PHYSICAL EDUCATION 110 DANCE MANUAL

UNIT 1 DANCE FOUNDATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. WHY DO PEOPLE DANCE? MOVEMENT THEMES/ (Movement Education) FUNDAMENTAL LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENT RHYTHM & RHYTHMICAL MOVEMENT ELEMENTS OF DANCE DANCE POSITIONS DANCE FORMATIONS COMMON STEPS DANCE ACROSS THE AGES

SAMPLE ARTICLE

Page 1

1. WHY DO PEOPLE DANCE?

VALUES/GOALS OF A DANCE EXPERIENCE/PROGRAM

COGNITIVE:

AFFECTIVE:

PSYCHO-MOTOR:

Page 2

2.

Page 3

3. FUNDAMENTAL LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENT WALK RUN HOP – steps from one foot to the other. – similar to walking, emphasis on a faster temp. – a transfer of weight by a springing action from one foot to the same foot. – one or both feet leave the floor, knees bending: both return to the floor together. – a transfer of weight from one foot to the other foot. The movement emphasis is up and over. – a step and a shop on the same foot. – is a step close step close pattern (slow, quick, slow, quick.)

JUMP

LEAP

SKIP SLIDE

GALLOP – moving forward diagonally with a step close step close pattern.

Page 4

4.

RHYTHM & RHYTHMICAL MOVEMENT
Components of Rhythm: 1. Measure: 2. Phrase: 3. Accent: 4. Meter: 5. Tempo: equal group of beats natural group of 2 or more measures variety or intensity number of counts/time signature i.e. 4/4; 2/4 rate of speed

Rhythmical Skills include: Feeling and Expressing Beat (Beat Competency)

Moving with others to a common beat

Movement to a common beat with apparatus

Page 5

5.

ELEMENTS OF DANCE
the combinations, sequences and movements that make up a dance, these can include locomotor and non locomotor movements.

STEPS

PATHWAYS

steps can move through space either in a straight, curved, or zigzag pattern.

DIRECTIONS

dance sequences can use many different directions including forward, backward, diagonal, and sideways to the right or left.

RELATIONSHIPS

dances may be solo, performed with a partner, or with a group, or the actions may also include the use of equipment or apparatus.

FORMATIONS

there are many different formations that dances have, the simple ones are lines, circle, files, scatter, contra, and square.

Page 6

6.

DANCE POSITIONS

References: Harris, Pittman, Waller Dance A While: Burgess Publishing

Page 7

7.

DANCE FORMATIONS

References: Harris, Pittman, Waller Dance A While: Burgess Publishing

Page 8

DANCE FORMATIONS continued

Page 9

8.

Common Steps

1. Two-Step This uneven rhythmic pattern (step-close-step; left, right, left or right, left, right; triple step, or step-ball-change) requires two counts of the music of music (1-and-2) to complete, moving forward, backward, sideward, and diagonally. 2. Grapevine Step to right side on the right foot, step the left foot behind the right root, step the right foot to side, touch the left in front of the right, repeat in multiples of four on both sides. 3. Heel-toe Begin with feet together. Touch the right heel to the right diagonal with a slight hop, bring the right foot in front of the left foot, touch the toe, and hop. Repeat this twice, then slide right three times. Repeat this to the left side. (also called heel-toe polka, heel-toe with three slides) 4. Schottische An even rhythmic pattern (walk, walk, walk, hop), moving forward, backward, sideward, and diagonally. In some cases also followed by four step hops. 5. Polka An uneven rhythmic pattern (gallop and skip or slide and skip), moving forward, backward, sideward, and diagonally. 6. Cha Cha Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow; counted 1, 2, 3-and-4. Basic is forward and backward, cha, cha, cha in place, and then backward and forward, cha, cha, cha in place. 7. Waltz Three smooth walking steps on each beat of the music, counted 1, 2, 3. 8. Charleston Walk forward on the left foot, kick or touch the right foot forward; walk backward on the right foot and touch the left foot back. 9. Lindy Step, step, rock; backward step, using an even rhythm. 10. Bleking Begin with feet together. Hop on the right foot and extend the left foot diagonally, with the heel touching the floor on count one; hop on the left foot diagonally, with the heel touching the floor on count two. Repeat and hold, alternating feet.

Page 10

9. Dance Across the Ages
Primitive Times: • Dance ceremonial or religious • Dramatic or historic representation of man’s chief passions • Mimicry or imitation of the movement of animals Ancient Times:( Before and just after Christ) • Dance as an Art • Values of dance most realized in Athenian civilization • Highly structured and demanded great skill Medieval Times: (Middle Ages- 11-12th century)) • Concern for life after death • Dance is frowned upon • Only visible dance is negative (St. Vitus Dance- Dance to Delirium) • Late Medieval /Early Renaissance: (15th century) • First steps are developed and recorded • Court dances begin to develop, with a restrained style Renaissance:(1500-1600’s; Baroque-1700’s, Romantic /Victorian- 1800’s) • Renewed interest in culture • Dance is accompanied by music • Court dances continue to develop • Golden age and the birth of Ballet • Dance classes and dance master evolve Modern Times: • Variety of historical and cultural influences • Expressed in the sprit of the individual • Earliest dances were waltzes • In the 1900’s gallop or polka hit Europe and was considered indecent • After WW1 dances include shimmy, Charleston, rumba, marathon dances of the 20’s ands 30’s swing, bunny hop and jive • WW2 emerging rock and roll, swing, jitterbug • 60’s-Twist…. • 70’s- Disco…. bump, hustle and a renewed sociological interest • 80’s-Punk … • 90’s- Rap… • 2000 and beyond Source: Sachs, C. (1937). World History of Dance. W.W. Norton & Company Inc.

Page 11