Autismul dpdv genetic - caracteristiciel fenotipice (cum identificam) -cauzele genetice -modul de trasmitere -incidenta in populatie -management

What is autism?
Children with autism "looks normal" but his behavior can be difficult and hard to accept. Autism is a complex disability, but of its features we can extract four fundamental features: • Difficulty adapting sensory language • Delays • underdeveloped social skills • Problems self-esteem and confidence

10 things every child with autism would like to know:
January. I am primarily a baby. I have autism. Are not primarily "autistic." Autism is just one aspect of my personality. Do not define me as a person. You are a person with feelings, ideas, talents, or are you just fat (overweight), myopic (wear glasses) or clumsy. These are things you see when you first meet me, but they are not your main features. As an adult, you have some control on how you define yourself. If you want to highlight a particular personal characteristic, you can do without much effort. I am still a child develops. Neither you nor I do not know yet what I could accomplish. If I define as a single trait of mine, might underestimate me. And if you feel that you do not think you can "do" my natural response would be "why bother trying?". 2. My sensory perceptions are disordered. sensory integration is probably the most difficult aspect of autism to understand, but it is the most important. This means that images, sounds, smells, tastes and textures that seem normal to you and can be downright painful for me. Proper environment in which they live seems hostile. Perhaps you feel that you are withdrawn or aggressive, but really just trying to protect myself, to protect myself. This is why a "simple" out to the supermarket can be an ordeal for me: • My hearing may be very acute. A lot of people talking at once. Speakers announced deals today.Tills beeping and chatter, coffee grinders Whirs. Meat slicing machine creaking, crying babies, trolleys grind, buzzing neon tubes. My brain can not filter all the noise and get to the "overload". • Can I have a highly developed sense of smell. Fish on the counter is not really fresh. Lord near us did not shower today. Front baby has a dirty diaper. Lane three had spilled some pickles and washed down with ammonia .... I can not filter it. I think I feel sick already. • Because my bearings on sight, this may be the first sense that is too stimulated. Neon tube light is not only tedious, but also base. The light seems to pulse and my eyes hurt. The light pulses are reflected on various surfaces and contours of objects I seem distorted - the space seems to be moving continuously. There are reflections in windows, ceiling fans that move, people are constantly moving. All this affects my vestibular system and most perceptive. Now I can not even figure out where I am in space. 3. Please do NOT WANT difference between (choose not to do) and can not (not able to do). use of vocabulary and linguistic expressions can be a real challenge for me. It's not that I do not listen to instructions. I just can not understand. When I shout from across the room, this is what I hear: "& # $ @ * ^ Marius. % **% $ # @ ... "Come and talk to me directly in simple words:" Please put the book in the library Marius. Time to go to ground. " This tells me what you want from me and what's going to happen. Now it is much easier for me to do what you want with me. 4. Think very concretely. This means that interpret language as literary form. It's a confusing situation for me when I say that you went "like the wind and the thought" when what you want to tell me is that you went "very soon". Do not tell me that something is "snap" when it's not even a plant, and you just want to tell me that this task "is very easy to achieve." When you tell me that "Razvan took his back legs," I will be very confused anatomically. In fact, can you tell me that "Razvan went very quickly." Idioms, multiple meanings, inference, metaphors, allusions and sarcasm are nothing to me. 5. Please be patient with my limited vocabulary. 's pretty hard for me to tell you what I need when I do not know the words to describe my feelings. Maybe I'm hungry, I may be mad, scared or confused, but I can not express with these words. Pay attention to my body language, if they are withdrawn or agitated, or other signs that will convey what is wrong with me. There are also a part opposite to the above. Sometimes I can talk like a "little professor" or movie star. Maybe tell the whole text by heart that are far too advanced for my age. These are sequences of speech that I memorized from the world around to compensate for my lack of language. This is because I know that they expect me to respond to something when I ask a question. These texts may come from books, television, in various speeches. This type of event is called "echolalia" (repeat exactly what you hear, parrot). I do not understand what it is there. I just know I can thus respond when someone expects me a reaction. 6. Because speech is very hard for me orient myself than using sight. Please show me how to do something rather than tell me. And be prepared to show me many times. Repetition helps me learn. A daily schedule shown me is helpful and guided me throughout the day. Just like your mail or phone book, such a program relieves stress me to remember what is, help me get to the next step easier, allows me to organize my time so that I do what you expect from me. As you grow, I'll still need this program illustrated, but "my level of representation" can evolve. Before I could read I need an hourly drawings or photographs. As you grow, you can use combinations of pictures written words, and then I will be able to guide only based on words. 7. Please focus and help me to develop what they can do rather than what can not. Same as any other person, I can not develop in an environment where I'm not always show good enough and that something is "bad" to me. Trying something new will become something nasty to me when I know I will probably be criticized, even if the criticism is meant to be "constructive". Find my strengths and you will find. There are many ways "right" to solve a task. 8.Please help me with social interactions. Maybe you think I do not want to play with other children.Most often than not actually know how to start a conversation or how to begin to play with other children. If you could ask him to call me other children to play football or basketball with them, maybe I'll be happy to join them. 'm doing best to highly structured games where beginning and end are very clear.I can not manage to read facial expressions, body language or the emotions of those around me.Therefore always appreciate if you help me on what to do in terms of interaction with other children. For example, if you laugh when Emilia falls off swing, do not do it for fun but I do not know what to do. Teach me to ask in this situation, "Are you okay Emilia? Are you hurt? " 9. Try to find items that make me nervous. moments are agitated are more annoying for me than for you. These conditions occur when one of my senses is overworked. If you can identify the cause, then you can prevent the effects. Keep a log of these events and people, phenomena, happenings around me. You will see that there emerges a trend. trying to always remember that any form of behavior is a form of communication. My behavior will tell you what words can not convey my perception on the environment. Dear Parents, remember this: repeat behaviors that can sometimes have a medical cause. Allergies, sleep problems and gastrointestinal can have major effects on behavior. 10. Love me unconditionally. Eliminate thoughts like "If he even ...." or "If it would not be so ....". You did not fulfill all the expectations of your parents and you would not have liked to be reminded constantly that. I did not choose to have autism. But remember that happening to me and not you. Without your support, my chances as an independent adult life are very small. With your support, the possibilities are endless. I promise - worth the effort.Author : ELLEN NOTBOHM - TEN THINGS EVERY CHILD WITH AUTISM WISHES YOU knew

What is autism?
