Three Revolutionary Architects, Boullée, Ledoux, and Lequeu Author(s): Emil Kaufmann Source: Transactions of the American Philosophical

Society, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 3 (1952), pp. 431-564 Published by: American Philosophical Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1005689 . Accessed: 10/07/2011 13:42
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TRANSACTIONS
OF THE

SOCIETY PHILOSOPHICAL AMERICAN
HELD AT PHILADELPHIA USEFUL KNOWLEDGE FOR PROMOTING

NEW SERIES-VOLUME 1952

42, PART 3

THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS, BOULLEE, LEDOUX, AND LEQUEU

EMIL KAUFMANN

THE

AMERICAN

PHILOSOPHICAL SQUARE
6 PHILADELPHIA
1952 OCTOBER,

SOCIETY

INDEPENDENCE

COPYRIGHT 1952 BY THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

Prof. Bibl. Mass. John Shapley. Cambridge. New York. and quite particularly to the ever helpful librarians of Avery Library. Columbia University. Inst. Columbia University. EMIL KAUFMANN Los Angeles. New York City. I wish also to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in various ways in the preparation of this book. Bibliotheque Nationale. (portrait of Ledoux). Paul Frankl. Prof.PREFACE I am deeply indebted to the American Philosophical Society for having made possible the completion of this study by its generous grants. Prof. Leo C. Avery Library. Paris (H6tel Brunoy). Prof. New York. D. librarian of the Architectural Library. Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration. Md. New York. above all to M. Prof. Inst. Adolf Placzek. My best thanks go to the libraries in which I had the privilege to work. California. Julius S. Princeton. Oxford. The quotations are in the original orthography. Mr. Columbia University. Princeton. Talbot F. The bibliographical references conform with the abbreviations of the World List of Historical Periodicals. Museum of Modern Art. 1939.December 1951 431 . Donald Drew Egbert. For permission to reproduce drawings and photographs I am indebted to the Cabinet d'Estampes. Washington. New York (etchings by Le Geay). Erwin Panofsky. Dr. Prof. Catholic University of America. Hamlin. Paris (drawings of Boullee and Lequeu). Collins. Baltimore Museum of Art. Archives photographiques. C. Nationale. Jean Adhemar. Paris. Baltimore. Harvard University. for Advanced Study. and Miss Ruth Cook. Prof. James Grote Van Derpool. Prof. Meyer Schapiro. for Advanced Study. Held. Princeton University. Architect Philip Johnson.

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. I...... ............................. V.................... Life and Character ........................ ......... To begin with. Therefore...... The Propylaea of Paris .. Baroque Survivals ... JEAN-JACQUES IX.... LEDOUX......... In an article published in 1929 I attempted to direct attention to their historic significance. were followed by French biographies in 1934 and 1945...... When the Tempest Stills . I will discuss the predecessors of these three men who were also highly interesting personalities.............. including the first monograph... I know that one can look at the extremely original works of these three architects from various angles.. 488 494 LEQUEU ................. II...... The Thinker .... The A rtist ....... Public Buildings ........................ As to Boullee and Lequeu..................... The M an ......... 474 479 481 483 483 486 ......... I should like to make it clear that I do not regard as "revolutionary architects" those architects who were commissioned by revolutionary authorities in the years 1789-1799 to design public buildings.... while others are too lengthy for the average reader.. Utilitarian Buildings ..... Continued research yielded much new material. Some of the treatises I have used are rare and not easily accessible... X............. Struggle for Grandeur ..... .................. seem to be the only biographical studies on these two men.. Index .................................... III........ memorials or ephemeral decorations for revolutionary 433 ..... CONTENTS PAGE Ledoux PAGE Introduction ......................... that of eighteenthcentury French architectural theory................ Beyond this their works were referred to very briefly..... and enter another hitherto neglected field.. . 1939 and 1949. The architects considered here did not treatises referred to in the text............ just as they will find among the illustrations many designs not before reproduced.... Jean-Laurent Le Geay ......... Plan ......... Lequeu's Work ........... IV... Residences ............ Although the attempt here is to clarify the historical position of the architects by setting off their production against the general trends of their period. Buildings Erected or Projected ................ CLAUDE-NICOLAS LEDOUX .. Baroque and Classicism . The Heritage of the Past ... ... The Rule of Geometry . 433 436 436 436 446 448 450 453 459 469 474 VII... selected passages which provide a deeper insight into the thought of the era and reveal the character of their authors have been assembled in my notes.. The Search for New Forms . The Teachers .... INTRODUCTION As late as the 1920's the works of Boullee and Ledoux were discussed only if they had some local interest... Bibliography . Lequeu's Life ... les arts se reveillent. and of the celebrations... and the authors were commonly disparaged. 498 499 504 509 509 514 517 524 538 538 545 546 549 552 554 555 556 558 559 560 PART II............ Germain Boffrand .... but will carry on with independent and better interpretations based on a renewed scrutiny of their works..................... at best. This book ventures into unmapped territory............ un nouveau jour commence. it does not pretend to say the last word on the development which it will discuss for the first time....... The Fashion of Classicism ........ New Ways of Spatial Composition The Ideal of Individualism ...... Jacques-Franqois Blondel ........... ARCHITECTS..THREE REVOLUTIONARY BOULLEE......... PART I....... Abbe Laugier ........... Modern Composition ........................... further bibliographical references are included in the notes. In the Style of the Stage ........ my essays in the Art Bulletin................. Exoticism ..... Toward a New Composition ........ VIII.... ETIENNE-LouIs BOULLEE .... AND LEQUEU EMIL KAUFMANN Deja l'aurore s'empare du monde ... PART III...... Moreover........... The Ideal City .......................... VI. Those interested in Ledoux will find here sources that are missing in other biographies... The bibliography lists monographs and essays of general interest...... Subsequent publications of mine on Ledoux..... It attempts to lay the groundwork for an investigation of the architecture of the era which culminated in the French Revolution.............. New Surface Patterns ............ It is to be hoped that others will not limit themselves to pointing out the shortcomings of this attempt...

He will rather study how the concept of the individual's rights. 2 In this investigation the term "Baroque" will be used in a wider sense. Along with the general unrest which was to lead to the political revolution. Benoit. . how people began to defend the new ideas. Vienna. but aimed at expressiveness.. They were men imbued with the great new ideals set forth by the leading thinkers of the century. supports in the shapes of Caryatides and Atlantes. Self-contained. legitimately through form.' But there are other reasons why the great changes remained almost unnoticed up to recent times. though not sufficiently realistic. 48. the chief aims were the expression of character. The French architects at the close of the century were not content with literary picturesqueness. This erroneous belief resulted from the fact that the protagonists of the architectural revolution fell into oblivion when the ideas for which they fought were discredited. the reactionaries were to triumph over the inspired. disparages Ledoux: ". Secondly. and those which proved to be merely whimsical and transitory. to express these ideals in their own medium. The revolutionary architects also passed from the traditional to the geometrical forms because their attitude toward the material had undergone a profound change. On the contrary.. No broadminded historian of the French Revolution will restrict himself to the deeds and misdeeds which occurred in the years of turmoil. of the Renaissance and the Baroque. and strove unconsciously rather than intentionally. L'art francais sous la Revolution et l'Empire. and finally find. but realize that then certain new artistic . AMER. PHIL. In architecture. a new principle of composition. of course. and in social life. had he not enjoyed a certain reputation while alive. from the destruction of the Bastille to the ultimate restoration of order. it was restraint. 1897.434 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. and in principle they rejected any imitation of the past. and been a member of the Institut de France.3 3 In my Von Ledoux bis Le Corbusier. must deal with the growth of ideas before commenting on their materialization. so that it is only by turning to the writings and projects of the architects that one can learn about the aspirations of the era. their goal was no longer outward show. La megalomanie dans l'architecture. devotes two pages to Boullee ridiculing the artist: "de projets tres pousses. I pointed out that one should not see merely the sterile classicism about 1800. of the main architectural trends in the late eighteenth century may help to make this detailed investigation more easily comprehensible. Henry. In the late eighteenth century.. even of the Baroque's last stage with all its sumptuousness and exaggeration. 59. went a slowly-growing dissatisfaction with the established modes of artistic composition. . Revolutionary architecture differed in that its creators were hostile to revivalism of any kind. however. nor did they belong to the host of minor artists who pretended that they were abreast of the times when they affixed Phrygian caps or other petty emblems to thoroughly conventional designs. the different currents crossed constantly and in many of the revolutionary works reminiscences of the Baroque." He also finds that Boullee would not deserve mention at all. failing temporarily. A glorious artistic tradition was abandoned. even more important. Well-balanced harmony within a hierarchical order had been a foremost aim. il inventa des monstruosites. new forms and. F. Historians have believed that architecture and the fine arts in general remained apart from the eighteenthcentury movement of reorientation and reorganization. In reality. Although some of their experiments were expressive of the excitement of the period. Art history. to antiquity and to the Middle Ages. L'Architecte 5: 92-97. etc. SOC. on the surface at least. conserva2 tive. the creation of atmosphere. as momentous as the contemporaneous changes in philosophical thinking. But the most advanced of the designs resemble in plainness and monumentality those of the twentieth century. avide d'inedit. Paris. This discontent caused the architects to search for. or furniture legs ending in claws. dont quelques-uns deconcertent au premier abord . and the division of the composition into independent units. The forms which promised best to serve the double end of expressiveness and individualism were those of elementary geometry. . 1933. many of the actual buildings by the revolutionaries were. they allowed the architect to give "character" to a building by differentiating the constituents in size. 267. and reached their climax in the Baroque proper. e.g. play any active role in the political scene. adhering to Baroque tenets or looking back to the remote past-above all. on devine ce qu'il pouvait faire du chateau de Versailles . great events took place in eighteenthcentury architecture-events which were as significant as the processes of transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. . modernists. ." Only recently it seems. has opinion about these artists changed in their country. likewise. and of a new order of society developed and took hold during the decades prior to 1789. in literature. A brief outline 1 Lemonnier. Expressiveness and individualism were also the aims of the rising romantic movement. these forms allowed the parts to be independent from each other. almost all of these buildings have been destroyed. The sensuous Baroque features with their flexibility expressed the Baroque trend toward animism (All-Beseelung). But the temporary victory of the conservatives should not lead us to believe that the achievements of the progressives lacked significance. or by contrasting them in shape. 5. Most contemporaries and the following generations were not able to distinguish between those attempts which were to become fruitful and permanent. and the foundations of a new tradition were laid. but paving the way for the future. In the first place. as well as traces of Romanticism are to be found. Moreover. The revolutionary architects began to pay more attention to the inherent properties of the materials and liked to present them without any disguise. This trend accounts for the preference that was given to "living" forms. It will serve to indicate certain basic compositional principles which were already decisive in the Renaissance. just as in politics. 39. 1910.

and Jean-Jacques Lequeu were work will be presented more completely and more thornot the only representatives of French revolutionary oughly than has been done in any previous publication. There were many more who shared the Today Ledoux is recognized as a great architect. We shall begin with J. Ledoux. by contriving architectural schemes such as had never The increased knowledge of the period will remove what existed before. the revolutionary architects wished ignorons. resignation. of the indomitable urge toward innovation. Twenty years ago it was difficult to bring out any puband the same hopes for an artistic renascence. for the common good. his Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. 1948. Because of the depth of Ledoux' ideals for which they strove. Boullee. Thus we are proby its fanaticism. the ideals of the time eenth-century architecture is an accepted historical fact. for he was the first teacher of the eldest of our transformation' of architectural thought in the eighteenth cenarchitects. tionary Architecture. are the publications of Jacques-Fran?ois Blondel. 42. it presents the most original of the constituents. by recounting the revolutionary movement-despair. Or. Raval. special regard 5 Paris. 4 In my forthcoming Architecture in the Age of Reason the him. who had the same contempt for the past. Marcel.4 More than a general survey of gle for new forms. of the period: tearing down the old and building the Many contemporary sources spoke. In the end they themselves became vided with the background for a better understanding of the three architects. tecture in the eighteenth century. not spared the ordeals of their times and were menaced and of the innovators themselves." 5 Today.concern themselves with artists whose names they have ment that ended the Baroque and presaged the architec. same ideals. will be with to French Revolutury discussed. the search for a new order the period would allow. the revolutionary current in eightto realize. Like others who served the same cause. put it in the dedication of his Cours d'architecture: Having lived in the atmosphere of growing political "nous n'avons point d'amour pour les choses que nous and social discontent. 1675. 1952] INTRODUCTION 435 Of the three. . architecture. who principles rose to live on all through the nineteenth century. people are reluctant to work of these three represents the height of the move. Boullee represents primarily the strugRevolutionary architecture in its entirety is not discussed in this book. approvingly or new. PT.never heard. 288. But the lications on him. Cp. they were otherwise. In general. was the founder of the most renowned school of archiArt Bulletin 30: of and my review. Ledoux.VOL. Lequeu the tragic ultimate stage of personalities in the reform movement. 3. Etienne-Louis Boullee. Prominent among the sources disillusioned and reactionary. Moreux. thought and the wide scope of his building activities. They did their part in the double task may be left of former doubts. and their lives and by discussing their achievements and the return to the past. as Frangois Blondel so brilliantly ture of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.-Ch.

should there he died. Jean Mariette. There he wished to wait for death. Jeanne.-F. Iv. 82. Blondel to Mariette's Architecture francoise. une maniere de sentir qui leur est propre. p. The Corps de Garde and the H6tel de Ville in the same city are of still greater sternness. Litt. 1860." 7Blondel. The older architect. ms. Hautecceur.. ills. not possible to draw a clear demarcala distribution des maisons de plaisance. Emil. De la distribution des maisons de plaisance." 436 . Strasbourg.that the work of these three architects had Boullee's and Ledoux' achievements seem to of Many 1About Blondel as the teacher of Boullee. 1927. of course. 3 his late man. 472. but not in the same way that they to be as i'mportantas his teaching. His early manner may easily be recog. Cp. were to do in the works and writings of his pupils. However. 1747 (see note 72) and thus does not know of the latter's share in Mariette's publication.-F. mais nous ne devons pas penser comme eux. 27. Lejeaux. Memoires de l'Inst. Reprint of Mariette. "il seroit peut-etre deraisonnable de vouloir aujourd'hui elever chez nous des edifices precisement dans le gout de l'antique. . A. Kaufmann..-F. If one is startled by the originality Auguste. he called attention to the imporJacques-Frangois Blondel's reputation is based chiefly tance of studying classical works.... . however. ill. p. peuvent bien nous apprendre a penser. p. Tous les peuples ont un caractere. Art Bulletin 31: 58-59. When his posed ascending "Classicism"-he declared that it made last hours approached.-F. 277. However.. 1). moreover. J. find of Contribution 1727..8 nized in the designs of his first publication in 1737. and cients.. . Paris. L'Architecture 40: ill. Blondel. naturally. lustrate the great change which took place in the eight. however. than by a generation. a very similar boldness of thought in Blondel's cool. 38. 1927. JACQUES-FRANCOIS BLONDEL more Baroque phase.. 1787. 3 Blondel. in Blondel's school. 1. Fonds frangais. 5 Grosdidier. see Papiers de be removed from those of Blondel by centuries rather Boullee. G. Blondel. p. 2 Len6tre. Blondel. But on reading their respective la . Each nation. et Beaux-Arts III. Paris. J. Bibl. Cf. Lejeaux. he felt. 1771 f. while the two as a whole and of its single features.7 Studying their work. Blondel's writings contain principles of the Baroque. Prost. 41. Marcel. The most striking traits of the five maisons de plai. 120. 1927. Nat. was teach one to think. he asked to be taken to his school no sense to erect buildings in the manner of the Anin the Louvre.tion line between Blondel's early and his late periods. 4 Grosdidier de Matons. Nat. THE TEACHERS BOULLEE nous writings suggest that this was true in his case. 1910. In these projects he almost reached the borderline where disintegration of Baroque composition begins (fig. which is generally considered a chief trait of late eighteenth-century development. Paris. Dezallier d'Argenlutionary thinking of the later architects were planted ville. extremely few statements in Blondel's volumi. 275. he pointed out. Metz. of voids over walls. des Sciences et Arts.for those to come. Distribution 1: xv.. had its own approach.4 Here the wall is emphasized and a heavy parapet crowns the sides. but without the row of statues by which formerly buildings seemed to fade into the sky. Louis. has a different character. J. J. . 23.2 His architectural work. Same. The house which I illustrate is from 1: pl. Paris.thought. 1929. Notice texts there can be no doubt that the seeds of the revoBoullee. .. Villar.6 whereas in the late on his activities as teacher and writer..Boullee and Ledoux.-J. De It is. et mod. p. fol. contenant les lecons donnees en 1750 et les annees suivantes 3: liv.. Lejeaux. Paris. Paris. 9153. 1927." One a l'Italienne. Histoire: 43.5 Like his buildings.PART I ETIENNE-LOUIS I. FIG. side-by-side with the germs of the tendency toward simplicity and "purity. Blondel. L'Architecte 5: 8.' He himself felt Cours d'Architecture-composed in the time of the supthat his principal merits lay in these fields. interesting to note that in his early. for his buildings il. Place d'Armes de Metz.-F. ill. ner in the structures he erected at Metz between 1761 The opposed concepts crossed constantly. The first publication of Ledoux. The portico of the Cathedral of Metz. 42: ills. an IX. the predominance younger men gave more attention to the modern views. just as they and 1771. a mixture of contradictory ideas is not all in common.. 51. one will perhaps be still more amazed to in which Blondel participated was Architecture francoise. Paris. Revue de I'art anc. "Les Anciens .. Vies des fameux architectes. ignores Blondel's Discours. 26." 8 Ibid. Cours d'Architecture . the lavishness of decoration.What was right for one generation would not be right eenth century. Country house-Batiment might surmise that this tendency merely formed part of the return to antiquity.. Metz. J. de. vie sur draft of an obituary. It is. 6 Blondel. "a puiser dans l'ancienne Architecture les premiers elemens de cet Art. .. sance are the plastic character of the architectural body devoted more space to the older ideas. 1737.

onnerie. Blondel was extremely proud of his profession: Architecture.Plates. who edited the posthumous fifth volume of Blondel's Cours. 13 he must ardently endeavor to discover the promise latent in the building site. 5: vii. "preeminence au chateausur toutes les de16 Ibid. tout instruit." 17 Ibid. il faut faire a son plan.Paris. .3: 244. pl. "plusde veritableArchitecture . par ses instruc32 Cours4: liii." 28Ibid.Architecture. he prods.onnerie 1804." 23 As to the requirements of gradation he offered general comments as well as specific suggestions. se trouve appele pour elever les merveilles que 1'Architecture 24Distribution 1: 190. so in a group is one building to be accentuated. Patte declares explicitly that Blondel was not a revolutionary.24 The liveliness of the plan and the "pyramidal" form." Cf.27 He warned against combining a basement with an attic. in preparingthe revolution that came to pass in architecturein the last twenty years. Blondelin L'Encyclopedie. "tout interesse. . and we recognize in him the universally-minded architect who could claim to be the legitimate judge of the other arts. past and present. "cetetage batard. 113. tourne au profit de l'Art. "l'architecture pyramidale" and "les liaisons qui seules peuvent mettre d'accord les parties avec le tout.xiv. should not contain rooms. a su donner et parle mouvement queDebrosse en sorte que tout . on gradation and concatenation. L'Architecture. London. 14 he should be possessed by a thirst for knowledge of every description.."L'Architecture 22Gradation of the partsaccording meansthe differentiation du metier.. This characterizationconforms with the picture we gain from Blondel's text.29 Attics. as he put it..22or. "ornements Arabessi peu faits pouraller entions la revolution qui s'est faite depuis 20 ans dans le gout de semble. "unabusimpardonnable.by his teaching. 3: lxxiv.26 He pointed out that just as within the single structure one part is to rule." 18 Ibid.. but not for that classicality which so many critics. 4: viii..-N. ne distinguent l'unsur l'autre jamaisl'etagesuperieur a laquelle il faut s'arreter .1l Some of Blondel's passages are the very forerunners of Ledoux' enunciations:12 There should not be a single moment when the architect ceases to think of his mission. however.16 Soon the reader will see how a new type of architecture developed in the eighteenth century. 0 the architect was to combine art with the techniques of construction. "Aussi a-t-il reussi a preparer. which I shall discuss later. 23Cours1: 386." 12 Ibid." RuralArchitermswereusedin thesesensesby RobertMorris.. tout ce 29Ibid." 30Ibid." 4: 195. "L'Architecte.19was predestined to be the leader of the younger generation. "il faut reunir la science au metier." 59. xxvi.1762. provides us today with the clearest description of their style." avoit pour principe d'eclairer par le raisonnement . Blondel pendances. but corroborated by Pierre Patte. "Lors de ses delassements meme. is a creative art." 14 Ibid. Similarly. His criticism of the moderns." pratiques d'avecl'inferieur." . "M.. . He incessantly pleaded for perde ma. In Blondel himself we already find the new type of "enlightened" builder 17 who was to be guided by "reason"."Palladio 15 a entendu le mieuxles formespyraIbid. 4: 154." de merite.25 For this very same gradation he praised Palladio.. "Doue d'un heureux genie l'Architecte . an indefatigable worker. et en tout temps.21 was a staunch defender of the old faith. vi. by Pierre Patte. "chef-d'ceuvre du c6te de sa formepyramidale. "c'est avec la passion de devenir un Architecte midales." est a la ma.. 1: 387. forever intent upon improvement. "deuxordres 19 Ibid. Both to their rank.9 and is clearly to be distinguished from the process of building.32 To him. PT." 31J. We should not forget that we owe him this. "la premiere pensee n'est jamais precisement celle bert. but serve only as crowning features. 15. Blondel never tired of putting emphasis on the basic principles of the hierarchical Baroque. Ledoux.. but he had also much understanding of the new trends. 1750." qu'il enseignoit. and an "air of superiority" for the dominant part. for two "subaltern" stories could never make a satisfying whole. Diderotand d'Alemliberaux.6.28 He found it quite unpardonable to adorn the basement with orders while leaving the higher-ranking main story bare and unadorned. but only prepared the revolution. enfante.."Cp. concatenation and integration were as im9Ibid. .C.VOL. concatenation on ne peut en parler qu'avec exaltation. 3: xv. 42.15 A good architect should be interested in every aspect of life. 11 Cours 4: xxv. . 21Len6tre. xxv. 20. qu'on s'eclaire avec tous." notre Architecture."cesdeuxetagessubalternes. He favored the predominance of the main avant-corps. "on parcourt d'un ceil avide les environs . xxv... 3." 27Ibid." 20 Ibid. he censured the over-ornamentation of Islamic art with its persistent repetition of identical motifs.20 It seems worth while then to study Blondel's writings to learn what had happened.. The "professor full of fight.. Juge-ne de tous les Arts ed." 10Ibid. et moins portant as gradation. he held. xxiv.30 Orders deserved blame if used indiscriminately without regard to the rank of the stories." 25Cours3: 79. "le belliqueux ce que la poesie est professeur.Blondel. 5: Avertissement. dramatique aux belles lettres. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 437 academic treatises. c'est l'enthousiasme their formal unification.18 Blondel. not even in the hours of relaxation. 26Ibid.430. Paris.31 Similarly. 388. 1: 8.-F. Transitory and minor changes would hardly have prompted Patte to say: He has succeeded. 13 Ibid. in his view contributed most to the excellence of the Luxembourg.. "L'Architecture est un Art createur. tecture.235. have ascribed to the Vicentine master." as Georges Len6tre dubbed Blondel. My view of Blondel as a progressive teacher is based not only on many of his statements."airde superiorite.23.

42 and to be careful about the correspondence of interiors with their environment.33 which could be attained by symmetry ("one of the chief beauties of architecture"). which came out as late as 1773.> a. Distribution 1: 126.. still better. in which all of the parts communicated with each other. Architecture frangoise.SOC.. which had been extremely popular in France since the late seventeenth century. he recommended the enfilade. J. v---- ." 40 Distribution 1: 11." Distribution 1: 58. about a plan of his." Similarly. "prolonger le coup d'ceil que forment les enfilades principales d'un parc. et des parties au tout. "les escaliers situes dans le milieu de l'edifice masquoient 1'enfilade de la cour avec celle des jardins. V .. lest they obstruct33 Blondel. 13.36 The enfilade." 4 Ibid. m . Thus Blondel agreed with the Baroque con- ception of the house as a breathing organism. 1752.I -38lli-l^^^^lli ~~~:0~ Si .. not only tied all of the rooms together. Blondel still exhorted his pupils not to forget the correlation of buildings erected on the same site.. "le premier merite d'un plan consiste dans la beaute des enfilades principales." I FIG. 13.39 o t as particularly beautiful his projected sBlondelregarded Manor House for a Gentleman from Florence because one could enjoy the wide vistas from many of its parts.." 39 Arch.I'. une des principales beautes de l'Architecture. "les glaces font entr'elles une mutuelle reflexion ce qui prolongue la vue et produit un tres-agreable effet.43 He considered Pal37Arch. . 4: 341. "l'art de rendre relatifs les dehors avec les dedans. or the threading of rooms along an | I- axis. -. 3." 35 Encyclopedie.. cit.38 He was fond of the open alleys which afforded the splendid views of Baroque parks. "I1 faut percer le milieu de son Batiment de facon qu'on puisse profiter de la vue des differents objets qu'on a assujettis au Batiment . franoise 1: 39.34 or.40 the entrance to the park was to have been 1 S<g~~:_: ::::__. 41 Ibid._ Entablature s bearers-Ordre ---. I l fect unity of the parts. 34 Cours 1: 408. .438 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY vision.a5 and he also suggested the use of mirrors on opposite walls to create the illusion of continuous vistas.-F. [TRANS. As the most efficient means of unifying the interior space.! from the Grand Salon. by spatial interrelationships.PHIL." i I i l . loc.4' the fourth volume of his Cours. and with t1a -. but also served to tie the interior to the exterior vista. 2.-v FIG.. Architectural profile-Entablement Toscan." 36 Distribution 1: 27. 1: 56. Staircases were not to be placed in the center of the structure. 153. 42 Cours 4: 148. francoise 1: 46. Cours 1: 438. 105. 3: lxv.v -s Persique. Paris. "l'unite que nous avons tant recommandee. "les rapports du tout aux parties.37 ARCHITECTS AMER.--." The recent Reimpression of Architecture franfoise has a slightly different pagination. . "l'art de faire marcher ensemble les issues. "La symetrie . 10..l~~~~e~~a~~ : les dependanceset la distribution exterieure des faqades. -i II i S ^IIn I:1~ II 8iSjlilll!$i< the surroundings.

