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**Summary of Quantitative ability Average I. Average Sum of items Number of items = = =
**

Sum of items number of items

**Average × Number of items
**

Sum of items Average

If A is the average of a1, a2, ..., an , then (a1 – A ) + (a2 – A ) +... + (an – A ) = 0 II. The average of the numbers which are in arithmetic progression is the middle number or the average of first and last numbers. If the average of a1, a2, ..., an is A, Then the average of a1 + k, a2 + k, .... an + k will be A + k. the average of a1 − k, a2 − k, .... an – k will be A − k. the average of a1 k, a2 k, .... an k will be A k. the average of a1 /k, a2 /k, .... an / k will be A /k.

III.

**If the average of N1 items is A1 , N2 items is A2,.... Nk items is Ak, then the average of all the items together is
**

N1A1+ N2A2+ … + Nk Ak N 1 + N 2 +⋯.+ N k

If the average of a group of N1 items is A1 and the average of an other group of N2 items is A2 and the average of both the groups (i.e N1 + N2 items) is A, then N1 : N 2 = A − A 2 ∶ A − A 1 If ‘k’ items of average (A + x) are added to a group of ‘n’ items, whose average is A, then the new average will be A + o

kx n+k

If ‘k’ items of average (A − x) are added to a group of ‘n’ items, whose average is A, then the new average will be kx A−

n+k

From a group of ‘n’ items whose average is A, if ‘k’ items of average (A + x) are deleted, then the average of the remaining kx items will be A −

n −k

o

From a group of ‘n’ items whose average is A, if ‘k’ items of average (A − x) are deleted, then the average of the kx remaining items will be A +

n −k

From a group of ‘n’ items whose average is A, If ‘k’ items of average (A + x) are re placed by p items of average (A + y), Then the new average will be py −kx A+

n+p −k

Wisdom Education

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**Summary of Quantitative Ability
**

Numbers Integers:

Integers: ..., – 3, – 2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3,.... Positive integers ( Natural numbers): 1, 2, 3, .... Negative integers: . ..., – 3, – 2, – 1 Non negative integers(Whole numbers): 0, 1, 2, 3, ... Even numbers: The numbers which are divisible by 2 are called even numbers. The general form of an even number is 2n, ( where n is an integer.)

Odd numbers: The numbers which gives 1 remainder when divided by 2 are called odd numbers. The general form of an odd number is 2n + 1, ( where n is an integer.)

Note :

Even + Even = Even Even x Even = Even Even + Odd = Odd Even x Odd = Even Odd + Odd = Even Odd x Odd = Odd The sum of ‘n’ odd numbers is odd, if ‘n’ is odd. The sum of ‘n’ odd numbers is even, if ‘n’ is even.

Prime Numbers: The numbers which are unbreakable (or) the numbers which have exactly two factors are called Prime numbers.

Wisdom Education

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2 is the only even number which is prime. then ‘N’ is a perfect number. Every prime number greater than 3. 496.Summary of Quantitative Ability 1 is neither prime nor composite. Perfect Numbers: Let ‘N’ be a number such that the sum of all its factors is twice of ‘N’. every prime number greater than 3 can be written in the form of 6k ± 1. where k is an integer.. 28..e. Ex: 6. 4 & 9 Wisdom Education Page 3 . i. Ex: 10 & 21. Co.Primes or Relative primes: The numbers which do not have any common factor (or) the pair of numbers whose HCF is 1 are called co -primes or relative primes. Composite Numbers: The numbers which are breakable. . or the numbers which have more than 2 factors. when divided by 6 leaves either 1 or 5 remainder.

