary) and classify l nature Critical point D f xx = 4 Not necessary to check Classification (0.6) Into (1) Critical point (2..0) (4/3. Classify the critical points Compute discriminant Critical point f xx = 4 f yy = −6 y f xy = 4 D (0.0) (4/3. 0) and (4/3. -4/3) -16 < 0 16 Saddle point Relative minimum Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 4>0 Example 5 Locate and classify the critical point for f ( x ..) 2 3 The critical points for the function f ( x . -4/3). y ) = 3 + 4 xy + 2 x − y are (0.6) f yy = 2 f xx = 6 f xy = −2 f yy = 2 f xy = −2 6 2 -2 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 8 . y ) = 3 x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 − 8 y Solution: fx = 6 x − 2 y = 0 f y = −2 x + 2 y − 8 = 0 −2 x + 2 ( 3 x ) − 8 = 0 x=2 y = 3 (2) = 6 y = 3 x .

0) and (1.Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 5 (cont.1 ( ) Into (1) Critical point (0.. y ) = x 3 − y 3 + 3 xy fx = 3 x2 + 3 y = 0 f y = −3 y 2 + 3 x = 0 −3 − x 2 4 Solution: y = − x 2 . y ) = 3 x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 − 8 y Compute discriminant Critical point f xx = 6 f yy = 2 f xy = −2 D (2.6) 8>0 Minimum point Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 6 Locate all relative extremum and saddle points of f ( x . -1) Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 x=0 X=1 y=0 y = −1 9 ...6) 6 2 -2 8 Check D and fxx (if necessary) and classify nature f xx = 6 Fxx > 0 Critical point D Classification (2.( 1 ) ( ) 2 + 3x = 0 −x + x = 0 x − x3 + 1 = 0 x = 0 ..) Locate and classify the critical point for f ( x .

3 y=0 25 − x 2 = 0 x = ±5 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 10 .0) (1.) Locate all relative extremum and saddle points of f ( x . y ) = 2 x 3 + 6 xy 2 − 3 y 3 − 150 x Solution: f x = 6 x 2 + 6 y 2 − 150 = 0 6 x 2 + 6 y 2 = 150 y 2 = 25 − x 2 . y ) = x 3 − y 3 + 3 xy f xx = 6 x Critical point f yy = −6 y f xx = 6 x f xy = 3 f yy = −6 y D = f xx f yy − f xy 2 f xy = 3 D (0...Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 6 (cont.-1) -9 27 Fxx > 0 Saddle point Minimum point Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 7 Find the stationary point of the function and determine the nature f ( x .0) (1.-1) Critical point 0 6 D 0 6 f xx = 6 x 3 3 -9 27 Classification (0..( 1 ) f y = 12 xy − 9 y 2 = 0 3 y (4 x − 3 y) = 0 4x Into (1) y = 0.

Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 7 (cont. 4) (-3. (-5. -4) 4) y= x = 3. y ) = 2 x 3 + 6 xy 2 − 3 y 3 − 150 x Solution: 4x y= 3 16 x 2 = 25 − x 2 9 25 x 2 25 − =0 9 5 x ⎞⎛ 5x ⎞ ⎛ x = 3. ( (-3. 4). -4) 60 -60 36 -36 60 -60 -36 36 0 0 48 -48 3600 3600 -3600 -3600 Minimum Maximum Saddle Saddle Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 11 .) Find the stationary point of the function and determine the nature f ( x . 4). 3. 0). y= 4 ( 3) 3 =4 = −4 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 x = −3. (-5. 0). −3 ⎜5 − 3 ⎟⎜5 + 3 ⎟ = 0 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 4x 3 Critical point : (5. 0) (-5. y = 4 ( −3 ) 3 Example 7 (cont. -4) D Conclusion f xy = 12 y (5. 0) (3. 0).) Find the stationary point of the function and determine the nature f ( x . y ) = 2 x 3 + 6 xy 2 − 3 y 3 − 150 x Solution: f xx = 12 x Critical point f yy = 12 x − 18 y f xy = 12 y D = f xx f yy − f xy 2 f xx = 12 x f yy = 12 x − 18 y Critical point : (5. (-3. 0). (3. (3.

