1

Course Name Candidate Name
Course Title Reg" No" Assignment No" &ate o' &is(atch

Module 56/ PGPPM Ashar Milind Mahesh Rashmi
Projects Planning Control

2

3 !

21#$#3$31$%1#!$2123 PGPM 22 1)th *e+ruar, 2#11

5

6

-ntroduction to Project Management
Each project has a predetermined duration with a definite beginning and an identifiable end; its starting point is the time when the client, and its end marks conceive the idea the time when the mission is accomplished. The time span between the start and completion of a project represents the project life cycle, which varies from few months to few years. Although construction projects differ in many ways, the life span of a project follows a similar pattern. After conception there is a gradual build-up in the use of resources, it is followed by a longduration plateau and towards the end, there is a rapid run-down till completion. The life cycle of a typical construction project can be broadly divided into the following stages. .a/ *ormulation stage this includes • • • • !roject idea conception "easibility studies #nvestment appraisal !roject definition

.+/ Mo+ili0ation stage this covers preparation of • • • • !roject preliminary plan $esigns and drawings %pecifications and contract finali&ation 'esources mobili&ation and earmarking fund.

.c/ Construction stage this includes • !lanning and controlling e(ecution • #nducting resources • )onstruction and commissioning • "inal handling over to the client

Project Identification :
)onstruction of a new international cricket facility outside a mega city. #t should have the following facilities1. 2. 3. #. Capacity of spectators- 80,000 Play facility for- Day & Night play. 6 directional .!. ca"era platfor"s. $afety of players fro" the spectators.

A2erage ca(acit. 6.Average seats filled for the 4.. >-..../Average cost per ticket for 4.#. 9.<>-5=1866.P (ith a seating capacity for 300. 6.! seats...! seats5 )apacity for 4.years)apacity of spectators 3e(cluding 4. )de*+ate par.years. Therefore. of total capacity. A2erage ca(acit.7.. 6.. co2ered 'or ! matches (er season 'or s(ectators$ *st :atch9nd :atch7rd :atch1th :atchTherefore..ing space for all.#.'s9.*+ months inclusive of monsoon. -.%./. *.<+.! pavilion Assumed total capacity8 6.. All conditions are also assumed regarding the project e(ecution 0 nature of work.'.. of total capacity..<6... or say 6?.. of total capacity. or say >7.<*.Average seats filled for spectators8 3*. The average cost per ticket will be 's*..ther details. Pa&ilion for !. co2ered 'or ! matches (er season 'or 3"-"P (a2ilion$ *st :atch9nd :atch7rd :atch1th :atch*. @ased on the above assumed data the revenue e(pected per match is- .#. Average cost per ticket for spectators.5 =18>9.! pavilion83*. Time available./- Assumed revenue of the stadium per match #t is assumed that the stadium will not always be packed to capacity. of total capacity. +. 7. 2ote. of total capacity.<6..)ost of construction is to be recovered in .. ..all figures taken for calculations are based on assumptions e(cept those provided.. Assumed cost (er tic1et$ *. 6.0 there will be 1 matches per season.'s*. of total capacity..#.>-.<-... of total capacity.. of total capacity. )alculation of appro(imate projected revenue to be earned by the stadium in a period of . %o we will take an average of the tickets e(pected to be sold. *..-.

1. $emand survey it includes prospective customers.+./%ince the cost of construction is to be recovered in five years based on the above given assumptions which have been considered taking a pessimistic point of view that all the seats in the stadium will not always be booked to capacity so the entire cost of the project should not e(ceed the derived value of revenue recoverable within a period of five years. economic viability and financial implications. means of transportation. *4A5A6-7-T8 5T9&-45 The major construction projects are undertaken to meet the particular needs of a client. location study.. power and local resources availability.. construction cost estimates../. ?7.+. Technical studies These cover production process selection.1. >6.. government policy..8 A3>7. The feasibility study evaluates project potential by e(amining technical feasibility./Assumed revenue e(pected in a . e(isting market. ( 7.0 for this period the maintenance cost should be &ero.per match. The subject to be covered in the feasibility report of a construction project will depend upon the purpose of the report and the nature of the project. 7-. Therefore the total cost of construction should not e(ceed 's**. !roposed product features./8 's9./8 's**. 9. 7./. 7-.years ( 's9. >7. planning 0 e(ecution should keep in mind the above figure so that the ultimate cost should be within this limit. . ( 6.. a client is well informed and clear about what he needs.. >7. The first step in the development of a project is to analy&e the needs of the client. +6.. preliminary time plan. +6. demand forecast and sale potential... but sometimes what he thinks he wants and what he really needs may actually be different../-B < A36?. scope of work.5 ( 's*.. "or e(ample. This reDuires a critical e(amination of the needs through feasibility studies.. the feasibility report of an industrial project may include the following aspects *. ?7..year period'evenue8 . construction methodology...5 ( 's9. Assumed revenue e(pected per season'evenue e(pected8 1 matches per season ( 's-6. consumption pattern. Cenerally. >6. wastage disposal arrangement./-B 8 's-6. The technical aspects of the construction design..

a5 )lient representative these include the prospective project manager or his nominee and the related officials. weaknesses. engineers. may have to be repeated several times over before a project inception finally takes shape. if found favorable.utline e(ecution methodology. collection of information. c5 )oncerned officials of administration and technical departments. "inally. and finance management consultants. and statement of project time and cost objectives. #t involves critical e(amination of the techno-economic analysis of feasibility findings. . -. . The process of formulation of needs. +. the following may assist client in making decisions. designer and consultants. cash flow forecast. Economic viability #t highlights social implications and cost benefit analysis. as per the reDuirements. the feasibility studies and its appraisal lead to the definition of the following aspects relating to the project • • • @road scope of work involved. capital costs. net present worth. b5 . !roject objectives. The purpose of appraisal is to conduct an objective assessment for investment decision. project budget. and sources of financing. time and costs. planners. critical e(amination concept and re-e(amination of needs. is followed up with investment appraisal. 1. to act as his representatives. $epending upon the nature and comple(ity of the project. profitability trend. "inancial implications #t contains sales forecast. outline project organi&ation. %ummary of recommendations. opportunity and threat 3%F.T5 analysis E Environments implications E "inancial analysis E Economic analysis Appraisal of feasibility stage enables a client to a5 c5 $ecide on the project concept. Appoint key persons like construction project manager or project coordinator. The feasibility report. with particular reference to E $emand analysis E Technical specifications feasibility E %trength.resource forecasts. b5 %pecialist these include the architects. payback period. and d5 2ominate specialist-associated agencies such as the architect.utline the approach needed to taking the project.