.Summary of Quantitative Ability Rational Numbers: The numbers which can be written in the form of a fraction ( Ex: 3 4 p q ) . … are multiples of 3.. (where a. 454545. 345555.. then N is a perfect cube.. 0. Terminating decimal numbers: The decimals which terminates ( 0.abcbcbc. 132435....... 354691... ababaab. 3. 1. If p. q.. .... . r. 1.. b. π.2..... q.( 0.. 35. = ( ′ 99 digits As many 9 s as number of repeating digits ) Mixed recurring to fraction conversion: abc −a 0.333. .. Every number ‘N’ can be written in the form of a p × bq × cr × …. 11 .. r. … are even. ) Mixed recurring decimals: Few digits after the decimal will not terminate but few digits terminates... .. 0. . 0. 2. when n is odd. 5 6 Irrational Numbers: The numbers which cannot be represented in the form of a fraction 3 Ex: 3 ..where p & q are integers and q ≠ 0 .234. – 7 . The number of factors of ‘N’ = (p + 1)(q + 1)(r + 1)… Wisdom Education Page 4 . when n is even. ( 0.24.. (xn – yn) is divisible by (x – y) (x + y). (xn – yn) is divisible by x – y. c are prime) If p. 0... then N is a perfect square.) Pure recurring decimals: All the digits after the decimal terminates. ) Pure recurring to fraction conversion: ab repeating Ex: 0. 2343434.) Non terminating decimal numbers: The decimals which do not terminate ( 0.... = 990 ( Total digits −non repeating digits As many 9′ s as number of repeating digits and As many 0 ′ s as number of non repeating digits ) The product of ‘n’ consecutive numbers is always divisible by n! (xn + yn) is divisible by x + y.. 2333.. e.3333. . when n is odd. .. 0.

7 or 8 repeats after every 4 th power The last two digits of any number is the remainder obtained by dividing the number with 100. 5. c – a) The smallest number which is exactly divisible by a. c) + r The smallest number which when divided by a. b. when divided by n leaves a remainder of n – 1. y. b. or 6 only. check the number formed by the last three digits. b – y. b – c. o Every multiple of a number is greater than or equal to that number LCM of Fractions = HCF of Fractions = LCM of Numerators HCF of Denominators HCF of Numerators LCM of Denominators The highest number which exactly divide a.) If ‘n’ is a prime number. c) The highest number which when divides a.Summary of Quantitative Ability The sum of all the factors of ‘N’ = (a0 + a1 + …ap)(b0 + b1 + …+bq)… Number of co primes to ‘N’ which are less than ‘N’ = N 1 − Sum of all co primes to ‘N’ which are less than ‘N’ = N 2 1 a 1− 1 a 1 b … 1 b ×N 1− 1− … Number of ways of writing ‘N’ as a product of two numbers which are co primes is 2 n – 1 . y. Divisibility rules: 2 or 5: 4 or 25: 8 or 125: 3 or 9: 11: check the last digit check the number formed by the last two digits. The highest number which when divides a. z remainders respectively is HCF (a – x. b and c leaves x. 3. 5. + n × n! = (n + 1)! – 1. or 6 is 0. The last digit of the numbers which end with 4 or 9 repeats after every 2 nd power The last digit of the numbers which end with 2. c – z) The highest number which when divides a and b (a > b) gives same remainder is a – b. check the sum of the digits check the difference of the sum of the digits in even places and sum of the digits in odd places The last digit of any power of the numbers which end with 0. b and c is LCM (a. LCM & HCF A factor of a number is an exact divisor of that number o 1 is a factor of every number o Every number is a factor of itself o Every factor is less than or equal to the given number o Every number is a multiple of itself. (n is the number of different prime numbers in ‘N’. z remainders respectively ( Where a –x = b – y = c – z = k is LCM (a. 1. b. 1! + 2 × 2! + 3 × 3! + …. b and c is HCF (a. b and c leaves x. b. 1. b and c leaves ‘r’ remainder is LCM (a. b and c (a > b > c) gives same remainder is HCF(a – b. then (n – 1)!. c) – k Wisdom Education Page 5 . c) The smallest number which when divided by a.

