routing selection & marine survey

DR. IR. RICKY LUKMAN TAWEKAL DWI HARIYO W BANGUNAN LEPAS PANTAI II (SUBSEA PIPELINE ENG.)

topics
ROUTING SELECTION & MARINE SURVEY

Routing Development & Selection Marine Survey

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EXPECTATION

Understand the routing selection criteria Know the routing desktop study Know the radius curvature Know the routing selection Know the main marine survey methods Know the survey equipment used and the data can be obtained Know which survey operation to perform at each stage in the installation of pipeline

routing development

Route Selection Criteria Desk Top Study Marine Survey Route Selection and Optimisation Pipeline Route Selection Example

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Route selection criteria RULES OF THUMB:

The shortest - Straight line is ideal – Minimise materials – Minimise pressure losses – Minimise installation risk Easiest for installation The safest, minimize risk & impact Minimize Cost

Route selection criteria
Easiest for Installation To be able to lay the pipeline The Safest, minimize risk & impact The selection of pipeline route is to minimize potential risks of of damage to the pipeline during installation and operation phases. The optimum pipeline route is to be selected based on the detail survey result within the specified pipeline corridor Perpendicular approach to the landfall Taking following factors to account:

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Route selection criteria
A surprising number of factors have to be taken into account:

Politics Water Depth (Avoid extremely shallow depth & extremely deep water) water) Avoidance of significant seasea-bottom undulation to minimize unsupported spans Seabed Features (Very hard seabed, Very soft seabed, Sand waves, Boulder fields, Wrecks, Debris, Rock outcrops, Mine fields, Active Faults, Faults, Pockmarks, Landslide/Mudslide areas, shallow gas, seabed slope) Existing Facilities (Existing platforms and risers, Minimized crossings crossings of existing pipelines & cables Third Parties (Submarine exercise areas, Fishing area, Dumping grounds, grounds, Dredging, Avoidance of Shipping Lane - ASL & Local, Marine/Nature Reserves, Mineral Deposit, Archaeological Site, Heritage, Military, Avoidance Avoidance of zones exposed to anchor damage, Avoidance of zones exposed to droppeddropped-object damage) Shore Crossings Maintain adequate clearance from adjacent islands Iceberg plow marks (site specific) Installation constraints

Route selection criteria

Straight line never happens cause:
– – – Seabed Features Third Parties Shore Crossings

– Installation Constraints – Environmental Considerations

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very soft silt) Sand waves Rock/coral outcrops Shallow gas Pock-marks Wrecks. debris Profile depth of seabed 5 .Routing .seabed features Seabed slopes Difficult soils (hard clay.

seabed features 6 .Routing – seabed features Routing .

seabed features Routing .seabed features 7 .Routing .

D 2.seabed features Radius of curvature The minimum radius of curvature. taken as 5% 8 . f ⋅ SMYS R = y⋅E f ⋅S where. R= E.Routing . R is based on the following bending stress equation. y = E = S = f = radius of steel pipe (mm) modulus of elasticity for steel (MPa ) (MPa) specified minimum yield stress (SMYS) (MPa ) (MPa) factor of safety.

dropped objects) – Access for tietie-ins (existing / future) – Drilling rig legs/anchors Generally want 500m clearance 9 . R a a D = pipe diameter fa = design factor x SMYS design factor = 5 − 10% SMYS = Minimum Yield Strength sin (α / 2) = x1 = x2 = xt = y / 2R y( R − y) y (2 R − y ) yR y (2 R − y ) y (2 R − y ) y L =αR Routing .D 2.third parties Existing facilities – – – – Pipelines (crossings. lay in corridors) Cables (power. proximity.Radius of curvature R= R= E. f ⋅ SMYS xt x2 x1 L 3ED . telecommunication. fiber optic) Wellheads (exploration and production) Platforms / FPSOs (available riser slots. 4 fa E = mod ulus of Elasticity.

third parties International boundaries Other exploration licences Fishing (commercial & recreational) Military Shipping lanes Dredging & Dumping areas Marine/Nature Reserves Routing – shore crossings Environmental constraints – conservation Social impact (fishermen) Land usage – proximity to people Beach mobility Minimise shore approaches (pipeline stability) Onshore routing / destination 10 .Routing .