assisted by the chief project planner. civil. the project chief planner coordinates its works. manpower plan. performs the key functions. d5 %pecialistHs consultants. mechanical or electrical branches. project characteristics. but are not limited to. Tendering staff. %elected manager and the connected officials. b5 )onstruction engineers from G4A). This team is lead by the project manager designate and. c5 Tendering and appointing contracts. The composition of the team to prepare for commencement of the project depends upon many factors such as si&e and nature of the project. so as to complete all the documents necessary for contracting works. Mo+ili0ation or Pre(aration 5tage The mobili&ation stage aims at processing the project preliminaries so as to enable the commencement of the construction stage. like the contracts managers and Duantity surveyors. These include. the project manager. #n this preparation stage. materials plan. drawings and specifications so as to formulate construction methodology. )onduct the pre-tender briefing to contractors to ensure that the bidders understand the tender . geologists.utline organi&ation. This includes the work programme. The other participants of the team include the following a5 c5 e5 Architect and design engineers. work-organi&ation and mobili&ation plan. e5 f5 %crutini&e the tender packages. c5 Advise the client on an early purchase of the items of plant and eDuipment needing a long lead-time for procurement. so as to minimi&e the discrepancies. especially those needed for commencement of the work. This is achieved by the following a5 )ompiling detailed design and drawings. specifications. . )ash flow pattern and sources of funding. d5 Evolve the pre-tender construction plan for each tender package. and bills of Duantities. and project budget or cost plan. !otential risks and problem areas. 'esource forecasts. This process also continues during the construction stage.• • • • • !reliminary time plan. such as the town planners. plant and machinery utili&ation plan. and the time and cost objectives. the following a5 !articipate in the finali&ation of design. and the environmentalists. b5 !repare project e(ecution preliminary plan and formulate the schedule for processing various contracts. including drawings and specifications. b5 !lanning project e(ecution.

and the contractor workforce managed by his construction manager. Ge represents the client and acts as the boss at site. Ge manages the contractors employed at site. g5 Evaluate project costs and compile project budget including preliminary allocations for the various heads of e(penditures. h5 )ompile a project directive covering the scope of work. 7. the construction and the Duality control measures to ensure that they are in order. their roles differ. the mobili&ation plan. )ontract provisions do provide a mechanism for the settlement of such disputes through arbitration. They also provide the contractual relationship between the construction manager of the contractors and the project manager.documents and the work involved in each tender. %crutini&e the safety measures and working conditions to ensure healthy environments and prevention of accidents. and good standards of workmanship. inflation and unforeseen circumstances. organi&ation. it is he who is accountable to the client for the construction of the project. %crutini&e the fieldwork regularly to ensure proper layouts. and the policies and procedures for implementing the project. #n this process. Ge ensures smooth functioning at site and makes decisions when theI site faces problems. and the site activities. specifications and bill of Duantities held at site. %crutini&e the Duality of materials to ensure that they meet the contract specifications and also report any deviations. Ge manages the entire construction process so as to achieve the assigned project objectives. 9. @oth teams have the common goal of completing the project in time within specified costs and Duality specification. both of whom have their share of responsibilities and obligations. 6. with the help of his supervisory team that reports to him for decisions. and monitor their progress regularly. work conformity as per drawings and specifications. %crutini&e the geotechnical investigations conducted by the contractor to ensure the adeDuacy of design parameters. +. #t is the project manager who plays the dominant role. 1. >. procedures . *. 4:ecution 5tage :ost of the construction projects are e(ecuted through the contract system. Gowever. )onstruction at the site of the contracted projects is supervised and carried out by two separate agencies. disagreements sometimes arise. The main functions of this constructions supervision team can be outlined as follows. These are the client team led by the project manager. %crutini&e the pre-work preparation of work to ensure a smooth start of construction activities %crutini&e the work programmes to ensure that they are realistic. The contract agreement is based on mutual trust between the contracting parties. %crutini&e the contractorJs plan of work. The contract documents define the contracted scope of the work of each contractor. These may be on account of deviations in the scope of work and other factors like time delays. -. work plan. %crutini&e the contract documents to ensure that all amendments are incorporated into the drawings.

These are as follows.?. nonadherence to specifications. 'eport immediately to the project manager ale cases amounting to breach of contract. #n doing this. E(ercise cost control and cost reduction measures. resolve problems and plan future works. *9.. the as-built drawings. the important events. ions are grouped under si( headings. Although the development of a theory and from disagreement among scholars and managers. These functional areas. d5 The site is cleared of the left-outs of the construction and unwanted materials. %crutini&e the payment of monthly bills of contractor to ensure correctness. The completion of the construction phase of the project includes certain follow-up actions necessary to ensure that the facility constructed functions satisfactorily. has emerged. **. a general pattern of functions which management has to perform. the contract e(ecuted. namely planning. e5 The client fully safeguards his interests prior to rendering the completion certificate to the contractor. communicate observations. are eDually applicable in project management. the costs involved. a5 The post-completion maintenance is usually entrusted to an agency familiar with the construction. *7. The team also prepares a project completion report which includes the scope and schedule of work. c5 The staff and workers necessary for operating and maintaining the facility are trained prior to its taking over. the addresses of the suppliers of materials and eDuipment. the contractor responsible for construction is given this responsibility one year after completion. slow progress and lack of co-operation. the lessons learned and the minor defects noticed at the time of handing over e(amines present project details. the eDuipment maintenance manual. :aintain project records. b5 A proper record of the operating instructions and as-built drawings is maintained. *1. The project . it is the project team of the client that hands over the project to him. Traditionally. Gold review meetings to monitor progress. an environment that will facilitate the accompli-shment of its objectives. Project Management *unctions The overall aim of the management in an enterprise is to create within the enterprise. and common to all these functions is the function of coordination. and this aspect is included in the scope of work of the contractor. After completion by the contractor. with some adjustments on account of the special characteristics of construction projects. as per the contract stipulations. staffing. monitor the progress and submit management information reports at the predetermined freDuency. #n most cases. organi&ing. *. and also before making the final payments. the problems encountered during e(ecution. Take over the project on completion. a certain functions.