then we cannot find the percentage increase in Z. then y is (b – 1) 100% more than x.Summary of Quantitative Ability Percentage To convert a percentage into a fraction or decimal. then y is (1 – b) 100% less than x. times to keep Z constant. k If y = k % of p. means y = ×p 100 To convert a fraction or decimal into percentage.. b >1.e. If Z = X. Margin percentage = Margin Selling price × 100 Discount = Marked price – Selling price Discount percentage = Markup = discount Marked price × 100 Marked price −Cost price Cost price × 100. If y = bx. and if both X and Y are increased by a%. Wisdom Education Page 6 . multiply it with 100. unless we know the ratio of X and Y Suppose if the ratio of X and Y is p : q. then the percentage increase in Z is p a% + q(b%) p+q Profit & Loss Profit = Selling price – Cost price. and if X increases by a % and Y increases by b%. percentage change = Actual c hange initial value k 100 k 100 × 100 k% more than P = 1 + k% less than P = 1 − P P If y = bx. then Z also increases by a%. i. b <1. then the percentage increase in Z is a + b + If Z = X + Y or X – Y. then Y should increase by b a b a b −a a a b+a times to keep Z constant. it means y is (a × 100)% of x.Y. If X increases by a% and Y increases by b%. ab 100 If Z = X.Y. and if X increases by times. divide it with 100. then Y should decrease by If X decreases by times. Profit percentage = Profit Cost price × 100 Margin = Selling price – Cost price. If y = ax.

it can be written as a : b = 1 2 1 3 1 4 ×6∶ 1 3 1 2 ×6=3:2 × 12 ∶ 1 3 If a : b : c = : : . E = efficiency. If it is given that the ratio of boys and girls of a school is 2 : 3. We can only say that = . then A = k B or A1B1 = A2B2 Time & Work M1 D1H1E1 W1 = M2 D2H2E2 W2 (M =men. k2. it can be written as a : b : c = × 12 ∶ 1 4 × 12 = 6 : 4 : 3 If it is given that a : b :: c : d. k3 are any constants. then he can do 1/n th part of the work in a day. 1 2 If a : b = : . W = amount of work) If a man can complete a task in ‘n’ days. then A = k × B or A1 B1 = A2 B2 If A varies inversely with B. k2 are any constants. or we can assume that the Age of B 4 ages of A and B as 3k and 4k. where k1. 1 1 1 + a b = ab a+b Wisdom Education Page 7 . c are in continued proportion. if p : q = 2 : 3. D = days.Summary of Quantitative Ability Turnover or Revenue = Number of items sold × price of each item. . then r = = = b d a = a+c+e b+d+f = k 1 a+ k 2 c+k 3 e k 1 b+ k 2 d+ k 3 f The reciprocal ratio of a : b is b : a The duplicate ratio of a : b is a2 : b2 The triplicate ratio of a : b is a3 : b3 The sub duplicate ratio of a : b is a : b 3 3 The sub triplicate ratio of a : b is a ∶ b If A and B run a business in partnership and earn some profit. it does not mean that A is 3 years Age of A 3 old and B is 4 years old. If a. then A and B together can do that work in days. where k1. b. profit of A Investment of A ×duration o = Profit of B Investment of B ×duration Variation: If A varies directly with B. then b is called the mean proportion of a and c. it means a. H = hours. d are in proportion or a : b = c : d. c. Ratio & Proportion Suppose. then r = = = b a d c b d a c a c a+c b+d c = e f a −c b −d = k 1 a+ k 2 c k 1 b+ k 2 d . it means that students of that school are boys and 1 2 1 3 3 th 5 2 th of 5 the of the students are girls. it means that = or p = q q 3 3 p 2 2 If it is given that the ratio of the ages of A and B is 3 : 4. where k is any real number. If = = b d e f = r. b. o So the mean proportion of a and c is ac If = = r. If A can do a work in ‘a’ days and B can do the same work in ‘b’ days.