qu'en imitant la nature . and its reprint by Societes Typographiques. too. stemmed from the desire for perfect unity. pls. "l'ordonnancela plus conforme a la nature . new views gradually crept into the doctrine of this defender of the old. yet did not want it to influence composition by its properties. the belief that there should be a sort of kinship between architectural performance and nature. 73.59 Notwithstanding his "profiles.62 which Eisen had designed for Blondel's book. qu'on n'en peut rompre l'accord sans de- Cours 3: 75.56 This belief is illustrated in the plates of the Tuscan capital. "il accompagnoit ses edifices d'avant-scenes or the practical.51 Broken cornices. for instance.. 261. ." Similarly.. "quarrelling." 46 Ibid. la matiere doit etre comptee pour rien. cit. It no longer meant the imitation of organic nature. 63Arch. 181. . disharmonious features. panoramic view. 3: 431. pl. 56 Cours 3: 3. francoise 1: 24. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 439 ladio a model. . 58 Arch. The most renowned architects.. 61Cours2: pl. since they followed the Architecture figurer l'Edifice. were in accord with the general trend of Baroque thought." Blondel on the whole had abandoned the anthropomorphic concept of architecture. X. . He gradually became aware that to force architectural features to conform to organic shapes was to use them in a manner contrary to their own nature.46 This precept. he found. The same functional think1: 18. . . "L'ordre Persique n'est pas plus tolerable. "se lient heureusement. or.VOL. PT. loc. Tout batiment parfait doit reunir les memes perfections. 56. 51 Ibid. 199. "Ce Pavillon recoit beaucoupde relief de Ia forme de son plan. . XI. ." 57Cours 1: 260. 2: 111. by Franqois Franque. what is more.. This new point of view is reflected in a passage in Blondel's Architecture francoise dealing with the "natural arrangement" of the plan. XLII."58 have in reality quite another meaning. 55 Ibid. "desuniondans les entablemens.49 On the other hand. illustrate all their physical strain in supporting the entablatures. XLI.55 Despite Blondel's allegiance to the established system. reached perfection only by imitating nature and conforming to the proportions of man. and Vignola." arrives a ce degre de perfection. ." 59Ibid. His criticism of buildings by other architects was based on this principle. For a while he had shared the belief that all artists had held since the Renaissance. and. the "natural" plan had nothing to do with a model taken from nature. et disparates entr'elles. He still shared to some extent. 3:256. he found fault with the Tuileries for the lack of unity. the project for the Abbaye de Panthemont... 3rd ed. francoise 1: 74.. "que la sculpture semble se marier avec son angular alone were legitimate.. XII. though not strictly artistic. and still so in Cours 3: 21." 60 The ultra-naturalistic Caryatides 6 and Persanes.57 To test the divergent precepts of Palladio. 1781. He praised." . "rien ne peche plus contre l'harmonie ." 45Distribution le plus d'objets mental plan of the Baroque. he himself was aware of the cracks in the old structure.50 which partly resulted from the application of petty. he realized. The notion of the "Natural" had acquired a new significance in the late eighteenth century..63 Obviously. sont les premieresconsiderationsqu'on doit avoir dans l'Architecturepour ce qui concerne l'ordonnance. la proportiondes parties et la reunion du tout ensemble.. 2)." de voir les arriere-corps d'une Facade disputer avec les avantcorps. "afinquel'ceilembrasse ing prompted Blondel's remarks on pediments: the triqu'il est possible. "l'arrangementnaturel des pieces. but rather the rational adaptation of the forms to their purpose. in particular the human body." 50 . Sculpture was to be blended with architecture so that it would be impossible to sever them without destroying the whole. reasons for their use-probably as commemorative of certain historical events-but to him they were "unbearable. 1778. francoise 1: 21. 162.52 and entablatures differing in design. 2: 235. 42. 48 Distribution 1: 181. 44Ibid. According to their doctrine. as he put it. because its walls tied the porch of the church to the adjacent monastery. . "les niches trop petites 52 Arch. dans le corps humain. as set forth in De la distribution."Similar views in Encyclopedie. Blondel drew human profiles over architectural "profiles" (fig. and he found harmony imperiled when the single parts were in discord."54 The description of the Batiment a l'Italienne in his earliest publication reads like an eighteenth-century treatise on the aims of the Baroque. Blondel was speaking like any architect-sculptor of the Baroque period when he demanded that the wall between the openings should be adorned with reliefs. 60Cours 1: 198.53 were a horror to him. The Greeks. may have had some good. 1).45 Blondel's views on the relationship between architecture and sculpture." 47Ibid." 49Encyclopedie. but also because of the pictorial quality of his com44 he would never renounce the position. as opposed to the organic and ornatoujoursinteressantes. 8. peut seule constater les regles du bon gout dans l'Architecture. it was the logical. not only because of his mastery of gradation. The result might be a reminder of the classical saying: Man is the measure of all things. la beaute des masses.. They appreciated matter for its sensuous beauty. 57." 53Distribution 1: 136. . They seem to have been added to the text as warnings rather than as models (fig. Yet several passages in L'Architecture fran?oise which seem to agree with the "profiles. He disapproved using Caryatides and Persanes as substitutes for columns. que et en cherchant a concilier ses beautes diverses avec les proportions . Arch.47 He took pride in the design of his Batiment a l'Italienne because the plastic character of the body derived directly from the plan 48 (fig. 77. 345. 3). "Tout corps organise est un edifice. "les Architectes les plus renommes ne sont 54Ibid. Scamozzi. 3. francoise 1: 72. .. 62 Ibid. and their conformity to the material.

who was not a learned architect. These tendencies most probably were the very ground from which structural rationalism. Algarotti vs.. London. lvi. 4: lvii.) Another source of the hostility against ornament was the new fondness for the plain and the calm. Emil. note 20.71 While Blondel in the Distribution advocated the most intimate connection of architecture and sculpture. . 2: 155. . 57-74.. above all." 58. Memoires critiques d'architecture." l'on attaque ici le goiit dominant de notre decoration.66 As far as we know. regularity. but were to last long after Romanticism had passed. the functionalist point of view was first set forth in about 1750 by the Venetian theorist Carlo Lodoli. was to be the last remnant of the traditional concept from which not even the far more advanced Ledoux could depart. "on peut s'ecarter des regles. qu-il paroit important de retablir".80 and Blondel thought that to be able to express the character of a structure. francoise 1: 24. i. pl. 232. Avertissement. . Paris. Parere su l'architettura. and his adherents the rigoristi. 15. 72 Blondel." 71 Ibid. LXXI." 74 or "noble simplicite." 73 The demand for "simplicite male. Fremin. They appeared first under the aspect of Romanticism. "un deluge d'ornements. Rudolf. 3: 423. sprang. o. xv.. "L'habile Architecte sait penetrer dans les mysteres de l'Art . note 76 75Ibid. lxxvii. one must. . Blondel cited a house on the rue du Coq Saint-Honore. of Taste.440 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. and ties Blondel to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. he objected to profuseness of decoration and permitted ornamentation only if it was "necessary and natural. Soc. The era of . vrai style qui assigne a chaque Edifice le 64Cours 3: 220-222. 67 Piranesi. ". except in some cases. Architecture was not the only field in which the late eighteenth century tried to penetrate the "mysteries" of character.72 (Symmetry 65 Ibid. 1702. may be taken as a representative of the current taste in France. 6te a nos Edifices leur forme et leur repos. have grasped its specific significance. it required only solidity. 6." 7 A further factor in the development of post-Baroque architecture was the appearance of individualistic tendencies. francoise 1: 23.-F. 68Fremin. 80 Cp. "les cinq ordres ne sont que la derniere et la moindre partie dans l'Architecture. SOC. He was progressive enough to declare that the orders were the least part of architecture. and almost the sole.64 Remarks such as these are in no way incidental.. Blondel was one of the first to declare: "Taste is a matter of the individual and is indeterminate." Cf. 79 Cp. note 66.81 The very popular physiognomical studies were similar attempts in this direction. by Franque. 74 Distribution 1: caractere qui lui est propre. . 65true style he believed would reveal the individual character of each structure. est inutile et superflu. he stated in a lecture delivered in 1747. The new aesthetics were summed up in "le style simple est preferable au style ampoul. sees in Piranesi "a revolutionary modernist. 66 Ibid. it was to be applied with the greatest restraint. Warburg Inst. and in the Cours. Arch. Suddenly he discovered a lack of consistency in the traditional structures. 1938." Similarly. 4: liv. Amer. . .70 The Spaniards and the Germans in particular were singled out as guilty of extravagance and confusion. 4: Discours sur la maniere d'etudier l'architec- ture. Historians 4: 23-29. Jour. Lodoli. by Fremin.. Jour. The defender of the old had become an apostle of the new." 69 Cours 3: 191. 77 Ibid. Wittkower. Architecture could well do without them.76 which was of the type built around 1800 on the rue de Rivoli. 78 Arch. Paris. "il paroit que le gout soit personnel et indetermin. DavidHume.. "la Sculpture . and the correspondence of the parts.67 Yet it seems that the concept of architectural logic appealed more to the French than to the Italians. 70 Ibid. who was President au Bureau des Finances a Paris. Previously the great codifications of architectural taste of the Renaissance and the Baroque had laid down a norm binding for all. as well as aesthetic purism." Similarly. practicality. 455. and he wanted to reinstate "la Logique de l'Art . aofit 1747. G. that in architecture sculpture was as superfluous as any other kind of decoration.-B. especially the decorative rather than the interpretative. n'a besoin que de solidite. This change in his thinking is mainly apparent in his late Cours. "tout ornement qui n'est qu'ornement. . Whereas Renaissance architects had studied the measurements of the human body and had tried to apply these to architecture-Blondel's profiles are a late instance of these endeavors-architects now tried to instill human characteristics into the buildings.69 In any case. Piranesi's Parere." Discours was reprinted in Mercure France. Decorative pediments. 93. 1757. ." More about Lodoli and Piranesi in my Architecture in the Age of Reason. . "les ornemens dans les Batimens n'y sont necessaires que lors qu'ils y sont naturels. still says. Iv. the Memoires critiques d'architecture. Kaufmann. .Of the Standard tions. "'Architecture se suffit a elle-meme . lines of the sloping roof. xxxi. who were so violently repudiated by Gianbattista Piranesi. . were to be avoided. 73 Cours 3: lxxviii. A certain measure of proof of this statement can be found in a rare booklet of 1702. 81 Cours 1: 132. As a model of restraint. a. And although he advocated unity. AMER. pour ne pas confondre le caractire particulier qui convient a chaque edifice. de commoditeet de symetrie.in FourDisserta274. and symmetry. "le grand gofit de la belle simplicite. PHIL. On trouvera peut-tre etonnant que . Cours 3: 202." Cours 3: 454. Archit. authorities." 75 appeared frequently in the Distribution." 24. .79 The demand for individualism was closely related to the newly arising requirements of character. though with some reservations: The general principles of taste are uniform in human nature.."68 The first consequence of the new point of view was the attack on ornament. ."78 This statement was a bold challenge at a time when the ancients were still the first. 1747. J. 1944.

" 87Ibid. The second volume of the Cours presents the same views in a more condensed form: Every work of architecture was to express its purpose. terrible. and to be shaped accordingly. . 229. but merely to express his beliefs as an artist. . ." 83Cours 1: 373-447. tous doivent avoir un caractere qui determine leur forme generale et qui annonce le batiment pour ce qu'il est. .VOL. ". franCoise 1: 22. 95Ibid. "grandeur qu'on rencontre rarement dans nos productionsFrancoises. One of the cornerstones of classical aesthetics was the category of regard of the rank of the patron. 1780.87 but a detailed discussion here of this chapter would lead us too far afield. and elegance of style. we must carefully consider how the various ideas changed their significance almost imperceptibly. ". he praises St." 88 Ibid. we may believe him to be sincere when he asserted that he was not influenced by 92 Arch. 4: lxxxiv.88 Nonetheless. The concept of giving each building personality by stressing its character had hardly yet been born. 426. "la belle disposition des masses generales. and this he missed in France. 3: xxxiv. 1: 422-430. the choice of forms. which was the predecessor to Ledoux' church of the Ideal City. Paris. "(la convenance) apprend que dans un edifice grave tout doit inspirer la tranquillite. 230." 91Ibid. 3. Blondel admitted having been inspired by various French church buildings.91 82Etudes d'architectureen France. It began with a passionate desire for a thorough-going reformation of the architectural body. and the like. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 441 architecture-was architecture parlante 82-"Narrative" now inaugurated. . 388. . Blondel was fascinated by the grandeur of her architecture. LIV. Sulpice by Servandoni for "la suppressionde toutes les petites parties.89 Blondel felt that architecturally. 4). 42." 93 Lecamus de Mezieres. 94 Cours 2: 312. More concise information about the new demand for Narrative Architecture can be found in Nicolas Lecamus de Mezieres' Genie de I'Architecture. ideal was to be put into practice.84 Blondel added the stern warning that it was not sufficient to rely on symbolic sculpture. ne plaire qu'aux Peintres de Ruines. he himself indulged in dreams of the mysterious. ." 83 He did not intend to present a new body of doctrine. PT. Magasin Pittoresque. 89Ibid.95 Thus. Blondel dealt at length with the new goal of architectural character in the fourth chapter of the first volume of the Cours." 85Ibid... He derided the senseless picturesqueness of sentimental landscape architecture with its artificial ruins. or How the demand for character affected the actual planning can be seen from Blondel's project of his Parish Church 94 (fig. To Blondel. 3: 382. convenance meant the consideration of the proper atmosphere. 2: 229. His chapter "Programmes" tells the students how the new architectural. Blondel came somewhat closer to the point of view of the Rigorists." 86Ibid. it was to end in shallow symbolism. first among them Hardouin-Mansart's Chapel of Versailles." FIG. which meant thinking of the decorum. Nicolas. bold. In a discussion of artistic concepts of the past.. 90Ibid. and frivolous in architecture. 3: 347. the most reasonable demand was for grandeur: that this held out the greatest promise of counteracting the over-ornamentation of the late Baroque. et un stile soutenu. entitled "Analyse de l'Art. Blondel soon felt compelled to caution against displaying character for its own sake. 4.86 In his condemnation of extra-architectural means. grand. His academic support of the modern movement must have impressed his pupils considerably more than the dusty time-honored precepts which he repeated almost by habit. 1852. 3: 393. le respect. Plan of a Parish church.85 that the architect must speak through the arrangement of masses. 84Ibid. "Il ne suffit pas que ce caractere distinctif soit seulement designe par les attributs de la Sculpture. when the menace of exaggeration became evident. Le Genie de l'Architecture ou l'analogie de cet art avec nos sensations.9 convenance. while the literary-minded Romanticists enjoyed narrating the character of the structure rather than visualizing it.92 It is not easy to disentangle in his lengthy treatises the crossing lines of his thought.90 Looking back to Italy. pl. note. "Ledoux etait partisan de ce qu'on a appele depuis l'architecture parlante. le choix des formes. 2: 312.

l09 and Prisons. and also himself in his earlier treatise. Cp. II. under the dome. The trend toward isolation of the parts is illustrated in his design for the front of the Eglise Conventuelle 105 (fig.. little practical need of structures which.106 The craving for expressive architecture developed a predilection for commissions that were compatible with architecture parlante... of course.103 He was opposed to any illusionistic decoration of the dome that made it appear to open into the sky. He wanted the interior of a cathedral to express grandeur without the help of paintings or sculpture. especially those of simplicity. Ibid.. 5.o00 Blondel expected the decoration. without any change in its form: the spire as an obelisk.-L. 5). Blondel disrupted the unity of the whole so as to let the altar speak with greater intensity than it could from its cus96 Ibid. Contrariwise. We may the more believe him since he introduced a compositional motif of great significance in his Parish Church that distinguishes it from that of the Flemish church. 109 Ibid. architecture was confronted with more realistic problems. notes 203 and pt. and the altar is at the east end of the nave.." Yet we find many of them discussed in the "Programmes... 328. to conform to the atmosphere. 326.101 The light was to be subdued. substructure.. Outstanding among these was the improvement of the private dwelling. 389. 315. Here the new ideals." found a still better outlet. There was. if any part of a Baroque structure were removed from its context. 417." 97 Whereas the choir of Saint-Amand is situated in the transept. LVII.SOC. 104Ibid. Here. were likely to "speak. by their very nature. Blondel.442 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. In his Cours. 419. Ibid.1' Simultaneously. 105 Ibid.. Collection des prix que la ci-devant Academie d'Architecture proposoit et couronnoit tous les ans [1779-1789] Paris. pl. the substructure as a temple. Blondel inverted this order: his altar is situated in the transept.90 despite some similarity in his plan. tower. also. The sympathetic response of the younger generation can be found in the designs for the Grands Prix. isolation.107Lighthouses. 4: xxxiii. Moreover. "naturalness. xcvi. 3: 383. and spire are distinctly severed from each other. Cours 2: 327. ciii. Saint-Amand en Flandres. to inspire awe. it would become merely a fragment. FIG. LVII presents the front as Blondel would have had it. P. 103 Ibid. note n."0 Soon such buildings became favorite subjects in schools and in competitions. 99 Ibid. 107 108 97 Ibid.102 Twilight he found most appropriate to add to the mysteriousness. 2: 312. 398. 388. Front of a Conventual church. preferring instead solid vaults 104 which would embrace the mystery and shut out the world. Blondel raised the side arms of the transept to the level of the sanctuary." where Blondel presented Mile posts. under the dome. 11 Ibid. Ibid. 111Cleemputte. and the choir follows in the nave beyond. and most conducive to introspection. lxxxvii. 389. 3: 307. 3: 383. stated that he would have preferred sober Doric forms to the richer Corinthian ordered by clients.PHIL. and preferred to center the church around the altar. individuality. Briseux. Boffrand. by bringing it impressively close to the congregation.98 He sacrificed the continuity of the entire interior space. 101 102 106Ibid. Each in itself might serve a distinct purpose.99 The traditional arrangement with the sanctuary at the far end offers the entering visitor a continuous vista all through the main nave. The concept of blending the parts has been superseded by isolating and contrasting them. d. pl.. built in 1624. 4: xcii. His chief aim was to exalt the main feature as strongly as possible. . the sanctuary and the choir are raised above the nave some forty steps-"inegalite de sol qui produit necessairement le plus grand effet. tomary distant place. near Valenciennes. [TRANS. In both. n.108Entrances to arsenals. the Baroque pattern has been replaced by the Romantic. Blondel blamed some writersDaviler. De la distribution-for not having dealt 100Later we shall see how the new compositionalprinciples gained ground. incidentally. 98 Ibid.

dans lordonde Pekin. His written work presents one more interesting aspect.on a fait en France si considerables. they forget the true principles of art 119 a laquellese trouve a present Ibid. ornements le gofit pesantdes premieres nanceexterieurede nos ed1ifices. It contains his comments on the contemporary situation of architecture. et cette incertitude qui se remarquent sible.129 neither should one remain silent when architecture Already the new reform spirit has infected the students." 116 un Architecte." 130 Ibid. ." 129 d'unArchitecte . que tout est Ibid.4: lii. but extends to architecture as well. In this crucial moment traditional formality became almost senseless. the mature architect should adapt their forms to the modern exigencies and the available materials. and that. A well-known architect introduced these a few years earlier as an adornment above the windows of some public building. 4: lxiv.128 One should not discard all the rules. "Depuis environ30 annees.. 158. a distance of a century seems to separate current manner from that of only thirty years back. are very instructive and Blondel's views may be summarized as follows: Not so long ago. though one can hardly understand why it has. le gothique le genreantique.. il faille avoir recoursa la singularite.188. .. lvi. etc. liii. . . "il n'y a pas jusqu'aux Eleves. and to expect other nations to follow the French example. le delicat. "Toutesles productions aux memesregles.15 Only those architects are given credit who add some singular novelties to what has been customary. considered cold and monotonous. . though it may be advisable for the beginner to follow the Ancients. to ape the heavy style of ancient Egypt in building.124 Blondel continues.. aujourd'hui il en est autrement.inconsequences qui font eclore tant de productions monstrueuses. Judiciary Buildings. "I1y a plusieurs sans trop notre siecle etoit celui des Rocailles.. monotone.l2 He was unable to point out the new direction to be taken. soit que nous ramenions.375. contre l'usage teroit pas quelquesnouveautessingulieres et la raison.122 The students should not listen to the seducers who try to make them believe that the art of the past is exhausted. lxviii." Cf. "II est peut-etre s'il est postempsd'arreter. pretendons que les autres Nations s'assujettissenta faire usage de notre manierede decorer. pour paroitreneuf.123 The fashion of the sunken tablets with bas-reliefs shows how eager the architects are for innovation... it seemed as if the century was Rococo. anneesqu'il sembloitque Ibid..1l9 The increasing number of "monstrous" designs is a menace to' future development.. Formerly Greek and Roman architecture was held in little esteem. especially those in the third and fourth volumes of the Cours.a present." 128 Ibid." 117 113 114 fine itself only to less durable objects such as furniture and china.17 The new fashion does not con2 Cours4: 107.nos matieres quicaracterisent notreArchitecture Franqoise. 124Ibid. I ne nous reste plus qu'a introde Memphis.131 Full of enthusiasm..114 In interior decoration. 3: 158..qui ne se fassent un systemed'independance. et le pesantavec avec le moderne. "l'incertitude reduitel'Architecture.121 Perhaps one could find the way out of the chaos by turning to Antiquity.." aujourd'hui 126 Ibid.. . one must be extravagant. 3.soit la bisarreriedes que nous imitions.. et les commodites avecnos usages. they searched rather for some timely form." 122Ibid.120 Therefore it is time to combat the spirit of independence and incertitude.126 The works of predecessors have merits of their own. '"Architecture l'abusdes regles: la plupartdes Architectess'en font a leur gre.125 Architecture is creativeness. 125Ibid. 1: 132. note 341. lxviii."'Architecture est un Art de gout." des compositions dansla plupart 123 leur font entendre. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 443 sufficiently with the exigencies of the plan. Reservoirs.127 But the living have the right of but criticism. Romainnous paroissoitfroid. cette independance de nos jours . Libraries.qui n'ajouIbid. Paris was full of them.. . everything has changed. 3: lviii.. l8 "degenerates. ." 115 Ibid. Ibid. These "lower" categories were now considered worthy of the architect's efforts. Alors le g6ut Grec et savoir pourquoi. "Pleinde veneration de la pourles productions Greceet de l'Italie. liii. We have seen Blondel. The reintroduction of the Gothic seems not to be far off. "notre inconstance.. Each craves for a manner of his own. lvi. Now. Ibid. de genie memeon peutet l'ondoit s'affranchir et d'invention. des changements qu'il semblequ'il y ait aumoinsun siecle de distance. "on mesestimeroit . "Nous ne devons pas nous faire un scrupule Ibid.. . "ils osent assortir ensemble le genre ancien avec Ibid. There is still another field which Blondel covered very thoroughly in the Cours. One goes even so far as to copy the Chinese bizarreries in decorating interiors... Now it has become fashionable to imitate the works of the Ancients and those of exotic nations. defying tradition and reason.113 He wrote at length about Mints. "concilierce qu'ils auront retenu de l'antique 3: lxvi.lxix.118 "Incertitude" marks its production." 127 Ibid. 120 Ibid. et . Markets." doiventetre soumises 130 meme par sembledegenerer." 121Ibid. The respective passages. to be modern. This is why one breaks with the old canons. lvi. genius. inventions duire le gout gothique . and a characterization of the generation growing up. Viel's views. 42." dans plus d'un de nos de releverles defautsqu'onremarque edifices.1" The desire for change has stirred everyone.. the vast field of utilitarian buildings. But the French revolutionary architects did not think of replacing it by the Lodolian Utopia of pure functionalism.VOL. but to his students the reform of the plan was to become a very serious matter. lv. quelquefois de certaines regles. as an architect and as a writer. six months later. Exchanges. "quelques-uns epuiseet que..dans nos appartements. standing between two periods. 2: 389-449. Ix." 131Ibid.nous afde fectons la charge de la plupartdes savantesproductions ces Peuples. the art of taste." . PT.

155and also objects to the modern. Fondes sur un systeme d'independance.. lxxviii.. 438. 158."33 It is little wonder that the young architects. attaquent toutes les parties de l'Art.. oser se frayer une route nouvelle. nuisent a la circulation des personnes assemblees dans nos demeures. a-peu-pres dans le genre de celles qu'on eleve aujourd'hui le plus communement. this with note 126. ces pretendues opposi- The only tions.149 These were the symptoms of the architectural crisis which Blondel observed. pl. 159. 153 Ibid.. AMER. 1: 434." 159 Ibid. "A les entendre. 145." particu- cessive contrasts. with a mixture of features of questionable character. . 159. "un assemblage bizarre. ..17 It is obvious that Blondel was not so much opposed to the "license" and "abuse" of the Rococo. 158." 136 Ibid.. ils pretendentqu'il n'y a point de demonstrations convaincantes en faveur des proportions de l'Architecture." Such disparity is criticized also on p.. 4: lxx. . interpenetrating masses. He illustrates a doorway in order to exemplify what architecture should not look like. "la plupart de nos jeunes Architectes crient au genie: plus experimentes qu'eux... "Nos Architectes a la mode condamnent la symetrie et la correspondanceque les Croisees doivent avoir les unes avec les autres.154 Elsewhere he assails the oversized and disproportionate projects in vogue among the students. . "Nos jeunes gens . sans reflechir que la plupart de leurs compositions ne sont que le resultat des pensees d'autrui ." 134Ibid.l48 All the "inventions" of the last thirty years are foolish: precepts.146 and all 132Ibid. Cf. "ces contrastes .145 ex- and the validity of tradition. "pourfaire un Arc de Triomphe il n'y manque que de placer deux renommees sur les c6tes de l'archivolte. to see Blondel's vacillation between acceptanceand rejection of modernism. . they become a threat to art as a whole. ne gardent plus aucune mesure. xxxi. and some of the remedies which he suggested. 151. ." 135Ibid. . on devient esclave de la mode. 34." 33 Ibid. 149. qui ne leur fait accepter ni lois fondamentales. en un mot . des statues et une quantite prodigieuse de sculpture . nous les rappelons aux preceptes. "les ornements trop multiplies sont une imperfection.156 He draws a clear demarcation between the "frivolous" furniture decoration of former times and the four-square solid furniture of modern times. .139 In their productions they replace regularity.147 It is the master's duty to keep them faithful to the basic Picturesqueness in architecture is insanity. a les en croire.137 They surrender them- and what they owe to the generations before them. et la symetrie.. and symmetry..14' The students should be cured of the madness of excessive decoration." 142Ibid. XXVII. . .. un genre sol15 datesque . "la disparite entre la petitesse de l'ouverture comparee avec la masse entiere. Aujourd'hui on applique le style grave des dehors dans l'interieur des appartements: on donne a nos meubles. simplicity." 141 Ibid. repellent heaviness.ni principes requs. 3: 151." Cp." 137 Ibid. 154. and create the most extravagant things one can imagine.135 they feel chal." 149Ibid. "les jeunes tetes de nos jours ne montrent qu'un contraste outre. ni convenance particuliere." 158Ibid. 3: lxxviii. 1: 434. 145Ibid.. 7." 157 Ibid. 4: ix. que ne rien innover est une timidit . La plupart de nos jeunes artistes hazardent souvent dans leurs essais un melange mal assorti. notes 140. ." 154Ibid. pour ne produire que des chimeres.142and should be brought back to simplicity.152there is further evidence that productions other than those of the Rococo must have aroused him. "nos jeunes Artistes confondent l'enthousiasme avec ce qu'on appelle le veritable esprit de l'art.annees les hommes mediocres ont decore du beau nom de lenged to try out new paths and reject all basic rules 136 genie et d'invention. Blondel goes on. "Porte dans le genre moderne . "ils finirent par les incliner et las renverser" (les agrafes). . . 4: lxvi. 1: 434. 138.l59 modern tendencies with which he agreed were those of 147Ibid. . et d'elever . 153: "nous avons dessin de les guerir de la fureur d'employerdes colonnes." 139Ibid. les formes quarrees dont les angles blessent l'ceil." 1: 438. note 114.. d'un attique orne de bas-reliefs. have no restraint 134 when everyTel a ete l'esprit de vertige que pendant pres de trente one becomes a "slave to fashion". 138 Ibid." Cp." 156Ibid. qui ne laissent voir que des parties mal assorties." 146 Ibid.." 148Ibid.153 and points out its modernistic "faults." 144Ibid. One might believe that he had in mind the latest phase of the Baroque when he criticized the lack of symmetry and simplicity.. . the megalomaniacal.. 143Ibid. 150 Ibid. 154. "des corps ridiculement lourds. . un amortissement compose de gradins.15' that the era of the rocailles was past. produce chimaeras. de festons . et deployer tout ce que leur imagination peut enfanter de plus extravagant.. the extravagant." 140Ibid.143 Inverted ornaments. qui annoncent la decadence du gout. notes 138. d un Triomphateur traine sur un char attele de chevaux. ce que l'experience nous avoit appris a eviter." .. which he dislikes. 3: 154. PHIL. "ces formes pesantes et austeres. 155 Ibid. Cf. une intemperancequi eloigne du grand gout de la belle simplicite. la regularite.. "N'avons-nous pas vu les ornements frivoles des dedans passer dans les dehors? abus qui a subsiste long temps. "on ignore la belle simplicite. "il leur paroit plus aise d'arriver aux compositions gigantesques. .150 and the But beside his remark incongruities in composition. "tant de productions informes." larly the discrepancy between the small opening of the entrance and the huge mass of the whole. 3: 151. SOC. 236. note 266.444 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS.138 Volatile and unstable. "Nous avons beau tenter de les ramener au simple . qu'aux proportions de la belle Architecture.. gigantesques. . "penetrer les corps les uns dans les autres. 3: lviii.140and apply sculpture to architecture without any discrimination. selves to the torrent.132 sorts of exaggerations are vulgar and distasteful. ils preferent toujours de s'abandonnerau torrent ." Cf.. il n'y a que les hommes froids qui y ont recours. "on cede au torrent. "quelques-unsnes volages et inappliques. 152Ibid. 147. tant de decorations extravagantes.144 lack of symmetry and correspondence. Ibid. "Il faut.. 136.. "tout ce que le dereglement de l'esprit peut produire de pittoresque.l58 the ponderous. ces tours de force que le vulgaire applaudit. 1: 427. as to the revolutionary innovations: the shapeless..