Routing – shore crossings Routing – shore crossings 11 .

corridor 50100m wide) Platform approaches 12 .Routing – shore crossings BEACHPULL Routing – installation constraints Installation method Minimum curvature Vessel anchor patterns Vessel minimum operating draft Lay tolerances (+/-10m.

Routing – installation constraints Desk top study Start and Destination Gather all available information – – – – – Naval Charts Projects in the Region Seismic Data Environmental Constraints Block Ownership 13 .

Desk top study Propose Preliminary Routes (Rules of Thumb) – – – – The shortest The safest (Risk & Impact) Easiest to Install Cost Geodetical Geophysical Geotechnical HydroHydro-Oceanography Visual (optional) Define Scope of Work for Route (Marine) Survey – – – – – One day offshore will pay for months of office engineering time Desk top study Propose Preliminary Routes (Rules of Thumb) 14 .

DIVER) marine survey – geophysical & geotechnical Data Processing of Pipeline Route Survey Flow Chart Bathymetry Contouring Topography Map Sub Bottom Profile Thematic Map Side Scan Sonar Interpretation Description Magneto Description Soil Laboratory Analysis General Description Drawing Map REPORT Thematic Map 15 . AUV.Marine survey Survey are for finding information about: Geodetic Survey: Geodetical parameters Geophysical: The seabed along the pipeline route (contours) Geotechnical: The nature of soil HydroHydro-Oceanography: Meteorology & Environmental Load Visual: Real Time Monitoring (by ROV.

Marine (route) survey Offshore Geodetic Survey: – Remote Sensing (SRTM Image inhomogeneous topography area) – Aerial Photography – Static Global Positioning System (GPS) & Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Survey – Traverse – Profiling & CrossCross-Section Leveling – Advance contour mapping with fast. accurate and flexible result for planning. design and construction Marine (route) survey SRTM FOTOGRAMETRI Aerial photography FOTO KIRI FOTO KANAN PROYEKTOR KIRI PROYEKTOR KANAN FOTO UDARA DENGAN PERTAMPALAN (60% .70%) RESTITUSI MODEL 3D MODEL 3D TRACING TABLE PROYEKSI TEGAK PETA BOBBY SD .1999 16 .

geophysical Bathymetry Medium Resolution – – – – Single beam enchosounder Hull Mounted 750m wide swathe Best – 8m footprint size High Resolution – – – Multi Beam Towed close to seabed Much narrower swathe 17 .Marine (route) survey Offshore Geophysical Survey: – – – – – Bathymetry Side Scan Sonar SubSub-bottom profiling Grab samples Magnetometer marine survey .

wellhead. wrecks.geophysical Side scan sonar Used to find seabed profile.marine survey .geophysical marine survey . rock outcrops etc Towed fish 18 .

geophysical Seabed feature from side scan sonar record E PIP PIPE SANDY CORAL HIGH REFLECTIVITY DIRECTION OF SHIP MOVEMENT 50 Meter E PIP 120 Meter HIGH REFLECTIVITY CORAL DOMINATED BUT SAND ALSO EXHIBITED 19 .marine survey .geophysical Seabed feature from side scan sonar record marine survey .

geophysical Seabed feature from side scan sonar record SIDE SCAN SONAR RECORD COARSE SAND & SHELLS MODERATE REFLECTIVITY ROCK ROCK HIGH REFLECTIVITY DIRECTION OF SHIP MOVEMENT ROCK COARSE SAND & SHELLS ROCK 50 Meter MODERATE REFLECTIVITY 120 Meter MODERATE REFLECTIVITY 20 .marine survey .geophysical Seabed feature from side scan sonar record SIDE SCAN SONAR RECORD CORAL HIGH REFLECTIVITY CORAL CORAL CORAL DIRECTION OF SHIP MOVEMENT 50 Meter 120 Meter CORAL HIGH REFLECTIVITY CORAL HIGH REFLECTIVITY marine survey .

