Six Sigma

Tools

Jay Arthur

© 2003 Jay Arthur

1

Six Sigma Examples

or E-mail support: Contact Jay Arthur at the phone. 1993. CO 80224-2518 (888) 468-1535 or (303) 281-9063 (orders only) (888) 468-1537 or (303) 756-9144 (phone) (888) 468-1536 or (303) 753-9675 (fax) lifestar@rmi.Six Sigma® Simplified Tools © 2003 by Jay Arthur Published by LifeStar 2244 S.net www. Olive St. 2001 The Six Sigma Instructor's Guide (2nd). or e-mail to the address above. ISBN 0-471-57804-5 Phone. Greenbelt Training Made Easy. fax or e-mail address above for any questions you have about Six Sigma or using this book. LifeStar. 287 pages. 2003 Improving Software Quality. Also by Jay Arthur: The Six Sigma Simplified (2nd). © 2003 Jay Arthur 2 Six Sigma Examples . Denver. (888) 468-1537. John Wiley & Sons. Permission to reprint quotes and excerpts in company or business periodicals–magazines or newsletters–is given and encouraged with the following credit line: "reprinted from Six Sigma Tools by Jay Arthur. Fax. call. Greenbelt Training Made Easy." Any Six Sigma Book can be customized to reflect a company's improvement process.qimacros. LifeStar. write. For information.com Upgrade Your KnowWare®! All rights reserved.

......................................... 7 Box and Whisker ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Using the QI Macros .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Pie Chart ................................................................................................................... 64 © 2003 Jay Arthur 3 Six Sigma Examples ......................................................... 8 Frequency Histogram ............. 45 GageR&R .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. u .................................................................................................................. 34 Checksheet .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Transition Planning Matrix ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Control Charts .......................................................................................................... 42 FMEA and EMEA .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Ishikawa (fishbone) Diagram ................................................................................................................ 32 Arrow .......................................................................... 40 Fault Tree .................................................................Table of Contents Six Sigma Simplified .............................................. 11 Multivari Chart ...... 30 Action ............ 5 Basic Graphs . 37 Cost of Poor Quality . 39 Design of Experiments ..................................................................................... 50 PDPC ...................................................................... 62 Sustaining the Improvement .. 12 Pareto Chart .... np... 31 Affinity .......................... 53 Pugh Concept Selection Matrix ....................................................................... 26 Six Sigma Templates .............................................................................................................................................. 35 Control Plan .. p................................. 56 Targets and Means ..................................................... 43 Force Field ................................................. 41 Flow Chart ........................................................................................... 9 Histogram ...................................... 63 Design for Reliability ..... 22 X Charts ........... 55 Relationship/Systems Diagram ........................................................................................................................... 15 Scatter Chart ................ 36 Cost/Benefit ................................................................................................... 60 Value Added Analysis ................ 61 Laser-Focus ............................................................................. 7 Bar Chart ................................................................ 17 Cusum Chart ............. 33 Block ...... 59 Voice of the Customer .................................................................................... 49 Matrix ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Countermeasures Matrix ................................................................................................................... 52 Precontrol ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 58 Tree Diagram ............................................................... 10 Line Graph ........ 17 Understanding Control Charts ................................................... 18 Attribute Charts: c...................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Run Chart ...........................................................................................................................................