120. In this publication we find. "II est vrai que depuis quelques annees l'Art 165Ibid. They dogmatize. He was full of doubt and afraid of the things to come." 27. and modern features in their fantastic designs. e. which his biographer. . two years before his death." 26." 160Ibid.g. that their scale does not fit human measurements. L'homme 1: xv. "aucune proportion dans les masses. 170 Blondel. Blondel voices his dislike both of the Rococo and what I call the Revolutionary Architecture. columns without "order". des ouvertures et non des portes et des croisees." or gaps. e. Les parties sont sans relation.VOL. et leurs Maitres. He was aware of the changes occurring in architecture but could not grasp their full meaning. des disparites. 4: lxvii. . praises the Baroque church of St. . "Nous savons bien que quelques Architectes apelent ces intervalles des repos dans l'Architecture.. .162 and there must have been some argument between Blondel and the modernists on the question of the bare wall." 166 Ibid. 3. . undermining unity." 170 In this book. 1: 1.160and "noble simplicity. "le renversementde toutes les Loix.172 They enjoy mixing up the Antique. augmente tous les jours depuis quinze ans. and are against anything contrary to their system. "lorsqu'on osera tout se permettre . ne presente plus qu'une composition froide?" 163Ibid. .-F.." 169Ibid. un nom qui leur convienne. dont j'accuse ici la jeunesse . selon eux. Roch. distorted forms. 161 views on architecture." must have given much thought to the pros and cons of modern rigidity. altered proportions. the latter by Ledoux and Delafosse.166 Though I believe I have furnished ample documentation to present Blondel's position.168 According to Bastide. pourroient insensiblementproduire la revolution des idees et la perfection de l'art. calls it "cet edifice trompeur.164 In his fear he saw the contradictory features combining to bring about the end of architecture: walls pierced by openings out of place. There is a highly interesting posthumous publication by Blondel. 42. 167 Prost. soumise necessairement a la stature humaine. 3: 430. 168Blondel. lviii. 1: 139. knew only by name." . .. . 107.g. .onnerie. They regard their teachers as stupefied with habit. qu'on alterera les proportions. le mepris de tous les usages. accidental embellishments instead of decorative sculpture." 172 Ibid. crude apertures instead of framed windows and doors. 257. point de doute que l'on ne fera plus que de la Ma. l'assemblage de toutes les bizarreries. il est certain qu'aujourd-hui nos jeunes Architectes sont plus severes dans les dehors de leur facades. PT. but to him they are "dissonances.165 There was neither rhyme nor reason for this condition: On ne peut assigner a leurs compositions bizarres... L'homme du monde eclaire par les arts. almost angrily. 1: 24. caracterise le ridicule et le mepris des regles. ne considerentpas que la hauteur demesuree ." 171 Ibid. "sans trop savoir pourquoi. "partout des contrastes sans necessite . Amsterdam.. 8. The downfall of "true" architecture seemed to him predestined and imminent. but to the world at large. that he knows very well that undecorated piers are popular because they are calm. this book was written when Blondel. with which I can deal only briefly. mais jamais de veritable Architecture. sont plonges dans le sommeil de l'habitude.171 This ambiguity is not caused by a lack of discrimination on his part. "II espera que des observations . One correspondent. and basically the same motivation-insurrection. a telling characterization of the young generation and their works. wished to present his ideas not merely to students.. . le faux gouita ete prefere a une symetrie raisonnableet reflechie. The two currents.. 162Ibid. Auguste Prost. 159. Baroque." 258. . Here we see sideby-side the two currents in which the architectural "decay" of the eighteenth century became manifest. des nus . je dirai meme de l'audace. and complete confusion through the mixture of antique.. During the last fifteen years they have made progress only in depraving taste. restraint. Le progres du mauvais gout a cet egard. . J. when he censured unruliness. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS 16 BOULLEE 445 He severity. qui nuisent a l'unite. the other toward its end. ni ddcidera quel particulierelles pourroientetre propres. . qu'on defigurera les formes. one at the beginning of the century..167 It contains letters exchanged between two correspondents (probably fictional) holding divergent a beaucoup gagne. 96.. des colonnes et non des ordres. and learn about the influence of the Abbe Laugier whose teachings will be discussed later. parce que cette grandeur gigantesque s'accorde mal avec les autres parties de l'Architecture. 1774. qu'on preferera la richess aux symboles. their boldness has increased.. and modern elements. mais ne doit-on pas convenir aussi que cette continuite lisse. exuberance instead of character. "Peut-etre abusons-nous trop des ressauts Ibid. and lack of interrelationship. thus hoping to contribute his share to the "intellectual revolution. 430. lack of proportion. I feel that in writing a new chapter of art history I should not pass over the opportunity to clarify further the condition of ferment in which architecture found itself in the eighteenth century." 164Ibid.. while the other. "ils dogmatisent. the former impersonated by Pinault [Pineau]. "Ceux de nos Artistes. L'homme du monde eclaire par les arts. had grown on the same soil and been nurtured by the same spirit of rebellion. Those artists whose immaturity must account for their imperfections are not aware that their oversized features are ridiculous. Lajou.169the editor. or inveighs against senseless contrasts and faulty symmetry." See note 114. qu'on n'observera ni caractere ni style. Some passages leave the question open as to which of the two trends Blondel meant. and Meissonnier. moreover. . poussee a l'exces.163 Blondel certainly was not prejudiced. ils elevent la voix contre tout ce qui n'est pas conforme a leur systeme. statement of Bastide. . the Gothic.. about the posthumous publication. but rather is due to the fact that the two trends had some outer similarities. mais nous les appelons des dissonances. different as they were. He declares. "cette noble simplicite.

264. Ibid.173 They have read the essay of Laugier." 13. Pavillon de Bouchefort. PHIL. ." 2: 112.l77 (He used the word enchainemen. Architecture (see note 1). and they create the most intimate interrelation between inner and outer space. 2: 10. "infiniment superieures a celles qu'on eleva." 175 Ibid.. he praises the modernism of Gondoin.. These windows have a dual effect: they reduce the faqade to a framework of piers and narrow bands that separate the stories. The elements are in an uproar. . The central cylindrical part including the salon. . V.176 he recognized the superiority of the modern over the Rococo masters.. near Brussels. The structural ties are inconspicuous in the general agitation.180the main cornices of the wings have no continuation in the middle portion. He evidently understood that both the Rococo and the revolutionary architecture were equally hostile to tradition. 179Mariette. pour que toutes les parties soient relatives au tout. It took hold of plan and mass as well. project for Malgrange 183 (fig.. In the garden fronts of the Hotel de Torcy. the modern facades.174 Blondel's comparison of Meissonnier with Delafosse belongs to the great revelations of art history. but it seemed best to discuss him after Blondel. remarks about Laugier's Essai (see note 201). emerging from 177Boffrand. Livre d'Architecture. 178See note 22. plan.. qui n'est pas ordinaire. 7). and much excitement is also expressed in his design for the Palais de la Malgrange. 11.179and the H6tel de Seignelay. the openings prevail. In his book. too. He condemned Meissonnier's frivolity and Delafosse's heaviness. 180Ibid. Germain Boffrand. Reprint. and. [TRANS. 1: 95. "un style si simple et si grave . FIG. . F. XIX. ils se croient tres-instruits.181 the chimneys are decorative motifs. . Paris. 182Ibid. Discours sur la necessite de l'etude de l'Architecture. . ". and what in retrospect appears to have been one of the tragedies of art history -the hopeless struggle for contradictory ends-made the young revolutionaries dream of unlimited possibilities.) GERMAIN BOFFRA'ND What made Blondel despair. contrasts strangely with the octagonal substructure. spoke of concatenation. since he was Boullee's second teacher. et ne raisonnent pas. SOC. Yet they were not the first who went through this crisis." 174Ibid. pl. competing with the bizarre beacon and the ornamental vases (fig. "ouvrage plein d'idees neuves et ecrit avec sagacite. (Space does not allow me to deal with Delafosse in this book. . 2: pl. "se plaisent a confondre dans une meme facade. and unexecuted. sa disposition. which owes so much to Boffrand. . disappeared." Blondel.. Its four porches recall the Rotonda by Palladio. cally I should perhaps have dealt with Boffrand first. Boffrand found it worth while to illustrate his second. 183Ibid. "l'un est d'une frivolite choquante. Pierre Patte. Boffrand.446 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. despite their shortcomings." I shall comment on the extremely interesting Delafosse in Architecture in the Age of Reason. Paris.t just as his contemporary. 1754..184 The upper part of the salon.182 Its roof is adorned with statues. trophies. the walls have almost. This last was to consist of a circular salon from which four apartments radiated. and chimneys. the front of the H6tel Seignelay presents a strangely deranged rhythm with five bays in the center and two on each side. Paris. 1927.175 Yet. J. pointed out the importance of unity and concatenation in his Livre d'Architecture. Continuing restlessness characterizes the faqade of the Palace of Wiirzburg. Germain. les meubles sont presque tous a la Capucine. il y a cinquante ans. 48. The relationship between the parts and the whole seems to have meant as much to Boffrand as to any Baroque architect. ". had also grappled with the same problems. pi. Robert Morris. 55. .. although he did not agree with the new sternness and sobriety. vases.. . 181Boffrand. Parce qu'ils ont lu l'essai du Pere Logier [sic]." 184Ibid. but he frequently disregarded unification of the components. The unrest exhibited in these features did not remain confined to the facades. . l'antique la Gothique et la moderne leurs ouvrages fantastiques. built for the Bavarian elector Max Emanuel. 11. He must have sensed that the modern conceptions contained greater promise. l'autre d'une pesanteur assommante. Pavillon de Bouchefort. 88." Boffrand bibliographyin Mae Mathieu. Moreover. "un enchainementet une liaison convenable . 260. Before them a great old man. pl. But there is not a vestige of Palladio's composure in Boffrand's work. pl. Chronologi173 l'ancienne Architecture. 6. 92. .178) He still favored the high French windows which had been common in France since the seventeenth century. nos jeunes Architectes sont raisonneurs. On the hunting lodge... XV. however. but there is no reason in their reasoning. 1940.. 176 Ibid. 1745. 6).

From the works of Horace he picked the passage in which the poet wants poems to be not only beautiful. 427. ." 189Ibid. During this awakening noteworthy new ideas rose to the surface. Its whimsical plan and elevation testify to the unquenchable desire for change which overpowered even the architect considered to be the Grand Master of the Rococo. 9. of an architecture which would speak to the spectator's mind rather than appeal to his eye. should express joy and sorrow. Like Lodoli. ont passe des decorations interieures et des ouvrages en bois . The first criterion Boffrand used in judging an architect was to determine whether the creator understood the character of his own building: Un homme qui ne connoit pas ces differens caracteres. "on doit toujours conserver la noble simplicite.188 And tique sculpture. like music. and perhaps deeply moved." 196 Ibid. Dezallier. 27. 14. like so many authors of the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. . will necessarily lack liveliness and beauty. It was the sum of the individual properties." or. He objected to the confusion of curves and straight lines." 189 With the concept of soundness. he disapproved of wooden forms forced upon stone. PT.195 Boffrand stood between two epochs.186 and praised the noble simplicity and calmness 187 which soon became the battle cry of the art critics largely through the activities of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. He could not part entirely from the old ideal of a specific formality. pl. perhaps. as well as of some contemporary works.196 190Ibid. les graces et la terreur. but also moving: Non satis est pulchra esse poemata. serenity and horror.193 To support his view. . The concept of the visual unification of the parts joined with the concept of their spiritual unison: I1 faut dans un ouvrage suivre le meme caractere depuis le commencement jusqu'a la fin.. 191Ibid. About architecture parlante. Boffrand claimed that materials were to be treated according to their inherent nature." And he added this attack against the classicists: "Works which are but copies of other works.." 190 "Nature" was no nebulous notion to Boffrand. 8. Prominent was the concept of the true. et qui ne les fait pas sentir dans ses ouvrages. Ars poetica. said Boffrand. yet he was already affected.. aux ouvrages exterieurs et en pierre. dulcia sunto Et quocunque volent animum auditoris agunto. "Chaque chose doit etre faite suivant la nature de l'edifice. there is really not a great deal of difference between Rococo and revolutionary architecture.VOL. his words disclose the awakening of a new architectural consciousness. Boffrand felt that a structure should have meaning.. Quoted from Horace. 16. "ces differentes lignes sont dans l'Architecture. 7. ils pechent contre l'expression.. more than the luxuriant decoration is indicative of the historical position of the design. love and hate." 188Ibid. pour que toutes les parties soient relatives au tout." 192Ibid. 9.. "ce repos si desirable dans l'Architecture. l'amour et la haine. as the sound principles-"les Latin translation of the text puts it. see note 82. 194 Ibid. . But one step separated the two. that the concept of architectural unity achieved a dual meaning: it came to imply both unity of form. 8. 42. 186 Ibid. "(des) ornemens sans liaison au reste de la decoration . . .. Boffrand found that the beauty of an185Ibid. Palais de la Malgrange. 195 Ibid. "L'Architecture est susceptible de differents genres qui rendent ses parties animees par les differents caracteres . XX. Ces edifices doivent annoncerau spectateurleur destination.194 Architecture. "sana principia. two new categories of aesthetic appreciation appeared: the Natural and the Characteristic. and should express This was the new program of the architecture it. . 26." 191 The first stage of the struggle for a rational architecture had a Romantic hue. ni la mnme beaute. and Boffrand's text indicates that he had already taken the step." 193Ibid. while his works merely indicated the symptoms of disintegration. Boffrand. n'est pas Architecte.. is supported by buttresses. "un melange confus de lignes courbes et de lignes droites. 9. or veritables principes. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 447 the substructure. 3.. celles qui sont copiees sur d'autres ouvrages.. elevation. et s'ils ne le font pas. 26. and unity of character. "il s'est toujours roidi contre le mauvais gout d'ornemens.. qui sur differentes cordes expriment la joie et la douleur. FIG. "les belles statues antiques et quelques-unesde notre temps sont les enfans de la Nature ." ce que dans la Musique sont les tons. second project. n'ont ni la meme vie..192 parlante.185 This project is a landmark on the road from Baroque to revolutionary architecture. Yet." 9.... Thus it happened by the new ideal of expressiveness." 187 Ibid. The structural disintegration. 27. turned to a classical authority. derived from their being "the children of nature.

PHIL.. he was not afraid to state them. "principes evidens. 2: 186. xxxvi.. were so avidly read by the young revolutionaries. 1752. Paris. even 197Mercure France." 198 ABBE LAUGIER the most respected works. 55.. he found. xxxviii. in his words. reveal a profoundly critical thinker. without mercy.207 Laugier was one of the first. etc. He found fault with heavily projecting cornices because they disturbed harmony and unity. 110. in the era of "classicism. approval of the newly arisen trend of erecting the high altar in the center of the church. and last. Paris.203 The publications of Laugier." 209Ibid.. Cf. The writings of Marc-Antoine Laugier exemplify the architectural trends of the mid-eighteenth century. whose Observations he ignores. who had imbibed certain new ideas of the mid-century. 204 Laugier. 52.220 As a panacea against these and similar follies. with some feeble disapproval of the exaggerations of the Baroque.213with the heavy parts below. Thus it happened that in the last stages of the Baroque there arose a new theory in regard to columns. 21.. the younger. 42. 103. For this problem. revealing that Cochin was somewhat in advance of the great architect. July 1754. 19-59.. 1754. "les vrais mysteres de son Art. 217 Ibid. however. 184.. "des preceptes invariables . 326. 15. Julius. he yet did not want the elimination of conventional forms.. . and a typical representative of the Enlightenment. tout me faisoit craindre pour le sort d'un Ecrit. 566. 199 200 201 Cf.200 He was accused by certain contemporaries of merely reiterating the opinions of an earlier theorist. 207 Ibid. les nomme-t-on des adoucissements destines a raccorder l'Etage inferieur avec le superieur d'une maniere agreable. but his thought appears to have influenced the students more than did the teaching of their instructors. note 67. on the contrary. 1765. 47. Essai sur l'Architecture. however. Ibid.211 Laugier still clung to some of the old tenets. "ces formes barroques." to question the authority of Vitruvius..204 and felt free to castigate. 36. "Les ordres grecs ont ete inventes pour des pays dont les usages etoient differents des n6tres.217 and that great statues in niches. overrates Cordemoy and underrates Laugier.. "En vain pour justifier (ces grandes consoles)." 212 213 the true principles of architecture: Only a rational Before dealing with the third.199 Laugier was not an architect. immutable foundation from which the only true architecture could rise. Remarques sur quelques livres nouveaux concernant l'Architecture. SOC. Laugier. . "En relevant les imperfections de cet edifice (Saint-Gervais. would help art to progress." 208 Essai. v. Nouveau traite de toute l'Architecture. la hardiesse des Critiques." Laugier was severely criticized by Frezier. whose treatise is just another book on the orders. pt. . 184. 16." 210Ibid." 216 Ibid. 220Ibid. note 174. Cochin's main point was a warning against the curves of the Baroque.. the "natural" made its appearance. 1925.208 Laugier. si aveugle. 32. 203 Cordemoy. "II n'y a plus de progres a esperer dans les Arts. G. 40. Examen d'un Essai sur l'Architecture. and while Laugier admits 201 having profited from De Cordemoy's Nouveau traite . cf. o ." 214 Ibid." Similarly. and La Font de Saint-Yenne. according to Blondel's report. Essai.219 favorite of Baroque builders. I should like to discuss the Abbe Laugier. 262.. . 42. De Cordemoy. L. 1753. xxxvii. "la nouveaute des principes. teacher of Boullee."197 with a plea for straight lines and right angles: "I1 n'y a que l'angle droit qui puisse faire un bon effet. Kunstliteratur.205 His dogmatic self-con206 fidence came from the conviction that he had found doctrine.218engaged columns. 1755. was too much concerned with practice to investigate the basis of architecture as an art. ." 211 Observations. Paris). 202 Cordemoy.. the huge scrolls. and lighter ones above. pourvu qu'elle soit raisonnable. 185. Here I should like to refer briefly to the famous Supplication aux orfevres by Charles-Nicolas Cochin. 53.. whose writings. looking at them from a quite new angle. Frezier. Paris. Laugier. Schlosser. Although Laugier was fully aware of the novelty of the principles he set forth. .214 Yet he did not fail to observe the swelling of the columns. 84. that every thing has a naturalness true to itself..202 their views were really quite different.448 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. xxxviii. "qu'importe que ce soit une nouveaute. 92. "pour s'elever au-dessus d'un prejuge . La Haye. 5.209 In his opinion. was looking for the solid." 206Ibid. My quotations refer to the 2nd ed. Mercure France. Dec. si tout se borne a imiter les choses faites. Vienna.212and he recommendedgradation by differentiating the heights of the structural parts. which appeared a few years after Boffrand's Architecture.. or. and of the boldness of his criticism. xv. The Roman writer. and my notes 99. Essai." Thus he concludes in Observations sur l'Architecture. ignoring Lodoli's great discovery. 218 Ibid. pour qu'il n'en subsiste aucune (architecture) dont on ne puisse rendre une solide raison. he believed. j'acquiers le droit de n'en epargner aucun autre. all prejudice had to be overcome if this were to be attained.216broken entablatures. j'osois combattre des usages recus et des prejuges dominans. AMER. Laugier still understood "natural" as the affinity to nature. 1706. had a deeper understanding of architecture than De Cordemoy. 16. 215 Ibid. and 205Ibid.210 The Greek orders themselves were to be tested as to how far they still fitted modern needs. Marc-Antoine. 106. 219 Ibid. . de. He was more advanced than Blondel and nearer to the point of view of Lodoli. x. "Tout semble nous menacer d'une decadence entiere.. the symptoms of decay in contemporary architecture:215 198Ibid. Though Laugier was imbued with new architectural ideals. II. .

"une forme simple et point commune. Laugier wanted the interior of the church simple and grave. He saw great merit in the isolated column. . he condemned. f. stimulating noble and moving sentiments. 39. he could not overlook the character of the Gothic building."228 Laugier ultimately came to the conclusion that only the strictly necessary was beautiful. and circular sanctuaries in the three corners. especially as it affected restorations.238 Architecture. ."deplaces 224Essai. xviii. "Il ne faut dans une eglise rien que de simple. dans les partiesajouteespar capriceconsistent tous les defauts. 110.235 Denouncing lavish ornamentation. T. 187. "d'allier 234 Ibid. de male. with a dome above the inscribed circle. 241 Essai.57.233 Laugier made a pregnant statement when he spoke of the decorative additions to NotreDame de Paris: "le systeme d'Architecture a ete de- ace to the Baroque: the appeal to the eye became unessential to those who searched after the essential. 22.110." 240 Ibid. . Archi227Essai. Observations. 100. independantes de l'habi223 et contrenature." de quantite superflu. . We know of its deplorable consequences during the nineteenth century. baldacchinos. reveille dans l'ame des idees nobles et touchantes.e. ou de la convention des hommes. 50. 243 Ibid. 233 des sistemesincompatibles. The Baroque was not averse to its own altars. support of the upper parts. . 105.." . Observations.. "des beautes essentielles. Laugier declared: Toutes les figures geometriques." his approval. 196. ne laisseront jamais the shape of St... 3.230 Thus a new purism arose. and pointed out another way toward architectural progress.23 From this attitude a new appreciation of medieval architecture arose." Ibid." 230 Ibid.VOL.. 10. 228 Ibid.. "Tenons-nous au simpleet au naturel. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 449 finding a new justification for them.. "la colonne y devient simple deco235 ration. When the progressive architects began to favor pilasters.223 All capricious variations of columns. "descolonnesisols . "susceptible de froideur et de vivacite.. 49. 1924. "Portes a plein cintre grimacent.242 The new architect was to work undeviatingly with simple geometric forms."ledecorateur doitdansuneEglisegothique faire valoir l'Architecture.. de justesse et de desordre. A." 247 Ibid." He saw in the choir of the Gothic church the atmosphere of the forest. among them.respecter. "Ce batiment rond. Observations. . 56. 56. sera dans Paris un de nos plus agreables morceaux. another menigencies of simplicity and originality is a hospital in 221Ibid. Geometry was to be the new point of departure.depuis le triangle jusqu'au cercle. commodiousness engendered license. 208. henceforth.225 But the very worst that an architect could be guilty of. was the porte-a-faux. peuvent servir a varier sans cesse la composition de ces sortes d'edifices. especially the rusticated 224 and the twisted... or seemingly insufficient." der franzosischen tektur-theorie Klassik. The new purism did not admit of such conglomeration.. Works of John Soane. de serieux." Observations.244 Very soon architects were to follow this suggestion.236 He felt that the exterior of any building should be severe in appearance237 and should speak to the soul..247 2220bservations. it was "true. Andrew's Cross. rien qui puisse faire diversion a la piete. about variants of the Greek-cross plan.. 156." 239 Ibid. Cf. 194." With its entablature it revealed the real significance of the structural parts.circular Halle au ble by Lecamus de Mezieres met with sentent. 1924. (The porte-afaux had already been condemned by earlier authors.245 Hand in hand with the new ideals of truth and purity John Another of Laugier's designs meeting the chief exwent a new contempt for sensuous beauty. and statues in Gothic churches. "une legere teinture de Geometrie. Laugier found in it those aweinspiring qualities for which his contemporaries also began to yearn.221 He considered interior columns as being merely decorative 222 and pointed out that inside entablatures made no sense." Soane.241 In his suggestions for church plans.. 246 Observations. 207. 226Ibid. 238Essai. 21." 51.240 We know that the tendency to give buildings character did not do architecture much good. PT. 48. "Les Fenetresen plate-bande 229 Ibid. ayant au surplus la solidite et la simplicite requise. hostile to all superfluous ornament 231-to the "horsd'ceuvres" as Laugier called them 232-and still more hostile to additions to historic buildings. parfaitement isole . Laugier would allow for only plain postand-lintel architecture. insufficient. 206." tude des sens.243 Laugier developed the idea of a triangular church. 227 doors and windows other than the straight. 149.136. He admired the contrasts of its masses.. and arbitrary additions meant abuse. Laugier. 185. xl. i." Essai. "dansles parties essentiellesconsistenttoutes les beautes. and the path to beauty. . Stylistic purity was a quite new concept." 231 lArchitecturebien du Ibid. 42. Kaufmann. queje la depouille 232 Ibid. 2. too. which began to mean more to him than "order." 237 Observations. 16. 236 Ibid...229 The remedy.246 No wonder the d'Architecture de doutesur la verite du spectacle qu'ellespre. "un edifice construit dans toute la perfection de l'art . 245 Bolton. were to him "unnatural. 234 natur. sont plus naturelles. xl. 199. were to be found in simplicity and naturalness. entrance porches in the middle of each side." 242 Ibid. "II est vrai que j'6te 1' de colifichets.22. . In his criticism of its single features. in Laugier's opinion.226) Consequently.Rep. 27.menager.132.. Kunstwissenschaft64: 212 f. to make the deepest impression on the visitor without distracting him." Similarly.. 225Ibid. "pourvfi qu'il ne sorte point des figures regulieres. E. ." 244 Ibid. London. Laugier made a last attempt to salvage columns-the noblest of classical features-from the impending deluge. .. was to be considered susceptible of emotions. knew this.

II faudroit avoir la toutes until not found were solutions Aesthetically satisfying volonte de rendre notre Capitale aussi superieure a toutes les autres par la perfection de son plan. "Nos villes sont un amas de maisons entassees pele-mele... 260 Hegemann and Peets. a donner du neuf. Dewailly. Nat. "Le meme dessein doit regner dans toute l'espace monnier.. Paris. would carry out. as if on purpose. time same at the warning against blocks. ed.. Henry LeNew York. ed. 1899. . 179. . aboutit a un arc de triomphesur une grande place en demi. for which he suggested a large avenue lined With Le Geay's return from Rome. Notice sur . 7: 377. Memoires inedits.252 young artist.257 Much beauty was destroyed in De Wailly. nous qii sommes variables en tout le reste . . Charles Henry. Proces-verbaux. 44. C'etoit un des plus beaux genies en architecture qu'il y ait eu. .. directeurs . ed." isoles. Villar. to invent. qui avoit ete pensionnaire a Rome. a inventer. Secretary Wailly. . to form ideas of their own. Wien. Inst. l'uniformite insipide regne dans leurs plans. 120.. 1765. Le Geay had received the Grand Prix taste to be erected from which several streets were to radiof the Academy of Architecture in Paris in 1732 but ate." . developed. ainsi dire.tectes anciens de l'Academie. 5: 291. He was perhaps JEAN-LAURENT LE GEAY the first to see the defects of the plan of Paris.250 The the recommenwas of his most remarkable suggestions Having studied the inception of the great change in dation of a transverse road from the Porte Saint-Martin architecture. names as a further pupil.248 His charges of sterility and Laugier's suggestions 259 were not given serious conand until 1793 when the Commission of Artists sideration insipidity are the precursors of Ledoux' indignant the took fulminations up city planning. W. Arch.. "eine f6rmliche Modekrankheit.253 He was proud of this scheme which posterity. "il faudroit que les Eglises fussent des coup de talent . 5: 96. art franc. 327.255although too much uniformity and. 1922. 3: 258 Sitte. Monu. 1901. percer de nouvelles. [TRANS. 382. mais d'ailleurs.450 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 255Ibid. qu'elle l'est par la beautd de ses edifices. ." who knew how to impart grandeur and parallelism (the gridiron plan).. Peyre. 1857. . 1880. .de gens. Boulle. Laugier wanted decorative unity within the single of the De architect the Andrieux. "un jeune homme qui a beaugramme traverse par des lignes a angles droits. . 209.261 Charleswith two or four rows of trees. and presents a forgotten artist of great influence.258 Attempts to realize the new ideas 259 Observations. Stddtebau nach seinen kiinstlerischen Grundsitzen. "On peut donner pour premiere epoque du retour d'un meilleur goust." Acad. 206.256 We must note to his schemes. It tells of the rise of a new epoch. let us now turn to Boulle's third teacher. Paris.260 The modernization of Paris against uninspired." 250 Essai. d'architecture. It seems Boullee had proposed the erection of monumental and dignified entrance ceeded.263 Joseph Lavallee. . dieser Freilegungswahn. to make something new. On vit changer sensiblement l'acheveront. and A. 187. . "une grande avenue tres-large. "Ce que nous aurons commence. peut-etre plutost parce qu'il leur parut nouveau que par un cercle percee de plusieursgrandes rues en patte d'oye. et pour 251 Ibid.254 In genon In an to 1742." 249Observations. Moreau. "Je ne puis trop les exhorter a se faire des idees propres. about which cf. Paris.PHIL." See also 160. In this square a Triumphal Arch was had begun. C. 313. art franc. il ouvrit les yeux a beaucoup . Montaiglon. also remarked that the "renaissance of taste monotony resulting from over-stressed rectangularity began with Le Jay.most famous modern architects.251 Furthermore. . were bizarre as they were-the idea of true architectural perperhaps justified. 262Acad.. asses riche pour elever les batimens qu'il projettoit. 141. les rues . as it did. in his obituary on by a hundred years. un uniformite "froide grand parallelo256Ibid. Documents. where he not left for Rome until five years later. Thieme-Becker. Corresp. Nouv. significance for art history.shadowed the of the architectural revooutbreak very cept of the Place de l'Etoile can be found in Laugier's lution. sans raison . 220. 242. Arch. whose work foreLedoux on the eve of the French Revolution." 254Ibid. to the Porte Saint-Jacques. when new urban centers were the trodden paths. he proJean-Laurent Le Geay. 386. M. nos neveux veritable sentiment de ses beautes. Paris. and who helped to form the taste of the with interest that his idea of isolating outstanding build. 228. 214." 248Essai. 1899. 156. . 223." This passage is of extraordinary ments eriges en France a la gloire de Louis XV. 37. Comme 253Ibid. pioneer in the field of city planning.Nicolas Cochin declared that a new era of improved circular piazza. ings antedated the theories of the nineteenth century and De Wailly. qui n'est pas traverse par une autre rue. American Vitruvius. 9: 324. franc. Patte Pierre. from 1737 remained had obituary eral. Jean-Francois Heurtier.-N.262 had he was certain. The con." 257Observations. 10: 1. sans frein. first book. "Il faudroit aligner et elargir presque in old surroundings were destined to be unsuccessful. 34. 261 Cochin. Paris.SOC." Laugier may have been inspired by the projects l'ecole d'architecture au grand etonnement de tous les archiof the competitionof 1748. 78. expressed the view that the builder of the old cities when these ideas were carried out and critics Odeon in Paris derived from Le Geay's drawingsof the 1900's who found fault with these changes. roy. Peets. dans (ses dessins) il y a du feu et du genie. Rome." batiments 263 Andrieux.le grand Mogol n'auroit pas ete 252Ibid. 219. l'arrivee de Legeay architecte.. 104. Nulle part ce desordre n'est plus choquantque dans Paris.. terminating in a semi. Hegemann. 1911 f. Laugier did not tire of urging architects to leave the twentieth century. in particular. Les jeunes architectes le saisirent autant qu'ils purent. Camillo. against the Academy. 213. bordee d'arbres le goust de Legeay etoit excellent.249 contemptuous We also find Laugier to have been a modernist and a was at last realized under Napoleon III. "Nous ne varions point assez les formes de nos edifices. Lexikon 17. from the less modern archisuch as were later carried out by tects to this rather gates to the capital. Hist.