geophysical Seabed profile from subsub-bottom profiler SUB BOTTOM PROFILER RECORD 60 Meter SEA WATER 80 Meter SEA WATER 100 Meter LAYER 1 LAYER 1 SEABED SURFACE 120 Meter LAYER 2 LAYER 1 140 Meter SEAB ED SU RFAC E LAYER 2 LAYER 2 160 Meter 500 Meter 180 Meter 21 .marine survey .geophysical SubSub-bottom profiler General purpose pinger Seismic structure of top 1010-15m of seabed Looking for reflector horizons Acoustic signature Can use AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) marine survey .

marine survey .geophysical Seabed profile from subsub-bottom profiler 10 Meter SEA WATER 183 Meter 20 Meter ROCK OUTCROP 30 Meter SEABED SURFACE LAYER 1 40 Meter LAYER 2 LAYER 2 SEABED SURFACE LAYER 1 SEA WATER LAYER 1 ROCK LAYER 2 Line ESC marine survey Offshore Geotechnical Survey: – Sampling – Field Test: Gravity Cores Box Cores Cone Penetrometer (CPT) Vibrocore Drilling Deep Boring Test Undisturbed Soil Sampling Standard Penetration Test Vane Shear Test Dutch Cone Penetration Test Specific Gravity Content Grain Size Analysis Atterberg Limit Shrinkage Limit – Laboratory Test: – Frequency of sampling varies for trenched vs onon-bottom pipeline (500m to 5km) 22 .

geotechnical Soil sample from drop coring Soil sample from CPT Soil sample from vibrocore marine survey . density.marine survey .geotechnical Data interpretation – Types of soil or rock at or below seabed – Thickness of layer – Engineering characteristic: strength. porosity etc 23 .

463 0.480 0.437 0.227 0.468 0.223 0.247 0.252 0.59 0.60 0.7 BT 10.2 7.442 0.35 3.211 0.241 0.55 0.9 LS 05º56’.58 BT 106º.17 7.11’.Marine survey Hydro-oceanography survey HEIGHT & PERIOD OF WAVE & WAVE TRANSFORMATION PHYSICAL CONDITION TIDAL CURRENT VELOCITY WIND SPEED Metocean data Lokasi Panjang Pipa (m) Location 1 Posisi Kedalaman Perairan (m) Periode Ulang Parameter Metocean Kecepatan Angin Angin 60 menit-an Tinggi Gelombang Tinggi Gelombang Signifikan Periode Gelombang Signifikan Panjang Gelombang Signifikan Elevasi Muka Air Mean Sea Level (MSL) Higher Water level (di atas MSL) Lowest Water level (di bawah MSL) Kecepatan Arus Kecepatan Total (karena pasut dan angin) 0 % dari kedalaman 10 % dari kedalaman 20 % dari kedalaman 30 % dari kedalaman 40 % dari kedalaman 50 % dari kedalaman 60 % dari kedalaman 70 % dari kedalaman 80 % dari kedalaman 90 % dari kedalaman 100 % dari kedalaman V0 V10 V20 V30 V40 V50 V60 V70 V80 V90 V100 m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s Hs Ts Ls m s m 1 12373 Dari Ke 05º58’.427 24 .218 0.89 11.1 LS 106º.452 0.474 0.447 0.207 0.42 85.457 0.93 m m m 0.5 1 100 Simbol W60 Unit m/s 3.236 0.214 0.14 2.432 0.232 0.35 0.

Route selection Review Survey Data Refine Preliminary Routes – – – – The shortest The safest (Risk & Impact) Easiest to Install Cost Bottom Roughness Assessment – Software tools to predict spans – Optimise routes Route selection Desktop Study Route survey Seabed profile Bottom Roughness Design Allowable Span Length Mix Data & Compare OK Select Final Route NO Modify Route 25 .

Route selection PrePre-lay .Diverless ROV Trenchers Ploughs Supports Routing study case 1 Very rugged seabed Very high tidal currents across the possible pipeline routes means the seabed is very mobile 3 pipeline routes need to be fitted in LNG tanker terminal and shipping traffic 26 .Diverless Matts Strakes CRP Mass PrePreexcavation – PSL Jetprop Grout Bags Post Lay .