e5 Establishing policies. . leading and controlling are outlined below Planning. . the positions created by organi&ation structure and providing them the right Duality resources at the right time. c5 )omparing alternatives in terms of objectives feasibility and conseDuences. <rgani0ing. #n brief. b5 $eveloping alternative courses of action within specified constraints. procedures. it implies managing and keeping manned. procuring. schedules. The connected project management tasks include the following a5 !reparing resource procurement schedules. . %chedule depicts when the planned activities are to be carried. machinery and money. d5 Allocating resources.management fractionK of planning. These resources include people.rgani&ing is the process of establishing a structural relationship among functions of people. e5 $elegating authority commensurate with responsibility. methods. it puts the plan on calendar date scale. d5 @udgeting resources and arranging approvals and purchases. d5 %electing and scheduling the optimum course of action. Procuring. b5 $esigning job structures. organi&ing. systems. c5 $efining performance targets and responsibilities. !lanning involves deciding in advance what is to be done. standards and budgets for accomplishing project objectives. e5 f5 !reventing wastage during resource holding at site. $irection implies the following tasks a5 !roviding effective leadership.rgani&ing involves the following main tasks a5 $ividing the work into component activities. b5:otivating participantHs behavior./ecti&es. how and in what order it is to be done in order to achieve the objectives !lanning aims at deciding upon the future course of action. c5 )ommunicating instructions and orders. #t involves influencing people so as to enable them to contribute to organi&ational goals efficiently and effectively. a5 )ollecting and synthesi&ing information. materials. b5 $eveloping specifications for reDuired resources. programmers. f5 Establishing structural relationship to secure coordination. &irecting or 7eading. A plan shows the committed course of action. %upplying on time reDuired Duality and Duantity of resources to project construction sites. so as to formulate effective machinery for streamlining the achievement of assigned objectives. c5 $eciding appropriate sources of procurement. planning and scheduling involves the following Crystalli-ing o.

The project management. commutation and coordination between top management and project management is improved. )ontrolling involves monitoring of the performance and applying corrective measures in case of deviations from the plan. The matri( organi&ation of project management lies in-between these two e(treme organi&ational concepts. "ollowing are the advantages of the matri( structure a5 #t has a single project manager accountable or the whole project. and not to their parent departmental heads. effectiveness and personal development. Controlling. The managers in a project team are its key personnel. directing. working as a team. The matri( organi&ation balances their conflicting objectives by reducing the communication gap. performs tie bane management functions of planning. d5 The specialist staff is employed effectively. Evolving systems for generating performance data. Applying corrective measures put a plan on the scheduled path. b5 %tating the methods of measuring control factors. #t provides enough fle(ibility to meet uncertain arid changing situations by establishing a project planning and control system at site to monitor the input flow of resources and the performance output. organi&ing. controlling and coordinating the project work. f5 !replanning. Project Management <rgani0ation and 5ta''ing $epending upon the nature of project and the corporate policy. when necessary.d5!roviding a suitable climate for subordinatesJ development. #t provides a climate for motivation. . The process of control can be sub-divided into the following stages a5 c5 e5 %pecifying the factors to be controlled. c5 !ersonal commitment to objectives is the key no of matri( organi&ation. The matri( structure is viewed as a temporary organi&ation having human and non-human resources with reduced vertical hierarchy so as to respond speedily in a changing comple( situation for achieving the specified performance objectives. They are drawn from their parent departments and are %pecialists in their field. staffing. the project management organi&ation pattern can vary from highly centrali&ed factional organi&ation to a dedicated project team with fully decentrali&ed authority. b5 All managers owe their allegiance to the project manager. as the decision-making machinery forms an integral part of the matri( structure. d5 :onitoring data received and formulating corrective options. e5 f5 The top management is freed from making routine decisions. They charged with the responsibility of their respective areas of activity. A typical :atri( structure of project organi&ation is shown below. #n this way.

d5 Analy&ing the project network or model to determine project duration. These documents includeLbut are not limited toLthe available technical and commercial studies and investigations. resources needed activity-wise. and assessing the appro(imate Duantities of physical .Gowever. estimate of Duantities. contract documents. lack of coordination. designs and drawings. 4arious planning techniDues are employed to systemati&e and transform the mental thought process into a concrete project plan. working regulations. and enhanced costs. site conditions. construction method statements. !lanning follows a systematic approach. and integrating these diagram3s5 to develop the project network or model. c5 !reparing the logic or network diagram3s5 to establish a relationship among activities. local resources. and identifying critical and non-critical activities. project planning data. low productivity. Cenerally. The planning process takes into account the strengths and weaknesses of the organi&ation as well as the anticipated opportunities and risks. market survey. if not properly conceived and directed. the following steps are involved in planning for a project a5 $efine the scope of work to be performed. the matri( organi&ation-can result in increased conflicts. b5 #dentifying the activities involved. project environment and the clientJs organi&ation. Construction Project Management Matri: <rgani0ation construction com(an. cor(orate o''ice Management 5er2ices Planning Managem ent 5tructural 4ngineeri ng Project director <ther 'unctions 4lec Contracts Mech Administrat 4ngineeri ion *unctional Re(resentati2es 'r om Parent &e(ar tments Project A Project Manag er Planni ng Manag er Planni ng Manag er Planni ng Manag er Technic al Manag er Techni cal Manag er Technic al Manag er 5er2ice s Manag er 5er2ice s Manag er 5er2ice s Manag er Contra ct Manag er Contra ct Manag er Contra ct Manag er Project 6 Project Manag er Project C Project Manag er The construction planning process is stimulated through a study of project documents.

