Mat235

4/14/2010

Objectives: Writing a separable equation to describe a real life problem Solve separable equations

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

Applications of Separable equations
Population growth

Separable equation
Newton’s law of cooling

Radioactive decay

Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010

1

t Find A and k by using the given intial value Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 2 .Mat235 4/14/2010 Population growth If. then the mathematical equation to model this problem is: dP = kP dt • P – population enters • t – time • k – population constant Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Population growth • Steps to solve the problem Write the differential equation I t t both b th Integrate sides and simplify to dP = kP dt Separate the common terms P = Ae kt Write the equation of the population at any time. P(t) represent the population in a habitant at any time t and having a proportionality constant.

Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 1 If the population of a country doubles in 50 years.01386t = ln 3 t= ln 3 0. P = P e kt 0 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 e ln P = e kt + c P = Ae kt Example 1 (cont.25 years Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 e =2 3 . in how many years will it triple under the assumption that the rate of increase is proportional to the number of inhabitants? Solution To find P(?)=3P0 50k = ln 2 t P 0 50 ? P0 2 P0 3P0 k= ln 2 = 0.01386 50 3P = P e 0.01386 When P(50)=2P0 P = P e 0.01386 t 0 0 Therefore.) If the population of a country doubles in 50 years. in how many years will it triple under the assumption that the rate of increase is proportional to the number of inhabitants? Solution t 0 50 ? P P0 2 P0 3P0 dP = kP dt dP = k dt P Since P(0)=P0 k 0 P = Ae ( ) 0 A= P ∫ 1 dP = k dt P ln P = kt + c ∫ 0 Therefore.01386t 0 k 50 2P = P e ( ) 0 50k 0 = 79. 0.

3 ) = 3.3) P=3 3.3 = Ae A = 3. the world population of human was estimated to be about 3.025t Since P(0)=3.025 dt P ln P = 0. unchanged how long will it take for the world population to triple? What will the estimated world population be in the year 2050? Solution t 2001 = 0 ? 2050 = 49 P (billion) 3.5%.025t = 3 P = 11.234 billion 0. b) P(49)= ?? 3.3 0.025 dt 1 P = Ae 0.3e 0.) Solution t 2001 = 0 ? 2050 = 49 P (billion) Therefore.Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 2 In 2001.025t ln 3 t= 0.3 billion individuals and the annual rate of increase was about 2.025 ∫ P dP = ∫ 0.3e 3 0.3 3.025 P dt dP = 0.025 P = Ae 0. If this rate of increase remains unchanged.025t + c l P 0 025t + c e ln = e 0.025t Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 2 (cont.3 3 ( 3.3e e 0.94 years Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 4 .025t k = 0.025t k = 0.3 ) ? P = 3.3 3 ( 3.025 ( 0 ) 0 025t = ln 3 0.3 ) ? dP = 0.025 ( 49 ) 3 ( 3.025 t = 43.025t a) P(?)=3(3.

t Find A and k by using the given intial value Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 5 .Mat235 4/14/2010 Radioactive decay This problem behaves opposite to a population growth. It has been decay into another isotope with proportionality constant. Consider a sample of material that contains M(t) mass at time t. dM = −kM dt • • • M – mass of material t – time k – decaying constant Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Radioactive decay • Steps to solve the problem Write the differential equation I t t both b th Integrate sides and simplify to dM = −kM dt Separate the common terms M = Ae kt Write the equation of the mass at any time.

Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 1 The radioactive isotope thorium-234 disintegrates at a rate proportional to the amount present.04 = 50e −k ( 2 ) 6 .04 ⎛ 20.04 mg in two weeks. Find of any time.) Solution ii) t 0 2 ? M i) Equation −k (0 ) e −2k = 50 20. Hence. M = Ae A − kt M = 50e 0 − kt When M(2)=20.45715t Ahmat M = Hasfazilah 50e − Jan 2010 20.04 1 2 When M(0)=50 20.04 50 ( 50 ) 50 = Ae A = 50 Therefore.04 ⎞ ln ⎜ 50 ⎟ ⎠ k= ⎝ −2 k = 0. Solution t 0 2 ? M 50 20. find the time interval for the mass to decay to half of its original value. 50 mg of this material reduced to 20.04 1 2 dM = − kM dt dM = − k dt M ln M = − kt + c e ln M = e − kt + c M = Ae − kt Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 ( 50 ) ∫ M dM = ∫ −k dt 1 Example 1 (cont. 0. ii. i Fi d an expression i f the th amount t present t at t i.45715 Therefore.04 ⎞ −2k = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 50 ⎠ ⎛ 20. t.

