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4/13/2010

9 Differential Equations

Objectives: Understand some basic concepts and definitions concerning differential equations Identify the types of differential equations Solve the separable equations

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Definition

A differential equation (DE) is an equation containing one or more derivatives of an unknown functions

an dny dx

n

+ an 1

d n1 y dx

n1

+ + a2

d2y dx

2

+ a1

dy + a0 y = f ( x ) dx

Mat235

4/13/2010

Types of 1st DE

Definition

The order of DE is the order of the highest derivative that it contains.

Order 1st order 2nd order Notation

dy = D y = y dx

d2y dx

2

= D 2 y = y

Mat235

4/13/2010

Separable equation

The equation is separable if can be written in the form of :

dy f ( x ) = dx g( y )

Separable equation

Steps to solve separable equations

g( ( y )d )dy = f ( x )d )dx

)d = f ( x )d g(( y )dy )dx

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 1

Solve the differential equation ( x + 1 ) Solution

Separate the common term

1 1 dy = dx 1 y x+1

dy = 1 y dx

1 dy = 1 y

1 dx x+1

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Example 1 (cont.)

Solve the differential equation ( x + 1 ) Solution

dy = 1 y dx

ln ( 1 y ) = ln ( x + 1 ) + C

ln ( 1 y ) = ln ( x + 1 ) + C

l 1 y ln ln l x +1 +C e ( ) =e ( )

ln x

=x

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

1 C 1 y = e x+1

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 1 (cont.)

Solve the differential equation ( x + 1 ) Solution

1 1 y = A x+1 1 y = 1 A x+1

dy = 1 y dx

Example 2

Solve the differential equation

y( x + 3 ) + x( 3 y ) dy =0 dx

Solution

y dx x

( 3 y ) dy = ( x + 3 )

1 3 3 dy = 1 + dx y x

3 3 dy = 1 + dx y x

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 2

Solve the differential equation

y( x + 3 ) + x( 3 y ) dy =0 dx

Solution

y 3 ln y = x + 3 ln x + C

ln y 3 = y x + ln x 3 + C

e ln y = e y x e ln x e C

3 3

y 3 = Ax 3e y x y=

1 ( y x) Axe 3

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Example 3

Solve the initial value problem

ex + 2 y dy = sin x , dx y = 0 2

Solution

2y

dy = sin x e x dx

2 ydy = sin x e x dx

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 3 (cont.)

Solve the initial value problem

ex + 2 y dy = sin x , dx y = 0 2

Solution

y 2 = cos x e x + C

,y=0

When x =

0 = cos e 2 + C 2

C =e2

y = cos x e + e 2

2 x

Example 4

Solve the initial value problem

cot x dy dx = 0 , y( 0 ) = 2

Solution

dy = 1 dx cot x

dy =

1 dx cot x

y = tan x dx

y=l ln sec x + C

When x = 0, y = 2

ln sec 0 + C = 2

Therefore,

C =2

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

y = ln sec x + 2

Mat235

4/13/2010

Example 5

Find a curve in the xyxy-plane that passes through (0,3) and whose tangent line at a point (x,y) x,y) has 2 x slope p

y2

Solution

2

dy 2 x = ; dx y 2

y (0 ) = 3

y dy = 2 xdx

y 2 dy = 2 xdx

y = x2 + C 3

3

33 = 02 + C 3 C =9 y3 = x2 + 9 3

y 3 = 3 x 2 + 27

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

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