Autism is a disease characterized by decreased ability to interact socially and communicate, stereotyped and repetitive behavior symptoms usually occurs before the age of 3 years. Approximately 75% of affected individuals manifest mental disability. Autism is a behavioral syndrome defined by a characteristic course and the simultaneous occurrence of specific behaviors by the three major areas.At this point, the most common definition of autism is one published in 1944 by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder) DSM-IV. To establish a diagnosis of autism, this definition implies that the individual to show: (1) a decrease in social interaction (2) a decrease in communication (3) behavior, interests and activities restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped (4) symptoms occurred before the age of 3 years. theories neurophysiological characteristics neuropsychological studies, besides that focuses on autistic traits, they also have another aim, which is to discover the fundamental cognitive deficit or deficits are behind behavioral abnormalities observed in this boli.Trei of the most important theories assume that there are fundamental cognitive deficits in executive functions, central coherence and develop a theory, opinions. "executive functions" is a term that covers a large area of higher cognitive processes such as the ability to free of context, inhibition of inappropriate responses, planning a task, tasks and monitoring. To examine these processes have created some neuropsychological tests such as the Towers of Hanoi and sorting Wisconson game of cards revealed abnormal

Researchers say that about 47% of children diagnosed with autism can escape becoming like other children their age. • to meet the requirements of others. After several studies conducted postmortem neuropathological was a bad development structures in several different areas of the brain. it does not explain sufficiently ritualistic. such as history (preventing changes that are about to occur. hypertension) autism is very unusual. to help families cope with the disease. a psychologist or psychiatrist to uncover a potential problem behavior. parietal and nuclei). there a single model can explain all the characteristics of all individuals. 3. Callie body. which will decrease inappropriate behavior and increase positive ones. As evidence sustinearea this theory is that autistics can not discern patterns. for example. The fact that some individuals with autism showed improvements in behavior following the administration of drugs that inhibit serotonin demonstrates that serotonin can have an important role in the pathogenesis of autism. This deficit is observed when an autistic individual is asked to predict the behavior of another person after taking into account the possibility that the information on that person may be false or that the individual may have a wrong opinion. weak central coherence. either material or social. For example even if the deficit theory explains opinions creating a social deficits observed in autism. fact that autism is considered a genetic disease seems unlikely that rarely can see a family with more than one autistic member. •'s age appropriate play alone or with other children. autism is most likely the end result of various causes and biological pathways. A ABA therapy program runs long term and can last a year. a program that aims to change children's behavior systematically and intensively. 2. along with abnormalities in brain chemicals (eg. the rate is 100 times higher than the rate of occurrence of autism in the general population. He noticed a substantial increase in brain but only in certain areas (eg temporal lobe. Important results were achieved in an attempt to provide and maintain an autistic adult in a paid job. Ivar Lovaas in the '70s. serotonin) may have an important role in abnormal development of the autistic brain.Autistic children aged 2 ½ years . most have no obvious physical abnormalities. First. thus changing children's behavior is a learning system. multiple sclerosis.La like any other illness behavior. centered on the idea that certain behaviors of children appear or not appear depending on the environment. He will answer that the person will look object to the new location (point B). the child can learn: • respond to name and make eye contact. it looks like some drugs have a beneficial effect on behavioral problems. • writing and read. the child must work in 4 to 8 hours daily. decrease in behavioral problems (ritualistic behavior. • the impairment of the child's autism spectrum is very broad. For example. including a psychologist to test the intellectual abilities. Other recent studies have focused on immunological defects which may be present in individuals with autism. • narrate their own experiences or those of others. Though there is no cure for autism.Besides early detection. The system has clearly stated objectives. The best evidence is that 10% of autistic individuals have also a fragile medical condition (for example: the X syndrome. Biological Basis of Autismrecent studies show that autism has a basis biological but have not yet determined mechanismele patogenice. such as desires and beliefs. aggressive behaviors.executive functions in autism. adolescents and adults with autism. The aim of treatment is to facilitate social and language development. "congenital rubella") believed that it caused autism simpotemele. The most important discovery in autism in the last 25 years has been discovered in a third serotonin in autistic individuals. thus eliminating one of the most common modes of transmission (ie from one affected parent to child) and certainly declining number of families with more than one autistic member . it appears that families who already have an autistic child generally restricts its plans to have other children. This deficit may mean limiting the processing of events or stimuli leading to increased performance but can Sevi an autistic individual to process stimuli happen observation has been made in several studies. An example is illustrated in the following test failure autistic children: subject is asked to predict whether a person would look for an object that has been moved from its original location (from point A to point B) while the person was out of the room. Some abnormalities are similar to those that occur in an adult case of stroke. appetite. Strengthening behavior with rewards is. the deficit in the ability to switch from one task to another is considered alongside that ritualistic-repetitive behavior seen in autism and is the defining characteristic of this disease. autistic individuals have proven relatively developed capacity to remember words in random. an education consultant to determine apitudinile reading and behavior school. energy level and degree of iratibilitate which is believed