# Math 263b

Sept. 24

12 Applications of Linear Equations Equations
Objectives: • Identify the correct linear equations to be solved • Apply A l th the linear li equations ti in i th the given i problems • Solve the coefficients and find the particular solution

Applications of Linear Equations

Electric Circuit

Linear Equation

Mixing Problem

1

Math 263b Sept. Across a resistor. R : VR = Ri = R 3.current • q – charge (coulomb) dq Relationship : i = • t – time (second) dt Voltage drop : di 1. Across an inductor. Across a capacitor. C : VC = dq dt 1 q C 2 . 24 Electric Circuits RL Circuit Electric Circuit RC Circuit Variables used Electric Circuits • i . L : VL = L dt 2.

24 Type 1 : RL Circuit Kirchoff’s Second Law V L + VR = E ( t ) L di + Ri = E ( t ) Where L and R are constants dt L E R Type 2 : RC Circuit Kirchoff’s Second Law VR + VC = E ( t ) R dq 1 + q = E ( t ) Where C and R are constants dt C E R C 3 .Math 263b Sept.

Solution L E R RL circuit with E(t)=100V. 24 Example 1 Kirchoff’s Second Law A generator having emf 100 volts is connected in series with 10 ohms resistor and inductor 2 henries.50 dt ∫ ie 5t = i= I (t ) = e Integrating factor ∫ p( t )dt ∫ 5 dt 50e 5t +c 5 10e 5t + c e 5t i = 10 + ce −5t −5 0 0 = 10 + ce ( ) c = −10 =e = e5t t=0 0. i = 0 I ( t ) i = I ( t ) q ( t ) dt ∫ i ( t ) = 10 − 10e −5t 4 . If the switch K is i closed l d at t time ti t = 0.Math 263b Sept. L=2H di L + Ri = E ( t ) dt 2 di + 10i = 100 dt di + 5i = 50 dt Example 1 (cont.) Solution di + 5i = 50 dt di + p (t ) i = q (t ) dt Kirchoff’s Second Law ie 5t = e 5t . R=10 Ω. 0 set t up a diff differential ti l for f th the current and determine the current at time t.

01 farad capacitor.Math 263b Sept. C=0. q = 0 q ( t ) = 10te −5t c =0 I ( t ) q = I ( t ) q ( t ) dt ∫ Charge at time t 5 . R=20 Ω. 24 A decaying emf E = 200e −5t is connected in series with a 20 ohms resistor and 0.01F dq 1 dq 1 200e −5 t + q = E (t ) + q= dt C dt 20 ( 0. Assuming q = 0 at t t = 0.10e −5t dt qe 5t dq + p (t ) q = q (t ) dt ∫ = 10 dt ∫ I (t ) = e Integrating factor ∫ p( t )dt ∫ 5 dt =e = e5t qe 5t = 10t + c 10t + c q= e 5t q = 10te −5t + ce −5t −5 0 0 = 0 + ce ( ) t=0 0. calculate its value and determine when it is reached. 0 Find Fi d the th charge h and d current t at t any time. ti If th the charge reaches a maximum.01 R C Example 2 (cont.) Solution dq q + 5q 5 = 10e 10 −5 t dt Kirchoff’s Second Law qe 5t = e 5t . Example 2 Kirchoff’s Second Law Solution E R RC circuit with E(t)=200e-5tV.01 ) 20 dq 1 + 20 q = 200e −5 t dt 0.

the maximum charge is q ′′ ( t ) = −50e −5 t ( 2 − 5t ) t= 1 5 ⎛1⎞ q ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ ⎛1⎞ −5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ −50e ⎝ 5 ⎠ 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞ ⎜ − 5⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ −5 ⎜ ⎟ q ⎜ ⎟ = 10 ⎜ ⎟ e ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝5⎠ ⎝5⎠ −1 = 2e ⎛1⎞ 6 .) Solution q ′′ ( t ) = Kirchoff’s Second Law Then use Second Derivative Test d ⎡ 10e −5 t ( 1 − 5t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ ⎛1⎞ q ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = −50e −1 < 0 ⎝5⎠ q ′′ ( t ) = − 50e −5 t ( 1 − 5t ) − 50e −5 t q ′′ ( t ) = − 50e −5 t ( 1 − 5 t + 1 ) This is maximum value Therefore.Math 263b Sept.) Solution Kirchoff’s Second Law DONT’ FORGET! Product Rule q ( t ) = 10te −5t DONT dq = 10t −5e −5 t + e −5 t ( 10 ) i (t ) = dt = 10e −5 t ( 1 − 5t ) Current at time t ( ) When the charges reaches maximum. i ( t ) = 10e −5t ( 1 − 5t ) = 0 1 − 5t = 0 1 t= 5 dq =0 dt ≠0 Example 2 (cont. 24 Example 2 (cont.

7 .Math 263b Sept. 24 Mixing Problems rin > rout Mixing Problem rin = rout rin < rout Mixing Problems Variables used • Q(t) : the quantity of substance in the tank at time t. • Rate in : the rate at which substance enter the tank • Rate out : the rate at which substance leave the tank dQ : rate at which the quantity of substance in • dt the tank change • rate of flow in : the rate at which substance flows into the tank • Rate R t of f fl flow out t : th the rate t at t which hi h substance b t fl flows out of the tank • Volume of solution : volume of solution in the tank.