Summary of Quantitative Ability Time & Distance Distance = Speed × Time Speed = Distance Time Distance Speed Time = Relative speed: If two objects ‘A’ and ‘B’ move in the same direction with speeds V a. Vb respectively. (A and B are in same direction. Vc m/s respectively ( va > Vb > Vc).r. . d Vb They meet once at starting point after every LCM sec ( same direction / opposite direction) If three persons A and B are running around a circular track of length ‘d’ meters with speeds V a. then the resultant speed = B + W. then o o o They meet once in every LCM They meet once in every LCM d Va − Vb d Va − Vb .t object ‘B’ is Va + Vb Resultant Speed: If a boat is moving with a speed of B and the water is flowing with a speed of W. d V b −V c d sec.r.t object ‘B’ is Va – Vb If two objects ‘A’ and ‘B’ move in the opposite directions with speeds Va. sec. d Vc sec (same direction / opposite direction) Wisdom Education Page 8 . d Va (same direction) (opposite direction) . d Vb . then the relative speed of object ‘A’ w. C in opposite direction) d Va They meet once at starting point after every LCM . then o o o They meet once in every They meet once in every d Va − Vb d Va + Vb sec. then the relative speed of object A’ w. ( Va > Vb). Vb m/s respectively ( va > Vb). Vb respectively. (same direction) V b +V c sec. Vb. ( same direction) = B – W ( opposite direction) Average Speed: Average Speed = Total Distance travelled Total Time taken Circular motion: If two persons A and B are running around a circular track of length ‘d’ meters with speeds Va. ( Va > Vb).

then Sum of the roots x1 + x2 = −b a c a Product of the roots x1 .5o per minute. x = a The set of equations a1x + b1y = c1 and a2x + b2y = c2 has infinite solutions if no solution if a1 a2 a1 a2 b1 = ≠ b1 b2 c1 = c1 c2 = unique solution if b2 c2 a1 b1 ≠ a2 b2 The general form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0. The roots are real and equal. The roots are real and distinct If b2 – 4ac ≥ 0. where H is hours and M is minutes. The roots are real Wisdom Education Page 9 . If b2 – 4ac = 0.Summary of Quantitative Ability Clocks Angle between the hands when the time is HH:MM = 30H − The speed of hour’s hand = 1o 2 11 2 M . x2 be the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. x2 = Let x1.t hours hand = or 5. ( x1 = x2) If b2 – 4ac > 0. per minute 11 2 The speed of minute’s hand = 6o per minute The relative speed of minutes hand w. Calendars 1 ordinary year 1 leap year 100 years 200 years 300 years 400 years 1 odd day 2 odd days 5 odd days (if there is no leap year century in between) 6 odd days (if there is leap year century in between) 3 odd days (if there is no leap year century in between) 4 odd days (if there is leap year century in between) 1 odd days (if there is no leap year century in between) 2 odd days (if there is leap year century in between) 0 odd days Equations −b The general form of a linear equation is ax + b = 0 and if ax + b =0.r. and its roots (solutions) are x= −b± b 2 − 4ac 2a If x1 and x2 are the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.

The greater root is negative and smaller root is positive. r = Common ratio) nth term Tn = a. x2 and x3 be the roots of the cubic equation a1x3+ a2x2 + a3x+ a4= 0. a + d.Summary of Quantitative Ability If b2 – 4ac < 0.M of a. T + L. Let x1. The greater root is positive and smaller root is negative. … an = th 1 1 a+ n −1 d a a+d . a2.… a 1+ a 2+ ………+a n 𝑛 A. b > 0. d = Common difference) nth term Tn = a + (n – 1)d n Sum of n terms = [ F.M. If a > 0. then f(x) attains a maximum value of 4ac −b 2 4a 4ac −b 2 4a at x = at x = −b 2a −b 2a . −a x1 + x2 + x3 = 2 a1 x1x2 + x2x3 + x3x1 = x1x2x3 = −a 4 a1 a3 a1 Arithmetic Progression: General form of A. . … ( a = First term. r n −1 Sum of n terms Sn = a rn − 1 r −1 a 1 −r Sum of infinite terms S∞ = Harmonic Progression: General form of H. 1 . ( x1 > 0. both the roots are negative ( x1 < 0.P: a. x2 < 0) If a < 0. b < 0. ar. then f(x) attains a minimum value of If a < 0. a + 2d.P: a. both the roots are positive ( x1 > 0. 1 a+2d . … ( a = First term.P: n term Tn = Mean: A. T] 2 = [ 2a + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑 ] 2 n number of terms = Geometric Progression: Last term – First term Common difference +1 General form of G. b > 0. x2 < 0) Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c. b < 0. Let x1. x2 > 0) If a < 0. of a1. If a > 0. ar2. ( x1 < 0. x2 (x1 > x2) be the roots of the quadratic equation x2 – ax + b = 0. b = a+b 2 Wisdom Education Page 10 . The roots are imaginary (complex). x2 > 0) If a > 0.