to reflect an affective illness). way distributed to individual brain abnormalities in autistic way posmortem trial results is similar to neuropsychological theories suggesting that the autistic brain abnormalities can not be located only in a single structure it. ABA demonstrates that changing certain conditions in the environment. Tried to create devices that can diagnose this disease early. to limit injuries resulting from an abrupt changes) to attempting to learn patient behaviors alternatives to replace the existing outliers (to shake hands instead to reach someone in an inappropriate way relevant when greet). The study of twins has shown that autism occurs in both members of a pair of identical twins (monozygotic meaning that 100% of their genes) have a higher rate (60%) than 3-5% of autism that occurs to both members of a pair of twins (ie fraternal twins have only 50% of their genes). "The Autism Diagnostic Interview" (ADI) and diagnostic algorithm that accompanies it can establish the presence of autism in children aged 2 years. or all life. Though few of autistic individuals have a poor medical condition. in one study. Are trying to discover which aspects of early treatment behavior are more important and that autistic individuals could best benefit from these interventions.If these faults are discovered. The study showed that although family risk of autism (ie to have a second child with autism) is only 2-5%. The evidence comes from the study AEST afrimatii families and twins. This abnormality in serotonin levels in the blood is considered to be an indication of the functioning of the serotonin system in the brain and suggests an abnormality in the central metabolism of serotonin.Increased brain autistic individuals suggests the existence of abnormalities in brain development (it produces too many nerve cells. • appropriate to express emotions. has not yet identified any gene that play a role in causing autism . So one anomaly occurred early in the development of the brain in autism can affect many areas of its strucutiri and. a fibrous duct that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. divided into small tasks so that children can be measured evolution permanently. poor in formulating an opinion) tried to explain the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of autism. models or stimuli in a context understood. "The Checklist for Autism in Toddlers' (CHAT) is a device used by primary care physicians to detect autism in children of 18 months. ABA therapy ABA therapy is recognized worldwide as safe treatment for autistic children. In contrast. Behavioral interventions appear to have had different results from some simple. The conclusion of these studies is that autism is a genetic disease and is the result of interaction of several genes. . Social skills training is quite useful for children who can already speak. such a criterion could lead to wrong conclusions for several reasons. abnormally small. Further studies of the biological basis of autism have shown that there are abnormalities in some chemicals found in the brain. Through ABA. meaningless but did badly in remembering sentences with meaning. And other drugs have been useful in treating certain behaviors that are not defining features of the disease (hyperactivity stimulants. Based on behavioral theories. A third hypothesis suggests that autistic individuals have a deficit in creating a self-concepts or theory about the internal mental state of others. antidepressants antipsychotics for aggression and episodic changes of moods. repetitive behavior or mental retardation is present up to 70% of cases. • consistency with which the program applies to both continuity and family therapy and at kindergarten at school. the duration and number. emotions etc. Macrocephaly not cause symptoms of autism but is considered part of the brain mechanism that causes autism. • to speak or communicate in 's an affordable way. • To recognize and name objects around. Genetic studies have attempted to discover the gene or genes that are responsible for causing autism in most cases but although some areas of the human genome are considered as the gene defective development. it was found that up to 25% of autistic individuals have suffered from fainting or macrocephaly. so it seems to have its place in a disease which is believed to be the result of anomalies in early brain development. it was found that the genetic factor is of great importance. very few of autistic individuals marry and have children. The success of therapy depends on: • the age at which therapy was started the program. actions. • To understand causality and functionality of things. however. such as those that inhibit serotonin. decreased in size in the middle and back of it. inappropriate and autostimularile will be diminished in intensity. The limbic system. not eliminate quite nervous tissue through the normal process of eliminating nervous tissue during development or there is an overgrowth of nonneuronal tissue). unlike a person who suffers from this disease. compared to other diseases believed to be inherited (diabetes. The other 90% of individuals where there is no another disease.Secondly.5 years are likely to recover if they do ABA therapy. 's a model of therapy for children with autism developed by Dr. aggression or hyperactivity) to determine the development of skills for independent functioning. In therapy the child will learn that all his acts have consequences positive or negative. sleep. • to use the toilet independently. which decreases number of repetitive behaviors. the whole system operating on the basis of these enhancers. This evaluation requires the presence of a multidisciplinary team of doctors. a critical step in the treatment of an autistic child is a very thorough initial assessment. if ABA therapy is started before the age of 4 years and are 30-40 hours of therapy weekly for for 2 years. Finally. densely packed cells were detected in the brain when there is a decrease in the number of Purkinje cells. In particuar. a speech therapist to evaluate language. though doctors have reached a consensus: a proper treatment of the disease is important impAct. Neuropsychological A second theory states that autistic people about autism have poor coherence panel. as well as ritualistic and stereotyped aggression. The autistic child is not able to take into account the fact that the person may not know that the object was moved (from point A to point B) whereas it was absent in this move. people. Treating autistic people New research shows that an intervention done earlier in the behavior of the patient may have a important role in the treatment of autism. Though all three theories (deficit in executive functions. However. • to eat independently. Share this: . • to imitate the children or adults in their actions. In some studies.