Math 263b Sept. ii) how much salt is present when t approach infinity? Solution t = 0 . 24 Formula Mixing Problem concentration = quantity of subs tan ce . salt.Q = 5 V = 10 + ( 2 − 2 ) t V = 10 rate in = ( 3 )( 2 ) = 6 ⎛ Q (t ) ⎞ Q (t ) rate out = ⎜ ⎟ 2 = ⎜ 10 ⎟ ( ) 5 ⎝ ⎠ 8 . i) find the amount of salt in the tank at any time t. rate. Brine containing 3 grams per liter of salt enters t the th tank t k at t 2 liter lit per minute i t and d th the mixture i t leaves at the same rate.Q ( t ) volume of solution volume of solution = volume of solution in tan k + ( rin − rout ) t rate in = ( c in )( rin ) ⎛ Q (t ) ⎞ rate out = ⎜ ⎟ r ⎜ V ⎟ ( out ) ⎝ ⎠ dQ = rate in − rate out dt Example 3 Mixing Problem A tank is filled with 10 liter of brine in which is dissolved 5 grams of salt.

ii) how much salt is present when t approach infinity? Solution Q = 30 + 1 − t 5 Ce Q = 30 − 25 e 1 − t 5 t = 0 .Q = 5 5 = 30 + 1 − (0 ) 5 Ce ii) T approach infinity t→∞ lim Q = 30 − 25 e − 1 t 5 =0 C = − 25 = 30 9 .6 ∫ 6 dt 1 Q= 1 t 5 30 e 1 t e5 +C 1 t 5 Qe = 6e 5 1 5 t +C Q = 30 + Ce 1 − t 5 Example 3 (cont.Math 263b Sept. 24 Example 3 (cont.) Mixing Problem i) find the amount of salt in the tank at any time t.) Mixing Problem i) find the amount of salt in the tank at any time t. ii) how much salt is present when t approach infinity? Solution dQ = rate in − rate out dt dQ Q =6− dt 5 dQ Q + =6 dt 5 dQ + p (t )Q = q (t ) dt I (t ) = e I (t )Q = 1 t 5 Qe ∫ 5 dt 1 t 5 1 =e 1 t 5 1 t 5 Qe = 1 t 5 30 e +C ∫ I ( t ) q ( t ) dt = e .

liter/min Find the amount of salt in the tank after 40 minutes. 24 Example 4 Mixing Problem A tank filled with 10 liters of brine in which dissolved 20 gm of salt. salt.Q = 20 V = 10 + ( 2 − 1 ) t V = 10 + t ⎞ Q (t ) ⎟ (1) = ⎟ 10 + t ⎠ rate in = ( 4 )( 2 ) = 8 ⎛ Q (t ) rate out = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 10 + t Example 4 (cont. Brine containing 4 gm/liter of salt enters the t k at tank t 2 liter/min lit / i and d th the mixture i t l leaves at t 1 liter/min.Math 263b Sept.) Solution dQ = rate in − rate out dt dQ Q =8− dt 10 + t dQ Q + =8 dt 10 + t dQ + p (t )Q = q (t ) dt Mixing Problem I (t ) = e ∫ 10 + t dt 1 =e ln( 10 + t ) = 10 + t ∫ I ( t ) q ( t ) dt Q ( 10 + t ) = 8 ( 10 + t )dt ∫ I (t )Q = Q ( 10 + t ) = 80 t + 8t 2 +C 2 80 t + 4 t 2 + C Q= 10 + t 10 . lit / i . Solution t = 0 .

liter/min Th mixture i t l leaves th tank the t k at t the th rate t of f 3 liter/min. liter/min .) Solution t = 0 . A solution with 1 gm/liter of salt is added into the tank at 2 lit / i .Q Q = 20 20 = 0+0+C 10 Mixing Problem Q= 80 t + 4 t 2 + 200 10 + t C = 200 Q= 80 t + 4 t 2 + 200 10 + t After t = 40 minutes Q= 80 ( 40 ) + 4 ( 40 ) + 200 2 10 + 40 Q = 196 gm Example 5 Mixing Problem A tank initially contains 40 liters of pure water water. 24 Example 4 (cont. The liter/min.Math 263b Sept. .Q = 0 V = 40 + ( 2 − 3 ) t V = 40 − t ⎛ Q (t ) rate out = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 40 − t ⎞ 3Q ( t ) ⎟(3) = ⎟ 40 − t ⎠ rate in = ( 1 )( 2 ) = 2 11 . Find the quantity of salt remained in the solution at any time t. Solution t = 0 .

Math 263b Sept.) Solution Q ( t ) = ( 40 − t ) + c ( 40 − t ) 3 Mixing Problem t = 0 . 24 Example 5 (cont.) Solution dQ = rate in − rate out dt dQ 3Q =2− dt 40 − t dQ 3Q + =2 dt 40 − t dQ + p (t )Q = q (t ) dt Mixing Problem I (t ) = e ∫ 40 − t dt 3 =e =e −3 ln( 40 − t ) −3 ln( 40 − t ) = 1 ( 40 − t ) 3 I (t )Q = Q ( 40 − t )3 Q ∫ I ( t ) q ( t ) dt 2 = ∫ ( 40 − t ) dt 3 ( 40 − t ) 3 = 1 ( 40 − t )2 +c 3 40 − t ) ( Q (t ) = ( 40 − t )2 + c ( 40 − t ) 3 Example 5 (cont.Q = 0 0 = 40 + c ( 40 ) 3 c= − 40 ( 40 ) 3 =− 1 1600 3 40 − t ) ( − Q ( t ) = ( 40 − t ) 1600 Amount of salt at any time t 12 .