e5 f5 E(ploring trade-off between time and cost to arrive at the optimal time and costs for completing the project. g5 Establishing standards for planning and controlling men.. overlapping of levels may become unavoidable. =or1$+rea1do>n 7e2els )orporate :anagementMMMM%ummary planM%ub-project !roject :anagementMMMM. and allocating these to the organi&ational units earmarked for e(ecution. m5 Evolving an information communication system n5 )omputeri&ing the planning and control system. time. Assigning physical resources like men. materials. this methodology is evolved by the planning engineer on the basis of his construction e(perience and discussions with the respective project engineers. tasks. and deciding on the project-work schedule. in turn. Project =or1 6rea1do>n The project work breakdown process involves splitting of the project works into its manageable constituents arranged in a hierarchical order till the desired level.Task/)ontract !lanMMM. are best planned and monitored by activities. the nature and comple(ity of the project and the e(pected degree of control. The work-breakdown levels are categori&ed into sub-projects. and cost control methodology.!roject:aster!lanMTasks/work !ackage :anagerial NevelsMMMM. A project planner uses activity as the common database for planning projects. l5 $eveloping the resources. materials and eDuipment activity-wise. work packages.. The work-breakdown levels for various types of plans are given in "igure . eDuipment. costs and income of each work package.Fork !ackages %upervisor NevelMMM.. )onstruction projects are best managed by work packages. at times. which. Cenerally. These levels depend upon the plan type. E(ploring work options within specified time and resource constraints. k5 $esigning a control system for the organi&ation. Activity duration forms the basis for time planning and scheduling of project work. production costs and the value of the work done. activities and operations. h5 i5 j5 "orecasting input resources. "orecasting the project budget and budget allocations for achieving targets assigned to each organi&ational unit.Ouarterly/:onthlyFork!rogrammeMActivity The breaking down of a task/work package into its constituent activities reDuires a study of the methodology of e(ecution of the work package. known by the term method statement. The .#t may be noted that the levels classification is a broad concept and.

finally. the probability of e(ecution of a project e(actly as per the original plan is negligible because the project implementation may undergo unpredictable resource problems and unforeseen time delays These unforeseen factors demand constant vigilance and. The activity sale price is used to determine income and cash flow forecasts. )ontrol involves organi&ing the control responsibility centers. cost and time. The project control system covered in this book deals with the project control methodology. therefore. PR<?4CT C<NTR<7 PR<C455 The project plan indicates the path charted to achieve the objectives of the project. making risk-taking decisions to tackle the problem. Nike the guidance system of a missile. The work-breakdown levels are broadly categori&ed into five levels. controlling the productivity. provides yard sticks for measuring performances. $uring the implementation stage. and measuring the results of these decisions against targeted e(pectations through organi&ed and systematic feedback. the project control system aims at ensuring the e(ecution of work as per the planned schedule and the application of necessary corrective measures. !lanning and controlling. arranged in a descending hierarchical order are given here %ub-project level Task level Fork-package level Activity level . designing accounting and monitoring methodology. including re-planning. from time to time. prevents pilferage and frauds and assists in formulating bonus or incentives schemes for motivating the people. An efficient control system improves productivity of men and materials. are inseparable. codifying data and developing the information systems so as to makedecisions speedily. These levels. computeri&ing the project management information system. aim. economi&es employment of resources. decisions have to be made for the smooth progressing of the project work. materials and machinery needed for e(ecution each activity enable preparation of resources forecasts. developing the codification system. an effective control system corrects all deviations from the planned path. enables understanding of time and cost behaviors. #t also includes identifying the problem areas. Even with the best of efforts. The activity base is vital for monitoring progress of the project work. PR<?4CT =<R@$6R4A@&<=N 743475 The project work-breakdown process involves breaking down of the project work into manageable parts arranged in a hierarchical order till the desired level is reached. organi&ing and directing resources needed to carry out these decisions.inputs of labour.perations level . to achieve the project objectives. generates information for updating resource planning and costing norms.

"or instance. The number of sub-projects in a project varies with the nature of the project. The measure of performance thus. 5u+$(rojects 7e2el $ividing the project work into independent large-volume mini projects or task groups derives sub-projects. planning. gets closely linked with the e(ecution of its work packages. These are generally stated in terms of its completion period. can be termed as a sub-project. other resources and are necessary for its completion. measurable. The breaking down of a work package into its constituent activities reDuires a study of the . directing. A task is an identifiable and deliverable major work. in a housing project. costable and controllable package of work. identifiable. The work breakdown structure of a project forms the basis for listing of activities modification of systems. operations and processes. standard cost. headed by a manager or a senior engineer. Each one of this is called an activity. The task e(ecution is entrusted to a task responsibility unit. designing. 7e2el A work package can further be broken down into various identifiable jobs. sorting data by hierarchy levels. communicating and controlling. #n the project master plan or the contracted works-control plan. Fork packages form a common base for linking the key functions in project management. estimating. which consume time and possibly. As an e(ample. =or1$(ac1ages 7e2el A project task can be further subdivided into one or more -work packages. The work-package concept leads to the simple-management theory of managing. Each work package contains a si&eable. the various activities involved in the construction of foundation of a residential building are listed. #t is an entity in itself and can be performed without much interference from other tasks. Each task is assigned time and cost objectives and is provided with planned resources for accomplishing the task objectives. resourceproductivity standards and the standard sale price.Each level has certain features associated with it however. without interference from other works. using these work packages as the base lines. each group of major works. the design-preparation plan and the contracttendering plan. organi&ing. Acti2it. it may be noted that level categori&ation is a broad concept and at times their overlapping may become unavoidable. The sub-project level aids in identifying tasks. which can progress in a systematic manner. A task is supported by its design package. Task level is used in the project-summary plan. each work package is assigneeP #ts performance objectives. structuring of work organi&ation and managing similarscope multi-projects. Each sub-project comprises one or more substantial work tasks. Tas1s 7e2el The project or sub-project work can be split up into various tasks.