Therapy is aimed at integrating into society. but with significant economic implications for a novel middle class. . Pediatricians and family physicians is another segment The basis for the diagnosis of the time. teachers. show the need to address this issue. according to which on 01. then we must teach them the way that he can learn " (Ivar Lovaas) Children with autism in Romania represents an important segment of the population because of the high incidence and other growth. They must inform both the diagnostic methods. etc.01. especially when you get to the stage where the child should be included in a school or other groups.AUTISM HELP "If a child can not learn the way we teach. parents generally should be informed from time to notice symptoms of autism and then turn on specialists. So are teachers who can pull alarm signals. now things are different and early therapeutic intervention may even lead to the recovery of children. reports made by doctors Neuropsychiatry and pooled data from the General Directorate of Social Assistance and Child Protection. we met with people happily opened new and entirely willing to cooperate to transform children with autism and adapt functional members of society. and this is possible only with the opening of which depends on the integration (kindergarten principals. and this without involving high costs in other countries. and we thank them wholeheartedly for it.) However. and the effective methods of intervention.. educators. in order of social integration. and so the only thing I could do was tolerate them without trying to change something in her . Until recently it was considered that these children. requires a change of mentality entire population on this syndrome. The recuperative approach children often strike us The old mentality. no chance of recovery. who by the age of 2-3 years seemed perfectly normal.2007 been issued 145 certificates of disability for children with autism.

early intervention in cases mentioned above certainly relieves symptoms and develop a child's ability to learn. the age at which it began therapy and family involvement in the therapeutic process.) Are severe. mental retardation and genetic syndromes (Down syndrome. cognitive ability. Duration of therapy varies with the degree of impairment of the person. in certain contexts to apply the scheme learned behavior. sociability people with autism. in 2007 the prevalence of ASD (autism spectrum disorders) is 1 in 150 10 times higher today than 10 years ago 4 times higher in boys than in girls Prognosis in autism It is very hard to tell whether or not people with autism likely to be integrated into society. IMPORTANT early intervention for children with learning difficulties Deficits that occur in communication. etc. whose task was to ease their transition. The incidence of autism. but do not know how to respond to environmental complexity. be it child or adult. 2011 00 Comments (0) . A person with autism may.There are cases of children with autism that could be integrated into normal schools and kindergartens. Usually the prognosis is grim be 100% integrated.Therefore. fragile X syndrome. can be improved.Which is the prevalence of autism?    according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. the greater the chances of a significant improvement. June 28. tuberous sclerosis. higher in high-tech areas 796 views | Tuesday. the sooner we intervene therapeutically. 's very important that therapy be started as early and take into account the maximum rate set according to each case to give the best performance and obtain the best possible outcome. Williams syndrome. Any person with autism. Rett syndrome.. but were accompanied for a long time (1-2 years) from a therapist.

000 students have been diagnosed with a form of autism.[2] and as-yet-unidentified environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out. are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence. where only 84 of the 10. The researchers found that a region in the Netherlands industry known forhigh-tech has a population with a higher level of autism compared with two other similar regions in terms of population.000 inhabitants. In Eindhoven.000 in Utrecht. Age group was targeted at children between the ages of 4 and 16 years. A 2012 review of global prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders found amedian of 62 cases per 10. [9] Little evidence exists to support associations with specific environmental exposures.[10] Other proposed causes. of which 30% work in technology. 229 of the 10. Differences were observed in the case of "classic autism". in Eindhoven.[7] Autism and its causes[edit] Further information: Causes of autism Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. The next step of the study will be to obtain a confirmation attainment.500 students are enrolled in Eindhoven. 50 out of 10. the doctor whose study linked Autism with childhood vaccines. autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.Hypothesis proving a link between autism and minds oriented mathematics and technology is supported by a new study. has since had his licence revoked in the United Kingdom for medical fraud. Many causes have been proposed. the authors have studied the evolution of the other two disorders: ADHD and dyspraxia. it is unclear whether prevalence has actually increased. To ensure the results.000 students suffering from such disorders. at least partly due to changes in diagnostic practice. The study showed that. although thegenetics of autism are complex and it is generally unclear which genes are responsible.000 students have such problems and Utrecht. including advanced parental age and diabetes in the mother during pregnancy. The other two regions have approximately a similar number of people. the region in which 57 of the 10. where 62.3:1 male-to-female ratio.000 in Haarlem and 10 per 10.000 people. he epidemiology of autism is the study of factors affecting autism spectrum disorders (ASD). which affects learning.[8] Autism is largely inherited. [2] In rare cases. but only 16-17% of them working in the field of technology. The results showed no link between their development and the regions in which they were found. unlike Haarlem.[11][12] .[6] and autism is associated with mental retardation. due to the fact that the region hosts the 1891 Philips headquarters. The number of children known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s. compared with 12 per 10.[3] Andrew Wakefield. but its theory of causation is still incomplete.[4] ASD is associated with severalgenetic disorders[5] and with epilepsy. such as childhood vaccines.[1] ASD averages a 4.and middle-income countries though. Eindhoven has a population of 270. The authors interviewed 369 administrators from schools (both normal children and those with special needs).000 students suffer from this disorder. [3] The risk of autism is associated with several prenatal factors.[1] There is a lack of evidence from low. Haarlem and Utrecht.