EPIC contractor may elect to optimize the pipeline route further during detailed design.Routing study case 2 1.0m from the top of pipe The onshore pipeline shall be buried with minimum burial depth of 1. 6. 5. routing 27 .0m from the top of pipe. the pipeline would then headed generally in the NorthNorth-East direction toward the new PLEM. From the Balongan onshore end. 4. 2. It is proposed that the submerged pipeline shall be postpost-trenched to a minimum burial depth of 2.46 km. the pipeline installation startstart-up will probably be initiated from the Balongan onshore facilities end. 3. Total pipeline length is 10. Due to the shore approach section of the pipeline.

P .4 5 2 1 .P .3 0 4 2 8 1 7 . 4 K .6 7 4 2 8 2 3 .P .3 0 9 3 4 . 2 I.1 7 4 7 4 9 4 .P .P . 9 T .7 2 4 2 6 .Pipeline route coordinate L o c a t io n S ta r t P o in t ( S .8 0 1 9 2 .2 2 2 9 7 9 7 4 .7 6 9 7 1 .6 2 7 5 0 7 .2 9 9 7 6 9 .0 8 Routing study case 3 Installation subsea pipeline from Teluk Banten to Muara Karang PS to Muara Tawar PS 28 .5 6 3 0 1 5 3 9 .9 8 1 3 3 8 . 6 K .5 9 9 7 6 9 .3 7 2 9 5 3 3 7 .5 2 2 9 6 4 7 0 .P .2 6 2 9 5 8 5 1 .3 1 3 0 9 8 . 1 0 T .9 6 4 5 8 5 7 .9 5 4 6 7 4 5 .P .5 0 3 9 7 .2 9 9 8 5 6 .1 8 8 5 2 1 .3 3 4 3 7 8 0 .5 8 2 9 5 4 0 2 .8 2 4 6 3 6 8 .1 6 4 6 0 7 7 . 1 1 T .4 2 3 0 3 0 6 4 .6 5 4 4 4 4 4 .2 2 4 7 4 1 8 .9 8 4 2 8 0 3 .7 1 R a d iu s ( m ) 3000 3000 3000 3000 2 0 . 1 4 T .2 6 2 9 6 0 4 0 . 8 T . 2 K .1 4 3 2 4 .3 8 3 0 2 2 6 3 .6 4 9 7 4 7 .P .9 5 6 2 9 .9 2 4 7 0 5 5 .5 6 3 0 3 2 8 2 . 1 5 I.9 4 6 0 1 6 .P .4 1 3 0 0 6 5 5 .3 2 8 7 .7 7 4 8 5 .6 4 2 9 6 8 3 8 .5 7 1 0 1 1 .3 2 2 0 .0 6 1 2 1 . 1 6 EP E a s tin g ( m ) 4 7 5 9 2 .3 7 2 9 9 7 7 7 .1 0 2 9 6 2 3 8 . 1 2 T .P .5 7 2 9 6 6 1 4 .2 9 4 2 8 0 9 .P . 1 5 T .5 1 4 7 4 6 5 .8 2 2 9 5 3 5 1 .8 6 2 9 5 3 6 8 .0 5 9 6 6 .6 8 8 1 2 4 .7 8 4 2 7 7 6 .7 8 2 9 5 5 9 2 .P .5 5 4 1 5 .6 0 2 9 5 3 1 7 . 5 K .1 4 2 9 5 4 1 5 .2 6 7 9 0 . 8 I.P .5 9 9 7 4 7 .0 3 4 7 3 9 8 .4 1 4 3 0 8 1 .0 4 2 9 7 1 7 1 .P .4 9 2 9 8 8 6 7 .8 2 4 4 1 0 3 .8 4 4 7 3 6 8 .P .7 2 5 4 7 . 1 I.P .P .P .5 9 3 0 2 9 9 5 .0 3 4 4 8 7 8 . 1 3 T . 1 4 I.2 6 2 1 3 2 .7 4 4 4 7 5 0 .2 5 4 5 2 2 1 .) T .3 4 3 9 .P .P .3 2 8 8 4 6 . 1 K .3 4 3 0 3 1 0 6 .7 3 3 0 3 2 2 1 .7 1 4 4 5 8 9 . 9 I.2 6 N o r th in g ( m ) 3 0 3 4 9 6 .7 2 L e n g th (m ) 0 234 C u m u la t iv e L e n g t h ( m ) 0 234 234 4 2 6 .7 0 6 1 6 .6 2 6 8 7 8 .8 2 6 8 7 8 .P .0 9 9 3 3 1 .P .6 5 4 3 4 9 5 . 2 K .3 7 5 0 0 4 .6 1 4 0 3 3 .2 8 7 9 4 .P .6 3 9 8 9 6 .6 8 7 5 0 7 . 7 T .2 1 4 2 7 9 3 .P . 1 T . 3 K .P .8 8 8 6 1 .