%teel fabrication works. is evolved by the concerned planning engineer using his construction e(perience and through his discussions with the respective project engineers. ?. The activity duration forms the basis for time planning and scheduling of project work. 9. #n this phase only foundation work will proceed after layout has been given. %ome operations may start with the commencement of the activity. This methodology. 1. . %uperstructure-Callery-* %uperstructure-Callery-9 %uperstructure-Callery-7 %anitary 0 !lumbing works. <(erations 7e2el An activity comprises one or more operations. -. #n some situations.The foundation work will proceed from the commencement of the project after the site infrastructure has been made ready. They form the basis for allocation and scheduling of resources of each activity. >. A project planner uses activity as the common database for project planning. .perations are not considered during the network modeling and analysis stage e(cept that the sum of the costs of operations eDuals the activity cost. $ 1" "irst !hase. The project will be phased into the following levels*. performance periods of operations may overlap. Each operation contains a part of the work content of the activity. $etailed information about resources such as men. The activity sale price is used to determine the income. Electrical works. "oundation Fork. 6. 7. )ommissioning of the facility. !ainting works. =or1 6rea1$do>n methodolog. Food 0 aluminum works. +. #t is performed during the scheduled time duration of the activity.. and cash-flow forecasts.methodology of e(ecution of the work package. The activity base is vital for monitoring the progress of the project work. generally known by the term method statement. while others may take place during its time duration. #t generally has a particular type or a fi(ed group of resources associated with it. *. materials and machinery needed for e(ecution of each activity enables the preparation of resource forecasts.

#n this phase the electrical wiring to be done in gallery two 0 painting work internal to be done in gallery one 0 two.#n this phase painting to be done on all e(ternal surfaces while electrical 0 sanitary fittings will be fi(ed in gallery three levels. There will be no other work in this phase other than the completion of the superstructure with provision for concealed wiring. Electrical wiring to be done in gallery one 0 gallery two. 3" Third !hase. )oncealed wiring conduits to be laid in superstructure three 0 concealed wiring 0 sanitary provisions in superstructure two. A" %eventh !hase. Food. Food. All glass fittings also to be done during this phase.#n the second phase the superstructure for gallery one will start. )" 2inth !hase.2" %econd !hase. aluminum 0 steel fabrication works to start in gallery one. 5" "ifth !hase. aluminum 0 steel fabrication works to be done in gallery three. 6" %i(th !hase.#n this phase painting work to be done in gallery three while electrical 0 sanitary fitting to be fi(ed into position in gallery one 0 two.There will be commissioning of the entire facility during this phase 0 any corrections that need to be made will be done during this period.#n this phase wood. %" Eight !hase. !" "ourth !hase. Any defects detected during this will have to be corrected.#n the third phase the construction for the superstructure of gallery two will start. 1#" Tenth !hase. All e(ternal connections of electrical 0 sanitary lines are to be connected in this phase. $uring this period brickwork 0 plastering work will start for superstructure one along with provisions for concealed wiring 0 sanitary lines. All lines electrical 0 sanitary are to be checked for its performance. After satisfactory performance of all the utilities will certificate will be provided for the facility to be put to use.#n this phase the brickwork 0 plaster to start in gallery three. aluminum 0 steel fabrication works to be done in gallery three.#n this phase the superstructure work for gallery three will start along with brickwork 0 plastering for gallery two. Electrical 0 sanitary lines which are concealed to be placed in gallery three. .

cubic metre of manual e(cavation over an area of *. the time for completion of e(cavation and the corresponding labour costs for this activity can be tabulated as follows L )ompletion Time $ays * 9 7 1 *6 *6. The transaction time of an activity is the time taken to change from one state to the ne(t within the system.. the minor plus and minus variations in activity duration tend to get adjusted. The unit of time can be a month. &uration is assessed. #t may be noted that the duration of an activity is correlated with time and its cost. *-. )onsider a job involving -. a week.A55455-NG ACT-3-T8 &9RAT-<N Conce(t $uration of an activity is defined as the e(pected economical transaction time. during the progress of a project. The unit considered depends upon the plan type. *+.. The methods used for assessment of the duration are one-time and three-time estimates. and assuming that tools reDuired for digging are brought by the workers. #t may differ with the actual time.. #f each man is paid 's*. The time and cost at the least cost point in termed as normal time and normal cost of the activity.. per day.. &uration is economical transaction time. #n the long run. 6 1 *+.5 should be taken as three days. This definition of activity duration implies the following &uration is transaction time. :anpower Employed )ost 3Q5 The duration for this activity corresponding to the least cost of e(ecution 3's*-. #n other words. duration is the time delay incurred in moving from one event to its succeeding event. The estimation of this time is based upon the current practices carried out in an organi&ed manner under the normal prevailing conditions. #f necessary. Cenerally. #t may be noted that duration is only an assessment.. &uration is estimated in terms o' (redetermined units o' time. which an activity may take for its transaction. The assessment of e(pected time should be based on the moat economical method of e(ecution of activity under the prevailing working conditions by using the available or earmarked resources. #t is possible to organi&e work by employing *6 men for one day in two shifts. or four men for four days to complete this task. The guidelines given below may be adapted for selecting the unit of time for assessment of duration of activities in the following 3i5 !roject %ummary %chedule 3ii5 !roject :aster %chedule 3iii5 $etailed Fork !rogramme :onths or weeks Feeks $ays or hours .( + m. the activity could be work studied to determine the standard time of e(ecution. the better the assessment of its duration. and the person responsible for its performance does its assessment preferably. a day or even an hour. or three men for five days. the smaller the level of details of an activity.