More interesting are the 264Lavallee. Charles-Francois Viel de Saint-Maux reports that Le Jai. Guilmard. Joseph. 42. Dussieux. 1925. C. Lejay-I 1799.." 265 Cf. 20 f.266 It is curious that an artist. 1787. Maitres ornemanistes 1: 238. Artistes francais a l'etranger. le Jai. 58. contains rather tame etchings by Le Geay. 2nd. as their subject matter. n. 266 Viel de Saint-Maux. ed.VOL.265 Jai. according to Cochin. Tomb among ruins. 195. Berliner Baumeister des 18 Jahrhunderts. was that architect who worked in Germany.. Berlin." . signed "J. architect to the King of Prussia. 3. Notice hist.. 1856. intimate. Dumont.. Cet artiste qui etoitrempli de talens ne trouva aucune occupation a Paris . 68. Schmitz. malgre le nombre de ceux qu'il avoit faits. M. l'engagea a prendreune place de Maitre de Dessin pour le paysage dans une Pension de province que tenoient les Benedictins. the Italian titles. and a view of the Hedwigskirche. L. fut etonne lorsqu'il revint a Paris de voir que ses eleves avoient mis des colonnes par-tout. the prize-winner of 1732. Le author of the that the believe etchings. sur Ch. Berlin." About this church cp. Giovan Lorenzo. PT. probably. Paris. "ce ne fut que chez l'architecte le Jai qu'il parvint a decouvrir.D. voyant combien il en etoit afflige. distinguished in his youth as Le Geay was by the Grand Prix. Thieme-Becker. perplexed the old men of the Academy in Paris. . in his Roman years. Paris. Lettres sur l'architecturedes anciens et celle des modernes. 1765. 8. ni aucun eleve.. 7. . a travers les exagerations de ce nouveau maitre. which. G. the teacher exalted in obituaries. le veritable point de perfection dans l'Architecture dont il avait le pressentiment. 1880. and the Italianized Christian names. fection. had numerous pupils in Paris. Architecte du Roi de Prusse. In spite of the differences of spelling-Le Geay. 29. Paris. Paris.. Legeay del et sculp. 2nd ed. Dewailly. de l'Academie des Sciences. must have been other elements in his designs or in his ideas. "M. Recueil. M.. later a famous teacher in the French capital and recognized outside of France. Viel gives this exlatter's views of ancient Rome. chiefly for Frederick the Great. but created. Perhaps we can learn what these elements may have been from Le Geay's etchings published in 1767-1768. P. Bezout. left no further trace behind him. Hermann.] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 451 FIG.264 This brief reference to the oddity of Le Geay's designs reveals that Le Geay had not returned There from Italy simply as a convert of Neo-classicism. F. qui fut lui rendre visite.

1768. In 1786. Vasi. Rovine. 10). posed of the most widely diversified features 269 (fig. 9. Piranesi. pl. d. 10. [TRANS. We find in them the evidence of a strong personality reminiscent of Gianbattista Piranesi. Auguste. which lacks captions. FIG. 9). Bezout. 75. 8).. Le Geay seems to have been a quarrelsome man who had left the services of the King of Prussia and the Duke of Mecklenburg because of some differences. Schoy. 26. Nobody wanted his services. Albert. n. Two tombs. Even if Le Geay had not been the teacher of Boullee. the sources do not say. 11. 1767. passing from the composed representations of his Prima parte di architetture to the dramatic manner of the Carceri and Capricci. we would feel impelled to comment on his etchings. Le Geay's Fontane. It is very probable that the al267Cf. 270 Ibid. from a castle near Narbonne. pl.PHIL.268 Often the whimsical effect results from an accumulation of incongruous features. F. In the etching Prophet Lamenting Jerusalem. Giesecke. 105. M. Vasi. Two Tombs.452 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. The descriptive names in my text have been given by me. B. Le Geay appealed to the Duke of Mecklenburg for assistance so that he might spend his last years in Rome. Whether this was for some unknown personal reason. To help the disheartened artist. 10.SOC. Was there any connection between the two architects? We know that Piranesi. With all their excitement they are symptomatic of the crucial moment in architectural history reflected in the writings of the theorists. ready renowned Le Geay had influenced the younger Venetian architect and it may be that the famous Piranesi style could better be termed the Le Geay style. L'art architectural . the dates meaning the years of publication. copy. . but even more by their disproportionate sizes.. de l'epoque reference I use the pencilled plate numbers in the copy of Cooper Union Museum. 1912. Tom- beaux. planation: Le Geay was shunned in Paris after his return from Germany. Louis XVI 2: pt. 1868. G. Liege-Paris. a member of the Academy of Sciences. They should not remain unnoticed in this introduction to revolutionary architecture. procured a position for him as a drawing teacher in a boarding school conducted by Benedictine monks in the provinces. suddenly changed his style. Prophet lamenting Jerusalem. several arbitrarily assembled architectural fragments appear in the foreground 270 (fig. Some vases attract our attention not only by their extravagant forms. or because of his eccentricity as an artist. In the Flight into Egypt 268 Le Geay. 1768. 12. U. Fontane. after his arrival in Rome in 1740. Tomb among Ruins. Tombeaux. Rovine clearly reveal a state of restlessness. In the Tomb among Ruins we see relief panels hung on fluted pilasters in a most inconsistent manner (fig. pl. not even his pupils had any contact with him. The etchings of both men are similarly fantastic. 2.267 We also know that he had many contacts with the artists of the French colony. . Two Tombs are com- FIG. for they tell us much about the new trends. The prophet seems to be Jeremiah wiping his tears with his cloak while sitting amidst the ruins of Jerusalem with "gates sunk into the ground" (Lamentations 2: 9). Giovan Lorenzo. For easier . pls. 269 C. Leipzig. New York.

.277 and his first wife. ou Moniteur Universel. 279Gaz. 3. a lever of extraordinary dimensions is depicted. 1728." . Proces (see note 262) 7: 89. "mort premier peintre du Roy. Leaving Le Geay's weird visions. no. 272Lecreulx. Well of Samaria. decoration had FIG. on a remarque plus de grandeur. more appropriate head-dress (fig. and with this in mind enrolled him in the studio of the painter Pierre. Marie-Louise. 273Ibid. note 78. 43. 278Papiers. pl. 37. . Flight. 44. Christ at the Well of Samaria. Villar (see note 1).276 was the son of Claude-Louis. . probably the draft of an obituary stating that the father was an architect expert. "le gofit de l'architecturea change sensiblement depuis quinze ans. . Francois Michel. In the etching. 1778. THE MAN Etienne-Louis Boullee. 38.VOL. 42. 48. faisoient toutes les loix. 277Papiers. Villar. fol. 12). 275Ibid. I should like to quote a last contemporary voice. 17. Notice. 38.279 The father wanted him to become an archi- FIG. Nat. pl. 271Ibid. he goes on to say that Laugier may have amused the public." 276Papiers de Boullee (see note 1). 4. 150. leur imagina- tells of his having died as First Painter to the King. 11. chacun a pose des principes differens. (This was undoubtedly Jean-Baptiste Pierre. 30 pluvi6se an 7. D'autre part des Artistes en ont conclus qu'il ne falloit jamais raisonner en matiere de goft. Discours sur le gout. plus de hardiesse dans les compositions . leur genie. II. but the artists did not care for him. Nat.273 The artists. on a pris en degofit les jardins de Lenotre. symmetry and regularity had been discarded. February 12. claim that only they can make the laws. 3.. The lever most assuredly is far too big to be handled by the woman 271 (fig.275 The discussion that follows on the leading revolutionary architects will reveal that Blondel knew better. but seems to have felt the need to visualize some unbalanced force. for our source become more severe. Gas. tect and to learn drawing. . et ne fit pas un seul proselyte parmi les Artistes. "II amusa quelque tems les gens du monde. 12. "Dans ce choc d'opinions. Christ at the well of Samaria. que c'etoit un affaire de sentiment.274 In an attack on Laugier. notaries' post-mortemprotocol. apparently for the purpose of lifting the water bucket. nee Boucher. provide his full title.. expert-jure des batiments du roi. applique aux arts et particulierementa l'architecture. Evidently the artist did not think of devising a practicable machine. On a fait le proces a la symetrie et a la regularite. he writes..Nancy. on en a substitue de plus males (ornemens) qui ont l'air pierre. qu'eux seuls. 18. fol. fol." 274Ibid. 1. 11). . 280Papiers.278 Boullee's life and activity seem to have been confined to the capital and its environs.280) The young Etienne took a fancy to painting and studied tion. Ce despotisme de quelques Artistes n'est pas nouveau. born in Paris." Cf. fol. In 1778 the architect Frangois-Michel Lecreulx 272 noted that architecture had changed in the past fifteen years. Flight into Egypt. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 453 the large head of the herm wears a pyramid instead of some lighter.. Grandeur and boldness had become characteristic. That he was never in Italy we know from contemporary sources. PT.

) Despite his progress as a painter. d. that he had to abandon his original vocation and is reported to have cultivated friendships with many painters. n. for Boullee is reported to have been very young when he started painting. He may well be responsible 281Villar. Paris. d. but also with Collins and with Laucret. n. Its appearance has been preserved for posterity in a great many engravings and has frequently been described. Paris. is opposed to this style of decoration. n.288 We do not know what the final arrangement of the three chapels. 284 Ibid. 286 Dumolin and Outardel. Jacques-Guillaume. Almanach du voyageur. Paris.291 In 1764. Perhaps this the report which Baudin (Pierre C. When the inferior designs were accepted. according to Gaz. Paris. Boulee [sic] erigea un autel en marbre bleu turquin surmonte seulement de deux urnes en marbre verdatre d'oi sortait une legere fumee. built in 1772 between the rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honore and the Champs-Elysees.and Charles-Paul Landon. Boullee remodeled the house and laid out a new gar289Ibid. 457-460. ed.-B. 287 Annee litteraire. "A la base de ce Calvaire. 1787. 733." Gourdon. 283Papiers. Ransonette. et peu convenable peut-etre a un edifice sacre. 357. Gustave. Fouquier. directeurs 18: 116) as the second. L'art pendantla revolution. L. and today is known as the Palais Elysee. 1746. 1903. Amsterdam. [TRANS. In February 1762 Boullee submitted to the Royal Academy of Architecture a perspective drawing of a proposed Royal Mint (H6tel des Monnoyes). Paris. Spire.Edouard. made Boullee and the painter Jean-Baptiste Pierre his assistants. .454 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. Henard.. et pittoresquede Paris 1: 452. 27. and 7: xiv. Guide des amateurs et des etrangers voyageurs a Paris 1: 166. or. L. and Babeau. or Anne-Louis Girodet. 44. 282Papiers. One of his ideas was to have the light falling directly upon the praying Sainte-Genevieve as the central figure in a large painting. 118." 290 Proces 7: 89. d. It is said that he persuaded a promising student to forsake architecture and to study painting with David. 1. Paris. 293Legrand. Boullee was a candidate for second-class membership of the Academy. he was admitted in August.285 Some historians report that the sculptor in charge of the entire project. having recommended Boullee. 1784. 291Ibid. 124.289 In his later works. Rue SaintHonore. Luc-Vincent. 3/4. to be erected on the Quai de Conti. of the Virgin. An account in the miscellaneous volume of the British Museum. 459.SOC. 285 Thiery. Boullee was forced by his father to take up architecture and to attend the classes of Blondel. records how Boullee became Blondel's pupil. erroneously. 288 Annee litt.90. and N. names Blondel as the first teacher.. under whose guidance the young man became one of the foremost painters of his time. 66. L'abbe de la Porte. 43. 38. and again in June 1762.. 4: 57. fol. Paris et la Seine. 23. six years later. Lejay (sic) as the third. Thiery. fols. Jean Charles. Proces 6: 62. 1759. he taught with great enthusiasm and imparted his enthusiasm to the students: "Il s'attachoit a les penetrer de la chaleur qui le transportoit lui-meme. as the achievement of another architect.292 Again Boullee was rejected and the commission was given to Gabriel Barreau. 1759. Lebon (probably. "un effet presque theatral. Paris. 1806. Paris au iSe vircle. He was afraid that the second designs would not do him justice. In February. Boudin) made to the Institut regarding the funeral. J. to Chalgrin. 294Funerailles du Citoyen Boullee. Boullee proceeded to make inferior drawings to emphasize the fitness of his original ideas for this project.-V. according to the historian Gustave Maqon. . perhaps. N. Guide 1: 88. L'observateur litteraire 3: 173.28. it may have been Antoine-Jean Gros. similarly condemning. about Boffrand as his teacher. mentions the age as 18. 1908. Paris. Tableau hist. Prince de Conde. 164. Paris en 1789. 7: 22. the Communion. and the Calvary. and Le Geay.-M. From the Marquis de Brunoy the house passed to the American Leavenworth. Marcel. 65. Paris. PierreEtienne. obituary. 1801. Henard." 284 When several chapels of Saint-Roch in Paris were to be redecorated in 1753. Villar. . ascribes the house to Belanger.. Blondel. 117. listed in Corresp.. 48. fig. Les misotechnites aux enfers. Cochin. Macon. 161. Villar. 1808-1811. 1892. Fran?ois Gerard.PHIL. C. quotes from a description by J. Les arts dans la maison Conde. 292Macon. owes to Boullee.28s (The latter may have been Nicolas Lancret. Robert. acting on the recommendation of Soufflot.290 But it was Jacques-Denis Antoine who was finally entrusted with the work.. 124.282 He regretted even to his old age. des plus belles maisons . Amsterdam. however. and in his writings we find him particularly fond of such romantic effects. 92. d. he was called in by Louis Joseph. 43. Krafft." 287 In spite of Soufflot's favorable opinion. the parson of Saint-Roch asked for other designs. Freron. he was called to do the architectural work. Cousin. Villar. Description de Paris et de ses edifices 2: 69. with bibl. the famous Etienne-Maurice Falconet.. December 19. .294about 1800. In 1773 the financier Beaujon bought the neighboring Hotel d'Evreux which for a time had been owned by Madame de Pompadour. after that of Lebon.. In 1746 he became a pupil of Boffrand. 199. fol. he refused to carry them out. as 19. Saint-Victor. 1763. Paris.Plans . Paris. 38. in connection with the renovation of the Palais Bourbon. declaring that his aim was not to receive the commission. 7: 28. 4: 39. 1936. Nat. it not only with Pierre.Eglises de Paris. 77. was full of praise and when he saw the designs. Saint-Roch (without publicationdata). 21. According to Villar.. pl.283) At the early age of eighteen Boullee began his own career as a teacher at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees.286 A contemporary writer relates that Jacques-Germain Soufflot. 103. Albert. Paris. G. 38. The Academy was pleased with it and asked him to work out the plans and details. (Our source gives only his initial. "il y a trouve du genie. for the theatrical lighting which was by many considered undignified. Eglises de France. a Paris et dans les environs. Academy meeting.293 The only private residence by Boullee that won fame was the Hotel de Brunoy. . 39. Legrand and Landon.

P. 45. L. L. This project is described in his Memoire sur les moyens de procurer a la Bibliotheque du Roi les avantages que ce monument exige. He did not receive the Villar. . note 9. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 455 den. and Thun. David. About 1780 the Count d'Angivillers asked Boullee to work out plans for such an edifice. . 278.-A. 1870. fol. de l'Acad. Almanach. Pernon. 364-366. Jean. Villar. Biographie universelle 5: 242. Villar. 17e et 18e siecles. Paris. 315. 46. fols. headed by Boullee. 1880. 1788. It proved to be too large and the architect then devised plans for the adaptation of an already existing hall. A. 277. Lefeuve. Versailles. 304Villar. 309 Bibl. 39. F. 47. et mod.305 A rather unimportant commission given by the Minister of Finance was for the improvement of the bridge near the Place Louis XV (de la Concorde). 47. which are still extant in the Bibliotheque. several chateaux in the environs of Paris: Chateau Tasse at Chaville (Seine-etOise). fols. Dussieux. 3. pt. 308 "Un espece de foux en Architecture Boulle le septuagenaire en est le noyau. Ganay. Francois-Joseph Belanger 1: 107 f.. note 410. he may have 303Boullee on this project. which appeared in 1785. Chateau de Versailles 2: 70. PT. Demonville. propos seduisans.306 According to Michaud. Guide 1: 608. Charles. Hist.297 In 1780 he worked out a plan for the alteration of the prison of La Petite-Force between the rues de Sevigne and Pavee. 306Papiers. cf. art anc. on the nineteenth of Germinal of the second year of the Republic. Le Roy. 1918.309 The latter scarcely was the author of this attack. Guide 1: 292. Des Artistes ont dit qu'il paroissoit que les opinions du party Boulle etoient pleinement academique et royalistes.VOL. It is not known whether Boullee or Pierre Desmaisons carried out the structure as it is illustrated and described in Saint-Victor's topographical work. d. In this capacity he was in charge of the interior arrangement of the Count's apartment in the Temple. between the rues de la Ville-l'Eveque and de Suresne. Krafft and Ransonette. was transformed into the Bourse of Paris.. Funerailles. was denounced as sympathizing with the Royalists.. and of similar work for the Countess in the H6tel des Ecuries. Upon the request of the Minister of Finance. about this commission. 22: 46.. fol. hostile and apparently envious artists posted a libel against an alleged faction among the jury des arts. Papiers. Papiers. accuses Boulet (sic). Swarte. Guide 1: 82. cf. Sur la nouvelle salle dans le Palais des Tuileries. Chaussee d'Antin. Cp. 301Thiery. 297Stern. Cab. . Biographie universelle. 2: 15. (Euvres d'architecture. 42. Nat. Thun. 1890. at the corner of the same street and the rue de Provence. Proces 9: 23. 47. Necker. 299 Boullee. Neither his designs. about Alexandre. A. the erection of a new building for the Royal Library. note 383. in Papiers. 1806. 1846. Guide 1: 705. Villar. on his project. 1821. between the rues d'Orleans and Charlot. 307Michaud. pl. Financiers amateurs d'art au 16e. 1785. For the competition. Jules. Paris. Hist. 1930. Paris. Memoire . Anciennes maisons de Paris .301 When in the mid-eighties the Hotel de la Compagnie des Indes. fol. In 1794. ed. about the four houses. Pierre. ills. During the Revolution. pt. . 19. Alexandre. 1924. de Lille) and the rue des Saints-Peres. Cp. Defie vous de Dardel . Thiery. 1818. or rebuilt. Fouquier. 119-121. 150. often called de Colanges. but not Ledoux. . 130. I have not been able to find any trace of them. 86. Almanach. and was finally promoted in December 1780 as the successor to Soufflot. 300Thiery. Cf. J. Boullee added an arcade and side pavilions to the facade. Thiery. Nolhac. 37. Lefeuve. Guide 1: 89. Paris. demarches pressantes. 1924. de Paris et de ses monuments 6: 211. Heurtier and Gisons of caballing. fol." Vignon. 298Saint-Victor.304 Neither did he succeed in a project that was particularly dear to him. Arch. 4: 217. 145. Demonville. 357. Demonville. Ernest de.. He wanted to give it extraordinary monumentality by finishing it with a gigantic barrel vault. as well as Ledoux. 33. 48. Cp. Allgem. Pierre de. 2: 658. Villar. a pamphlet of year 2.. commissions for the Mint. de Versailles. 113.307 Boullee built. bears the date 1788. A model of the library was put on exhibition in 1790. R. Paris. and Chateau du Pereux at Nogent-sur-Marne. Villar. Thiery. representing the entrance front. 47. Boullee on the library. after a later owner. et veilles sur le patelin le Doux. 1881. H. Henry Lapauze." He. Paris.295 In 1776 and 1777 he became a candidate for first class membership in the Academy. Paris. Dulaure. 9: 30. Fuessli. and the sculptor Dardel.303 leine. Paris. Versailles au 18e siecle. Chateau Chauvri at Montmorency (Seine-etOise). Architecture. n. For Desmaisons. gives the date 1784. Victor de. 47. "that foolish architect. Boullee was the target of a malicious attack.. rue d'Anjou. 104-106. Ha 80. there was never a chance for him to realize the plans for Versailles. .296 We find Boullee in 1776 architect of the Count d'Artois.302 Boullee had bad luck in the few large projects he hoped to be entrusted with.298 In 1780 Boullee took part in a competition for the remodeling of the Palace of Versailles. . 295 Thiery. 120. Paris. 305Papiers. . p. Dardel and Boullee.308 This we learn from a copy of the poster preserved among the papers of Lequeu in the Bibliotheque Nationale. Funerailles mentions the transformation. Peyre. Boullee. 23: 19. Paris. Paris. Hist. . my note 348 and part III. 31. de France a Rome 1: 458. One of these. Estampes. 2: 261. nor any others were used.299 In the early 1780's he built the following h6tels: Alexandre. at the corner of the rue de Bourbon (today. names among the prospective members of the jury des arts Leroi (sic). Le peintre Louis David. cet homme a tout dispose pour cela. Peyre and Paris were among the competitors. and by terminating it with triumphal arches at both ends. Paris. 144. 296Proces 8: 273. 47.. Paris. Kunsterlexikon. 90. 302Boullee. J. at the corner of rue Vivienne and rue des Petits-Champs. 38. sur le phlegme charlantan le Roy. There are several designs for it in the Bibliotheque Nationale. Zurich. the Academy examined his designs and approved them. H. the Chateau of or the Church of the MadeSaint-Germain-en-Laye. .300 Prior to 1787 he designed a salon in the Hotel de Tourolle.

156. 330 Ledoux' projects for Aix-en-Prothe routine of the Academy is interesting. 325Ibid. 7: 241. all these were matters for posed by Jacques-Guillaume Legrand and Jacques the Academy. public building. etc. The obituary in the Gazette Natribution of the prizes. [TRANS.at Montpellier by Frangois Franque. 1783. 1793. Les Architectes par leurs ceuvres 2: 167. 9: 52. 349.321 Whether it was an inventor presenting a new varnish.318 decided on the disamong jurors nor giving favors. 176. p. 312 Papiers. Boulle was called. the engineer Debard hoped to win fame if the Academy would approve his novel order of columns. or a new type of roof tile.325 the Apart from these fixed dates of Boullee's biography. 332Ibid. draft in Boullee's handwriting (cf. of course. identifies himself as the friend and pupil to whom Boullee assigned the usufruct of his works. 9: 144. 234. 1785. Michaud. he had the painful duty to inform Nicolas-Marie Potain that the latter's new book on architectural orders was not exactly what the times needed most. 332 the designs for the Madeleine Church In 1763 Boullee suggested certain changes in the rules by Guillaunie-Martin Couture. d.vence. 1765. 9: 265. of these changes. 150. Villar. je sens que je ne peu[x] pas revenir. 9: 323.SOC. The funeral oration was pronounced by Baudin (des Ardennes).. a protege of the Queen came up in 1778. 48.334 Villar credits Boullee with great conscientiousness in of the committee that chose the themes for the Grands to all commissions. pendant la revolution. 1785. Boullee was one of the academicians consulted in such major cases as the Institut. 4. that the Academy should work out an improved plan of Paris. 302. proorganization. 234. 349. et je voi[s] arriver la mort avec tranquil[l] ite. 9: 191. quotes the last words slightly differently. Boulee (sic) et Damoye. 327 the layout of the Place Peyrou attended its meetings. 322Ibid. and with neither receiving regard and the who Prix. fol. 324Ibid.PHIL. As a member of various com. 1786. ayant lie notre existence a la cause sacree de la liberte. B. 318 Ibid. Rennes. From tween the Cite and the Ile-Saint-Louis. d. 37. and Le Roy. 386. 323Ibid.314 A note by a certain BBoullee's pupil Benard 315--"aux auteurs du Journal" gives the architect's last words: Je souffre beaucoup .333 and those for of admission for students. 134. 316 Funerailles.311 In 1795 he became a member of the newly-formed Institut de France. he declared that he could not the British Museum. "ayant toujours donne des temoignages de patriotisme fantasy and his uprightness: "l'imagination brillante 320 Ibid. together with Soufflot. Benard. Petition presentee figure out the probable expense in less than three au Directoire executif et au Ministre des Finances par les months. fol. simply kept the copy because it mentioned his teacher Le Roy. sembloit envisager comme mis en reserve pour la contre-revolution. 329 the doming of the Paris Halle au ble. 1799) the artist. we find Boullee continually busied with the signs for the Chateau of Coblence by Michel d'Ixnard. rue des unmarried. 335Gaz. and inci.324 The Academy. technique. . 321. in the stormy days of 1792. 328Ibid. it was even appealed to from patrons abroad. 333Ibid. of a painful illness.335 The same necrologist lauds his brilliant acquereurs du ci-devant Chateau de Chantilly. Nat. n. n.310 Boullee. examination of the condition of the Pont Rouge bethe sources give a clear picture of his personality. the highest building authority in France. loc. if it could be ascertained that he was the co-author of the leaflet in in his scrupulousness.316 reorganization of the Louvre galleries in 1785. 321Ibid. 8: 337. Education. 315 Papiers. Villar. 1763-1764. note 419). 327Ibid. Academy's problems. . 326Ibid.317 He was several times a member 1788. 7: 151. 313 by the prize winners at Rome.322 In 1766. toujours esperant. a member of the 314 Funerailles.323 and he had to deal with a similarly painful matter when. 330Ibid. 50. Papiers. 328 the demittees.. 329Ibid. urlike Ledoux who rarely Stuttgart. claiming." 311 Proces 9: xxx. 331 the reconstruction of the Cathedral of dentally throws some light upon many of its functions. appear as a partisan of the Revolution. 33. 225. 317 Proces 7: 139. fol. Paris. 358. A brief account of his participation in Molinos. 8: 301." On the following day Boullee was buried. and is. 9: 170. 9: 117. was.312 On the seventeenth of Pluvi6se of the year VII (February 6. 326 the plans the protocols of the Academy we learn that he took an made by Philippe de la Guepiere for the theatre of eager interest in its activities. 7: 231. whom Villar names as such. called upon to pass judgment on more important matters than these. 331Ibid.456 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER.319or examined the work done tionale mentions that the contract for work at the 310 Boullee would Palais Bourbon was not awarded to Boullee because. nous avons cru pouvoir mieux que d'autres nous presenter pour l'acquisition d'un domaine que le royalisme. was also one of the nine academicians present at its final session on August 5. etc.320 He was called in when the ticklish question of the academic rank of Richard Mique. internal 1779. 8: 385. cit. Villar. who had remained died at his home in Montmartre. 9: 162. 49. 358. 51. 9: 163. 319 Ibid. 207. and was nominated Professor of Architecture at the Ecoles Centrales. 9: 232. whose custom it was to attend the meetings of the Academy with great regularity. The Academy disapproved an academy building at Bordeaux by Louis Combes. .313 Fosses. Brault. Here mention may be made of his suggestion. or a new method of vaulting. Elie. 309. Le Carpentier. 8: 321-330. n. 9: 155. therefore. 334Ibid.