M. f(x) is an even function If f (– x) = – f (x). b = ab H. then x = f -1(y) If f (– x) = f (x). … an = 𝑛 a1 a 2 ………+a n n G. a2.M.M. b = 1 2 1 + a b 1 1 1 + +⋯+ a1 a2 an = 2ab a+b n =1+2+3+…+n = n2 = 12 + 22 + … + n2 n3 = 13 + 23 + … + n3 n(n + 1) = n(n+1) 2 = = n n+1 (2n+1) 6 n(n+1) 2 2 1x2 + 2x3 + … + n( n + 1) = = = n n+1 (n+2) 3 n n+1 (n+2)(n+3) 4 n n+1 (n+2) 6 n(n + 1) (n + 2) = 1x2x3 + 2x3x4 + … + n(n+1)(n+2) ( n) = 1 + 3 + 6 + … n terms Functions If f(x) = g(x). a2. o log a 1 = 0 log b n am = m n log b a o log a a = 1 o log a an = n o log a n a = 1 n o log a n am = m n o log x a + log x b = log x ab log x a – log x b = log x a b log y x = a log a x log x log y = 1 log x y = =x Wisdom Education Page 11 . f(x) is an odd function Logarithms If ax = b ⟹ x =log a b (Or) o If log a b = x ⟹ b = ax o Logarithm is defined only for positive numbers. …. of a.Summary of Quantitative Ability G. of a1. an = H. then f(a) = g(a) f o g (x) = f { g(x) } g o f (x) = g { f(x) } If y = f (x).M of a. of a1.

then − a < x < a If x > a. where a < b. then x < − a. 0 < a < 1. then x > y If ax > ay. a > 1. where x is the absolute value of x. if n is odd a = +b.Summary of Quantitative Ability Inequalities If a> b. then x < y If log a x > log a y. then a < x < b If (x – a)(x – b) > 0. where a < b. n times = na a × a × a ×…………. x > a x + y ≤ x + y . b > c then a >c If a> b. then m = n If an = bn . then ac> bc If a > b and c <0. where x is the greatest integer less than or equal to x. a > 1. then x < y If a > b and c >0. = −an . = an .35 ) (For Ex : 2n = 64 ⇒ 2n = 26 ⇒ n = 6) (For Ex : if a3 = 8 ⇒ a3 = 23 ⇒ a = 2 if a4 = 81 ⇒ a4 = 34 ⇒ a = +3 If am = an . x > b If x < a. x + y ≥ x + y . –1. and c> d then a + c > b + d If ax > ay. then a = b. Indices a + a + a +…………. then x > y If log a x > log a y . then x <a. n times = an ma + na = (m + n)a am × an = am+n am an (For Ex : a + a + a + a = 4a) (For Ex : a × a × a = a3) (For Ex : 3a + 2a = 5a) (For Ex : a3 × a4 = a7) (For Ex : a5 a2 = am−n = a3 ) am n = amn n n am = a m a−n = a 1 n 1 an (For Ex : a3 2 = a6 2 (For Ex : a3 = a9 ) (For Ex : 2−4 = 1 24 3 = ) 16 1 =na n (For Ex : 41/3 = 4 ) if n is even if n is odd (For Ex: −2 −2 6 5 −a = an . 0 < a < 1. if n is even Wisdom Education Page 12 .bn = 26 = 64) = −25 = – 32 ab n (For Ex: 65 = 25 . a ≠ 0. then ac< bc If x > y then 1 𝑥 < 1 𝑦 If (x – a)(x – b) < 0. 1.

