ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2

PRACTICAL REPORT

inorganic substances. the wastewater looked brownish. the sample remained as it is. with a weak odour and on shaking the gallon. chemical and biological characteristics of the wastewater. organic substances. Several tests are carried out to measure the physical.WASTEWATE R Abstract Wastewater contains a wide variety of contaminants such as pathogens. Some of the tests that have been carried out in the laboratory are listed below: • • • • • • • • • • otal Solids Suspended Solids Settleable Solids !oncentration of "itrate !oncentration of Sulfate !oncentration of #hosphate !oncentration of Ammonia !hloride content !hemical $xygen %emand &!$%' (iological $xygen %emand &($%' UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS 2 . A five-litre sample was provided to our group and on first look. implying that there are very little suspended solids present. toxins and therefore cannot be discharged or re-use unless it has been treated to remove the contaminants.

Some are summari*ed below: Table 1: Description and Methods to determine Different Types of Solids Solids ype Suspended Solids (SS) Dissolved Solids (DS) %escription #articulate solids in suspension &of varying si*es' Solids in solution and fine colloidal particles that will pass through a -.ilter sample through -. Solids content is also a useful parameter for the design and operation of wastewater treatment facilities.! filter paper and dry at /012! .raction of suspended solids #lace /8 of sample in an that will settle out in 70 9rnhoff cone and allow to mins settle for 70 mins 2013 3 ..iltrate in a crucible and evaporate to dryness #lace the sample in crucible and evaporate to dryness Total Solids (TS) Volatile Solids (VS) Settleable Solids (StS) 5eat dried solids at 1102! for 6 hours . contribute to the solids concentration.WASTEWATE R Solids All contaminants of water other than dissolved gases.! filter paper S 3 SS 4 %S $rganic fraction of solids +ethod . herefore it is an important indicator of the overall )uality and potential polluting power of the water..ilter out SS as above and place . he type of solids concentration can be confusing due to the various different used.

they may settle and form sludge. which will cause clogging. he crucibles and filter paper were placed 9 a desiccator for about 60 mins and were then weighted.p' !rucibles %rying $ven &/012!' %esiccator Methodology /. After removal from the oven. 7. distilled water was added to the holder to wash the filter paper. which reduced or prevents primary the growth of algae. When the wastewater has completely filtered. which are poisonous to a)uatic life. he filter papers and crucibles were placed in an oven to heat to dryness at /012! for / hour to 6 hours. UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS 4 .! filter papers Analytical (alance &weighing up to : d. 6 and 7. he filter paper was then removed and placed in a crucible. . 6. he filter paper was then placed on the holder. he pump was switched on to apply the suction. Apparatus • • • • • • . he sludge produces chemicals. >. 610 ml of raw wastewater was measured and kept in the measuring cylinder. he above procedures were carried out for filter paper 6 and 7. which provides food and dissolved oxygen to maintain a)uatic life... 9f large )uantities of solids enter the water. =. :. <. primary production.WASTEWATE R Test 1 – Suspended Solids Introduction Suspended solids cause pollution to receiving watercourses mainly by blocking out light. that is. the measured wastewater was emptied into the filter holder.iltration Apparatus Whatman -. 1. filter papers were weighed and placed in a plate on which was marked filter paper /. Aims and Objectives he aim of this experiment is to determine the amount of the suspended solids in the sample of wastewater provided. hree already washed and dried.

?se of tongs to remove crucibles from oven to hand burns. 8eaning against the table on which the balance rested caused fluctuations and we had to make sure that the balance read 0. he balance was calibrated and perfectly leveled.000.WASTEWATE R Precautions /. 7. :. he filter paper was handled with a pair of twee*ers upon weighing due to the fact that our hands contains moisture that could have been absorbed by the filter paper and would have provided us with a higher 6. Results 2013 5 .