"Jean [sic] Francois Blondel. pl. 289. has only the six letters written between 1779 and 1784. si l'on eit reflechi.VOL. 341Viel. the pamphlet Decadence de l'Architecture. Viel abhorred the modern ways. "Ce siecle meme flotte encore dans une incertitude indecente sur tous les rapports de cette Reine des Arts. "on n'a vu que des dimensions de palmes ou de pieds dans les ordres d'architecture." 7: 26. 37 Ibid." 7: 47. motif que celui de satisfaire au besoin du travail que j'ai contracte toute ma vie. He had been in sympathy with the revolutionary Le Geay and contrariwise had abused the late Blondel as a "charlatan" who sided with the Classicists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. he was inclined toward the modern. ." Fol. je m'y suis entierementlivre. to reason. pupil of Chalgrin. in his opinion. mais il lui manquait un grand siecle et un grand emThe invective in the poster of 1794 was dictated. Paris.-P. rather than plain simplicity. 3: 148. opp. plan.. he turned reactionary. fol. "En effet. Cet ouvrage a ete commence et acheve sans autre . 125. L. an architecture in which linethe Italian theorists would have.. with the date. Simond. Paris. "on doit au public une decoration exterieure. Paris. 1800. letter to Benard. the consistent use of materials. note 15." 2: 9." 6: 6. F. V.. 70. 6." fol. L'Artiste doit s'elever contre la profusion des materiaux. an VIII-1800. cette energie de l'homme libre et independent. incertitude. no less venomous. (see note 266). too. Charles (pen-name of Paul Adolphe van Cleemputte). Thiery. . on efit vu que chez les Anciens tout etoit symbolique. and spiritual qualities. N. whereas the first ed." His assiduity shows fol. he speaks also of his "passion imperieuse. Husson." 339 FIG. and to the great works of the past. but by a sober lexicographer: "Boullee fit revolution dans son art. He had disparaged Vitruvius and his followers who preferred his unintelligible text to nature. to all appearances. (Here we note the Romanticist contradicting the Rationalist. vanter notre Architecture en usage depuis deux siecles. Here. considering his life and work as a whole. ou la noble simplicite caracterise et l'Artiste et le sage emploi des materiaux. 1862. Paris. de Saint-Maux. I am inclined to agree with Boullee's selfappraisal in l'Architecture: . 22. 42. 367. Armand. 13). with the probable purpose of denouncing them to the authorities. qu'on ne suit plus depuis quinze ou vingt ans. C. 30. fol. Landon. portal 342 (fig. . Bruxelles 1784. 1821. "Faut-il que (l'architecte) ne reconnoisse dans cet Art que lignes et matiere. Viel had censured Leone Battista Alberti who represented.336 Domine par un amour ex- cessif de mon art.340 by the architect Charles-Franqois Viel pire. 1900. by envy of Boullee and the men around him. perhaps he was the villain in the drama of the revoluqu'Alberti admet dans l'Architecture?" 7: 19. "Ce livre de Vitruve a donc ete commente par des Ecrivains sans nombre. Paris de 1800 a 1900 1: 455. In the critical spirit of the era Viel assailed the revolutionaries. Annales du Musde 7: 19. 47.. as seen in his H6pital Cochin (Saint-Jacques du Haut-Pas) of 1780. 13. ill. 23. 124. In his actual building. *. 1803." 6: 8. Durand. Paris. Le voyageur a Paris 2: 25. "tout n'a paru que regles et proportions aux yeux des modernes. 340Viel de Saint-Maux. already used by Blondel. 3.. 21. 39. Schneider. but. pl. 1790. He had characterized his period by the significant word. la raison et les Monumens eux-memes. contrary to Blondel. 16. L. PT. Recueil et parallele des edifices. . in Michel.. 336Papiers. of 1800. Artiste qu'on peut considerer Cet Artiste finit par comme le charlatan de l'Architecture. and in L'art francais 4: fig.338 That he was too advanced to be fully understood by his contemporaries was stated more than twenty years after Boullee's death not in one of the customary post mortem eulogies. . II y comprend la sienne. Letter 1: 9. Hospital of St.341 had inveighed against the established styles.. qui ont tout mis la plus grande importance a dechiffrer un ouvrage inintelligible. names Viel as a pupil of Chalgrin.337 That he loved his art with a "passion impe'rieuse" appeared in a draft of an anonymous obituary recounting the architect's habit of getting up during the night and setting down on paper the ideas that had come to him in sleepless hours. ascribing it to Antoine. sur le papier une conception qu'il saisissoit dans les intervalles de son someil. who watched with much concern what was going on in architecture. Sept. "souvent il se releva la nuit pour jetter 338Papiers.) Buildings should be symbols. Etude sur les h6pitaux." 7: 17. contains seven letters. Perhaps disillusioned. names the hospital erroneously Charite. seuls principes and some of the authorities of the past. But we know of another attack. 130. Jacques. C. Paris. Saint-Victor 3: ill. Lettres 2nd ed. Histoire de I'art 7: fig." 339Biographie nouvelle des contemporains 3: 365. not merely models of regularity and proportion. contained in a document of great value for art history. though formerly he himself in his Letters (1787). according to Viel. Rene. 20. from which the following passages are taken." 1: 14. Decadence de l'architecture a la fin du 18e siecle. "c'est a l'amour de mon art que je dois mon inspiration. "j'ai crayonne longtemps avant d'etre a peu pres satisfait. tandis qu'ils dedaignoient de consulter la nature. Papiers fols. with its gigantic Towards the end of the century Viel reversed his position." Le vrai bonheur consiste dans l'amour de ses devoirs. J. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 457 I will not pause over other obituary items which appeared in his praise. 1813." 342 Decadence illustrates the hospital beside other works by Viel. said il disegno-and sensuous beauty of matter were emphasized.

.347 These architects ruled in the juries and occupied places which they did not deserve. (This may have been Joseph Benard. Guarini." The "ruinous" architect was obviously Ledoux. the first prosecutor of the Architecture of the Revolution became. "Il faut. 84. but now. et qui est si funeste a tous les arts. par l'tendue de ses entreprises ruineuses. Antiquity. ailleurs les ordres y sont denatures. by the modernists. It tells of the great role the revolutionary architects played for a short time. "un plan oh les loix memes de la symetrie sont violees et sur lequel s'elevent des constructions gigantesques surmonteespar des parties de petites dimensions. a des concours. l'invention des d6mes. . In spite of the praise bestowed upon them."the second was to the contemporarythe era of a "true revolution. les fait publier par-tout. legue par lui a la Nation. qu'il faut se frayer de nouvelles routes" (Viel's italics). Viel felt." 348Ibid." 14. etudier les edifices de tous les ages et qui existent chez toutes les nations.343 truly grand manner. Thus. que la sterilite de leur esprit et de leur imagination ne sauroit produire. Cette antipathie ridicule 350 See note 315. too. PHIL. The Decadence sheds more light on the architectural situation at about 1800 than any other written record. qu'eux seuls connoissent la grande maniere d'ordonnerles edifices. 9." 23. il y a vingt-cinq ans. les profils y sont en opposition et en un discord complet avec l'ordonnancequ'ils enrichissent et entre leurs propres membres.. la ce sont de foibles supports couronnes par de lourdes murailles. Meissonnier. 89. De-la cette classe d'artistes. 74. des batimens. vivent au milieu du tourbillon de la societe. He attacked the modern exaggerations with vehemence. a la verite. If nothing were left of late eighteenth-century architecture and architectural criticism but this publication by Viel. "De nos jours. AMER. Their evil spirit.. at the architects of the Revolution. . or the Benard who built the Timbre National. ceux architectes deja signales dans y obtenir une celebrite mensongere . semble etre quelque sympt6me d'un siecle deborde. and of the narrow-mindedness that was to delay the further development of architecture. Still in his Principes (1797) his attacks were directed merely against the Gothic and against Borromini. the maker of a "multitude of designs of unbridled fancy. Boullee's obituary in the Gazette Nationale mentions as his particular friend the renowned painter Vien. 7. .350) 347Decadence. 50. qu'elle domine dans le tribunal qui decerne les prix ordinaires [Viel's italics] aux eleves. 250. had seen the rise of two upstarts: the one famous for his ruinous enterprises. malgre les louanges immoderees dont les De plus. The essay is an indictment: an enumeration and description of the sins committed. and had brought about the abominable "revolution in building. Paris. The end of the century. l'observateureclaire n'y decouvre aucune trace du beau que ces artistes ne sentent point.. 344Ibid. . . selon eux."as the next note will show as well as a passage in Principes." n'avoit point de vogue. He. "C'est une espece de secte d'autantplus redoutable pour la decadence de l'arcaiitecture. "Le meme siecle. Benard. in the Decadence. l'autre par la multitudede ses dessins. les arts n'ont eprouve de plus violentes secousses que celles dont nous sommes les temoins. et 1'Architecture y a ket soumise particulierement.. 5. in Viel's opinion." Papiers. 8. Enfin. In any case. "un manuscritecrit tout entier de la main du dit defunt intitule Essay sur l'art. vers sa fin a vu paroitre deux architectes trop celebres: l'un. Lajoue and Oppenort." They were guilty of having fostered a new type of architect. . was given a life interest in the manuscript and drawings which Boullee bequeathed to the nation. the discrepancies and disproportions. . Alarmed by what he termed decadence in the contemporary architectural scene. . the "Nestor of the arts. 23. 2. et a opere une veritable revolution dans l'ordonnancedes edifices. Charles-Joachim Benard who got the better of Ledoux in the competition for the theatre of Marseille...348 We cannot take up in detail here Viel's criticisms of the abuses by the moderns. L'esprit capricieux de ces deux artistes s'est empare d'un grand nombre d'architectes. its first historiographer.458 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. Because of their sterility they could not attain perfection. "ces etres 349Villar.. he remarked. produits d'une imaginationvagabondeet dereglee. in the Decadence." 345Ibid. eager to play a role in society and proclaim that he alone knew the 5. he was aiming at his contemporaries. fell into oblivion. the enlightened observer could find no trace of beauty in their works. cette cohue de demi-savans. the prize winner of 1774. Viel himself was to share the fate of those whom he assailed. Viel saw his task as passing judgment on the reformers of architecture." 349 Boullee's friend and pupil. "Le dix-huitieme siecle est remarquablepar deux periodes egalement fatales a l'architecture. n'aura de duree que celle de ce siecle qui touche a sa fin. "c'est l'ignorancedans l'art de batir qui a produit cette aversion nouvelle contre l'une des plus grandes conceptions en architecture. dont l'ambition sans bornes. malgre le zele actif de leur cotteries. tionary architecture-always against the successful. SOC. pour papiers publics accablentleurs ouvrages. Principes de l'ordonnance. had distracted others from the only meritorious study." The first "detrimentalperiod" was that of "les Lajoue et les Oppenort. . les a detournes de 1'etudeunique qu'ils devroient faire du style pur qui distingue les batimens des anciens.346 He did not refrain from pointing out the chief culprits. Viel wrote: Jamais les causes generales et particulieresde decadence de l'architecturen'agirent avec plus d'activite qu'aujourd' hui . d'artistes mediocres . les formes gothiques viennent completter la bigarrure de ces compositionsa la mode ." 346Viel. 343Dedcadence. involuntarily.344 Exoticism and Gothicism. parasites .345 But I should like to stress that he was not aiming at the masters of the Rococo-detrimental as their methods seemed to him. "Jamais." 31. the other for the multitude of designs engendered by a disorderly mind." Boullee.. "Cet essaim d'archi- tectes ephemeres corrompent et alterent les principes d'un art qu'ils pretendent avoir perfectionne. protocol (see note 278). fol. c'est sur un pareil fond que se trouvent adaptes des ornemens qui sont surpris de la place qu'ils occupent. . pour jouer un role dans la societe. 8. Decadence. we should know that there existed an Architecture of the Revolution. jamais l'art de batir n'a ete plus altere qu'il est de nos jours. ses membres influent beaucoup dans les jury [Viel's italics] qui prononcent sur les projets des monumens soumis cet ouvrage. Ce succes des novateurs. 1797. Soon we shall see that these two artists were anything but sterile.

taught Europe the new formulas of the revolutionary architects. in designing it. 42. he had to overcome the taste of the day and to purge architecture from its ridiculous forms. who did some remarkable work on the Palais de Justice in Paris. as this passage points out: 351The names of the pupils are taken from these sources. the anonymous obituary in the Gazette Nationale reveals that the artist was appreciated during his life- infancy. Edouard Joyant. See note 300. sonette. A.358 In each house the London. who. but rather followed his own imagination.. 14 Brunoy house. 1856: Thibault. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 459 Other pupils were Dureme aine and Louis-Joseph Maulgue. 21. and Durand's partner. 1937. Girardin. directeurs 13: 61. THE ARTIST Very few of Boullee's designs for buildings reached construction. See note 294. 6. Art franc. Mausolees franc. but that only lack of opportunity was to blame. the creator of the Rotonde du Temple. Mathurin Crucy. 15.. "on accusera peut-etre (l'architecte) d'avoir moins consulte les convenances que cede a la vivacite de son imagination. G.. Paris.353 Its author grasped Boullee's significance. the architect Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand.-Proces (see 10: Index) : Maulgue. 1821. il eut a vaincre le gout regnant. highly praised by contemporaries and represented on the first plate of the engravings of Krafft and Rancharacter 357 (fig. etching. 270. cf. Perrard. saying that the architect left no monumental work worthy of him. . Antoine-Marie Peyre. from his chair at the Ecole Polytechnique. Villar: Benard. Soc. The H6tel Alexandre had a porch with four Ionic columns and a balcony in front of the attic." 355Musee Carnavalet. III. 14). Gisors (cf." l'enfance. and these great personalities: AlexandreTheodore Brongniart. 8. Brongniart. fol. L'urbanisme . who realized the master's doctrine in his native town of Nantes. cf.-All the prominent students of Boullee will be dealt with in my Architecture in the Age of Reason. 1814..-Michaud: Dureme. a favorite of Boullee. et a purger son art des formes ridicules et tourmentees que l'ignoranceavait mises en usage. J.: Durand. a Nantes .354 The three private residences by Boullee. Les Gisors. T.VOL. 353 "Sans avoir execute aucun monument. pt. and Jacques-Pierre Gisors. Paris.-Dictionary of the Architectural Publication Soc. Peyre. dossier 135 G. il s'etait acquis une grande celebrit&. 356Ibid. had fallen back into Born at a moment when architecture FIG. sur Durand. About Durand. the distinguished Nicolas-Claude Girardin. Pierre Lelievre. seems at first glance to have little individual Goulet was right in remarking that Boullee. Hist. Paris. . Jean-Thomas Thibault." 354"Ne dans un temps ou l'architecture etait retombee dans 35 Ibid.352 Nevertheless. Jean-Fran?ois-Therese Chalgrin. his own publication on the Bourse. Jolimont. also Corresp. Nantes.355 The Hotel Demonville was a similar simple building with an hexastyle porch and with rich interior decoration. known to us through old engravings. PT. Notice hist. Rondelet. 460. 3. 135 F. Paris. Crucy (cf. 135 A. F. And yet the architect Nicolas time. 352 Villar. 1940. seem not to be very original. Musee frangais projette. About Crucy and Gisors cf. 1942). B.356 Even the Hotel Brunoy. Chalgrin (for the latter see also Papiers. Silvestre de Sacy.. paid little attention to convention. 48. Funerailles). 358Legrand and Landon 4: 39. Perrard de Montreuil. who built the chapel of the H6pital Beaujon.-Gaz. Paris. 1835.-About Brongniart. Nat. Its Salon a la Turque was designed to simulate a pavilion with a view into an Oriental garden.351 FIG. See note 300. Villar apologizes for him.

359) We find. Cab.with simplicity. inscribed on the pedestal Bourse also with a small attic story. 15). As a rule. It repwindows. no. drawings or their mounts. The freeBoullee's uniqueness can best be seen in his drawings tall columns on either side add greatly to the standing and the manuscript of his Architecture bequeathed by of the composition 361 (fig. 47. parapet contrasting with the extended horizontals of the mass. on the three houses. Estampes. Pyramidal cenotaph-Cenotaphe dans le genre egyptien. Ha 56. Most of the projects. central parts were surmounted by curious superstruc. let us take them names given to the designs in this book are takerrfrom the 359Thiery. 361 Ibid. 16). with the legend Dedie au Roi and the statue of given in Thiery's guidebook.as a first starting point for discussion and later see tures: on the H6tel Brunoy a truncated. 16. There is only one design in which we find Boulle an attic story with a central projection containing three tied to the ancien regime and baroque in style. Since in these drawings Bibl. SOC. Boullee finished the Paris Louis XVI in the center. [TRANS. no. FIG. The harmonious equilibrium of old had dis. Truly monumentality him to the nation. are distinguished by monumentality combined columns. . PHIL. Assembly hall-(Palais d'Assemblee Nationale). the theque Boullee constantly sought new goals. 11. (According to the description cais. above the main resents the sumptuous circular hall of a Musee Frana short cornice. porches with excessively high however.how his ideas found expression in his text. de l'homme. 17. is impressive by its solemnity. and on the Demonville house. Both are preserved in the Biblio360 Nationale in Paris. mid topped by a statue of Flora. more. The unbroken long stretch of wall of the Assembly Hall. stepped pyra.. Guide 1: 292. Nat.REGI BENEFICO 360 (fig.460 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. on the Alexandre house. FIG. inscribed with the headline Droits appeared.. over. Assemblee Nationale. Ha 56.

no. no. without beginning. no. Ha 57. Kaufmann. I call the former Memorial. Ha 55. figs. 20. 17. The lighting is to be effected through tiny star-shaped openings grouped like celestial constellations. fol. fol. Chapelle des morts. the latter also being presented amidst eight small pyramids 363 (figs. 3. it would seem. no. 1784. Coupe du Cenotaphe de Newton. the Spiral Tower 364 (fig. The most impressive of these designs is the proposed Newton Memorial. Ha 55. 4. 7. PT. grand are the pyramid of the Sepulchral Chapel (Chapelle des Morts). with royal cortege. The curvature alone. section.. except for the sarcophagus: nothing is to distract the eye (fig. 14. Tour tronc-conique. 8. 103. fol. Ha 57. no. no. I could not read the proofs of this essay. (The Opera House was planned for the l'Emplacement du Carousel. 20). no.-L.. Ha 55. fol. 124. Ha 57. With evident pride. 26. 17. 24. 13. Kaufmann. N. Papiers. N. the other of a truncated cone. one in the form of a truncated pyramid. 31. fig. no. 18. probably to alleviate the sternness of the whole. Papiers. Conical cenotaph. 365 B. parquet. no. 113. 11.. 19. no.. signed. is to dominate. . Kaufmann. as well as the conic Cenotaph is surrounded by rows of trees on different levels. 25). signed and dated 1784. 13. 23). N. 1. Ha 57. Ha 57. This predilection is even more apparent in the ground plans of his Opera House which is a cylindrical building with a domical vault 368 (figs. without end. Papiers. 22. 364 B. Kaufmann. 22). 19) . Cenotaphes avec leur enceinte. Ha 55. Ha 55. whether Egyptian pyramids or Roman amphitheatres. Kaufmann. 7. Cirque. fig." Ibid. he mentions his former plan to erect his theatre in the center of the "jardin de la Revolution (ci-devant Palais Royal). vue d'ensemble.367 362 Ibid. Nine cenotaphs-Cenotaphes avec leur enceinte. composed of diminishing truncated cones above a podium of massive masonry. 1939. 32. Boullee. no." FIG. Apart from other errors. Boullee wrote that all this was his own invention. Ha 57. 366 B. ing from a circular structure366 (fig. with an illegible inscription. the latter Spiral Tower. 28. Ha 55.. 363 B. the translator took the class mark Ha for Handschrift and replaced it by ms. no. fols. Boullee remarks that he wanted to give his theatre "la forme la plus agreable. Spiral tower-(Tour tronc-conique). Art Bulletin 21: fig. named phare. signed.362 the two Cenotaphs. 126-128. 42. elevation. signed. 367B. was interested in geometrical forms rather than intent upon copying ancient models. with promenaders. Papiers.VOL. Elevation du Cenotaphe de Newton. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 461 FIG.. 138. 6. fig. no. no. 368 B. ler projet. The interior of this Memorial is empty. 20. 21). Ha 57. E. which consists of a sphere rismorial. 18. 6. 16. both signed. N. the Memorial carrying a flame. Boullee.. This Me- FIG. 8. 98. Ha 55. with clouds. N. Salle d'Opera.. N. 12. and the enormous Circuses 365 (fig.

Opera house-Salle d'opera. Plan of groundfloor. ler etage. Opera house. They were produced for the competition of 1780. Ha 56. 24. Plan de restauration du palais de Versailles. N. FIG.. 21. [TRANS. Circus-Cirque. . 22. FIG. FIG. FIG. In the perspective view we see the King and Queen leaving the theatre.369 Boullee thought at first only of changing the garden front370 369 See note 299. 23. Newton Memorial-Cenotaphe de Newton.PHIL. Interior-Coupe. 370 B. He no.) The plans for remodeling the Palace of Versailles reveal the same geometrical trend.SOC. 26). FIG. Newton Memorial. (fig. 18. 25.462 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. ler projet.

On second thought. N. FIG. Ha 55. N... The outer colonnades were to extend beyond the garden facade and terminate in cubic pavilions. the circular Public Library 374 composition. Ibis. Boullee wanted also to change the front facing the Place d'Armes. 28. 1945. Ha 56. rez-de-chaussee. 29). 293. Palace of Versailles. de Marbre with a single oblong screened court 371 (fig. together with the old recessed wings of the palace and new outer colonnades. third project. 42. 2nd ed. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 463 FIG. but rather paraphrases with a personal note-the circular Opera House. no. Palace of Versailles. 27. and the Triumphal Arch with Inscription (fig. (fig. 371 type.373 became in Boullee's hands a means of bringing dramatic effect into the All of his other designs with classical features are not mere copies of earlier examples. B. facade. first project of restoration. planned to prolong the Galerie des glaces in both directions with narrow aisles which. view. after the model of Trajan's column 372 The "unsatisfactory and unimaginative (fig. Projet d'une bibliotheque publique sur le terrain des Capucines. 3.. . Palace of Versailles..VOL." the Column of Trajan. Cambridge. would have formed two square courts. by replacing the Cour Royale and the Cour 27). To relieve the monotony of the long-stretched front he meant to add gigantic columns on each side of the palace. 28). 31) deviate noticeably from the conventional. 26. PT. 30). the afore-cited projects for a huge circus intended for the Place de l'Etoile. FIG. D. Ha 56. Handbook of Greek and Roman Architecture. no. In the case 373Robertson. 374 B. N. 19. the Triumphal Arch with Aisles (fig.. no. second project. 17. 372B. S.

[TRANS. 8. We find. The interior of the Metropole is remarkableby its extraordinary dimensions. no. 377 B. with an inscription. no. 32. no. Boullee worked out modern patterns-modern. N. 34). Ha 56. Ha 56. The artistic effect will be greater when not merely single features are called into play. 36). (figs. with aisles. Au temps de la Fete-Dieu. which emerges from the center of the cubic substructure 375 B. . 1789. Ha 56. The interior. Ha 57.. What distinguishes this project is the dome towering high and lonely above the whole. Ha 55..SOC. 4. for 1800. Then a design results like the Metropole. whereas in the second arch we see the grandiose contrast of the flat trapezium front to the mighty vaulted gateway and the sculptural decoration on top and at bottom. for example. Museum. Metropole. 33). of course. no. N. FIG. The central rotunda and the two independ378 B. interior.464 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. Public library-Projet d'une bibliotheque publique sur le terrain des Capucines. Museum. no. of the first arch the central thoroughfare is effectively repeated in the parallel aisles. and a second time at the celebration of Corpus Christi (fig. signed. 28. Triumphal arch with aisles. FIG. plan. N. 30. N.PHIL. no. is striking by its boldness and dramatic lighting (fig. Arc triomphal. 35). 26. no.375 Although still retaining traditional features. The Opera house on a Square is a group of three structures. 31. Au temps des tenebres. no. totally unrelated to the four porticoes. but when the masses themselves begin to speak with their stronger voices. in the square plan 376 as well as in the elevation 377 of the Museum the new motif of repetition in the four porticoes echoing the cylindrical Temple of Fame (Temple a la Renommee). au centre duquel est un temple a la Renommee.. Boullee represents it at nocturnal rites. signed and dated 1789. 9. planned on the Greek cross and crowned with a conventional dome above its center 378 (fig. 376 B. 34.. Ha 56. interior. 34. 29.

37). Museum. 38). in the horizontals of the duplicated roof line and the stepped bases. 41) which is beautiful FIG. 40) and a Square Temple (fig. f. (I shall deal with Boullee's theory later. These advanced designs no longer look like daring experiments. supported. note 411. subdued. 3. 42. obviously. Museum. 380 B. .) The shadows cast 379 B. no. no. bild. by modern forms. Cp.. Porte de Ville. Eventually the classical forms diminished in importance. plan. The elements here are independent and equivalent without any one part ruling. the architect sets a frieze of warriors over the arch and places cannons in front of the side towers (fig. Signed. reappears. Kunst 63: 40. Papiers. by the four projections endow the flat surfaces with dramatic aliveness. Ztschr. The frieze of the warriors may be interpreted as "Narrative" architecture. with varied intensity. though it is. The groups of people at the gate powerfully emphasize its magnitude. The warriors represent vigilance. FIG. ent blocks are most starkly set apart and have nothing in common with each other 379 (fig.VOL. N. but like well realizable projects. The motif of repetition. Architekt.. 4. The concept of horizontalism reaches a climax in the frieze of the warriors. reproduced in Kaufmann. the horizontal layers of the podium (to which the voussoirs of the mighty arch form a superb contrast) repeat. The drawing of this gate also illustrates how Boullee translated his theory of architectural chiar-oscuro into practice. not the traditional features. Interieur de ville. Ha 57. with cannons. 1952J ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 465 FIG. view-Museum destine 'a contenir les statues des Grands Hommes. Porte. no. with trophies. In the City Gate with Cannons. Entwiirfe aus der Zeit der franz6sischen Revolution. 32. Ha 57. 33. In addition. modern patterns began to play the foremost role. Ha 55. The crenelated roof line. The simple juxtaposition of the four tall prismatic projections is enough to impart artistic character to Boullee's City Gate with Four Towers 380 (fig. the Opera house. shown so vigorously in the verticals. PT. 39). The erormous nude walls derive overwhelming grandeur from an almost primitive arrangement of the masses. 31. 28. N. the brackets below it. 31. the line of the ground. are the chief characteristics of the Palace of Justice (fig. 1929. The stressed horizontals. they are the guardians of the city. Ha 57. called Palais sur une place. the horizontal array has also a definite formal significance. Triumphal arch with inscription. with four towers. fol. 29. no. at last. 130.

no. Antagonisms of both size and shape are very impressive in the Sepulchral Chapel. The central motif of the other library facade (with the date 1788 on the wall) is the portal flanked by two Atlantes carrying a mighty globe. 37. N. front of the Chapel has only one ruling motif in the center. Palais de justice. On the library facade with the pedimented portal the latter is contrasted both with the small niches with statues and the long stretched cornices (fig. signed.466 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. which is markedly set off the neutral background (fig. no. See note 305. 34. Ha 56.383 The broad triangular 381 B. 45. interior. SOC. Ha 56. no. 25. For Chapelle des morts. 43). no. the huge vault above the entrance. 25.. signed. 44). Temple. 383 B.. Ha 56. N. . view-Metropole. FIG.PHIL. 26. There is. no. though it lacks the conventional pediment. Museum. Ha 57. Boullee intended to build the grand Interior of the FIG. 42).382 and in two designs for the Entrance to the Royal Library. [TRANS.381 In the Columned Cenotaph the pyramidal superstructure is contrasted with the prismatic substructure (fig. in all these. Cenotaphe entoure d'une colonnade. 382 B. N. with the globe and the date 1788. Ha 57. an antithetical effect: the flatness of the wall is opposed to the spatiality of the central motif. Entree de la bibliotheque. 35. see note 362.. signed. with the pedimented portal. Metropolitan church.

Boullee populates the hall with readers in various poses. the Town Hall. City gate with cannons-Porte de ville.. Papiers. 36. the intruding zone of Ionic columns in solemn array. 3. 47). eclairee par le haut . en formassent le principal ornement. 119. is an end in itself. The former is a classicized edifice. Projet pour l'eglise de la Madeleine. . It might be interesting to note here that in commenting on his Opera House. no. offrira l'image la plus grande et la plus frappante des choses existantes. its texture derived from the display of the books.. 385Papiers. Ha 56. Ha 57. contains almost no reminiscences of It consists of a low cube from the past 87 (fig.. 38. . "une immense Basilique. 45). designed in 1792. of Boullee's artistic will. N. It matters little that the Library is full of practical The drawing is the direct expression shortcomings. Salle de lecture. PT. 1952] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 467 FIG. The middle zone presents the rigidity and coolness of unfluted shafts. Palais municipal pour la capitale d'un grand empire. fol. fol. . 104." FIG. FIG. Metropolitan church at Corpus Christi-Metropole au temps de la Fete-Dieu. 36." 385 The wide range of Boullee's imagination becomes apparent in projects as different as the Church of the Madeleine and Town Hall (Palais municipal). fol. We should look at all the designs of the revolutionary architects from this point of view: their true meaning is form for form's sake. . agitated. self declared that the audience is to be "the chief ornament of the interior. reaching for books or conHe wants to exalt the work of stone over versing. 121. he comments. FIG. 37. City gate with four towers-Interieur de ville. and the lofty zone of the coffered barrel vault The opening into an enormous skylight384 (fig. Boullee him384 B. Ha 56. however. 42. fol. N. signed. The top zone with its caissons is full of explosiveness which finds an outlet in the light-giving cleavage. somewhat similar to the Paris Pantheon 386 (fig. the human activity-the enduring over the temporal. 46).VOL. "que ce fussent eux (les spectateurs) qui decorassent ma salle . three zones are set off against each other in size and The ground zone is shape. 387 B. Boullee declares that he was inspired by Raffael's School of Athens. Opera house on a square. Library in three zones: the basic zone of the bookstacks in three receding steps echoing the semi-cylindrical ceiling. Papiers. 15. 109." 386 B. no. provide the date. 2. N. and contrast in texture. 39. no.

the other at a considerable distance down. FIG. Palace of justice-Palais de justice. The tiny sarcophagus at the bottom is the only object in the immense room. more refined pattern appears. one below the roof line. FIG. FIG. 127. l'agrandissement .41. FIG. on the walls a second. no. 45.. It is rather the skilful arrangement of the whole which produces the effect of an all-pervading tension. Libraryinterior-Nouvelle salle projetteepour de la Bibliotheque Nationale. Square temple. "Isole de toutes du parts ses regardsne peuventse porterque sur l'immensite ciel. 23). FIG. 44. The motif of tension in space is revealed in the Newton Memorial (fig. This consists of two rows of windows. the void lives. very close to the ground.42. and from any point of the infinite sphere the eye ever returns to it." FIG. N. By an extraordinarily simple compositional device. Papiers.468 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. Columned entoure d'une cenotaph--(Cenotaphe colonnade). The main motif is the contrast between these gigantic elementary shapes. 40. [TRANS. 43. A resultant ten- sion of surface is effected by this spacing of the two rows of openings. Libraryentrance with Atlantes. SOC. fol. The sarcophagus in relation to the vaulting is so small that no real impression of contrasted sizes can result. 8. PHIL. Ha 57.be est le seul objetmateriel. which a cylindrical superstructure emerges. La tomr. Moreover. Library with pedimented portal. The room becomes a vast magnetic field traversed by innumerable lines of force.388 388 B.