Estimating costs )ost )lassification $irect and indirect costs .%. matching optimum resources for each element. "or e(ample. these are taken care of during scheduling stage. dollars. the e(penditure incurred or the money spent by the customer to acDuire it. The total money paid by the realtor to acDuire it from the builder is Q?-. The cost of an item is related to the purpose for which it is incurred. it may undergo a change with the passage of time or with improved techniDues.. the manufacturer to produce it and the retailer to sell it. The assessed duration estimate is e(pressed in terms of unit of time. #n each case. This implies that estimation is based on the method of work under normal working conditions at the site using economical resources. the cost implies e(penditure incurred in monetary terms by a person or an agency to acDuire a product or a service. and the cost associated for accomplishment of each activity becomes its cost objective. the cost is related to the specific purpose or activity for which it is incurred. Q6-. Forking in an organi&ed manner implies breaking down the activity into elements. The cost classification varies with the purpose. ACT-3-T8 C<5T5 AN& 4ARN4& 3A794 #n general. The duration assessed in weeks include weekly holidays but e(clude other holidays and non-productive period..or + days -9 weeks All acti2ities in the net>or1 or schedule use same unit o' time. suppose a customer purchases an apartment from a realtor for one million R. "urther. #n general. or to accomplish an objective for a given product. )ost !urpose *. stands for the production cost. the activity costs can be classified as follows. +. #n other words.. the (erson res(onsi+le 'or its (er'ormance.. is (er'ormed in an organi0ed manner. the seasonal and weather uncertainties are not considered. &uration estimation is +ased on current (ractices. the cost objective represents the cost which a person or agency has decided to pay for fulfillment of a specific purpose... it varies when it passes through various agencies. and specifying objectives and responsibilities so that the task is performed efficiently and enthusiastically.vertime is not considered unless it is a standard practice. 3i5 Forking hours in a day 3ii5 Forking days in a week 3iii5 Feeks in a year 6 hours .. is not the same. while the production cost incurred by the builder for the land and construction is R. laying down a systematic method of e(ecution. in the nearest whole number.. This implies that the estimation is based on the present knowledge of the method of transaction in an economical way. Adjustments for time delaying factors like rainy season and bad weather are considered at the time of scheduling of work and resource &uration estimation methods (resu((ose that acti2it. the term cost. &uration estimation is +ased on >or1 +eing carried out under normal (re2ailing site conditions. .. This makes the duration estimate realistic and meaningful. #n particular. &uration is assessed (re'era+l.The following conversion factors may be used for converting from one unit to another.%..

)ost Elements *. (roduction cost. The tail of the row . The above cost terms are outlined in the following paragraphs. These represent the apportioned share of supervision. where necessary. Each of these operations or processes. 9. ype of Costs $irect materials $irect labour $irect eDuipment $irect other e(penses 'te"s of Costs )ost of concrete and steel )ost of labour employed )ost of eDuipment hired for placing ready mi( )oncrete "ormwork hiring and repair charges Acti2it. The activities are represented by arrows pointing in the forward direction. Activity production cost this cost is the sum of direct cost and its apportioned indirect cost.9. but cannot be traced directly to its e(ecution. Cenerally. This is the cost that is incurred while performing an activity. #t consists of costs of direct materials. the overheads charged to an activity are e(pressed as a percentage if its direct costs. #n other words. is called an activity. AcDuiring land. $irect material costs $irect labour costs $irect eDuipment and other e(penses $irect costs 3A < @ < )5 #ndirect costs !roduction cost 3$ < E5 Amount A @ ) $ E " Acti2it. -. the following direct costs would be involved. which consume time and possibly. constructing a roof and curing the concrete are e(amples of some of the common activities in a building construction project. #t is build up as follows. direct eDuipment and other direct costs. building a ill. Accounting costs !roduction cost and earned 3sales5 value. #n addition. indirect cost. which the client has agreed to pay for the satisfactorily completed works. collecting materials. #t is the contract value of the work done. all costs other than the direct ones fall in this category. "or e(ample. #t is built up as follows. Acti2it. This cost is the sum of direct cost and its apportioned indirect cost. Acti2it. direct labour. fi(ing steel. many activities are introduced to maintain logic. Net>or1 4lements The two basic elements used in a network are activity and event. #t is the amount. and are commonly referred to as overheads. A project can be broken down into various operations and processes necessary its completion. contract 2alue. 1. general and administration costs. 7. Acti2it. +. direct cost. This is the cost that can be traced in full with the e(ecution of a specific activity. in the activity of roof concreting. sources.

An activity involving e(cavation.75. 3a5 The activities A and 7 are concurrent 3see "igs 1. Net>or1 o' Acti2ities and their Res(ecti2e &urationB A 3 * C . and. Correct Re(resentation o' Concurrent Acti2ities . As far as possible. the dummy activity JCJ has been used. and needing two units of time for its completion. A 9 ) 9 9 $ * G " 9 E 7 1 - 7 The network logic shows that. its termination. The length of the arrow is not drawn to scale. the arrow should be sufficiently long so that the description of the activity could be written over it. $ follows the completion of A and @ E starts after ) and $ are completed.depicts the commencement of an activity and the arrowhead. activities A. would be shown as E(cavation 9 9. Arrows are neither curved nor are they drawn in reverse direction. The description of an activity is written above the arrow and its duration in the middle underneath. To enable their description by event numbers. The project over when E and " are completed. The points to note are. " follows ). 7. The various ways by which the arrow of an activity JAJ can be drawn are A 9 A 9 A 9 A A 9 @ 9 A 9 2otes *.9 and 1. @ and ) start at the same time.