Honor FI HS Value-Added Worksheet Step 3 .45 to 0.198 Cpk(Rd2)=1.95 0.90 0.00 to 1. Why.085 15 What's next? Control Charts (Stability) Attribute np.00 30 Cp(sigma)=1. Review.Focus Quality Speed Factory Fix-it: Defects + Delay = Cost Root Cause Analysis Value-added AnalyMain: Quality + Speed = Profit (Why.65 to 0.039 Mode=0.80 to 0. Why?) sis (Where?) Hint: It's the Arrows Tools Tools Tree Diagram What's important? Line Graph What's broken? Pareto Chart 4-50 Rule Fishbone (Ishikawa) Flow Chart Countermeasures Where's the Verify Root Causes "Mother Lode" Line Graph Pareto Chart Cost of Quality Step 4 .60 to 0.70 to 0.074 Ppk=1.65 Mean=0.85 to 0.45 USL=1.05 Variable XmR XbarR XbarS Six Sigma Examples .u © 2003 Jay Arthur 4 10 5 0 0.70 25 Cp(Rd2)=1.Improve Step 1 .50 to 0.90 to 0. Refocus What did we do right? Tools Where else can we apply what we've learned? Flow Chart Histogram (Capability) Size n=125 LSL=0.72 Median=0.039 20 Sigma=0.159 Pp=1.50 0.60 0.80 0.85 0.65 0.00 1.75 to 0.70 0.55 0. p c.Six Sigma Simplified Laser-Focused Improvement Step 2 .55 to 0.95 to 1.75 0.074 Cpk(sigma)=1.Sustain Monitor and Sustain New Levels of Performance in Mission Critical Systems Recognize.

age. and between 3-4 Sigma (Cp=1. just reduce variation.0 1.7). Does this mean there are two different populations in the data (e. 0. Cpk > 1 .. How? 1.Process is capable and centered.If you look at the chart you can see that the bars are closely aligned to the normal curve: you have a normal distribution..e. Run the Histogram 3.0-to1. Because Cp ~ Cpk. money.g. width. Evaluate central tendency. variable) data like time. process is centered between LSL and USL. but there's a gap in the data. Cpk Sigma 3 4 5 6 Cp/Cpk 1.Histogram Why? When? Evaluate the capability of a process to meet customer's specifications using measured (i.0 Cp > 1 . combining heights or weights of men and women into one chart will produce two peaks)? © 2003 Jay Arthur 10 Six Sigma Examples . not shifted either direction. (Don't need to shift the process mean. and capability of your process. Analyze capability of the process. distribution.33).) Normal .g.Process is capable (products fall between upper and lower specification limits).33 1. Process could be improved by reducing variation and tightening up the production around a target (e. and weight. Data Diameters What can you learn? Cp.67 2.. length.

3*sqrt(c) © 2003 Jay Arthur 22 Six Sigma Examples ... injuries.) The c chart is useful when it's easy to count the number of defects and the opportunity is large but chance is small (e. etc. Monitor defects when the opportunity is large compared to the actual number of defects (e. Select the labels and data. Run the c Chart 3. Service Example Special Cause Data Patient Falls Manufacturing Example Special Cause c Chart UCL: c + 3*sqrt(c) CL: c = Σci/n LCL: c . Sample Size Constant Why? When? Monitor process with multiple defects per sample over a given period. injuries/month). Analyze special causes of any instabilities. Evaluate the c chart. patient falls. How? 1.g.g. 2.c Chart Attribute Data (defects).

get The QI Macros For Microsoft Excel. © 2003 Jay Arthur 30 Six Sigma Examples .Six Sigma Templates To automate all of your improvement documentation.

2. Choose appropriate design (4.high/ low) 3.or 4 factors). Run the experiment 5. The purpose of DOE is to quickly and efficiently discover the optimum conditions that produce top quality.) Optimal solution lies at intersection of "confounding" factors (e. How? 1. Verify results © 2003 Jay Arthur 40 Six Sigma Examples . Select experimental factors. 4. potential causes. and factors (usually 2.3.g. 6. Trial-and-error is the slowest method of discovering these optimal conditions and usually misses the effects of various interactions. Determine objectives. higher temp. and levels (+/-.. DOE significantly reduces the time and trials necessary to discover the best combination of factors to produce the desired level of quality and robustness. longer pour time). Analyze the data to determine interactions and best factor levels (Flat line = no effect. or 16 trials) and randomize sequence of trials Slope of line shows there is an effect caused by both factors.Design of Experiments Why? When? After problem solving to identify plan for implementing changes. 8. identify potential interactions.