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of passages reflecting the point of view of Romanticism, in his designs he was careful to retain the architectural forms untouched by sentimental accessories. IV. THE THINKER Boullee's Architecture forms only a part of the Papiers de Boullee of the Bibliotheque Nationale.390 These papers consist of one hundred and fifty folios as numbered by the notary Doulcet, who was in charge of the bequest. Several concern the death and the estate of the architect; others are obituaries, or drafts of obituaries; still others are miscellaneous notices of several sorts. The first hastily thrown together notations for the layout of the Architecture begin on little cards on folio 40. On folio 46 begins the first systematic draft of the Architecture, when Boullee starts to use foolscap. The pages are full of cancellations and corrections. Folio 52 is the start of a second draft, neatly written and seemingly intended as final. Yet its pages, too, like those of the first draft, are left half blank, obviously for the purpose of further alterations. The pages of folios 52 to 60 are numbered 1 to 16. (Folio 55 is not included for it does not belong to Boullee's draft.) The pages of the succeeding folios, which continue to folio 65, are unnumbered. Folios 66 and 68 are blanks. Folio 67 carries the legend that the manuscript which follows was written entirely by the deceased. The third, and final, version then begins with folio 69, titled and subtitled Architecture: Essai sur l'art, and with the quotation "Ed io anche son Pittore." The text actually begins on folio 70. It is very clearly, neatly written, and carefully ruled, without the wide margin allowed for correction. Clues for dating Boullee's manuscript and drawings, only some of which are signed, are scant. On folios 104-105 Boullee remarks that the sketch for the Palais d'un Souverain at Saint-Germain-en-Laye was made
390See note 1.

FIG. 45.

Madeleine church, project.

In this interior of the Newton Memorial no longer is there that balance of power which was essential to classic and Baroque architecture, unifying and harmonizing the dominant and the subordinate parts. Here we have the irreconcilable contrasts of the small and the large, the finite and the infinite, the mortal and the immortal. Plain elementary forms and austere composition are first in Boullee's designs. The touch of Romanticism results chiefly from the graphic treatment. The architectural form itself is not meant to express any mood, and is free from shallow symbolism. Both Boullee and Lecamus de Mezieres (with whom I cannot deal more extensively here),389 are architecturally-minded in their buildings and literary in their doctrine. In analyzing Boullee's manuscript we shall find him an advocate of "Narrative" architecture. Yet though his text is full
389

dealt with in my Architecture in the Age of Reason.

See note 93. Work and thought of Le Camus will be

FIG. 47.

Town hall-Palais

municipal pour la capitale d'un grand empire.

470

KAUFMANN:

THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS

AMER.PHIL.SOC. [TRANS.

398 Ibid., fol. 149, "dansles beaux arts il n'est pas possible d'instruire par une methodesuivie commedans les sciences les beautesde artiste saisit particulierement exactes. Chaque la natureselon ses facultes." On fol. 150,the text ends with "ceux qui proffessent(les beaux arts) ne the admonition, instruire et ne doivent quedansla partieou ils excellent peuvent et de la maniere qui leur est propre." 399Ibid.,fol. 70, "J'aidedaigne de me bornera la seuleetude de nos anciensmaitres. . . un art qui, d'apresde profondes me paroitetre encorea son aurore." On fol. 137 meditations as "les of previous writerson architecture, is a harshcriticism myopesqui m'ontprecede." 400 Ibid.,fol. 71, "nil'unni l'autre, n'ont de ces deux auteurs, eu aucuneidee des principesconstitutifsde leur art. Mon abord...." au premier revoltante, paroitre pourra opinion 391 Ibid.,fol. 111,"a l'instarde differensPalais dans l'Italie O01 Papiers, fols. 40, 71, 77. la loi." m'enfaisoient et l'ordre 392bid.,fol. 40, "L'objet de cette partieest de ne plus con- ... la necessite 402Ibid., fol. 110, "j'ai dessine mes etages en y laissant de dit avec la science. . . l'art proprement fondreen architecture a lui donnerdu mouve. . . je suis parvenu ce quijusqu'a ensuitede faireappercevoir presenta pu retarder grandsintervalles des avantset arrierescorps." la ressource mentsans employer le progresde cet art."

long before there was any thought of the French Revolution, and he adds that the design, intended for SaintGermain-en-Laie (sic!) could be used for some other purpose. On folio 109, in commenting on his drawing of the Palais Municipal, he notes his age as sixtyfour, and thus dates this design in 1792. On the drawing of the entrance to the Royal Library the date 1788 can be read in an inscription the rest of which, probably intentionally, is illegible. Newton's Memorial is dated 1784; the interior of the Museum, 1789. The first draft of the Architecture must have been written in the 1790's, for on folio 47 there is a reference to the tragic events of the time: "attendant le moment fatal qui pouvoit me joindre au sort des malheureuses victimes deja immolees je me suis livre a ce que j'appelle ici mes delassements." Boullee, like Ledoux, appears to have taken up the work on his text in the disturbed days of the Revolution. The second and third drafts were written in Boullee's last years. On folio 62 mention is made of the Institut, which had been founded in 1795, succeeding the Academy. On folio 54 Boullee refers to one of Napoleon's expeditions, which could only have been the Egyptian Campaign of 1798: "Je prends pour exemple l'expedition de Bonaparte. Ce grand general et les scavans qui l'ont suivi apprendront au monde entier l'art de former un grand etablissement." Boullee's Architecture is mature in its calm reserve; it is the summation of his experience; it reveals what he regarded as essential and permanently significant in his designs. With him, as with Ledoux, the written word was not a program antecedent to his work, but a clarification following it. Boullee expressed his artistic convictions in a dry, dogmatic idiom; Ledoux in words consonant with his passionate temperament. The text begins with a pedantic discussion of a difference of opinion between Claude Perrault and Fran;ois Blondel, i.e., whether architecture should be a free creation of the imagination or should derive its fundamental principles from nature.391 Boullee favored the closest relation to nature. However, we need not linger over this somewhat scholastic disquisition. It is only our interest to uncover first, his goals as a teacher; second, his attitude towards tradition; third, what specific currents of thought of the period are reflected in his composition; and last, and most important to us, how he himself intended to reform architecture. As a teacher, Boullee, like Blondel, emphatically states that a clear distinction must be made between the art of architecture and the technique of building. Only by doing this can one comprehend why art has made little progress.392 It was his belief that the textbooks up to this time had been gravely mistaken in paying little

attention to "art proper"-"l'art proprement dit." 393 With much human warmth he calls his beloved craft :he "beneficent art"-"l'art bienfaiteur."394 True architecture, he feels, springs from a creative inspiration,395 while building is merely a mechanical procedure.396 The architect should strive for the sublime,397 and the architect-teacher must present more than hard and fast rules. He must teach his art as he himself conceives it.398 What was Boullee's attitude toward tradition? It is a far cry from those who, with superstitious awe persist in the sterile theory of the classical orders, to the artist to whom teaching was a mission with ever changing goals. The orders, of course, are no longer dealt with in Boullne's treatise. What is more: Boullee, who disdains traditional knowledge, likewise has little respect for the old masters. The past does not bind him. He believes architecture to be only in its beginnings.399 He is not afraid to declare that the great men of the age of Louis Quatorze, Perrault and the elder Blondel, had no idea of the fundamentals.400 Eventually, he even apologizes for having followed the conventional arrangement of Italian palaces, with the preeminent bel-etage above the groundfloor, and the emphasis on the center. Practical necessity was the consideration for recommending the obsolete scheme.40' Had this necessity not hampered him, he would have chosen a quite different faqade disposition. Instead of projections and recesses, he preferred large intervals between the single features. This appeared to him the right way to produce "movement," 402 ("tension" would be a better term to distinguish between the Baroque and the revolutionary man395 Ibid., fol. 70, "II faut concevoirpour effectuer. Nos en avoirconcu qu'apres peresn'ontbati leurs cabanes premiers c'est cette creation de 1'esprit, l'image. C'est cette production l'architecture." qui constitue
396Ibid., fol. 83, "un art mechanique." 397Ibid.,fol. 138,"porter l'arta la sublimite."

393Ibid., fol. 72. 394Ibid., fol. 52.

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ner). It is not good to tread in other's steps, Boullee thinks.403 The Greek temples he finds are without character; one looks like the other. Nor does Saint Peter's at Rome make any impression on him.404 The Colosseum seems to him majestic, but its decoration in bad taste.405 His own Arch with Inscription (fig. 31), however, is different from all arches of the past. I believe it surpasses in greatness Francois Blondel's famous Porte Saint-Denis, Chalgrin's Arc de triomphe de l'Etoile, and even many ancient arches.406 It means little that Boullee occasionally praises symmetry. The heritage of the past could not be entirely dropped at a moment's notice. Symmetry, especially, is so closely connected to the "architecture" of the human body, that it will forever appear to men "natural." Eventually, Boullee explains symmetry in a rationalistic manner,407eventually, he finds in it the greatest beauty.408 As to the major trends of the period, Eclecticism, fruit of the historical interests of the time, appears only sporadically in the Architecture. Boullee often thought of combining "Greek beauty" with Gothic construction.409 Rather conspicuous in his text are the trends towards individualism, or, equality of the elements, and toward expressiveness, or "Narrative" architecture. He explains that in designing the Palace of a Sovereign for Saint-Germain-en-Laye, he avoided exalting it over the adjacent houses of the noblemen by different decoration, or by different height.410 He wants each structure to be complete in itself.411 Like Boffrand, he expects "character" to show in the building,412and he, too,
403Ibid., fol. 110, "Ce n'est pas en se trainant sur les traces des autres qu'un auteur parvient a se faire distinguer, dans les beaux-arts." 404Ibid., fol. 142, "Leurs temples ont tous, a peu pres, la meme forme." On fol. 138 is the warning, "de ne pas rester ... esclave ... des anciens." Fol. 142, on St. Peter's, "On n'epreuve dans ce Temple aucune sensation relative a son etendue." Similarly, fol. 91. This was remarked by many; characteristic of Boullee is that he expects emotion from the structure. 405Ibid., fol. 111. 406 B. N., Ha 57, no. 34. 407Papiers, fol. 79, "La symetrie plait, dit un grand homme (note: Montesquieu) parce qu'elle presente l'evidence, et que l'ame, qui cherche sans cesse a concevoir, embrasse et saisit sans peine l'ensemble des objets qu'elle presente." 408Ibid., fol. 105, "la symetrie, cette premiere beaute de l'architecture." 409Ibid., fol. 93, "les Goths ont suivi l'impulsionde leur genie . tandis que l'homme singe se deprave." Fol. 94, "Depuis longtemps, j'avois concu le projet de reunir aux beautes de l'architecturegrecque, je ne dirai pas les beautes de l'architecture gothique, mais des moyens d'arts connus et mis en oeuvre par les seuls Goths." 410Ibid., fol. 105. Cp. note 303. The drawing of the Palace, Ha 56, no. 22, is damaged and cannot be reproduced. 411 Ibid., fol. 106, "J'ai concu ce projet de maniere que chacque Palais, vu separement, presentat un ensemble qui peut plaire particulierement." This is, one of Boullee's most significant statements. 412Ibid., fol. 84, "Les tableaux en architecture se produisent, en donnantau sujet que l'on traite le caractere propre d'oi nait l'effet relatif."

cherishes the vague ideal of "poesy in art." 413 Soon we shall see how he hoped to attain these ends. Boullee's more concrete concepts for the reform of architecture are revealed in the brief headings: "De l'essence des corps-De leurs proprietes-De leur analogie avec notre organisation." 414 The appearance of the architectural masses is the important thing for him -in other words, the architectural form. His statement that regular forms are most concordant with our human constitution 415 can be regarded as pure theorizing; the immediately following praise of the form of the exact sphere for its magnificent beauty-"magnifique beaute" 416-reflects the artist's basic convictions. Boullee never tires of emphasizing the majesty of the sphere, the grace of its outline, the regularity of its gradations from light to dark.417 But it was not with the sphere alone that he tried to satisfy his demand for elementary forms. He saw new possibilities in all regular solids. Elementary geometry as the basis of architectural design was to find a champion in him:
Tired of the emptiness and sterility of the irregular forms, I have passed to the study of the regular. . . . These captivate by simplicity, regularity, and reiteration.418

A further very interesting "Note" appears in folio 33 of the Papiers. This "Note ecrite de la main de feu Cen [Citoyen] Boullee," as we read on a slip, folio 32, apparently was intended as a draft of a letter to a publisher, or a preface to his book, and reads: The Citizen Boullee, a professor of architectureat the
Ecoles Centrales, guided by the love of his art, has spent his lifetime to promote its progress. In studying nature he has developed a new theory of masses.419

It would be doing the architects of the Revolution an injustice if one believed that they were occupied solely with experimentation and theories. The task of a Boullee was not merely to search out new forms but also, and primarily, to discover their artistic effect: "By analyzing the specific qualities of the solids, I have at413Ibid., fol. 43, "la Poesie de l"art,"fols. 70, 107, 108, 110, etc., "Poesie de 1'architecture."
414 Ibid., fol. 77.

417 Ibid., fol. 79, "la regularite la plus parfaite, la degradation la plus douce, plus variee ... le contour qui dessine ce corps est aussi doux aussi coulant qu'il soit possible." 418Ibid., fol. 78, "Fatigue de l'image muette et sterile des corps irreguliers je suis passe a l'examen des corps reguliers. . . . Pourquoi la figure des corps reguliers se saisit-elle au premier aspect? C'est que leurs formes sont simples, que leurs faces sont regulieres et qu'elles se repetent." 419Ibid., fol. 33, "Le Citoyen Boullee, proffesseur d'architecture aux Ecoles Centrales, conduit par l'amour de son art a passe sa vie entiere a faire des recherches sur ce qui pouroit en accelerer les progres. Il a acquis par l'tude de la nature une nouvelle theorie des corps." The term "theorie des corps" must often have been used by Boullee; it reappears in Villar, 45. Cf. note 312.

415Ibid., fols. 77, 78. 416Ibid., fol. 78. Fol. 79, "l'image de la perfection."

maj estueux. monumental dimensions." Fol. 90." 430 These demands were rather common about 1800. cap. sur la Bibliotheque. 45.. "cette negligence du necessaire et cette affectation de l'inutile. during a walk in the moonlight. fol. . 70. and emphasis on the character of the building. 129. 70." 427 Boullee was so thoroughly imbued with the idea of grandeur that his drawings were carried out on a huge scale." 435 427Ibid. for instance. avide d'etendre les jouissances. "les richesses steriles." 424 Ibid." 429 Extreme frugality of ornament adds to the impression of size. AMER.. PHIL. ces manieres prudentes et nuancees pour preparer les grands effets. I am left with the impression that Villar had learned the architect's point of view from Boullee himself. was through colossal dimensions. "la lumiere produit les effets. 48. 108. "que leurs masses aient un mouvement noble." 422 Ibid. The artist declared himself to be the "inventor of the architecture of shades and shadows.425 The idea of architecture des ombres had occurred to Boullee." Papiers. "L'image du grand nous plait. fol. On another occasion she criticizes the neglect of practicality and the predilection for the superfluous. SOC.432 but he does not content himself with plain symbolism.421 effect is to be derived from the whole. fol. 126. ne sont point de mon gout. 87. 430 Ibid. as a remark by Madame de Stael proves: Toutes ces gradations. voudroit embrasser l'univers. . tempted to find how they affect us. 4.." 421 Ibid." wanted the building full of "poesie enchanteresse. above. p." i." 428 It was enough for him when the buildings appeared on a grand scale-"paroitre grand." 433 He saw the 434 and goal of architecture in the "tableau expressif. Under all circumstances it excites our admiration. cap. 434Ibid. fol. . 1785. les analyser. It was not always necessary that the absolute measurements should be exceptionally large. Necropolis-(Grand monument funeraire). chercher a reconnoitre leurs proprietes." Fol.423 the "character" depends upon them. fol.. 432Papiers. II appelle ainsi l'art de disposer les masses des edifices." 420 The means which Boullee regards as especially appropriate are distribution of masses." 426 Papiers. un sentiment d'admiration.. 1807. Corinne.. fol.422 The masses should be grand. leur puissance sur nos sens . rather than from similar statements in his manuscript. . but not from its details.. Cf. 108.. "L'art de nous emouvoir par les effets de la lumiere appartient a l'architecture. fol. "L'image du grand a un tel empire sur nos sens . elle excite toujours. as are. fol. Boullee insisted that to impress the onlooker. fol. "nos emotions naissent de l'effet du tout ensemble et non pas des details dont la beaute ajoute seulement aux premieres impressions causees par les masses.472 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS.. illumination. 47. "c'est de l'effet des masses que provient l'art de donner du caractere a une production quelconque. et cause en nous une impression quelconque. Meimoire . and was thoroughly averse to vain profuseness.. 84. 93. C'est une carriere nouvelle que j'ai ouverte. fol. "Ce genre d'architecture forme par des ombres est une decouverte d'art qui m'appartient. 5.." 433Ibid. as he states. FIG. Paris. 435Ibid.. According to Boullee. parce que notre ame. 3. 79. embrace the universe. and demands for instance a city gate to be "l'image de la force. 86. 3. 90.." 431 The last point in Boullee's doctrine-character-was to play an eminent role in the program of Romanticism.e. "l'Tart de combiner les masses.. 429 Papiers. On n'arrive point au sublime par degres. fol. fol. buildings should show character." 423 Ibid. en nous." 428From Boullee. fol. 53. de telle maniere que leurs saillies et le contraste de leurs formes produisent les effets de lumiere les plus propres a charmer la vue. "Grandeur pleases because our soul yearns to 420 Ibid. and full of movement. Bk. disposing the masses so that their contrasting forms produce attractive lighting effects. "l'Tarchitecture des ombres dont il se declare l'inventeur. sous tous les rapports. 48. the art of combining the masses All effectively is the most important in architecture." 425 Villar. the library hallthat "immense basilique. 43 Madame de Stael. 455. Thus in practice Boullee preferred smooth surfaces.426 Another appropriate means to give simple geometrical forms impressiveness. 142. fol." Fol. "J'appelle caractere l'effet qui resulte de cet objet. .424 Yet how can movement be brought into the masses when the richness of the Baroque has been superseded by the austerity of stereometric forms? Villar informs us of the means which Boullee chiefly emphasized. "je devois faire des recherches sur la theorie des corps.

25."Lessujetssterilessont ceux d'habitations. the Rococo. fol. "Oui. "Cet auguste Palais eleve sur l'antre sous le poids de la justice.440 The architect. fol. 42. 127. Ha 55. This is the meaning of his confession at the end of his text: I had to fear that in taking the way of picturesqueness I might become theatrical.439 Boullee found that the "tableau expressif" could be achieved best by embracing nature in the composition. N. 128. Hardly any vestige of Baroque forms and Baroque composition is traceable. nor was he affected by the functional doctrine of Carlo Lodoli. 93." Similarly. 84. to reconcile the irreconcilable.443 par l'effet d'ombres encore plus noires... should "put nature on the stage. Necropolis. le noire tableau de l'architecture des ombres dessine objectives. je ne saurois trop le repeter. fol. with scented gardens to frame it. porte avec elle un vice insupportable.fol.." . And he mentions another plan similarly conceived. he concentrated on monumental projects. How could the elementary geometrical shapes be reconciled with picturesqueness? He lived in the illusion that he was able to reach the impossible... queje croisavoirsu eviter. 441 Ibid... 3.444 It was for Ledoux to probe the validity of the newly-discovered principles in buildings of every type: in sumptuous residences and in humble houses for workmen. d'etrece qu'onappelletheatral[this word is pittoresques underlined de cette puretequ'exige by Boullee]et de m'ecarter et sans laquelletoute production l'architecture. l'architecte doit etre le metteur en oeuvrede la nature. Even the last stage of Baroque disintegration. Boullee did not follow the various fashions of exoticism." 439Ibid. 82. But I was anxious not to renounce that purity which architecturedemands. fol. fol. 123. 442Ibid. 110. "Ils ont introduit la magie de l'art. in the most diversified utilitarian structures and in shrines to serve the humanitarian ideals of the revolutionary era. 438or a splendid court house rising above cavelike prisons to visualize crime subdued by justice. about both projects."J'avois .VOL. 443 a craindre. for the celebration of Corpus Christi.fol. . . and tree-bordered roads to lead off into fruitful fields. The elementary forms and simple patterns play a larger role in his designs than complicated or more refined solutions such as were the patterns of compensation and interpenetration which Ledoux favored." 441 The Newton Memorial was to stand in the midst of flower beds and cypresses. fol. . Interested chiefly in purely artistic problems. . 130. fol. B." 436 "Poesie de l'architecture"437was to him a funeral building "half sunk in the ground". no. 87 Boullee explains "architecture ensevelie" with "proportionsbasses et affaissees et enfouies dans la terre . . where practical concerns could not hamper his ideas. Boullee was fully aware that he aimed at discrepant 436Ibid. tableau imposant des vices accables In Boullee's work the old is dead. In his manuscript he tells of his plan for a church on the heights of Mont Valerien or Montmartre. fol." 444 Ibid. high above the city. is overcome. 123. 48). he claimed. On fol." 437Ibid...." 440Ibid. 107. 438Ibid. the great Necropolis placed in an heroic landscape 442 (fig. PT. I believe I have circumvented the risk of ambiguity. tenebreux du crime . about the Newton Memorial. . en employant les moyens Ibid. for the Monument de la Reconnoissance Publique to be set in beautiful natural surroundings. 1552] ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE 473 He anticipated Romanticism by praising the Gothic artists: "They introduced the magic into art.

-N. 17). 38. Hereafter I shall refer to this edition. als Vorkampferin unserer neuen Architektur" (p. sociaux et litteraires les ait trop souvent escamotees" (p. Vienna. 1933. In the case of both architects. and J. 1736. Quand. f. des moeurset de la legislation. I shall therefore deal at some length with Ledoux' personality before entering upon his highly controversial achievements (fig. zar das Werk Italiens . to the second of 1847. "Motive des aesthetischen Zusammenschlusses und der sozialen Differen. 14). C. . G. 2 J. at least partly. and from Raval and Moreux'. etc. it is emphasized that the architect had never been in Italy. worked under Louis-Franqois Trouard. But before long he decided to become an architect and entered the school of Jacques-Francois Blondel.. Eastern France. 1929. Imprimerie des Annales de l'architectureet des arts. "Es war um 1800 nicht anders als um 1500. as L.. Kunst 63: France 9 Proces 7: 320. bild. . which office he held for twenty-three years. maintain without giving their source that J. 5Annee litteraire.3 In the obituary by J. 321. . l'exaltent ou l'aneantissent. the understanding of their characters and of their intellectual backgrounds is more important than any comparison of their work with works of the past. on ne peut nier qu'aux 1935. 50). books.2 When very young LEDOUX 1C. "cette dualite de l'esthetique et du social" d'acquitterla dette consolidee par 23 annees de services rendus. R. and invited him to his capital. 17). particularly Madame Du Barry. 38-46. . as well as a library. 1806. 5). most copies of which have 300 plates and an Avertissement by Daniel Ramee. C. in the Franche-Comte. "Grenzezweier Epochen" (p. whose work was the English parallel to that of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux.. fictitious. sur le plan plastique. LIFE AND CHARACTER L'artiste demontre son caractere dans ses ouvrages. Ch.. a palace. "Die Krise . M.-N. avait suscite en Italie plagiarism is reported in Ztschr. Ledoux. C. Raval. n'empechapas zierung" (p. "rompra avec l'orthodoxe tradition" (p. repercussions. Art Bulletin 30: 289. office and factory buildings. "un caffe dont les ornemens wurde fast ausschliesslich in ihren Auswirkungen auf philonobles et nouveaux font beaucoupde bruit . "J'etois inspecteur-generaldes salines en 1771. M. a friend or pupil of Ledoux. Paris. 43. This 474 he went to Paris where he enrolled at the College Beauvais on a scholarship. "deux siecles se rejoignent" (p. 5. n. 3 L. com(p.. he was finally accepted in 1773 and given the designation. Claude-Nicolas Ledoux was born at Dormans on the river Marne on March 21. More instances of their plagiarism are pointed out in my review. . .9 Two years later the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel admired the house which Ledoux had built for Mlle Guimard in Paris. Levallet-Haug. 12). J. Paris. and made his living by selling his battle scenes. and mirrors. Dictionnaire des architectes franc. Not wishing to be regarded as a plagiarist when I restate certain views of mine which meanwhile others have presentedas theirs.7 In this post he was active in erecting at Arc-et-Senans. C.-Horst Riemer copied literally 3: 18. . j'ai voyage sous terre. 1775-1779. "l'embivalence" (p. 44). I put side by side several passages from my. a former pupil of Blondel. . 4J. R. 1938. 24. . intendant general des finances. . 17). of all the later monographs and of the present book. Paris. Architecte du Roi. "il nous (!) semble qu'on n'ait pas suffisammentetudie les grand. 44. les grands interets le developpent. Soon he devoted himself to the art of engraving. Avertissementt. Monuments histor. les evenements. . and designed a triumphal arch... 14. Moreux. and carefully studied Servandoni's work. as L.8 After having been rejected by the Royal Academy of Architecture in 1767 as second class member. "von einer grossen Tradition losgesagt" (p. 24). was Jacques Celerier. . 1. as all such members were. 1887. In 1771 Jean Charles Philibert Trudaine de Montigny. 35. simple et respire la belle et saine Antiquit&. annonce les plus rares talens.. many passages from my essay in Zeitschrift f. is. Ledoux.la defaveur qui portoit sur la celebrite en 1793. appointed him inspector of the Royal Saltworks. in the introductionto his paper on Schinkel. "Sie bezogen die Landschaft in den architektonischen Depuis. Here Ledoux was feted by the court according to the report of Simon Louis du Ry. This was the main source for the first biography of the artist contained in my Von Ledoux bis Le Corbusier. 1804. 5). 7. 95. The decoration consisted mainly of columns composed by arms. "De meme qu'autour de l'an 1500 le reveil de la personnalite . la mystique egalitaire (ait) influe sur l'orientation de notre architecture" (p. which brought him sudden renown. . comme Arethuse. le Doux. Discontented with the small remuneration he was receiving.1 John Soane.PART II CLAUDE-NICOLAS V. Kunstgeschichte 4: 189. and "La liaison entre le construit et le ment en sortirai-je?" The report of his travel to Lyon Verband ein" (p.5 and the restorations of the Cathedrals of Auxerre and Sens.-Ch. Notice rapide sur la vie et les ouvrages de C. Paris. Ledoux. 8 Polti. he left Hesse-Cassel . 1945. Levallet. 13. as well as homes for the workmen. Ledoux. de la crise revolutionnaire qui a imagine cette decoration.sozialem und literarischem Gebiet erkannt" (p." de 89 ou que l'abondance des commentaires philosophiques. L'Architectureconsidere'esous le rapport de l'art. Claude-Nicolas Ledoux as the incarnation of a revolutionary architect. 6). environs de 1800 . Paris. 49). die Erlosung des bildnerischen Schaffens aus den barockenBindungendie Tat Frankreichs .. 8: 167-169. 1934. 59). 1762. may be regarded as a true revivalist. 6 Bauchal. 6: 282. un prodigieux essor monumental. sophischem. Salines Royales d'Arc-Senans.. 7L.4 The first known works of Ledoux were the novel decoration of the Cafe Militaire in Paris. tout y est riche. suivant la maniere dont il en est affecte. 14). "Zwiespaltigkeitdes Gesamtwerkes"(p.. none of which was carried out. naturel" (p. 1948. 17).6 Beginning in the seventeen-sixties he received an ever increasing number of commissions from prominent members of Parisian society. . Die Renaissance der Kunst und die Erweckung der Persinlichkeit .

1. 42. a FIG. Simon du Ry. Stuttgart. For the travels of the princes. 3.VOL. n. Baltimore Museum of Art.'2 At the request of Paul I..10 The German Emperor Joseph II in 1777. . 11L. see Encycl. scribed in advance to the publication which Ledoux was then preparing. 1. By Marguerite Gerard.. assujetti presque toujours a des calculs retrecis .. . Otto. on their visits to Paris were shown Ledoux' drawings. 111. 14th ed. au milieu des agitations dont on a fatigue ma constance. Ledoux with his family. 118. and which was to keep him engaged almost to the end of his life. Charles.1l They sub10 Gerland. 49. and the later Czar Paul I in 1782.. 32. au sein des persecutions inseparables de la publicite des grandes conceptions . . Brit... 1895. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 475 early in 1776.. . PT. "Dans la foule des occupations . . 12 L. 17: 395. Paul. 13: 151.