[17] A 2006 study of nearly 57. for example.S. and the gap between initiation and diagnosis is influenced by many factors unrelated to risk.[22] these results suggest that prevalence of ASD among adults is similar to that in children and rates of autism are not increasing. "2 new cases per 1. from 1996 to 2007. study based on 2006 data estimated the prevalence of ASD in 8-year-old children to be 9. and it is likely to generate skewed statistics because some children have better access to treatment.and ten-year-olds reported a prevalence of 3. The point prevalence of a condition is the proportion of a population that had the condition at a single point in time.000 person-years".[23] Changes with time [edit] Attention has been focused on whether the prevalence of autism is increasing with time. incidence rates are the most appropriate measure of disease frequency as they assess risk directly.000 people had cases during 2006". most epidemiological studies report other frequency measures. for example. age of children screened. cumulative incidence is sometimes used in studies of birth cohorts. This last method typically produces the most reliable. identify higher prevalence.000. growth came from changes in autism's prevalence.000 in the 1980s. as the disorder starts long before it is diagnosed. [20] A 2009 U.0 per 1. such as direct observation rather than examination of medical records. this suggests that published figures may underestimate ASD's true prevalence. "15 per 1. and geographical location.000 for autism during the 1960s and 1970s and about 1 per 1. point or period prevalence is more useful than incidence. "1. prevalence estimates. Research focuses mostly on whether point or period prevalence is increasing with time.3 per 1. incidence can be difficult to measure with rarer chronic diseases such as autism. Asperger syndrome is about 0.[21] A 2009 report based on the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey by the National Health Service determined that the prevalence of ASD in adults was approximately 1% of the population.000 (approximate range 8.[13] In autism epidemiology.000 British nine.[2] Reports of autism cases per 1. [19] A 2009 study of the children in Cambridgeshire. The cumulative incidence is the proportion of a population that became new cases within a specified time period. and divide by the population. [14] The second method improves on the first by having investigators examine student or patient records looking for probable cases.3 and 15.3). When studying how diseases are caused. The simplest and cheapest method is to count known autism cases from sources such as schools and clinics.000 people became new cases during 2006".000. with a higher prevalence in males and no significant variation between age groups. It is unknown how much.89 per 1. with the two least-biased estimates of true prevalence being 11. [16] Most recent reviews tend to estimate a prevalence of 1–2 per 1. However. to catch cases that have not been identified yet. these higher figures could be associated with broadening diagnostic criteria.5 per 1. "10 cases per 1. and the highest. as opposed to today's 1 –2 per 1. and estimated that 40% of ASD cases go undiagnosed.000 and the atypical formschildhood disintegrative disorder and Rett syndrome are much rarer. for example.[2] Estimation methods [edit] The three basic approaches used to estimate prevalence differ in cost and in quality of results. England used different methods to measure prevalence. Earlier prevalence estimates were lower.5 per 1.S. The third method.6–9.000 for ASD.7 per 1.61 per 1. This approach is likely to underestimate prevalence because it does not count children who have not been diagnosed yet. for example. screens a large sample of an entire community to identify possible cases.000 for autism and 11. The period prevalence is the proportion that had the condition at any time within a stated period. if any. [2] PDD-NOS is the vast majority of ASD. or sometimes cumulative incidence. typically point or period prevalence.000 children grew dramatically in the U. Attention is focused mostly on whether prevalence is increasing with time. which is arguably the best.[18] Studies based on more-detailed information.[24] . [15] Frequency estimates [edit] Estimates of the prevalence of autism vary widely depending on diagnostic criteria. [2] Incidence and prevalence [edit] Epidemiology defines several measures of the frequency of occurrence of a disease or condition: [13]     The incidence rate of a condition is the rate at which new cases occurred per person-year.000 for ASD.Frequency[edit] Although incidence rates measure autism risk directly.000 for autism and close to 6 per 1. and then evaluates each possible case in more detail with standard diagnostic procedures. centering at about 0.000 people at the start of 2006".