Langeled Routing study case 4 Ormen Lange – Langeled Concept 29 .Routing study case 4 Ormen Lange .

Routing study case 4 Routing study case 4 30 .

Routing study case 4 Ormen Lange – Langeled Routing Routing study case 4 Narrow & Steep Landfall 31 .

Routing study case 4 Routing study case 4 32 .

Langeled 33 .Routing study case 4 Routing study case 4 Ormen Lange .

Routing study case 4 Steep Landfall & Sharp Curve Routing study case 5 Gas Pipeline from Fraser Delta to Vancouver Island 34 .

The plan was to construct two lines to obtain additional security. Oscillatory shear stresses induced by an earthquake might liquefy the loose and geologically recent sand and silt sediments of the bank. so that if a flowside should occur. and would make it liable to challenge challenge in the United States legal system. British Columbia has fewer earthquakes than California to the south south or Alaska to the north. larger pipelines pipelines had already been constructed across the Strait of Messina (between Sicily Sicily and mainland Italy) in 380m and across the Strait of Sicily (between Tunisia and Sicily) in 615m. chosen because the expected demand would justify that size. In the deeper water in the center of the Strait. the sand would flow along the pipeline rather than across it. Landward sections of the bank are covered by grasses and seaweeds seaweeds and are fish spawning areas. as well as as numerous state and local authorities. The route runs straight down the slope (down the fall line). which is mostly dry at low low tide and covered by about 1m of water at high tide. The land portion of the delta consists of lowlow-lying islands. liquefy. and parts parts of the foreslope could then become unstable. The delta is fronted by a tidal flat. With that information.Routing study case 5 British Columbia Hydro & Power Authority wished to build a pipeline pipeline across the strait of Georgia. Roberts Bank. it was agreed to schedule construction construction to avoid the spawning season. and slide downhill into deeper water. Routing study case 5 The top of the bank is almost level. about midmid-way between the South Arm of the Fraser and Canoe Pass. An early decision decision was not to cross that boundary because to do so would bring part of the pipeline pipeline under the jurisdiction of United States federal authorities. The risk of liquefaction is least where the gradient gradient of the foreslope is smallest. So it was decided that the pipeline should traverse traverse the foreslope at that point. cuts across the Point Roberts peninsula. This was the decision because a pipeline can withstand very large forces applied along its length but only much much smaller forces applied across its length. The political boundary between Canada and the USA at 49 deg N lies lies just south of the delta. from the Fraser Delta area south of Vancouver Vancouver to a landing on Vancouver Island. The pipeline diameter was a nominal 10in (273. Therefore. and extends westward to the middle of the Strait of Georgia.05mm outside diameter). 35 . it was reasonable to conclude conclude that the deep water would not be an obstacle. but there are occasional large earthquakes. the maximum depth depth is about 380m. At the time the route was being investigated. but the foreslope on the seaward side is relatively steep.

to restart laying at the foot of the cliffs. cliffs. Galiano Ridge. The ridge is bordered by nearnear-vertical cliffs up to 20 m high. and the studies concluded that the best option was to lay the pipeline to the top of the cliffs. Routing study case 6 Gas Pipeline from Algeria to Spain 36 . its sides have quiet modest slopes. Various construction alternatives were studied. Later. preshaped to fit cliff and connected by hyperbaric welding. which is feasible because the depth to the top of the ridge is about about 160m. too soft to support construction equipment or or rock embankments. On either side of the ridge. pipelines. The route then continued onto Valdes Island and across Stuart Channel Channel to Vancouver Island. lies parallel to Galiano and Valdes Islands. the seabed is silt. At first it was thought that there were no gaps in the ridge. a submerged ridge of sandstone. another marine survey found that a gently sloping sloping curved valley led up onto the ridge and that there was enough space to construct two pipelines through the valley. it would have been wiser to call it Valdes Valley because the word word gap allowed people opposed to the project to imply that it is a steep steep-sided canyon feature through which it would be difficult to lay pipelines. In retrospect.Routing study case 5 On the western side of the deep water. sandstone. and to join the ends by a length length of pope (spool piece). In reality. however. The project was called the valley valley Valdes Gap because it was a gap in the ridge opposite Valdes Island.