incorporating activity durations. rather than debate the method of construction. An e(perienced planner can develop the )!: sub network of a sub-project or a task. Accordingly. working straight from its work-breakdown structure or task matri(. * !art of 2etwork %howing that " "ollows ). a project has innumerable activities associated with it. one should focus on the procedure of modeling and analysis network illustrated in the following paragraphs. @ 9 -ncorrect Re(resentation o' Concurrent Acti2ities A . developing logic diagram. The first step in network modeling. is to . The $ummy Activity G !rovides The Nogic Nink. &e'ining the 5co(e o' Net>or1 "rom its conception to its evolution and completion. a network drawn for systematic e(ecution of contracted work need not include the pre-contract planning and designing activities. numbering events and computing the critical path. This step-by-step procedure involves defining the scope of network. listing activities. #t is emphasi&ed that the network should be drawn after the construction methodology is finali&ed. Gowever. for a beginner. $ * G ) 9 E 7 " 9 1 - 7 CPM N4T=<R@ M<&477-NG AN& ANA785-5 PR<C4&9R4. a step-wise approach can systemati&e modeling and time analysis of network. but it is not necessary to include all of them in the network. and E %tarts after completion of ) and $. therefore. "or e(ample. structuringJ artwork.A C * .

%uitable assumptions can also be made about the JunpredictableJ. The guidelines for converting the logic diagrams into draft network are a.'elating to each activity. its completion becomes the end event. b. .a/ 5tart and end e2ents. a5 c5 Fhich activity is preceding this activityS Art there any constraints imposed on starting of this activityS b5 Fhich activity is succeed or follow the completion of this activityS d5 #s it the final activity within the work packageS #f so. The contract period of a contracted work commences from the time of handing over of site to the contractor. . such as priorities of the work and availability of resources &etermining Acti2ities The various stages in the e(ecution of a project can easily be visuali&ed by breaking down the work into major tasks or work packages. there may be more than one start and end event. these aim at reducing the si&e of the network by omitting unnecessary details. The clearance of site after completion of work is generally the last activity of a contract.define the scope of the network by fi(ing start and end events.+/ Assum(tions. these are the restrictions and limitations imposed by the management on the method of e(ecution. 4sta+lishing =or1$(ac1age 7ogic The logic activities within the work package can easily be established by the following Duestion. this process continues till the desired level of activities is reached. . Each one of these can further be split into sub tasks and these tasks can be further sub-divided. #n practice. this can be taken as the start event. . stating suitable assumptions and laying own constraints. "or the major multi-project networks. these define the e(tent of the network. work-packages are considered in the seDuence they occur. The dummies should be reduced to minimum. The crossing of arrows should be avoided by a suitable re-positioning of the .c/ Constraints. "urther the drawing of work-package logic diagrams and the process of integration can be carried out simultaneously Pre(aration o' 7ogic &iagram and &ra't Net>or1 The main purpose of the flow diagram is to facilitate a systematic drawing of the draft of network. 3ii5 integrating work packages. and 3iii5 transforming integrated work package logic diagrams into a project logic diagram. are there any other activities &e2elo(ing Net>or1 7ogic &iagram The preparation of logic diagram can be divided into three stages 3i5 developing logic diagram for each work package.

#f reDuired. the interface events can be represented by double circle or ellipse. The various conventions and rules for drawing )!: network are given below. The critical-path computation procedure involves determination of the Earliest Event Times 3foreword pass5. the network should be drawn in such a way that activities belonging to the same strata can be demarcated by drawing vertical and/or hori&ontal lines. activities terminating into an event should finish into a common line. it is essential that they should be suitably titled and numbered. if visuali&ed during the preparation of logic diagrams. sufficient to permit writing of activity description. Nogic of all the activities should be verified for its correctness. d5 Arrows running close to each other should be avoided. Therefore. The intervening space should be b5 The arrows should have sufficient hori&ontal length so that a description could be written over -ncor(orating Acti2it. c5 The crossing of arrows should be avoided by suitably re-positioning them. i5 j5 The network should be re-drawn. Num+ering o' 42ents #t is the last operation in the modeling of the network. calculation . The activities emerging from an event should takeoff from a line rather than a point. if necessary. c. !rints of important networks should be taken and circulated to all concerned for comments. Turning arrows in the reverse direction is not correct. further. a5 All arrows must run from left to right. d. h5 Rse of large sheets should be avoided.0ing Net>or1 The focus of time analysis of a )!: network is to calculate float for each activity by conducting forward pass and backward pass with a view to determine critical path. g5 Fherever possible. %imilarly. the duration of all the activities should be re-checked and necessary corrections made. The new activities should be incorporated. to give a neat appearance. &uration The duration of activities are estimated while breaking down the project into activities. "or easy recognition. neatly drawn by readable lettering printed hori&ontally. a large network can be split into two or more sheets having common interface events. after drawing the network. if necessary. e5 f5 The concurrent activities 3commencing and terminating into common events5 should be separated by inserting additional events followed by dummy activities. Amendments should be carried out. some new activities may also get added during the preparation of network. and divided into strata for easy reference. Therefore. 5tructuring Model 9sing Net>or1 &ra>ing Rules The project networks are constantly read.activities. it. referred to and reviewed. Time Anal.