L. 25 The years are given in the subtitle. apres un sommeil de douze annees. je crois que cela fera beaucoup d'effet . Ledoux had to bear the expense of its publication out of the remnants of his own fortune. Paris.l4 In 1784 he was entrusted by the Ferme generale with the construction of the toll houses.29 Daniel des volontes versatiles qui neutralisent les elans du genie. Re27 Ledoux. pi. 218. 1848. cet ouvrage volumineux i ceux qui me succederont. Gabriel. n. des Mceurs et de la Legislation. 23L. Edgar P.. and superficiality of judgment" had 13Wille. Press. 5. Raval. . 24 J. Ledoux concentrated on the completion of his publication with true fanaticism. 233. 201. B. c'etoit un docteur de Sorbonne du meme nom. 308. 18. Ledoux et Chardigny a Aix." 22 ".. 234.476 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS.27 and sent it out to learned societies and acquaintances.23 It is not to be wondered that he welcomed the rising star of Napoleon." 16 Fremy. in whose honor he planned reliefs for the columns of the Barriere du Tr6ne which were to record the Emperor's feats. 25. "l'hache nationale.28 It speaks well ... Joh. In a poster of the year II of the revolutionary era they warned against him as an intrigant. Soc. et mod.30 one of those Ramee. j'ai rassemble. 176.. C. Magasin Pittoresque.13 Unfortunately. states that pl. 52: 4. Cf. 1813. 234.25 The book appeared in 1804 under the pompous title L'Architecture consideree sous le rapport de I'Art. 195. Ministere instruction March 28. 1929.. . n'offriraipoint a mes lecteurs de ces projets qui se perdentdans le vague des combinaisonsimaginaires . Hist. New York. ignoring this source. about the com199. R. d'un bon ton. "des bureaux de commis deviennent des Propylees dates is recorded by Raval and Moreux. the Courts. L. for they have never been located. L. . . Soudain. 30 Ramee built Union College. 1789.26 He himself composed the Prospectus. . toutes les richesses des siecles New World.for his. 1902. 2. quite unique in all the literature of architecture.17 Work progressed very slowly. n. de. Ramee and America's first unified College Plan. n." 17 Berluc-Perussis. Cambridge. determine a mettre au jour la premiere partie de la collection Ledoux et les Propylees de Paris.. 35. he was placed in jail 20 and barely escaped the guillotine. which he considered as his legacy to posterity. Ernest de." The first words of the angoisses de sa femme malade. . 1927. nous le mangerons." Cf. Hist. la plus nombreuse que je connoisse. pl. Almanach. 118. 1.22 The outbreak of the Revolution deprived him of the last hope of receiving the accumulated payments for work done in the king's service.. L'enceinte de Paris construite par les fermiers d'une fortune epuisee par l'ingratitude des temps. Originally he had intended to set forth the development of architecture through the ages. Wishing to create "magnificent propylea. E.R. 1802. and in 1790 was finally discontinued because of the Revolution.. The plans for these projects were approved in 1785. and as a consequence the commission was taken from him in 1789 and transferred to the architect Jacques-Denis Antoine. So it came about that the one volume which was printed deals exclusively with his own projects and executed works.. but his own achievement and his own tenets meant more to him than the accomplishments of his predecessors. Petersburg 273 drawings by Ledoux. le patelin le Doux. 1784. 18Ibid. "Je suis interrompu. N.PHIL.. on appelle Ledoux. None of these important 15L.. 1803 he felt proud of its style and expressed the hope that the work.. 1803.. 1. between 1768 and 1789. and the Prisons of Aix-en-Provence. C. states that Ledoux worked for Lord Robert Clive(s) Governor of India. je me suis generaux. 1939. 123 was designed 1773. Between 1775 and 1784 Ledoux built the Theatre of Besancon. 287) bears the year 1778... C. J.. 1912. "Tout-a-coupdes places obtenues par un long travail passerent dans des mains sacrileges: j'ai perdu le fruit de trente annees de service honorables. In a letter of March 28.. pt. 10. Bx-Arts departements.. AMER. 1802. 29 Cf. Paris. 366. Harvard Univ. The publication. 14L.. and other pletion in 1845. Y. The text of 240 folio pages was apparently written in the nineties-partly while Ledoux was in prison-and after 1800.." The first announcementof L'Archi. ed. 28 Berluc-Perussis. n. Soc. 16. 195." Epimenide. that he announced in the Prospectus the project for a second city. J. 21. 167. 1857. Art franc." 15 he did not consider cost. 26 L. 13.. lavishly produced. On l'imprime. 20 J. notes 7. 17. Schenectady. un pli cachete Prospectus tell of Ledoux' long inactivity.was an attempt to restore Ledoux to his rightful place. tecture I know of is in Thiery. A.24 When almost all building activity ceased. In 1793. Memoires et journal 2: 159. J.18 In 1792 Ledoux was refused promotion to first class membership in the Academy.. the engraver Johann George Wille sent to St. .19 The political events made him suffer in many ways. unbroken spirit in his last years. for no publisher had been ready to bring out the strange work with the fantastic projects for an Ideal City and the obscure text. 219. Georg.. Larrabee." 21 L. .SOC. Way of Western Art. the so-called Barrieres de Paris. of Calonne. 163. H. Prospectus. Oct. La hache nationale etoit levee. or. which was engraved British aristocrats. presents luxe. it is not known what became of them. Ganay. 33. (L. . attentif aux a quelque succes.16 Ledoux' last important commissions were the Palace for the Governor.. Paris. deals with the problem perfunctorily. 6. would be a success. art anc. si mon livre pure fiction: "II deambule dans son atelier desert. This qui nous ont precedes. "Apres y avoir employe mes loisirs et les restes magnifiques. ce n'est pas moi . Salle de spectacle de Ledoux a 1789. dans architects who spread the modern French ideas to the une lecture de quelques jours. . is a fascinating work. 29. Richardson. je son of Joseph Jacques Ramee. "(mon prospectus) est ecrit avec energie et publique.26: 193. L'Architecture ." 21 Rival artists availed themselves of the opportunity to make him suspect. 110 Besancon. 33. "Je m'eveille comme lui apprendson elevation a la 'premiereclasse' de l'Academie. et l'ouvrage est d'un plus grand 19Proces 9: 317. 1934. of union Soc. I. letter to the contractor Marigny. as he termed it. with a scant knowledge of the material. These arrived safely in St." Nicolas Henri Jardin was preferred to Ledoux. 32. has a reference to the death 230. which "partiality. je me proposois de laisser 69. Petersburg and pleased the prince. The spread of French architectural thought to the New World deserves serious investigation. B. L. published a second edition in 1847. Vauthier.

Levallet.. nor all the plates of the 1804 edition. 1806. 83. Dubut and Sobre will be discussed in my Architecture in the Age of Reason. (note 2). Ledoux was a true representative of the late eighteenth century. I could trace only four of Ledoux' pupils: Pierre Fournerat who showed much promise in his beginnings. Moreux." 44 L." Moreux. Annonce concerning the subscription of the subsequent volumes. j'attaquerai les abus accredites par la servitude des usages qui retardent la science de la distribution. he attacks without mercy other peoples' opinions. cannot find any sense in Ledoux' letterpress. oiii. . Levallet. Besancon..32 of bitterly felt indignities. who followed the master more closely than anyone else. 82. nous extrairons. he compared himself en cofite pour etablir une nouvelle Religion.." 40 Arch. says. 20. "(Im) Text mit seinen dunklen Stellen . the architect should be a leader of his community. 38." 71. . 15. names as the prospective editors Vignon. C. His statements. je me prepare au combat. 1952]. 41: 665. Besancon. qu'obtient (l'artiste)? la permission de vivre. refers to classical authors. "Il vient un moment oiu l'horizon de la vie ne laisse entrevoir que le vuide du passe. 1 homme de genie est le createur lui-meme. .. 1775. si l'Architecte qui commande a tous les arts... This Necrologie is not identical with the Notice of J.. Avertissement. 12. even to Frenchmen. he comwith the founder of a new faith: ". "Pour combler la mesure des maux. . . Par un ami des arts. it is the passionate outburst of a deeply disappointed man. elle est comme l'ombre. In a letter of August 24. quelques cristaux limpides. as well as the ideals of Rousseau. "la gloire que les hommes dispensent n'est jamais en proportion avec le travail qui la procure." Levallet. 12. 17. 198. "L'Architecte creuse l'avenir . 7 Michaud 23: 564. et cependant tout m'a reussi .41 he was. Letter to Mignard. In my review of Levallet. . 16. Nov. ." plained that too often the circumstances forced him to give in. 1. When in 1784 he strove to receive the commission for Aix. 67. Ledoux tells little of his life in his verbose composition. d.37 Far better.42 Looking back on his life some years later. on Ledoux. "un de ces hommes qu'une critique partiale et superficielle a jete dans l'oubli . agreeing with this view. 1806.. I remarked. 27. on s'aperqoit aisement qu'il a voulu inventer une nouvelle architecture. . 18. . "De ce discours prolixe . Ce qui auroit le plus contribue a faire valoir mon ouvrage n'a pas ete acheve. . in contrast to Boullee who was a successful teacher. . . Artistes francais a l'etranger. 42 Berluc-Perussis. . 6e. Abel. C. "Contrarie toute ma vie. Percier et Fontaine.36both of whom followed the master's attempts towards a new form. Ibid." 33. Acad. 230. 34 Proces 8: 225. Procs . Raval. Besancon. sous tous les rapports. "rien n'est plus confus et brumeux. and several unrealized projects. as 38 L. names Dubut as Ledoux' pupil. 1856.. and reflects the ideas of the era of Enlightenment. and Necrologie give November 19 as the day of death. Il semble que cette nation . He had been firmly convinced of his artistic mission long before he wrote his text." 43 L. but complements it in the most fortunate way with illustrations of many executed works. Besancon. Salle de spectacle . . than a sober report. . .et Ledoux. 3.. the resentful remembrance 31 Ramee. je n'ai rien fait que j'eusse voulu faire. In his opinion. and economic topics." Celerier and Damesme. 4 Jean-Nicolas Sobre. j'ai commence beaucoup de batiments que l'inconstance ne m'a pas permis d'achever." 71.. 139. Lacore. . L. Louis-Ambroise Dubut and Louis-Emmanuel-Aime Damesme... The text is often almost unintelligible. 33. . malgre sa gangue phraseologique. a fanatic and a fighter. 42. des prisons d'Aix a excite mes regrets.31 Daniel Ramee's edition does not contain the text. ." To this Ledoux adds a note. . knowing only those of Ledoux' circle whom he found in my publications. Fouche. Damasme as his assistant at the barrieres.43 Fully alive to the problems of his day. et je me battray bien. 94. l'homme de metier est l'automate du createur.38 Fervently defending his own views. 2. must be received with much scepticism. . Ledoux passed away. 1806. Many of his statements might serve as an introduction to an architectural textbook of our time. is both a confession and On November 19." 40 The book reveals the architect's personality. ne puisse atteindre au-dela du provisoire. Necrologie adds that on the way to the cemetery of Montmartre the hearse was followed by twenty coaches and many pedestrians. 11. sind viele Satze von grosster Klarheit. 44. Nov. nr. A survey of Ledoux' life serves as an introduction.-O posterite! me vengeras-tu?" 39 L. emerges into the light a new artistic creed. je n'ai rien eu en ma vie qu'au fil de l'epee. L'art a Besancon au 18e . PT. 14. 1784. du Doubs. even if he had to fight for it. toujours plus longue ou plus courte que l'objet. 1806. for he was fond of fanciful embellishments of real occurrences. n. the architect Pierre Vignon. Of greatest significance is the new architectural program he sets forth. 86. The latter. social. "un style si obscur.VOL. 36: 591. 1927. It may well be that this collection by Ramee is identical with the designs which Ledoux. Ledoux' L'Architecture . 92. Proces verb. CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 477 denied him. Kritische Berichte 1933/1935. il voit par-tout le bien dans l'epuration du systeme social . 175. "La suspension du palais de justice. 1925. ne commandoit a toutes les vertus. "L' artiste a fait un travail infructueux.. moreover. Necrologie de C. . Ledoux. Monnot. an ardent propagandist of new aims.35 who followed a legacy.33 His uncompromising personality does not seem to have attracted many students. Paris. 243. say November. handed over to his trusted friend and pupil. 35 Ibid. Imbued with the humanistic erudition of his period. C 40. directed to the governor of the province of Franche-Comte. "J'aurois rempli a peine la moitie de mon but. ." Ganay. 191. 33 Mercure France 26: 402. on a paye l'ouvrier. 85. Religious. "Je suis acoutume aux tracasseries. states that Pierre Fontaine worked under Ledoux. he did not confine himself to his professional field alone. Nov. je sqais ce qu'il the master's fantastic approach. N. . 148. 36 Dussieux. . the philosophy of Condorcet. n. Paris. 32." 32 J. perhaps. Maurice. he was confident of winning. "ami et executaire testamentaire. nonetheless. "J'attaquerai. . E.44 Ledoux would have liked to remodel everything. annee.39 Yet from the outcry of a wounded soul. before his death. 9: 55. omits Fournerat and even Damesme. nr. out of the darkness of the writer's style. . Sept. etc." 41 L. Annales de l'Architecture et des Arts.

lui qui est aussi ancien que le sol qu'il habite?" 81. as. he claims. ce Titan de la Terre. la lumiere vraie des principes destines a eclairer notre age." 64 Cf. morale. Never should he miss a single hour. 12. 41. "Egayons le present. ." 8. 40. . "la methode engendre l'uniformite.e. et l'excite en l'agitant contre les ruines des chefs-d'ceuvre antiques.. 1789.." Cf.64 He was faced with adversities all his life." 102. du corps. . full of contradictions. "le sommeil n'est pas fait pour lui.48 and was concerned with the smallest details of architectural practice.. 96." 61 L. De nouvelles habitudes entretiendront le corps et 1'esprit dans les usages journaliers qui constituent la force et assurent la sante. When his first project of the Saltworks was denounced to Louis XV as a product of mania-"comme une production con. au printemps de mes jours. 365 and several little lyrics scattered in the text. "Deja ce nouveaupacte social reflette par-tout son influence. celui qui elegantise la chevelure.. .47 He wanted to serve the highest ideals of the era.. "Qu'est-ceque l'art? C'est la perfection du metier. gouvernements. 69. he complained that the lifetime of an architect was far too short. as the necrologist J." 132. 46L. of transforming the face of the earth. "Est-il quelquechose que l'Architecte doive ignorer..57 "Avant de franchir les marais du Styx. Similarly. "Ferme dans mes principes. are dealt with.." 53 L. 95. siffle. 9. jettons des fleurs sur l'avenir... Au printemps de l'annee. la foret depouillee se coloroit. "celui qui aura sacrifie sa fortune et ses loisirs pour instruire les races futures. n." . .. "'Architecte. 336." 54L. "Voulez-vous avoir des idees justes? . "Cet arbre dont la masse etale sur le ciel ses rejettons centenaires . well as questions of hygiene. "Les premieres loix sont celles de la nature. lui qui est ne au meme instant que le soleil. "un centre d'instruction souvent favorise la maniere." 103. j'ai suivi celle que j'avois tracee. 31. and full of promise. "je regarderai comme un devoir d'opposer a cette perfide lueur. 1. calling Ledoux "un homme turbulent. "Deja la fraicheur du matin s'etendoit dans la plaine. 65 L. "Racine. persuade que les routes detournees ne conviennent qu'aux caracteres peu soutenus. "rival du createur." 51L." 58 Many passages reveal his passion- transition. je dessecherai les marais. 118. acquiert l'immortalit&. Aug. le sublime des sots.Esprit des loix." 61 In ecstatic moments he had dreams of moving mountains. j'aurai la satisfaction d'avoir brise les chaines qui l'entravent ate devotion to his work. "On perd la vue si on s'accoutume a voir par les yeux d'un autre. je vois des milliers d'hommes s'associer a mes plaisirs.. ." 110. 90. 102.. l'art eclaire se ranime.56 He found comfort in the conviction that posterity would recognize in him the artist who redeemed architecture and would. do him justice. n. should extend even to the animal.. celui qui retrace l'olympe sur les vofites hardies qui etonnent nos sens. je les vois elever des pierres immortelles. les oiseaux cimentoient leurs demeures. 5.49the convenience of the stable. "ses travaux ne seront payes que par l'immortalite de son nom. he must dream in the night of his work in the coming day. or at least touched upon in his text." 97. . "Le terme de la vie d'un Architecte est si court qu'il n'a pas un moment a perdre. 28.478 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. n." 78.. L'oiseau precurseur du printemps eveilloit le voyageur. from Rousseau he drew the new appreciation of nature and the new ideals in education and physical culture. et sans cesse renouvelle" (in school)." 59 L. 50L.g. he did not disdain the experience of the craftsman. even to the ventilation of the classroom and kitchen... "Le moment ofu nous vivons a brise l'entrave. 369. a protest against tormenting horses. "Ici la bienfaisance entraine ma volonte. C. tout est ouvrier. "Pourquoine pas effacer les traces de la pauvrete?" 49L. celui qui cizele les metaux.55 Contemporaries ridiculed and spurned him. L. 108." 46 An academician.. Deja la musique des airs se faisoit entendre. "la methode et la rectitude." 96. 45L. percez le nuage qui couvre les verites premieres. 8. 172. "Rival du dieu qui crea la masse ronde. "Humanite peu reconnoissante! quand sentiras-tu ce que tu dois au monde animal?" 59. the director of the Tresor Royal. "je transplanterai les montagnes. "En causant avec l'ouvrier." 76." 52 Cf. in the end. et extremement dangereux par ses projets extravagants de depense.. notes 262-265. perpetue la maniere.62 No wonder then that in estimating costs. . 172. Le dessin n'appartient-ilpas a toutes les classes? Celui qui prend la forme du pied.63 Often he spoke of unaccomplishedprojects as if he really had carried them out. . 1748. pour remonter au principe. "Enfin le flambeau du genie ravive sa flamme. celui qui construit les palais. "l'air sera sec. and again and again met with opposition from his patrons. others remindone of Rousseau. Deja un doux vent caressoit la terre encore souffrante. 145. la resserre dans le cercle etroit des conventions. Ledoux recommends "des exercices salutaires. "Les arts d'agrementdoivent marcher d'un pas egal avec l'economie politique." These words recall a similar statement of Montesquieu. . Ledoux disregarded financial limitations.59and at the end of his career.. 68.. 146.ue dans le delire"-he answered with three 55 L.. free from prejudice. the architect is a "rival of the Creator. relates.60 To him.45 He regarded it as a privilege of the architect to concern himself with any issue: ".54 L'Architecture . "On construit les habitations de la gent animale avec autant de negligence que l'on en met a la plantation de nos parcs . . 18." 34. . C." c2 L." 102. of drying swamps. legis- lation. sain. 17. n." 60 L. 63. and cry out against convention. SOC. . et qu'il voudroit cueillir.. politique. j'en ai souvent tire un grand parti. Fremy. ce sont celles qui assurent la salubrite aux habitants." 63 Cf. is the outgrowth of a period of Ledoux was never to carry out his novel ideas. 128." 48L. "ils crient a la folie (Ledoux' italics). l'animal qui exigeroit de nous des soins a raison des services qu'il rend." 21.. "Tout s'opposoit a ces vues anticipees qui prenoient sur le siecle vingt-cinq ans d'avance. 34. AMER. Only in his designs and in his text could he lay down his progressive views." 58 L." 14. the expression of disgust with cock-fights.52 A beautiful old tree against the sky means no less to him than a work of art." 57 L. vaut a lui seul le prix d'un edifice. "Au repos! Que dis-je? En est-il pour celui qui est impatient de faire murir les plantes qu'il a semees . 17." 138. letter of Du Fresne.51 From the Rationalists he had inherited the critical vein." 9. . I faut qu'il reve la nuit ce qu'il doit executer le jour. PHIL. 33.50 His mind was shaped by the leading thinkers of his day.65 [l'architecture]." 56 J. 205. 47L. culte. tout est de son ressort.53 Human compassion. full of doubt.

"Quel miserable triomphe que celui que l'on remporte sur un animal timide. In 2. was asked by Lucien Bonaparte to name the ten most prominent architects of France. "Osez et vous reussirez.. "La plupart des hommes instruits ne jugent que lorsqu'ils comparent: compilateurs exacts. met le comble a l'eloge de l'Architecte ." 25." 68L. despising public opinion. .. 1872. 23. he blames Ledoux who "se laisse entrainer au torrent. 108. 70 L.70 Ledoux' bitterness was not entirely justified. the proud words of Horace. M." 137. "Voyez les colonnes de la place de Louis XV. 1930. Arch. c'est dans ce fastueux edifice que brille le sentiment inepuisable de l'Architecture francaise.. The GuimardHouse "etonne par son gofit tout nouveau ." 75L. s'elance au-devant des preceptes. ignores the projects for the Ideal City. qu'il a su enfin s'affranchir de la routine. He believed that the principles which had guided him would last "longer than the pyramids. les convenances. leaves out all foreign ones.." showed him around the house. un autre petit chef-d'oeuvre.69 It does him credit that he was objective enough to appreciate others' accomplishments. he included among them Ledoux. jeune Architecte. "Qui pourra juger l'homme de genie. ils s'appuient sur tous les exemples qui servent de boussole. ." 76 and would make him immortal. Martin Henry. 42. 40. 1: 434. Typical Baroque productions alternate 74 L. "le jeune architecte vous suit par-tout. a besoin du temps pour epurer son culte. art franc. for he was entrusted with many commissions. Alors l'Architecte cessera d'etre copiste. Cellerier [sic]. vous y verrez un ordre ridiculement colossal. 71. Blondel appears to refer to H6tel Uzes. Artistes franqais en 1800. 72 Legrand and Landon 3: 58. de l'art." not naming his only book. .. . il les depasse. . "ces meutres auxquels on attache quelquegloire . . PT. Gabriel. qu'il vient de batir. .. letter from Lebrun." 62. C'est la. "F. Sept. .. VI. ne manquant pas de genie. even when they were based on principles quite different from his own." 76 L. . Tableau de l'art franc.. ainsi que la plupart de ses emules. BUILDINGS ERECTED OR PROJECTED Ignorez-vous ce qu'il en coute a ceux qui osent changer la masse des idees reques ?77 No consistent development can be traced in Ledoux' dated works. 1925. 3: 18. Ledoux certainly made abundant use of conventional forms. 1: 234. 1937. puisqu'il est toujours neuf? est-ce le grand nombre? l'opinion? Cette idolatre qui se prosterne aux pieds de la divinite du jour. old and new ideas struggled for supremacy. "toujours isole au milieu de la foule. The works which sprang from this chaos throw new light upon the era itself.. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 479 other versions. "les delits de mon imagination." 71 Blondel.88 and partaking little in the activities of the Academy. le sentiment interieur lui suffit. le pavillon de Luciennes [sic]. Ses talents l'avoient fait choisir pour remplir une place vacante a l'Academie. he was justified in the choice of the motto for the front page of his Architecture. No one alone ever created a new style... significantly. . of the conflicting and over-lapping tendencies of the time. refers vaguely to Ledoux' "divers ouvrages sur l'architecture. 34. so was Ledoux among the first to visualize a new formal ideal. with similar praise for Chalgrin. finding fault with it and giving a vivid picture how "M. Paris. "Le principe qui m'a dirige durera plus que les pyramides." 123. C. Du Peloux. Raymond. "j'aurai la satisfaction d'avoir fait tomber (les chaines). was full 66J." Ledoux' work was still in very low esteem up to twenty years ago.72 and when in 1800 the curator of the Musee central des arts. Homme du monde 2: 109 f. but. et neglige." 150. and there were many who expressed the highest esteem for his talents. sees in Ledoux' work "une regression du genie franqais.. et bibliogr. . He wanted the creative mind to depend upon its own thinking. 24. au lieu de remonter au principe. Paris.66 He had a passionate hatred of war and contempt for the chase. l'exemple que vous donnerez fera eclore de nouveaux preceptes qui epureront les anciens.. dit-on. 34. est. 1800. and tells of the general praise for Madame Ledoux' nomiDu Barry's Pavillion de Louveciennes. Yet one cannot grasp the meaning of his work by hunting for similarities in the works of Palladio and Piranesi. and exhorted the artist to dare in order to overcome the past. le Doux ."1: 254." 77 L.. imagination ardente. I. Ledoux' main achievement. Nouv. commissaire du Musee .. 1924. 3. L * * *. While Carlo Lodoli was the first. 23. He expressed his fullest admiration for the buildings of Jacques-Ange Gabriel on the Place de la Concorde. to express the bold ideas of Functionalism.71 The architect Nicolas Goulet admired Ledoux' inventiveness. . 172. "Les architectes etudient en Italie les differents monuments . Style Empire. Hist. . .. Ledoux' inner world.les proportions. . il est independentdu grand nombre. des artistes du 18e siecle franc. Lebrun. which in its artistic aspirations has been thoroughly misinterpreted up to the present. 159." 73Fillon. n. 7. 7. Repertoire biogr. Paris. . Mourey. The outer world was in chaos. lorsque vous venez examiner cet H6tel. "L'Artiste bien organise .74 He felt proud of having fought the copyists and of having shattered the prestige of the old doctrine and the old models. une armee n'est souvent qu'un rassemblement de coupables envoye par les dieux vengeurs pour chatier les humains." 73 Ledoux' artistic development did not progress step by step like a carefully elaborated course in architecture. 1941. Osez. too... EXEGI MONUMENTUM. or one of the first. Charles. This does not mean that he originated modern architecture.. nation to the Academy appeared to Blondel well deserved. L.VOL. characterizing him "Homme de genie. The new would have come into existence even had Ledoux never lived. he lists a few French publications.67 Altogether he appears to have been a lonely man." (Here follows the quotationof pt. His teacher Blondel praised his house for the dancer Guimard. 5.. "Nulle situation n'est feconde pour l'homme sterile." 69This is seen in the protocols (Proces verbaux) of the Academy. . je l'en crois trss-digne . et s'appliquea vous faire remarquer qu'il a observe des ornements dans le genre antique .) 1: 260. Belanger et Charles [sic] Ledoux ne sont pas des artistes de grande valeur.75 The likeness between so many of Ledoux' works and those of the present time leaves no doubt that he anticipated the future. Most cer- tainly." Michel. He himself warned against the critics who confine themselves to comparisons." 67L." 212.

Plan. Montmorency Palace." Similarly Moreux. Uzes house. 50. summing up with the remark that he came from the frontier and thus was at home on both sides of the border: 78 in the area of tradition and in the region which he was one of the first to explore. . "Er war ein 'Grenzer. It seems best. to abandon the chronologer's sterile enumerations. and group the artist's works in stylistic sequence. according to our knowledge of the architectural development of the past two hundred years. Soc. For this is the span of time which in one way or another is reflected. 53. View. 54. I have constantly pointed out the intermingling currents in his work. FIG. therefore. with classicizing ones and with extremely progressive designs. 59. FIG. It seems hardly necessary to say that different currents can be traced in almost every design of Ledoux and that my classification is derived from the current most prevalent in each case. or foreshadowed. So their arrangement in chronological order would not serve to disentangle the crossing currents. Plan. [TRANS. Alined fronts. 52. FIG. Von Ledoux. 55. Uzes house. 51.' derund darum ist fast alle chronologische Miihe bei ihm iiberfliissig-immer wieder von einem Gebiet in das andere hinuberwechselte. Uzes house. Parenthetically. may I remark that critics of my former publications were mistaken in asserting that I recognized only the modern Ledoux.480 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. PHIL. FIG. FIG. Court. 78 Kaufmann. Montmorency Palace. in Ledoux' work.

Ledoux did not need to borrow this feature 79 L. at the corner of the rue Basse-du-Rem79 part and Chaussee d'Antin (fig.83he was confronted with a similar situation. The Hotel d'Uzes was built between the rue Montmartre and the rue Saint-Fiacre a few years earlier. J.. 3. 2: pl. 82Krafft. as a further Baroque feature. statues on the roof balustrade. the main axis. Ch. for it was very common in the eighteenth century and had often been applied by his teacher. 175. 42. From the monumental entrance. Almanach. Castle of Benouville.80 The basic concept of the plan of this Palace was Baroque.R.. pl. from Palladio. 52-54). Portes cocheres. . pl. 1810. Thus we see on the faqade both concatenation and gradation." Guide 1: 461. pl. 51).R. 76. Almanach. coincided with a diagonal of the square plan. 152-155. Its two main stories were tied together by colossal Ionic columns and markedly set off against the rusticated basement. 50). SURVIVALS BAROQUE In 1770 Ledoux erected the Palace of the Prince de Montmorency. pls. . L. FIG. Paris. Krafft and Ransonette. pls. 12. the principal entrance was situated in the corner (fig. Distribution FIG. L. par Ledoux. 42. Vrain.. Thiery. The house stood on a narrow. 159. 6. 57. states 1770. 204. too. dating 1767 in the text. "remarquable par l'arc de triomphe qui sert d'entree et par la decoration imposante de la faqade . Its plan was conventional. 81 Thiery. 55. p." an alley led to the court and the house. praised by a contemporary as "a wonderful composition. XL.VOL. Arch franc. deep plot. Guide 1: 147. Thus he 1: ills. 1721. 56. Palace of Louveciennes. He solved the problem by centering each front around its main room. Chateau of St. 83 Blondel.. in 1767 81 (figs. Blondel. and. 7. Ledoux ingeniously adapted the conventional sequence of the main rooms to the corner lot: on each floor. Krafft and Ransonette. 11.. 80 Blondel. 1. pls. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 481 FIG. PT.82 The garden front extended on one side a good deal farther than the court front. Proces 9: 143. but contained only rectangular rooms. When Courtonne built the H6tel Matignon. 75. 360. dating 1772 in the text. projecting the latter. .. 28. 365.