The second is related related to the complex flow of water through the strait. These effects are at their most severe on the crest of the Camarinal Sill and are less strong in the deeper water on either side. The next question was where to cross cross the Strait. The project project is described in detail in the proceeding of a Conference Proceedings Proceedings (1995) “Gibraltar Submarine Gas Pipeline: Meeting the Challenge” Challenge”. but if Moroccan waters are are to be avoided. reconciliation between the two countries made a route through Morocco practicable. and also has to avoid Gibraltar which is disputed between Britain & Spain. the water is much shallower because of a submarine mountain range. between 300m 300m and 400m. the greatest water depth is at least 2500m. political differences differences between Algeria & Morocco made that route inaccessible. Internal waves form on the interface. The route finally chosen skirted the ridge to the west. and for a long time. a route along the range encounters two difficulties. and at the time that was thought technically impracticable for a largelarge-diameter pipeline. Routing study case 6 Less saline and less dense Atlantic water flows from west to east east through the top of the strait. called by oceanographers the Camarinal Sill. 37 . A crossing at the easterly end of the strait encounters very deep water. Direct crossings crossings from Algeria to Spain were considered. but laying laying the pipeline there means traversing Morocco. However. The level of the interface changes with the tides tides in the Atlantic and is influenced by largelarge-scale oceanographic changes. That is another another reason to avoid the crest of the range. minutes. The first is that the range has a rough and broken topography (as one one might expect from a similar range on land) so that a pipeline that followed followed the crest of the range would have many long spans. Depths on the top of the range are much less. Dense saline Mediterranean Mediterranean water flows from the east to west through the bottom of the strait. west. difficulties. The consequence is that currents are are strong and highly variable and that they change markedly within a few minutes. Further west. which runs northnorth-south in an irregular curve. more than 900m to the south of Gibraltar. That position has now changed.Routing study case 6 The shortest marine crossing is the strait of Gibraltar. In the late 1980s.

routing Route Selection Criteria Desk Top Study Marine (route) Survey Route Selection and Optimization Questions? Routing . manifolds.deepwater Deep Water Gas Development – – – – Subsea to Shore (wells. controls. pipelines… pipelines…) Scarp Crossing Shore Crossing Onshore Processing Hydro Media 38 .

scarp Subsea to Beach – Preferred Development Option – Scarp is in the way Shortest Route – Reduced pressure drop – Smaller Diameter – Smaller Umbilical – Defer compression Save Money 39 .scarp A steep slope or long cliff that results from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.

Scarp – the challenges Geohazards – Turbity Currents – Mud Slides – Scarp Failure – Triggers (Seismic / Metocean) Metocean) Large Free Spans – Steep Slopes – Large Diameter Pipeline – Installation Capabilities Flow Assurance – Sand Transport – Slugging Scarp – geohazard challenges Slope Failure – 3 deg slopes – Seismic event – Soil type – Debris Flow / Turbidity Current Loads on the Pipeline Pipeline movement Freespan creation Lateral buckling initiation 40 .

Scarp – geohazard challenges Understand the Risks – Survey (Geophysical and Geotechnical) – Data Acquisition on Steep Slopes – Age dating of flows – Modelling of Geohazards Pipeline Routing: – Avoid Failure Prone Slopes – Avoid Soil RunRun-out Areas – Probability and Consequence Modelling Scarp – large free span challenges Large Spans Multi-Mode VIV Multiple Interacting Spans 41 .

Next chapter WALL THICKNESS STUDY & MATERIAL GRADE SELECTION Wall thickness & buckling Material grade selection Introduction to Stress & Strain on Pipeline Design Basis loads Loads: Functional & Environmental Gaya Gelombang Gaya Arus 42 .

Stress on pipe Stress on Pipe SEKIAN….. TERIMA KASIH 43 .