> 4*T *1th .+ 6th Tan . Acti2it.ct .+ 99nd .> 5ite 7a.+ 7rd $ec .orks 29 Co issioning aller! aller! aller! "2 "1 "3 "2 "1 "3 aller! aller! aller! The above chart shows the seDuence of the various work activities that encompasses the project in totality.> 97rd "eb .+ 9?th .ct . identification of the critical events and critical activities.+ 97rd .th "eb .ct .> ?th "eb . 3having &ero float5 and.+ *6th 2ov .th .ct .+ 7. Project Time 5chedule No 1 2 7 1 5 + > Clearing Acti2it.> *. finally.> 99nd Tan .+ ?th .+ 96th .. evaluation of the project duration by summing up the duration of critical activities along the critical path connecting the start and the end events.ct .ct .> ?th Tan ..of the Natest Event Times.works in 2# P.+ ?th Tan . 5eries No Activity Description 1 Clearing & Leveling Site 2 Site Layout/Lineout 3 Procuring Foundation Steel 4 Excavation for foundations 5 Concreting Foundations 6 Formwork for # Steel work for aller! aller! "1 "1 5eCuences Following Activity 2 4 5 5 6 # $ % 1& 11 12 13 14 15 16 1% 2& 21 22 23 24 25 26 2# 2$ 2$ 2$ 2% Nil Preceding Activity Nil 1 1 2 4 5 6 # $ % 1& 11 12 13 14 Concurrent Activity 3 3 4 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 1#(1$ 16(1$ 16(1# 2&(21 1%(21 1%(2& 23(24 22(24 22(23 26(2# 25(2# 25(26 Nil Nil 8 Concreting Gallery G-1 % Formwork for 1& Steel work for aller! aller! "2 "2 11 Concreting for Gallery G-2 12 Formwork for 13 Steelwork for aller! aller! "3 "3 14 Concreting for Gallery G-2 15 'asonr! work 16 Sanitar! work in 1# Sanitar! work in 1$ Sanitar! work in aller! aller! aller! "2 "1 "3 aller! aller! aller! "2 "1 "3 15 16 1# 16 1# 1$ 1% 2& 21 22 23 24 2# 2$ 1% )luminum * Steel Fa+rication 2& )luminum * Steel Fa+rication 21 )luminum * Steel Fa+rication 22 Electrical works in 23 Electrical works in 24 Electrical works in 25 P.+ 9*st ..works in 2$ Painting .+ 1th Tan .+ *?th 2ov . &escri(tion 7e2eling 5ite 45T 1st <ct #6 *-th .+ ?th $ec .ct .+ 1th $ec .+ -th 2ov .ct .ct .out/7ineout !rocuring "oundation %teel E(cavation for foundations Concreting *oundations "ormwork for Callery C-* %teel work for Callery C-* .ct .> 75T ?th .> 7*T 99nd .+ *9th $ec .works in 26 P.+ *st .ct .ct .

> **th Apr .> *?th :ay .> 9+th $ec .> +th :ay . 7. %teel work for Callery C-9 11 Concreting 'or Galler.> >th Apr .> *1th Aug .> +th 2ov . Aluminum 0 %teel "abrication Callery C-* 9* Aluminum 0 %teel "abrication Callery C-7 99 Electrical works in Callery C-9 97 Electrical works in Callery C-* 91 Electrical works in Callery C-7 9.> *1th 2ov .> 6th "eb .> 99nd :ar .> 9+th %ept .> *?th $ec .> *-th Tan . There have been lag periods provided to take care of contingencies that are bound to arise like stoppage of work due to rains. N%T-Nate %tart Time/ N"T-Nate "inish Time.> *?th $ec .> 6th Tun .> >th :ar .6 *+th "eb . .> 9>th Aug . -.> -th %ept . 9.> 91th Aug . G$2 *.> 9>th 2ov . E%T-Early %tart Time.6 *st "eb .> 9+th $ec .> 99nd Aug .> 6th :ay . *.> 91th Aug . Conclusions.> *st 2ov .> ?th Tul . G$1 "ormwork for Callery C-9 97rd Tan .> 9>th Aug .6 ?th "eb .> 7*st Tan . labor problems etc.:asonry work *+ %anitary work in Callery C-9 *> %anitary work in Callery C-* *6 %anitary work in Callery C-7 *? Aluminum 0 %teel "abrication Callery C-9 9.> *st 2ov . E"T-Early "inishing Time.> *1th 2ov . There will be variances in the planning 0 e(ecution since the ground situation 0 the planning assumptions have certain conflicts.> *6th %ep .> -th %ept .> 9-th :ar .> *1th Aug .> 99nd Aug .6 *-th Tan .> *9th :ar .6 1Ath Mar #% *.> *st 2ov .> *1th Aug .> 9+th %ep .> *st Tan .> *1th 2ov .> 91th :ay .> *.> 1th Tun .> *7th Tul .> 9>th 2ov .> *6th Tul .> 9+th :ay .> +th 2ov .6 *>th "eb .> 6th :ar .> 9>th Aug .% ? Concreting Galler.> 1th Apr .> *+th Tan .> 9+th %ep .6 91th "eb .> -th %ept .> *+th Tul . 1.> 9*st :ay .> 9+th $ec .> 9+th :ar .> 9*st :ar .> *7th Tun . 7.> 91th Aug .!4) works in Callery C-9 9+ !4) works in Callery C-* 9> !4) works in Callery C-7 96 !ainting Forks 2) Commissioning -nde:$ *.> *6th %ep . G$3 *9 "ormwork for Callery C-7 *7 %teelwork for Callery C-7 1! Concreting 'or Galler.> 9>th 2ov .> 99nd Aug .> *9th "eb . "oundations have been planned in a way to complete it before the monsoons so that when the monsoons arrive it will be indoor work mainly 0 will not hamper work schedules much.> **th :ar .> +th 2ov .> *?th $ec .> -th :ay .> *6th Tul .> 6th Apr .> 9+th %ept . 9.> *6th Tul .6 7rd :ar . The data that has been used in the project planning 0 seDuencing has been taken from earlier projects or assumed as per the situation. The variances are to be carefully monitored during the project e(ecution 0 corrected.th :ay .6 -th "eb .> 9+th %ept .> *6th %ep .> 9+th %ep .6 *-th Tan .

. %upply chain management 0 G' management to co-ordinate in a manner so that the production process remains unhampered.U. >.+. 6. 2" 7. *. %tructure has been given the primary focal point of construction so that the rest of the seDuences can operate together in the later phases. 2o holiday periods have as such been assumed but lags between the phases can be used for the purpose. . 2icmar Nesson book.)hitkara )onstruction journals. 6i+liogra(h. )onstruction !roject :anagement by Nt )ol U.