5. 5. … are called mixed surds. 4 5. 3 4 ( 4 is not a surd because 4 = 2. are called pure surds or simple surds. 4 × 2 = 3 3 43 × 2 = 128 3 Rationalizing factor : Rationalizing factor is the surd with which if we multiply another surd.…….… are irrational numbers but not surds. Surds like 2 3 . 9. are not surds) 3 All surds are irrational numbers. the result will be a rational number.….I = Simple Interest) r 2 r n Wisdom Education Page 13 . the Rationalizing factor of a – b is a+ b.Summary of Quantitative Ability Surd Surd : A number of the form a1/n or n a.……. Whenever there is a surd in the denominator rationalize it. For ex: 2 3 = 4 × 3 = 12 Similarly. Which is not an integer is a surd. S. r = rate of interest.I (after 2 years) = P 100 (C. are called cubic surds 3 4 3 3 Surds like 2. 5.……. We can take the rationalizing factor of 2 is 2 (because 2 × 2 = 2) Our particular interest of surds are the surds of the form a + b or a – b. 11.I – S. 3 2. 3. But e. For example. r = rate of interest. 3.. π. are called quadratic surds 2. 8.…….I = Compound Interest. The Rationalizing factor of a + b is a – b because (a+ b) (a– b) = a2 –b Similarly. 5. 100 Amount (A) = P + Ptr 100 =P 1+ tr 100 ( P = principle. 3. n = number of compoundings) C. P = principle. 7. 2. t = time) Compound Interest: Amount (A) = P 1 + 100 (A = amount. 81. 4 3 Examples : 2. a + b + 2 ab = a + b Sets A∪B = A + B – A∩B A∪B∪C = A + B + C – A∩B – B∩C – C∩A + A∩B∩C Interest Simple Interest: Ptr Simple Interest = . We can convert mixed surds in to pure surds. (an integer) similarly. 4.

b are the sides) Rhombus: a a θ h a a Area = ah = a2 sinθ 1 = d1d2 2 Perimeter = 4a ( a = side. b = breadth) l Parallelogram: a b θ h b a Area = ah = ab sinθ Perimeter = 2(a + b) ( a. d2 are diagnols) Circle: Area = π r2 Diameter d = 2r Circumference = 2πr r Wisdom Education Page 14 .Summary of Quantitative Ability Mensuration Square: Area = a2 = d2 2 Perimeter = 4a diagonal d = 2 a d Side a = 2 1 d= 2a Rectangle: Side = a aaa Area = l b Perimeter = 2(l + b) d = l2 + b 2 b diagnol = l2 + b2 (l = length. d1.

h = height) 2 B Equilateral Triangle: C Area = 3 4 a2 = 3 h2 3 a h a a h= a 2 ( a = side. h = height) Regular hexagon: Area = 6 × 3 4 a2 a Volume Cuboid: Surface area Total Surface area Volume Diagonal = 2h(l + b) = 2(lb + bh + lh) = lbh = l2 + b + h2 h l b Wisdom Education Page 15 .Summary of Quantitative Ability Sector: Area = θ θ 360 × πr2 r Length of arc ‘ l ’ = θ 360 ×2πr l Triangle: A Area = s = s s − a s − b ( s − c) a+b+c 2 ( a. c are sides) 1 Area = b × h ( b = base. b.

All angles are also equal. Equilateral triangle: All sides are equal. Each angle = 60 o Obtuse angled triangle: One angle is greater than 90o Wisdom Education Page 16 . An exterior angle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles The sum of any two sides is always greater than the third side If two sides of a triangle are equal. then the angles oposte to those sides are also equal.Summary of Quantitative Ability Cube: Surface area Total Surface area Volume diagonal = 4a2 = 6a2 = a3 =a 3 a a Cylinder: a h Surface area Total Surface area Volume = 2πrh = 2πr(r + h) = πr2h Cone: r Surface area Total Surface area Volume = πrl = πr(l + r) 1 = πr2h 3 Sphere: Surface area Volume = 4 πr 2 4 = πr 3 3 Hemi-sphere: Surface area Total Surface area Volume = 2 πr 2 = 3 πr 2 2 = πr 3 3 Geometry Polygon: Sum of all external angles of any polygon = 360 0 Sum of all internal angles = (n – 2) 1800 Number of diagonals in a polygon = nC2 – n = n(n−3) 2 Triangle: Sum of the three angles is 1800. Scalene triangle: All three sides are different. Isosceles triangle: Two sides are equal.