The increase occurred after the introduction of broader. and public awareness.[35] Geographical frequency Africa [edit] [edit] [edit] The prevalence of autism in Africa is unknown. suggesting that counts reported by clinics or schools provide misleading estimates of the true incidence of autism. no incremental increase in cases was observed after the introduction of MMR vaccination.[40] A population-based study of one Minnesota county found that the cumulative incidence of autism grew eightfold from the 1980 –83 period to the 1995–97 period. increased funding. and improved efficiency of case ascertainment. inclusion of milder cases. [2][3][24] A widely cited 2002 pilot study concluded that the observed increase in autism in California cannot be explained by changes in diagnostic criteria. "An increase in cases of autism was noted by year of birth from 1979 to 1992. formerly used in several childhood vaccines in the U.[26] Successively earlier diagnosis in each succeeding cohort of children.S. However. mostly for findings of mental retardation and learning disabilities.pesticides. other as-yet-unidentified environmental risk factors cannot be ruled 8-fold from the early 1990s to 2007. "A time trend analysis found no correlation between prevalence of MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in each birth cohort from 1988 to 1993. and that the 1994 –2003 U. suggesting that methodological factors may explain the observed increases in autism over time. [43] Asia [edit] Hong Kong [edit] A 2008 Hong Kong study reported an ASD incidence rate similar to those reported in Australia and North America. however. that is. may have affected apparent prevalence but not incidence. reversing the PDD-NOS construct back to the more restrictive diagnostic criteria requirements from the DSM-III-R.The number of reported cases of autism increased dramatically in the 1990s and early 2000s. as a result of the changing definition of the disorder. the study did not quantify the effects of wider awareness of autism. and lower than Europeans.[29] "Many of the children now being counted in the autism category would probably have been counted in the mental retardation or learning disabilities categories if they were being labelled 10 years ago instead of today. in 1994.[36] Americas Canada [edit] The rate of autism diagnoses in Canada was 1 in 450 in 2003.1 per 1000 for autism and 1.[30] A small 2008 study found that a significant number (40%) of people diagnosed with pragmatic language impairment as children in previous decades would now be given a diagnosis as autism. [39] The number of diagnosed cases of autism grew dramatically in the U.0 per 1000 children aged 8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8. in the 1990s and early 2000s.[21] A further study in 2006 concluded that the apparent rise in administrative prevalence was the result of diagnostic substitution. inappropriately broadened the PDD-NOS construct. and earlier age of diagnosis probably explain only a 4.[41] During the same period.S. [28] but a 2006 analysis found that special education data poorly measured prevalence because so many cases were undiagnosed. and expanding treatment options resulting in parents' greater motivation to seek services. attempts to sue vaccine companies may have increased case-reporting.000.[2] Although there is overwhelming scientific evidence against the MMR hypothesis and no convincing evidence for the thiomersal hypothesis. that is. diagnosis at a younger age." said researcher Paul Shattuck of the Waisman Center at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.[31] A study of all Danish children born in 1994 –99 found that children born later were more likely to be diagnosed at a younger age. the true frequency of autism may have increased. These include certain foods. or 11. For example. MMR vaccine. infectious disease.S. any such increase would suggest directing more attention and funding toward changing environmental factors instead of continuing to focus on genetics. in 2000.[44] . have some form of ASD.[29] A 2007 study that modeled autism incidence found that broadened diagnostic criteria. increased service availability. indicating that diagnostic substitution had occurred. The diagnosis may be applied more broadly than before. prompting investigations into several potential reasons:[25]       More children may have autism.3). [33] Another 2009 California study found that the reported increases are unlikely to be explained by changes in how qualifying condition codes for autism were recorded. the reported number of autism cases grew 22-fold in the same location. including recognition in nursery (preschool). identified ASD cases were an estimated 9. A review of the "rising autism" figures compared to other disabilities in schools shows a corresponding drop in findings of mental retardation. [29] This prevalence estimate rose 57% (95% CI 27%–95%) from 2002 to 2006. [3] Although it is unknown whether autism's frequency has increased. can produce an increase in the frequency of autism ranging up to 29-fold depending on the frequency measure."[38] United States [edit] The most recent estimate states that up to 1 out of every 88 children. [42] Venezuela [edit] A 2008 study reported a prevalence of 1. referral patterns.[34] Several environmental risk factors have been proposed to support the hypothesis that the actual frequency of autism has increased. and vaccines containing the preservative thiomersal. There may be more complete pickup of autism (case finding). as a result of increased awareness and funding. [27] The reported increase is largely attributable to changes in diagnostic practices. The error was corrected in the DSM-IV-TR. particularly changes in DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. increase was associated with declines in other diagnostic categories.6–9. [32] A 2009 study of California data found that the reported incidence of autism rose 7. supporting the argument that apparent increases in autism prevalence were at least partly due to decreases in the age of diagnosis.68% (or 1 per 147). For the 2006 surveillance year. the number of known cases per unit of population.[38] The review noted.7 per 1000 for ASD. more-precise diagnostic criteria. It also reported a prevalence of 1." [38] After the introduction of MMR. age at diagnosis.[21] These numbers measure what is sometimes called "administrative prevalence". [37] A 2001 review of the medical research conducted by the Public Health Agency of Canada concluded that there was no link between MMR vaccine and either inflammatory bowel disease or autism. as opposed to the true number of cases. and increased awareness of autism. in a statement. availability of services.000 for children under 15 years. preliminary results of an epidemiological study cond ucted at Montreal Children’s Hospital in the 2003 -2004 school year found a prevalence rate of 0.68 per 1. An editorial error in the description of the PDD-NOS category of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the DSM-IV.25-fold increase.3 per 1. and that changes in diagnostic criteria.

