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Mat235

4/13/2010

9 Differential Equations
Objectives: Understand some basic concepts and definitions concerning differential equations Identify the types of differential equations Solve the separable equations
Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Definition
A differential equation (DE) is an equation containing one or more derivatives of an unknown functions
an dny dx
n

+ an 1

d n1 y dx
n1

+ + a2

d2y dx
2

+ a1

dy + a0 y = f ( x ) dx

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Mat235

4/13/2010

Types of 1st DE

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Definition
The order of DE is the order of the highest derivative that it contains.
Order 1st order 2nd order Notation

dy = D y = y dx
d2y dx
2

= D 2 y = y

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Mat235

4/13/2010

Separable equation
The equation is separable if can be written in the form of :
dy f ( x ) = dx g( y )

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Separable equation
Steps to solve separable equations

Separate the common term


g( ( y )d )dy = f ( x )d )dx

Integrate both sides


)d = f ( x )d g(( y )dy )dx

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 1
Solve the differential equation ( x + 1 ) Solution
Separate the common term
1 1 dy = dx 1 y x+1

dy = 1 y dx

Integrate both side

1 dy = 1 y

1 dx x+1
Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Example 1 (cont.)
Solve the differential equation ( x + 1 ) Solution
dy = 1 y dx

ln ( 1 y ) = ln ( x + 1 ) + C
ln ( 1 y ) = ln ( x + 1 ) + C

Taking exponential both side Apply rules of exponential, e

l 1 y ln ln l x +1 +C e ( ) =e ( )
ln x

=x
Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

1 C 1 y = e x+1

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 1 (cont.)
Solve the differential equation ( x + 1 ) Solution
1 1 y = A x+1 1 y = 1 A x+1

dy = 1 y dx

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Example 2
Solve the differential equation
y( x + 3 ) + x( 3 y ) dy =0 dx

Solution

Separate the common term


y dx x

( 3 y ) dy = ( x + 3 )
1 3 3 dy = 1 + dx y x
3 3 dy = 1 + dx y x

Integrate both side

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 2
Solve the differential equation
y( x + 3 ) + x( 3 y ) dy =0 dx

Solution

y 3 ln y = x + 3 ln x + C
ln y 3 = y x + ln x 3 + C

e ln y = e y x e ln x e C
3 3

y 3 = Ax 3e y x y=
1 ( y x) Axe 3
Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Example 3
Solve the initial value problem
ex + 2 y dy = sin x , dx y = 0 2

Solution
2y

Separate the common term


dy = sin x e x dx

2 ydy = sin x e x dx

Integrate both side 2 ydy = sin x e x dx

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 3 (cont.)
Solve the initial value problem
ex + 2 y dy = sin x , dx y = 0 2

Solution

So, the general solution is

y 2 = cos x e x + C
,y=0

When x =

0 = cos e 2 + C 2

C =e2

Therefore, the particular solution is

y = cos x e + e 2
2 x

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Example 4
Solve the initial value problem
cot x dy dx = 0 , y( 0 ) = 2

Solution
dy = 1 dx cot x

dy =

1 dx cot x

y = tan x dx

y=l ln sec x + C
When x = 0, y = 2

ln sec 0 + C = 2
Therefore,

C =2
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y = ln sec x + 2

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 5
Find a curve in the xyxy-plane that passes through (0,3) and whose tangent line at a point (x,y) x,y) has 2 x slope p
y2

Solution
2

dy 2 x = ; dx y 2

y (0 ) = 3

y dy = 2 xdx

y 2 dy = 2 xdx
y = x2 + C 3
3

33 = 02 + C 3 C =9 y3 = x2 + 9 3

y 3 = 3 x 2 + 27
Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010