Cot θ = Similar Triangles: If two angles of ABC are equal to two angles of DEF. AC2 = AB2 + BC2 In acute angled triangle. The point of intersection of the medians is called centroid. if θ be the angle between AC & BC A H P θ B P B H H B C P H P H B B P B Sin θ = . AC2 < AB2 + BC2 In general. The centroid divides each median from the vertex in the ratio 2 : 1 Wisdom Education Page 17 . Cos θ = . Sec . AB BC AC = = DE EF DF Area of ABC Area of DEF DEF are similar.Cosec θ = . Then ABC and If ABC and DEF are similar. AC2 = AB2 + BC2 – 2(AB)(BC) cos B (Cosine Rule) Trigonometric Ratios: In a right triangle ABC.Summary of Quantitative Ability Acute angled triangle: All angles are less than 90o Right Angled Triangle: One angle is exactly 90o A A A B Obtuse angled C B B Acute angled C Right angled C In obtuse angled triangle. = AB 2 DE = BC 2 EF = AC 2 DF The line joining the vertex to the mid point of the opposite side is called median. Tan θ = . if AC2 > AB2 + BC2 In right angled.

2 If A (x1. the distance between their centres is equal to difference of their radii. The angle in a semicircle is 900. y1) and having slope m is y – y1= m (x–x1) Equation of a line through the points (x1. AD is median. y2) in the ratio m1 : m2 internally is m1 x2+ m2 x1 m1 y2+ m2 y1 m1 +m2 . then the area of the triangle A = r × s. y2) in the ratio m1 : m2 externally is The mid-point of the line joining A (x1 y1) and B (x2. a+b+c Where a = BC .y1) and B (x2 . D is mid point of BC) The point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle is called Incentre. ( AB. B (x2. y1) and (x2. AC are sides of a triangle. If the two circles touch externally. BC. the distance between their centres is equal to sum of their radii. A perpendicular drawn from the centre on to a chord bisects the chord Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. y2) is x1 +x2 y1 +y2 2 m1 x2− m2 x1 m1 y2− m2 y1 . The point which divides the line joining two points A(x1. y2) is x2 − x1 2 + y2 − y1 2 The point which divides the line joining two points A(x1. if D divides AB in the ratio m:n and E divides the side AC in the ratio m : n. Angle at the centre made by an arc is equal to twice the angle made by the arc at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. where s = If ‘R’ is the circum radius of the triangle ABC. y2) is y – y1 = y2 −y1 x2 −x1 (x – x1) Wisdom Education Page 18 . 3 ax1 +bx2 +cx3 ay1 +by2 +cy3 a+b+c . y3) are three vertices of a triangle. y1) and B(x2. m1 +m2 . Equation of a line through the point (x1. then AI ID = AB+AC BC m m+n In ABC. then PT2 = PA × PB Co-ordinate geometry The distance between two points A (x1 . b = CA and c = AB . If ‘r’ is the in radius of the triangle ABC. m1 −m2 m1 −m2 . if AD is the internal angular bisector. then = DC AC In ABC. y1).Summary of Quantitative Ability Apollonius theorem: AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + BD2). then DE is parallel to BC and DE = BC A line joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle must be parallel to the third side and half of third side. If the two circles touch internally. then o o centroid = Incentre = x1 +x2 +x3 y1 +y2 +y3 3 . y2) and C (x3. then PA × PB = PC × PD If PAB is a secant and PT is a tangent. BD AB In ABC. then the area of the triangle A = abc 4R a+b+c 2 Circle:. if AD is the internal angular bisector and ‘I’ is the incentre. y1) and B(x2. If two chords AB and CD intersect externally or internally at P.