Israel [edit] [edit] A 2009 study reported that the annual incidence rate of Israeli children with a diagnosis of ASD receiving disability benefits rose from zero in 1982–1984 to 190 per million in 2004. suggesting that methodological factors explain large variances in prevalence rates in different studies. [45] Japan A 2005 study of a part of Yokohama with a stable population of about 300.[66] A large 2008 population study of Swedish parents of children with autism found that the parents were more likely to have been hospitalized for a mental disorder.000.000 children in 2000. many association analyses have had inadequate power. with the largest rise between 2000 and 2001 and a decline between 2001 and 2003. [64] Genetic linkage analysis has been inconclusive.[64] Studies have examined more than 100 candidate genes. [58] The reported autism incidence in the UK rose starting before the first introduction of the MMR vaccine in 1989. chromosome abnormality.9 per 10. Several studies based on clinical samples have given quite different estimates. and 86 in 1990. [57] United Kingdom The incidence and changes in incidence with time are unclear in the UK. and continued to grow until 2000. [2] Risk factors[edit] Boys are at higher risk for autism than girls.[67] It is not known how many siblings of autistic individuals are themselves autistic.3:1 and is greatly modified by cognitive impairment: it may be close to 2:1 with mental retardation and more than 5.[55] Germany [edit] A 2008 study found that inpatient admission rates for children with ASD increased 30% from 2000 to 2005. that genetics explains more than 90% of autism cases. and use of psychiatric drugs in the mother during pregnancy.[51][52] The INSERM found a prevalence of 27 per 10.[61] The first studies of twins estimated heritability to be more than 90%. Such discrepancies include changing the autism criteria in the middle of the study. Estimates for ASD prevalence in Saudi Arabia are not available.[53] Those figures are considered as underrated as the WHO gives figures between 30 and 60 per 10.21% to 0. the incidence rate grew to 97 and 161 cases per 10.000 reported in developed countries. the other often has learning or social disabilities.[63] About 10–15% of autism cases have an identifiable Mendelian (single-gene) condition.000 for the ASD and a prevalence of 9 per 10. many genes must be examined because more than a third of genes are expressed in the brain and there are few clues on which are relevant to autism.000.[56] Norway [edit] [edit] A 2009 study reported prevalence rates for ASD ranging from 0. despite the withdrawal of thiomersalcontaining vaccines in 1992.5:1 without. [62] much higher than the risk in controls. adding the numbers of a large Copenhagen clinic after 1992.[65] However. [47] Europe [edit] Denmark [edit] A 2003 study reported that the cumulative incidence of autism in Denmark began a steep increase starting around 1990. One rough estimate is that the prevalence of autism in Saudi Arabia is 18 per 10.000 on its website but it counts only early infantile autism. or whether the mutations are associated with parental age.[60] Genetics[edit] Further information: Heritability of autism As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism.[48] A subsequent critique of the Danish study by Mark Blaxill of SafeMinds pinpoints several discrepancies associated with the collection of autism data. For example. environmental factors are most likely a significant cause as well.000 children in 1990 and about 4. etc.4%. for children aged 2–4 years. in dicating that MMR vaccine did not cause autism. It was not known whether these figures reflected true increases or other factors such as changes in diagnostic measures.5 new cases per 10.000 for the early infantile autism in 2003. bleeding. and have reported inconsistent results about associations with race or ethnicity. depending on assessment method and assumptions about non-response. recent studies have identified advancing paternal age as a significant risk factor for ASD.[59] A 2004 study found that the reported incidence of pervasive developmental disorders in a general practice research database in England and Wales grew steadily during 1988 –2001 from 0.[46] Saudi Arabia [edit] Studies of autism frequency have been particularly rare in the Middle East. [2] new twin data and models with structural genetic variation are needed.3% to 1. [4] It is not known whether mutations that arise spontaneously in autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders come mainly from the mother or the father.000 children born in 1993 and 1994.[5] Since heritability is less than 100% and symptoms vary markedly among identical twins with autism. and concluded that much of this increase may be due to changes in diagnostic practice.000 children in 1989. respectively. including advanced age in either parent. the risk of having one or more features of the broader autism phenotype might be as high as 30%. [49] France [edit] France has made autism the national focus for the year 2012 and the Health Ministry now evaluates the rate of autism to be 60 per 10000 (1 out of 150). 1994. After the vaccination rate of MMR vaccine dropped to near zero. and these clinical samples differ in important ways from samples taken from the general community. [54] The French Minister of Health gives a prevalence of 4. and diabetes. and that depression and personality disorders were more common among the mothers. or other genetic syndrome. that schizophrenia was more common among the mothers and fathers.5 new cases per 10.[62] and ASD is associated with several genetic disorders.000 reported a cumulative incidence to age 7 years of 48 cases of ASD per 10. [50] Eric Fombonne made some studies in the years 1992 and 1997. the cumulative incidence was about 0. Inpatient rates for all mental disorders also rose for ages up to 15 years.87%.000 for the global PDD. He found a prevalence of 16 per 10.98 per 10.[9] When only one identical twin is autistic. so that the ratio of ASD to all admissions rose f rom 1.[2] Although the evidence does not implicate any single pregnancy-related risk factor as a cause of autism. the risk of autism is associated with several prenatal risk factors. slightly higher than the 13 per 10. evidence from genetic epidemiology studies now suggests that it is one of the most heritable of all psychiatric conditions.11 to 2. [68] . Recent studies have found no association with socioeconomic status. If some of the risk is due to gene-environment interaction the 90% heritability estimate may be too high. For adult siblings. in other words. The ASD sex ratio averages 4. from inpatients to outpatients.000 person-years.