. -1) f = −12 x f = −12 y f =4 4 xx yy xy 4 D = f xx f yy − f xy 2 Critical point f xx = −12 x 2 f yy = −12 y 2 f xy = 4 D Conclusion (0. y ) = 4 xy − x − y Find all the critical points of the function Determine which give relative minima. y ) = 4 xy − x 4 − y 4 Find all the critical points of the function Determine which give relative minima.) f ( x . maxima or saddle points Critical point : Solution: (0. 1) (-1. 1).1.Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 8 f ( x . -1) 0 -12 -12 0 -12 -12 4 4 4 -16 128 128 saddle Maximum maximum Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 12 . y = −1 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 x − x9 = 0 x 1 − x8 = 0 ( ) x = 0 . y = 1 x = −1. 2 2 (-1.. −1 Example 8 (cont. maxima or saddle points Solution: fx = 4 y − 4 x3 = 0 y = x 3 .. 0) (1. y = 0 x = 1. (1.( 1 ) f y = 4 x − 4 y3 = 0 4 x − 4 x3 ( ) 3 =0 x = 0. 0).

.w ) = lw + + w l Sl = w − 64 =0 l2 w= 64 . y = 0 x = 1..( 1 ) f y = 4 x − 4 y3 = 0 4 x − 4 x3 ( ) 3 =0 x = 0. What must be the dimensions so that the total surface is minimum? Solution: V = lwh = 32 h= S ( l .. −1 Example 9 A rectangular box ope open n at the top is to have a 3 colume of 32 cm ...( 2 ) w2 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 13 .( 1 ) l2 32 lw h w l Sw = l − l= 64 =0 w2 64 .1. y = 1 x = −1.Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 9 f ( x .w ..... maxima or saddle points Solution: fx = 4 y − 4 x3 = 0 y = x 3 .w ) = lw + 2l ⎜ ⎟ + 2w ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ lw ⎠ ⎝ lw ⎠ 64 64 S ( l ..h ) = lw + 2lh + 2wh ⎛ 32 ⎞ ⎛ 32 ⎞ S ( l .. y = −1 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 x − x9 = 0 x 1 − x8 = 0 ( ) x = 0 . y ) = 4 xy − x 4 − y 4 Find all the critical points of the function Determine which give relative minima.

4 So.Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 9 (cont.( 1 ) l 64 l = 2 . What must be the dimensions so that the total surface is minimum? Solution: V = lwh = 32 64 w = 2 ..) A rectangular box ope open n at the top is to have a 3 colume of 32 cm .( 2 ) w h= 32 lw (1) Into (2) l= l− ( l) 64 2 64 l4 =0 64 2 l= l4 64 ⎛ l3 ⎞ l ⎜1− ⎟ = 0 64 ⎠ ⎝ l = 0 . l = 4 32 64 h= =2 w= 2 =4 4 )( 4 ) ( 4 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 9 (cont.. f ll > 0 The computed value produce minimum total surface Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 14 .....) A rectangular box ope open n at the top is to have a 3 colume of 32 cm . What must be the dimensions so that the total surface is minimum? Solution: S ll = 128 l3 S ww = 128 w2 S lw = 1 D = S ll S ww − S lw 2 D= 128 128 2 − ( 1) 3 3 l w D= 128 128 2 − ( 1) = 3 3 3 4 4 D = 3 > 0 ...

Mat235 4/13/2010 Example 10 Find the dimensions of a six six-faced box that has the shape of a rectangular prism with the largest possible volume that you can make with 12 square cupboard meters of cupboard.− y Since it is a dimension. Solution: 2 2 x + 2 xy − 6 = 0 y + 2 xy − 6 = 0 x2 − y2 = 0 x = y .) Find the dimensions of a six six-faced box that has the shape of a rectangular prism with the largest possible volume that you can make with 12 square cupboard meters of cupboard. Solution: A = 2 xy + 2 yz + 2zx = 12 Vx = Vy = z= ⎛ 6 − xy ⎞ V ( x . x ≠ -y x= y x2 + 2 x2 − 6 = 0 x= 2 y= 2 z= 6−2 2 2 = 2 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 15 . y ) = xy ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+ y ⎠ V = xyz 6 − xy x+ y − y 2 x 2 + 2 xy − 6 − x 2 y 2 + 2 xy − 6 ( ( ( x + y) 2 ) =0 ) =0 ( x + y) 2 x + 2 xy − 6 = 0 2 y + 2 xy − 6 = 0 2 x2 − y2 = 0 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 10 (cont.