nc0 + nc1 + nc2 + nc3 + . If m1 and m2 are the slopes of two perpendicular lines. y1). y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is Distance between parallel lines. k) and radius = r.. Permutations & Combinations n! n cr npr npr n cr n c0 n c1 np0 np1 npn−1 = = = = = = = = = = npn 1 ×2 × 3 ×. y1) and B (x2. × n n! n−r !r! n! n−r ! ncr × r! ncn−r ncn n. then m1m2 = –1 Length of perpendicular from the point (x1. Slope of a line equally inclined to equal the axis is –1 or 1 Slope of the line through the points A (x1.Summary of Quantitative Ability Equation of a line with intercepts a and b on x-axis and y-axis respectively is + = 1.. 1. Wisdom Education Page 19 . + ncn = 2n If an event ‘A’ can be done in ‘m’ ways and an other event ‘B’ can be done in ‘n’ ways. n.. then its area is 1 2 x1 − x2 y1 − y2 x1 − x3 1 y1 − y3 = 2 x1 − x2 )(y1 − y3 − (y1 − y2 )(x1 − x3 ) centre = (h . y3) are three vertices of a triangle. The equation of circle is (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. A (x2.. a b x y Slope of a line parallel of x-axis is zero Slope of a line parallel to y-axis is not defined. is – a b y2 −y1 x2 −x1 Slopes of two parallel are equal. then both the events ‘A’ and ‘B’ together can be done in a given order in m × n ways... ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + d = 0 c−d a2 +b2 ax1 +by1 +c a2 +b2 Area of triangle: If A (x1. y2) is Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0. y2) and C (x3. = n! = 1.

The odds in favor of an event A is P(A) : P( Ā). The odds against to an event A is P(Ā) : P(A).. If A and B are two independent events. ‘r’ objects can be arranged in ‘n’ places (r < n) in npr ways. ‘r’ objects can be distributed to ‘n’ persons (r < n) such that no person gets more than one in npr ways. if the occurrence of one event does not affect the occurrence of other event. The probability (or) chance of an event ‘A’ occurs is represented by P(A) = The number of outcomes satisying the event A The total number of possible outcomes The probability that an event ‘A’ does not occur is represented by P(Ā) = 1 – P(A). no two of which are parallel and no three of them pass through the same point are drawn on a plane. ‘n’ identical objects can be distributed to ‘r’ persons in (n + r − 1)c(r−1) ways. P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) = 1 – p(A ∩ B) o if A and B are mutually exclusive events. ‘n’ lines. the probability of occurring both A and B.. The number of ways of selecting one or more objects out of ‘n’ objects is 2n – 1 . Two events A and B are said to be independent. Then P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B). can be arranged in ‘n’ places in n! r! ways. P(A ∩ B) = 0.Summary of Quantitative Ability ‘n’ objects can be arranged in ‘n’ places in n! ways. The maximum number of triangles that can be formed using ‘n’ points out of which ‘r’ points are collinear is nc3 − rc3 The maximum number of intersection points formed by drawing ‘n’ lines is nc2 . ‘r’ objects can be selected out of ‘n’ objects (r < n) in ncr ways. ‘n’ objects can be distributed to ‘n’ persons such that each gets one in n! ways. P(A ∪ B ∪ C) = P (A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A ∩ B) – P(B ∩ C) – P(C ∩ A) + P (A ∩ B ∩ C) = 1 – P(A ∩ B ∩ C). ‘n’ objects can be distributed to ‘n’ persons (such that more than one can be given to a person) in nn ways. ‘n’ objects out of which ‘r’ are identical. represented by P(A∩B) = P(A) × P(B). The maximum number of intersection points formed by drawing ‘n’ circles is 2 × nc2 . + ncn = 2n) The maximum number of lines that can be drawn using ‘n’ non collinear points is nc2 . ‘r’ objects can be distributed to ‘n’ persons (such that more than one can be given to a person) in n r ways. The maximum number of lines that can be drawn using ‘n’ points out of which ‘r’ points are collinear is n c2 − r c2 + 1 The maximum number of triangles that can be formed using ‘n’ non collinear points is nc3 . Then the number of regions that the plane would be divided into is ( n) + 1 The number of diagonals that can be drawn in a polygon of ‘n’ sides is nc2 − n = Probability n(n−3) 2 . ‘n’ persons can sit around a circular table in (n – 1)! ways. (Since nc0 + nc1 + nc2 + .. Wisdom Education Page 20 . ‘n’ persons can stand in a row in n! ways.

Summary of Quantitative Ability Wisdom Education Page 21 .

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