[76] Childhood-onsetschizophrenia. PMID 19567888. The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature. Croen LA.24. 6. level of cognitive functioning.[72] and are likely affected by age. Walker CD. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.28:235– 58. ^ Jump up to:a b Chakrabarti S.285. 2007.1016/j. 2001.003. cognitive level.[77] References[edit] 1.doi:10. J Psychiatry Neurosci. One study from California found a three to fourfold increased risk of autism in a small 30 by 40 km region centered on West Hollywood.2007. [71] Symptoms include generalized anxiety and separation anxiety.1111/j. such as social phobia. PMID 17033636.1528-1167. 2005.wiley. 5. The teratology of autism. Fombonne E. ^ Jump up to:a b Gardener H. a wide variation illustrating the difficulty of assessing autistic intelligence.x. Srivastava L.[62] and ASD is associated with several genetic disorders. ^ Jump up to:a b Freitag CM. 9.021406. Stodgell CJ. and ASD-specific difficulties.[73] Minor physical anomalies are significantly increased in the autistic population.24(2):103–15.x. a 2001 British study of 26 autistic children found about 30% with intelligence in the normal range (IQabove 70).1016/j. [70] For example. PMID 18047599. ^ Jump up to:a b Levisohn PM.108. 3. [75] A 2008 study found that nearly 70% of children with ASD had at least one psychiatric disorder. including nearly 30% with social anxiety disorder and similar proportions with ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder. and about 20% with severe to profound retardation (IQ below 35). 1999.[71]     Epilepsy.Autism has also been shown to cluster in urban neighborhoods of high socioeconomic status. .28. Mol Psychiatry.1038/sj. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k Newschaffer CJ. and only 16% of these have remission in adulthood. PMID 10212552. 10. and other of these conditions are often present and these comorbid diagnoses are increasingly accepted. [7]  Anxiety disorders are common among children with ASD. 50% with mild to moderate retardation. 2007. 5 –38% of children with autism have comorbid epilepsy. with variations in risk of epilepsy due to age. About 10–15% of autism cases have an identifiable Mendelian (single-gene) condition.publhealth. Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning.11.PMID 15858952. Spiegelman D. The autism-epilepsy connection. such as phenylketonuria. doi:10.09.29(5):257–72. or other genetic syndrome.PMID 17084999. 4. Comorbid conditions[edit] Further information: Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders Autism is associated with several other conditions:   Genetic disorders. the full criteria for ^ Jump up to:a b c Zafeiriou DI. 2009.tb01779. Although the DSM-IV rules out concurrent diagnosis of many other conditions along with autism. For ASD other than autism the association is much weaker: the same study reported about 94% of 65 children with PDD-NOS or Asperger syndrome had normal intelligence.94(1):2–15. chromosome abnormality. and type of language disorder.1001/jama.1002/aur.239/pdf 2. degree of social impairment. Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis. 2007. Daniels J et al. doi:10. 7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Rutter M. Childhood autism and associated comorbidities. The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders [PDF].2006. Tourette syndrome.bp. Rodier PM. [74] Preempted diagnoses. Brain Dev.3093. are associated with autistic symptoms. ^ Jump up to: a b http://onlinelibrary.braindev.doi:10.23(2–3):189–99.2005.1192/bjp. PMID 15749245. 2005.285(24):3093–9. Int J Dev Neurosci. doi:10. although there are no firm data. Br J Psychiatry.001. is another preempted diagnosis whose symptoms are often present along with the symptoms of autism. Buka SL. a rare and severe form. are not commonly diagnosed in people with ASD because such symptoms are better explained by ASD itself. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in children with ASD has been reported to be anywhere between 11% and 84%. Many anxiety disorders. Etiology of infantile autism: a review of recent advances in genetic and neurobiological research. Jump up^ Trottier G. JAMA. PMID 11427137. Vargiami E. and it is often difficult to tell whether symptoms such as compulsive checking are part of ASD or a co-occurring anxiety problem.1111/j.1146/annurev.[69] Another study by a UC Davis group using a similar methodology that was erroneous because of its stratification of space nevertheless found multiple clusters in urban high socioeconomic status neighborhoods of California.48(Suppl 9):33–5. Acta Paediatr. 8. doi:10.01399.195(1):7–14.051672. doi:10.144007.[6] Several metabolic defects. Jump up^ Arndt TL. PMID 17367287. The fraction of autistic individuals who also meet criteria for mental retardation has been reported as anywhere from 25% to 70%.1651-2227.ijdevneu. Annu Rev Public Health.doi:10. [5] Mental retardation.2004. Ververi A. Epilepsia.12(1):2–22.

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