Hence.45715t = 25 50 ( 50 ) M=A Ae − kt ⎛1⎞ −0.5 ) k=− 5568 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 7 .568 10. M = M e − kt 0 1 − k 5568 ) M =M e ( 2 0 0 1 − k ( 5568 ) =e 2 1 ln = −5568k 2 ln ( 0. If the half-life of this is 5568 years. Solution When M(5568)=1/2 M0 M = Ae − kt t M When M(0)=M0 0 5. mass of the after 10 000 years. t is Hence find the percentage M ( t ) = M 0 e −0.45715t e −0.Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 1 (cont.000124t . decomposes at a rate proportional to the mass present.52 weeks −0. show that the equation of the mass.45715 Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 2 Carbon-14.04 1 2 25 = 50e −0. M at any time.45715t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎛1⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ t= = 1.000 M0 1 M0 2 ? M = Ae 0 −k (0 ) A=M 0 Therefore.) Solution ii) t 0 2 ? M ii) M(?)=25 50 20.

ii.) Solution t 0 5.000)=? −0. find the time interval for the mass to decay to half of its original value. Find of any time. the general solution is M0 1 M0 2 ? M ( t ) = M 0 e −0.Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 2 (cont. Solution t 0 2 ? M 50 20.000124 M ( 10000 ) = 0.000 M ( t ) = M 0 e −0. i Fi d an expression i f the th amount t present t at t i. Hence.94% of its original mass remains Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Example 1 The radioactive isotope thorium-234 disintegrates at a rate proportional to the amount present.000124t When M(10.000124 ( 10000 ) M ( 10000 ) = M 0 e k = 0. 50 mg of this material reduced to 20.2894 M 0 28.568 10.04 mg in two weeks. t.000124t P Therefore.04 1 2 dM = − kM dt dM = − k dt M ln M = − kt + c e ln M = e − kt + c M = Ae − kt Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 ( 50 ) ∫ M dM = ∫ −k dt 1 8 .

the temperature of an object changes at a rate proportional to the surrounding temperature. Thus.Mat235 4/14/2010 Newton’s Law of Cooling According to the Newton’s law of cooling.temperature of surrounding t – time k – cooling constant Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 Newton’s Law of Cooling • Steps to solve Newton’s Law of Cooling Write the differential equation I t t both b th Integrate sides and simplify to dT = k (T − Ts ) dt Separate the common terms T = Ts + Ae kt Write the equation of the temperature at any time. if T is the temperature of the object at time t. t Find A and k by using the given intial value Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 9 . then we have: dT = k (T − Ts ) dt • • • • T – temperature of object Ts .

Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 1 A thermometer reading 100oF is placed in a pan of oil maintained at 10oF. when T(10)=? T = 10 + Ae T = 10 + 90e T = 30.1469( 10 ) Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 10 . What is the temperature of the thermometer after 10 seconds? Solution t 0 4 10 T dT = k (T − 10 ) dt ln (T − 10 ) = kt + c ln T − 10 ) e ( = e kt + c 100 60 ? dT = k dt T − 10 ∫ 1 dT = k dt T − 10 ∫ T − 10 = Ae kt T = 10 + Ae kt Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 T = 10 F s Example 1 (cont.) Solution t 0 4 10 T When T(0)=100 100 60 ? 100 = 10 + Ae k(0 ) A = 90 T = 10 + 90e kt When T(4)=60 kt k 4 60 = 10 + 90e ( ) 50 e 4k = 90 ⎛ 50 ⎞ 4k = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 90 ⎠ ⎛ 50 ⎞ l ⎜ ⎟ ln 90 k = ⎝ ⎠ = −0.1469 4 T = 10 + 90e −0.1469t So.7 F −0. If after 4 seconds the temperature of the thermometer is 60oF.

7 + Ae kt Hasfazilah Ahmat Jan 2010 T = 37.) Solution t 0 1 ? T 100 98. when T(?)=75 75 = 37.Mat235 4/14/2010 Example 2 Suppose that the temperature of a cup of coffee obeys Newton’s law of cooling.3 min t= Hasfazilah Ahmat −0.3 ⎠ ⎛ 37.7 75 A = 62.7 ln T − 37.3 T = 37.3e ( ) kt T = 37.7 + 62.3e −0. minute later has cooled to 98. and one 98 70C in a room at 37.7 ∫ T − 37. If the coffee has a temperature of 1000C when freshly poured.02109t = 37.3e 6 When T(1)=98.02109 Jan 2010 11 .3 62. Solution dT ln T − 37.7 + 62.7 = kt + c t T dt 0 1 ? 100 98.7 = 37.3 ⎞ −0.7 determine when the coffee reaches a temperature of 750C.7 + 62.3 T = 37.7 + Ae When T(0)=100 k 0 100 = 37.02109t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 62.7 ) ( ) dT = k dt T − 37.3 ln 62.3 ek = kt 61 62 3 62.7 k 1 98.3 ⎠ 37.7 C s Example 2 (cont.7 ) e ( = e kt + c ∫ 1 dT = k dt T − 37.02109t So.02109 ⎛ 61 ⎞ k = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 62.3e −0.3 = 24.7 = Ae kt T = 37.7 + Ae ( ) k = −0.7 37 70C .02109t e −0.7 + 62.7 75 = k (T − 37.