268 the caption: Batiment de Louvecienne.SOC. of the garden front disrupts the continuity of the main axis. House with a belvedere. 259-263. 166. 246-250. with the new. In both emphasis was laid on the central portions and end pavillions. xxv. Here the staircase in the center nouville. 58. geometrical. 86 L. Palladio. St. is for the enfilade. 267-269. 85 L.R. Chateau de B. pls. Ledoux sought for new plan solutions. So far. the Chateau of St. B. Still somewhat dependent on Baroque patterns were two never-completed residences for Madame Du Barry. and at the same time.. In the still extant blocklike Chateau of Benouville. House with a balcony. Ledoux abandoned the Baroque scheme84 (fig. 87 L. J. Bx-Arts 16. he simply veiled the faqades with porticoes.. On pl. concept (fig. Rene. Soc. pls. we have seen Ledoux clinging to traditional composition. The Palace of Louveciennes was finished with straight rooflines. 1928.. Fonde en 1773 et arrette a la mort du Roi. begun in 1768. Chateau de Be- FIG. 60. which was begun in 1773 86 (fig. 93. Vrain 85 (fig. 59. 283. Hist. obtained that unity of house and environment which was essential to the Baroque. 58).R. Art franc.. FIG. Again. Venice. Schemitt house. ... whereas the Hotel d'Uzes still retained a mansard roof. Planchenault. C. 61. organic. the central portions are screened by colossal porticoes. 4. pls. 84 L. Ledoux no longer cared about such intimate relationship. 282.R. [TRANS. FIG. I. pls. Bk. 55). But the masses were treated in a new way: they were shaped as aggregates of prisms. Lambert house. 62. Mannery house at Salins. FIG. The chapel at Benouville is a rotunda at the far end of one wing..R. of Louveciennes.482 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. tending to negate it. Quattro libri dell'Architettura. April 1931. His Schemitt House 87 was another specimen combining the old. Soulange-Bodin.PHIL. The plan still shows the centralized arrangement with a vestibule and salon. 56). but in the elevation. with the altar in its center. 1570. 57) and the Palace FIG.

plan. Paris.. 1913. assumes "vers 1780. 94 Thiery. 32. F. ser. 251. Pheasantry. "Le premier h6tel qu'il batit pour le comte d'Halleville lui merita les suffrages du public et des gens de l'art. Recueil d'architecture civile. Guide 1: 594. 89 L. 280..R. Paris. Raval. Yet one should not overlook the difference between Palladio's pierced and Ledoux' massive walls. It was to have been a complete sphere set in a sunken basin. pls. Chateau of Maupertuis. Levallet.93 at 28 rue Michel-le-Comte. the top floor. represents a less signifiIts cant phase of Ledoux' development 88 (fig. The ground floor was to contain stables and green-houses.R. Anonymous. Aniciens chateaux de . J. In the Shelter. The Pheasantry. Contet. ed. de St. In the still existing Hotel de Halwil. L. pl. pls. The Shelter for the Rural Guards (Maison des gardes agricoles) is one of the architect's most daring inventions 92 (fig. Thiery Almanach.. FIG. Raval and Moreux. 66. 1764. Vieux hotels de Paris. 156-158.94 the upper portion is markedly severed from the lower by the strong cornice. 1776. which it is doubtful that a patron 88 Krafft. 19521 CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 483 geometrical shapes are set off against each other. 1805. THE RULE OF GEOMETRY The Chateau of Maupertuis would have consisted of a central pile with loosely connected pavilions 90 (fig. freest manner. the receding center is clearly set off from the sides (fig. 25. 2. F. Soon we shall see how ardently Ledoux strove to rid himself of convention and to achieve new solutions. and the undifferentiated row of arcades on the ground floor. 1914.R. Shelter for the rural guards. a hemispheric dome. 65).R. 237.R. comparing the house with Villa Ragona which.. temple-like elevation is a dull performance of revivalism. PT. 63. Guide 1: 594. 35-42. Ledoux shows an extreme instance of pure geometry. 64). pl. which was the first house built by him. try to exemplify here Palladio's influence. the crossarms are prisms with bare walls and Venetian doors. nor should one judge the former's houses taken from their context. No trace of Ledoux' inventive mind can be found here except. mentions the colonnades of the garden front. would have considered.. perhaps. 93 L. THE FASHION OF CLASSICISM The still extant house of M. 8. Magasin pittoresque. 63). et le fit rechercher par les riches proprietaires. Monument de popularite. Contet. with a cylindrical porch. C. Les bizarreries de Ledoux. pls. the main floor bedrooms with the kitchen in the center. ser. FIG. 358. Lambert. in Paris. SoulangeBodin that the house was started by the family Hallwyl after 91L." FIG. . Moreux. FIG. ed. He worked out the designs for this Shelter methodically in perspective.. at Eaubonne. 1859. their sizes and shapes depending exclusively on their practical purposes. 12. Paris. The classicising fea92 L. 254. and a blocklike body. 253.. and section. The house of the Chevalier de Mannery at Salins.. 59). Various features would have distinguished it from Baroque works: the cylindrical belvedere contrasted with the triangular pediment. Ledoux planned to add to the castle two very curious outbuildings. 54. or de Mezieres. 42. 27. they mistake for Villa Foscari. between 1764 and 1767. it must have been erected prior to H6tel Uzes of 1767. 26. 279." Being Ledoux' first Paris house." 90L. accessible by four bridges. "sans doute vers 1776. 53.64. 278bis.rance. the almost frameless windows.VOL. The whole seems to disintegrate into The rooms are arranged in the single compartments. 15. 61). 3. 69).89 is a product of academic classicism (fig. 4. storage rooms.91 designed on the plan of a Greek Cross (fig. 281. pls. in the forceful design of the open stairs. J. pl. in the center is crowned with a hemispheric cupola above a massive drum. pls.-C.R. remark of H. 252. 65.

Thiery. 1926. 235. plans. characterizes the fagade of the project of a Monucircular and the cylindrical belvedere (fig. 39.103the porches impart the idea of compact cube. On the exterior. On the outside the low dome on the rue des Petites Ecuries. and Saint-Victor 2: 316. Guide adds. with the date 1772 in the text. as Maison Ledoux of 1780. but it was toward cubism had definitely gained in strength. 18. give the location as rue des Petites Ecuries. Du Barry house.R. rue des Petites Ecuries. and repeated its plain cubic shape. with ill. perimenting in his search for new solutions. between the salon and the porch. the roof artistically effective. 50. such as the columns flanking the door.R. 367. [TRANS. elevation. par Ledoux. . and even a certain plasticity in the decothe of House with a Belvedere. by him. The house was truly modern with flat. illustrated and dated 1780. n. pl. 1772 97 (fig. 1768. 216. of Trianon. rue Poissonniere. Architecture of the Renaissance in France 2: 422.. Guide 1: 468. "au coin de la rue des Petites Ecuries du Roi. Again the stairs were flanked by aisles with terraces on the rue des Porcherons. 100L. The house was far more modern than Gabriel's its cool reserve.98 Poissonniere. Lefeuve. It consists of two rectangular side lights and a taller." Guide 1: 144. A new simplicity and clarity has been reached in this house and in Antoine's Hotel de Fleury.. arched. often used by Palladio. and Saint-Victor 2: 316. pl. named in the Index. Almanach. 1870.R. 206. pl. The same location in Krafft and Ransonette.R. the windows unframed. pl. ser. The stops ascending from the street to the porch were flanked Monsieur. pl.R. London. play a minor role in this building. emphasized the the rue Poissonniere.102looked like tinuity of the rooms.95 which belong to the same stylistic phase. In these houses and in the House with a Balcony on Petit Trianon which. The staircase of the House of Mlle de St. in Krafft and Ransonette. Tabari. 366. resembled the house cupied by the Comte d'Espinchal. Levallet. pl.484 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. Thiery. fasc. 104 L. planned in rue d'Artois. 60). It was distinguished pended to the fronts.104the Baroque centralization. Jarnac. Here Ledoux was probably exLedoux aims at a new compositional Here. appear. 197-199. A Maison Ledoux (The term "Palladian motif" appears frequently in the in the same street. 66). I. "d'un genre neuf. 98Kaufmann. inserted above. Moreux. central light. pls. but still showed Baroque gradation and a small body opposed to the main mass (fig. 199. 41. pls.R. Raval and Moreux do not deal with the Atilly House. 53. The center was occupied by the very high circular dining room. 71).SOC. 103 L. tures. and which later was ocabove the dining room was contrasted to the cubic mass. 97L. 203. erroneously calls the dining room an antechamber.96 was a cube erected on a nine-partite square by projecting aisles containing offices. 7. 380). by the semi-circular porch leading into the oval salon. 42. pls. This is the name of a pattern. 366. 68). standing in a park with statues. 20. The House of President Hocquart on the rue de 99L. Aniciennes maisons de Paris. 204. rue des Petites Ecuries. 202. 96L. 15. W. 70).. porch ment de PopularitY. Ward.. in 1780. both dating 1772. though not invented (erroneously?) speaks of rue des Petites Ecuries.. Almanach. 215.PHIL. 62).Entwurfe (see pt. in his text. 67.R. as early as 1765. The house which Ledoux built for himself in 1780 (fig. the tendency a variant of the Atilly House (fig. In concatenation. Maison Le Doux. Guide 1: 143. suggested a smaller block intruding into the larger one." 102L. Krafft and Ransonette. without location. rue Poissonniere. FIG.. Guide remarks that the houses of Espinchal. 201. Guide 1: 468. Paris. 217. while the elevation differs slightly. pls. By this very repetition the plain cubic form became The walls were nude. disrupted the conMaison Jarnac. pls. 101L.. with a variant of the Palladian architect contrasts the main block with both the semimotif. is identifollowing text.101 four-columned pedimented porticoes were loosely apof Atilly very closely (fig.. Thiery. The function: it separated the house most definitely from high four-columned porch projecting from the recess the environment. 72). habitee par le comte d'Espinchal.cal in plan and area of the building (10/2: 8 toises) with the ing chiefly in windows (also called Venetian windows) Atilly House.R. H.. 209. 366. Legrand and Landon 4: 30. In Table des planches (index) erroneously called Atilly. surmises 17751777. Almanach. pls. 3." were built by Ledoux. Germain. view. Thiery. 32. 95 Vieux h6tels. also on the rue design ration. 25. The erected on a real podium which had a double aesthetic central portion of the front receded markedly. Its frame99 work is unique in Ledoux' work (fig. apparently. Almanach.100he gave it the appearance of a block resting upon a podium. 205. "rue de Monsieur. and Legrand and portals.) When Ledoux erected the residence of the Comte d'Atilly on the rue Poissonniere. and Legrand and Landon 4: pl. 210.

47. . Its renown was greatly due to the sumptuousness of the rooms. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 485 pattern. 90) and the house of the Surveyors in the Ideal City (fig. the widow of a rich banker. Germain .: .. Thiery. . the contrasts in the third dimension foretell the compositional possibilities of the future.!1:1 ::fi:iigS!iii seen from the many comments and numerous engravings of the structure." Similarly.. Almanach.." . 193-196.R..106 The house was situated in a park. with the date 1780 in the text. l'arc qui formeun cadremale et ferme a son elegantearchid'unebelle rue qu'elletermine tecture. and as a massive solid above. 198).^ i house. with the same date. 160-167..27. Ledoux' devotion to elementary geometry manifests itself with particular intensity in the project of the cylindrical DeWitt House 105 (fig.R. Goulet. Jarnac house. wanted to surpass the houses of her social rivals. FIG. 3. Hocquarthouse... Moreover. pl. St." a $t S (fig. vue au travers de . FIG. The grandeur of the architectural accomplishgment must have impressed contemporaries.'.. pls. (We shall find this strange idea of a watercourse passing through a house again in the Chateau of Eguiere 105 L. 69. 71. 71. placeea l'extremite le brillant elle embellit et theatrale. 73). While the ground plan with its gracious curves and its balance reminds one of bygone times. "Chacun qui l'a batit.."Guide 1: 176. 74). Already in Von Ledoux. The most famous of Ledoux' residential buildings in Paris was that of Mme de Thelusson. . 77). "terminating rue d'Artois. il y a environ au gofit de l'architecte Xaujourd'hui trente ans.. 68. 367.. by which the patron. FIG. elementarout this significant"Heimkehr Formen. N. pl. . I pointed zu den primitiven. 72. et pourtanton peut se rappelerles clameursdu __'_- DU vulgaire A l'1poque de sa construction . PT.".. 70. pls.. . FIG. The belvedere reverberates the porch..Raval. quartier partiede sa reputation. 36. !. Halwil house. as can be . FIG. Here the large podium is crossed by a canal and thoroughfare (fig.) Outside colonnades are inserted in the convex walls... Krafft and Ransonette. the antithesis of diversified elementary shapes.in Legrandand applaudit Landon4: 9. Espinchal house. pittoresque parsa decoration lui doitunegrande et l'architecte de la ruede Provence. geometrischen ' . 42. finished in 1780 (fig. 106L.VOL.. . he emphasizes the cylindrical form by presenting it twice: as a columnar screen below.

[TRANS. 78). 79). Baroque centralization still lingered in the traditional arrangement of salon and vestibule. the rather insignificant symptoms of classicism. and the two trends so characteristic of Boullee's work-the tendency toward grandeur and the introduction of elementary geometry. De Witt house. one saw a sunken garden. 74. NEW SURFACE PATTERNS We have found in Ledoux' work the decline of the Baroque. House of Entertainment. PHIL. Plan. and the through-going vistas (enfilades) (fig. 73. The main entrance on the rue de Provence was a monumental triumphal arch. The front of the house was as stern as the entrance. Before dealing with Ledoux' new compositional ideas let us see whether "Palladianism" really played an important role in his work. which could be reached by two pathways on either side of the parterre. 75.486 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. imposing in its dimensions and its severity. FIG. . Beyond the powerful arch. and beyond that the main structure rising above artificial rocks. View. Heavy rustication gave it a Cyclopean appearance. FIG. who in the mid-nineteenth century found it worth while to bring out a new edition of L'Architec- FIG. Daniel Ramee. Two outbuildings stood apart from the main house and were formally independent of it. The court in the rear was closed in by a semicircular arcade and was terminated by a belvedere (fig.SOC. De W ritt house.

Cf. clings to the vague and worn-out formulas "Palladian. 52). is exceptional in Palladio's. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 487 FIG. plastic and exuberant as it is. classical" that save the trouble of forming own views on Ledoux' attainments. "A-t-il pens6 a la Brenta?" If the two authors had come across Ledoux' Prospcctus. none of which is distinctive of his work. section. 42.107 Ramee's view was taken over by Ledoux' French biographers. In many of his designs little is left of the gradation typical of the schemes of Palladio. plan. 34. refers. n'emprunte de personne . Very expressive in the original "rende la parte di mezzo pii eminente. they would know how he thought of it: "Ces palais qui se reproduisent dans les eaux limpides de la Brenta . 42. of some few single features in the works of Palladio and Ledoux seem to have misled these critics. 111 Ibid. View. so frequent in Ledoux' work. Du Barry stables. "L'homme qui se traine sur les traces des autres. Thelusson house. Avertissement." Similarly.110 who applied pediments chiefly to enhance the center of his houses. 54. Ledoux' remark to which Moreux." 109 Palladio liked it to make "the middle part higher than the sides" (II. 78. to the atrophied motif of Ledoux and his variations of it. Any observer not dependent on ready-for-use formulas can see that most of Ledoux' plans are as distir-ct from Palladio's as possible. Moreux exclaims lyrically. PT. 32. . 110 See the plates in Palladio's Second Book. quoted from the edition by Isaac Ware) and he felt that the aisles "like arms come out of the fabrick" (II.VOL. Thelusson house. The Greek cross in particular. Raval and Moreux tried to give a better foundation to the old concepts. 28. 77. FIG. 79. . 67) Palladio's heritage in some features.." And they might have observed his warning. se croit deja un erudit. . ture. 50. roof balustrades with statues and the colossal order.R.. FIG. 77. It is a far cry from the Palladian motif on the Basilica of Vicenza. They see (22. 3. qu'ont-ils produit pour la classe nombreuse? Rien.108 The similarity 107 L. my Introduction. says merely that he preferred Palladio's roofs to the mansards. emphasized the inspiring influence of the Vicentine master on Ledoux. 44. 67. Thelusson house. 44. Celui qui est plein du sentiment de ses forces. 49. One who is aware that Palladio's composition was in a wider sense Baroque 109 cannot overlook the fact that Ledoux was moving in a different direction. and thus FIG. 55). note 2. thoroughly Baroque. 48.11 and still less is left of the former concatenation. 108 Levallet.. Ledoux did not have to refer to him for the widely used "Palladian" windows. 76.. or "like arms tend to the circumference" (II.. 69. Discussing the castle of Eguiere. II.

B. 82). 208. beginning in feeble essays . there is tension. between the rues Ventadour and Sainte-Anne. This house consists of three stories and a garret. 1933." 113L. Levallet. pls. AMER.R.: . *. . and ending in forceful." 114 L. or as assemblages of incongruous elements (motif of contrasted shapes). In the well-balanced Baroque fagades any possibility of tension had been forestalled.. 38. 115 See pt. 112 . Evry house. The scheme for the Lauzon house at Chauvigny en Poitou. or as crossings (g.tadour0 i. Soc. Like all the work for Mme Du Barry... 284. came the true precursor of the twentieth century. 207. i it. 2: 159. 82. Instead.. .R. 13 f. :: : " s!. Lauzon house. adopted thisi:i: FIG. X L. In ever varying attempts he wanted to present buildings: . 'i i } : i 'i:i ..i. with underlying unsettled conflicts. rows of equal apertures appear in the stories below. 168-172.488 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS PHIL.i? ||. 81. NEW WAYS OF SPATIAL COMPOSITION FIG.115 c i ght.. [TRANS. Town hall for Neuchatel. or as piles of stepped off units 80. As an example I might cite the residence which Ledoux planned for Madame Du Barry on the rue d'Artois 11 (fig. X . 67). "vers 1783". 37-40. There is neither harmony nor balance between the stories.lf FIG. About 1783 Ledoux was asked to submit plans for Jtd slI the Town Hall of Neuchattel (not carried out) 116(fig. Kunstwiss.. which extinguish almost every differentiation. : In his search for new " spatial solutions. ." and "der Ranin der Architektur.114 attempts to establish an entirely new arrangement of the facade (fig..R. Art franc. Forsch. Ledoux be.. he now tears apart the vertical main axis by inserting a loggia all along the front of the third floor and replaces the old harmony of the fronts with a new principle. Theatre for Marseille 3. t 1 ::. 146. 83. I. The front of the d'Evry house.ld likewise reveals a tendency to replace the old hierarchical order by plain juxtaposition of equivalent elements (fig. We may recall that this was one of the modern patterns which Blondel had condemned so explicitly. and my Stadt des Architekten Ledoux. Raval. The center is emphasized only in the pediment. pls. . In Von Ledoux. . Here we find the colonnades on the long-stretched front. Just as Ledoux disrupted the main axis of several of his plans by interposing the staircase between the principal rooms.. . the result of the uneven spacing of the rows of variform windows. gunterschiede I spoke of the end "der barocken Hierarchie. pattern of interpenetrating masses appears in : 0 _i -Ijiiii::i :--i-i:l :fThe many variations in Ledoux' works. . 1933. "II ignore la hierarchie des genres. The garret window and the entrance door below enhance the center but slightly. 1: 89. (motif of contrasted sizes).R. outspoken solutions. Their parts were interrelated and never showed that condition of deceptive calm. as aggregates of interpenetrating masses. 116L. H6tel de Ville de Neuchatel..i view.: 0 i. -:~ . SOC. 4vertissement. 83). 28. which was to become a main characteristic of twentieth-century architecture. a of volume and mass. n. pl. Hist. pls. . FIG.: .

On the side fronts. 119L.129 and mentioned by another French publication as a city gate by Lequeu.124 Ledoux wanted these changes for both practical as well as aesthetic reasons. . 130 Reproduction des grands ouvrages d'architecture du 18e siecle. the Theatre of Marseille for which not he but Charles-Joachim Benard received the commission 128 (fig. Belanger 1: ill. 266. he provided seats in the parquet to eliminate the disturbance caused by people standing there. He preferred the uninterrupted sweep of the balconies to the "cage-like" boxes.119reveal that at this time it was his intention to present something absolutely new in this theatre.120and rediscovered some advantages in the theatres of the An- FIG. 84. FIG.. 220. 1775-1784. "une balustrade qui soustrait aux yeux des hauteurs destructives de l'ordre. Besancon. C. . Jean Stern. pt. Paris. n. . Arnaldi. See notes 14. rather than the surface pattern. Ledoux' letters to Governor Lacore. reveals his propensity for the unusual (Coup d'ceil du Theatre de Besan?on) 126 (fig. and Dumont had already pointed out. Ledoux' mighty porch of eight columns carries a quadriga over the entablature. 3.127 About the time Ledoux completed the Theatre of Besancon.125 In front of the top ranks he arranged a row of columns similar to that in Palladio's Teatro Olimpico. 1762. I. 210. ed. d. 85. making it invisible to the public. 84). 85). de faire un parquet oi seroient places des gradins.. He designed an oblong block with six-columned Ionic porches on each main front. d. begin of work. . glimpse of the interior. about the projects on which the Academy passed judgment in 1784. the spatial and surface patterns are of greater significance than the reminiscences of antiquity. The theatre was finished by Charles-Joachim Benard in 1787. 118as well as his later comments on this project in the Architecture. 81). 155. Idea di un teatro.. "L'orchestre (in the old theatres) est place dans la salle: quelle incoherence de conceptions!" 125 L. Vicenza. 218. 120 Blondel. feroient retraites les unes sur les autres . 224.. Theatre of Besancon. 127 L. 4. 72-81... Voyage d'Italie 1: 21. Cours 2: 265. 129 Hautecoeur. Enea. for he followed some suggestions of Blondel. L'exposition d'architecture francaise de Strasbourg. and removed the orchestra from its place between stage and audience. which he would have preferred. presenting the audience mirrored in a big eyeball. Armand Guerinet.) 124 L. C.. Dumont... 1922. dans leur hauteur. pl. 217-234. 220. In Town Hall it is the spatial pattern which is the most remarkable element. 1775. "la salle devroit etre circulaire ou elliptique . "La salle n'admet aucune decoration que celle des spectateurs. 42. Paris. il seroit bien de supprimer ce qu'on appelle Loges.R. he designed another. 225. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 489 80).. Bx-Arts 1: ill. 82-88. where the openings were spaced in such a way that the wall between them was full of tension. 113-122. qui. Cf. 123 117L..122 He gave the audience hall semicircular form and replaced the boxes by amphitheatrical balconies. (The house presented by Louis Hautecceur as a theatre by Ledoux. 1758. n.. 3: 184. moyen d'emp&her le tumulte . . Proces 9: 138. 118 Archives du Doubs. The facades remind one of the Lauzon House." 128 L. G. note 385. pl. 108. for the northern climate did not allow for a flat roof. N.l30 was the home built by the architect Belanger for himself." 122 Cochin. 123 L. 219. rows of small square windows above are contrasted with alternating Venetian windows and tall rectangles below. 219. Here we see the side pediments intimating the intrusion of a secondary block into the main body. p. PT. The new ideas he advocated for the interior were not entirely his own. "la magnificence des lignes non interrompues". Parallele de plans des plus belles salles de spectacle d'Italie. "des cercles progressifs que nous applaudissons chez les anciens. M." 121L. The lateral projections look like intersecting blocks. Dumont's own theatre is dated 1763. d'etablir l'orchestre des deux c6tes au lieu de le placer entre le Theatre et la salle. pls. 201.R. 113. "des cages de bois". One of his engravings. pl.VOL. 126 L. pls. Louis. 40. Again. and asked for restraint in decoration. Gaz. Arnaldi. P. 37. Reverting again to the exterior we note that Ledoux planned the sloping roof to be concealed by a parapet. . . Paris. Virtual interpenetration of two blocks is even better visualized on the still existing Theatre of Besancon. Krafft and Ransonette. L. 232. pls. Theatre of Besancon. cients 121 which Cochin.117 for the secondary block here is more emphatically projected (fig. pour n'y pratiquer que des galleries continues." Cp. p.

16. 137Ledoux.R. 86). [TRANS. pl. Gand. 64. ending abruptly in the porches. 132Procis 9: 164. the angles of which are filled in with additional rooms (fig. The concept of interpenetration can be perfectly realized on the Greek-cross plan. classifies. The overwhelming grandeur of this design discloses the character of its creator. surpasses this simile by conjuring up the architecturally rather unknown entrances to Dante's Hell and the abode of the Minotaurus. 88). 76)." Raval. A weak copy was the prison at Brussels by his pupil Louis-Emmanuel-Aime. Ledoux had a predilection for this plan type. The pattern of interpenetrating blocks stands out with great distinctness in the Stables of Mme Du Barry. 142 . at Versailles. 1773 131 (fig. 173. 65-68. 135 L. Nor is there any interrelation between the elements of the structure itself. gives the date. too. 1827. 110. 60-64. the other at a considerable distance below. 90). He pierces the substructure by a watercourse-hardly for any practical reason. the belvedere atop and the masses below. Palace for the governor of Aix. J.. Here we see tension on the surface. 139 L. and powerful work as the prisons remained unexecuted. L. 89).R.R. 134 L. pls. de s'exprimer. Two rows of tiny openings run along the bare walls. but surely so as to express with extreme intensity his cherished pattern of interpenetration: "Chacun a sa maniere de sentir.PHIL. On their intersection. 140 141 L. ne compose pas avec le moment. 43. Court house for Aix. 174." 141 In the project of the Chapel of Bourneville.. and antagonism in the masses. L'homme eleve . 255-258. barrel vaults over the porches seem to intrude into the big cube.138 In the Episcopal Palace of Sisteron. especially in the projects for Aix-en-Provence.. 102. 136Levallet. Paris. assumes that the Palace was carried out between 1780 and 1785. Obviously the artistic intention here is simply another version of interpenetration. pl. There must have been greater forces at work behind this crea131 L. without impairing the self-contained character of FIG. pls. with blocks The edifice rises like the whole structure (fig. pi.R. 20. 87.R. pls. Damesme. the dramatic quality reflects the spirit of the period. cannot but regret that such an original. 1. 133 L.132 The Palace of the Governor of Aix shows a central cylindrical dome emerging from the cross-shaped body 133 (fig. n. an erratic block on the plain. Jarry. L. 53. Its cross-arms. find neither response nor con- intruding on both the main front and the sides. 26. in the Courthouse.. Paul. "d'un style assyro-egyptien. 138 Goetghebuer. il suit l'impression qui le domine. The disposition of its masses alone was not enough for Ledoux.R. 88.142 vaulted corridors cross the substructure.490 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 1931. Levallet. The curious thing about this house is that it is planned to sit astride a canal. FIG. Similarly.135 is a square with four inner courts (fig. 296. The architect intended to dramatize this structure by various contrasts: heavy towers project from the four corners. The plan of the Chateau of Eguiere 140 is a Greek cross. See note 17. 13. in 1813. pl.SOC.. yet simple... 87). FIG. .139 the pattern of interpenetration is expressed in an extremely strong way.136 It gave Ledoux much grief that he could not carry out the structures for Aix. lighted by the height of the dome. . one high up. 22. 86. Choix des monuments des Pays-Bas. the upper masses seem to burst forth from the larger lower blocks 134 (fig.R.. Guirlande de Paris 2: 1. pls. in the center of a circular hall. In this huge pile we begin to see the great possibilities latent in the concept of interpenetration. tinuation in the environment. P. as can be seen in many instances. the altar is situated. Prisons for Aix. tion than mere archaeological curiosity..137 Posterity. The plan of the Prisons of the city of Aix.

42. CXXXIX. R.R. Cayeux. FIG. Thiery. 92. J. 94). 144 Portalis Roger. 67: 223. Recueil. The entrance hall. FIG. The void of the niche which played a minor role in the 145L. The still existing Pavilion de Louveciennes. Saint-Victor 2: 316.. The house itself is an oblong block with a protruding porch. suppl. 1767.144 (Some of Fragonard's panels representing the Romance of Love and Youth are now in the Frick Collection in New York) (fig. pls. Bachaumont. with the date in the text. The semicircular porch of the Tabary house. at the corner of the rue Poissonniere and the rue des Petites Ecuries. 1914.VOL. 175-177. loc. Recueil d'architecture. Soubise to the dancer Guimard 145 (fig. Peintures decoratives de Fragonard et les panneaux de Grasse. I don't think there was an interdependence between the two architects. Anonymous. 3. pl. the dining room. 146 Neufforge. Palace for Sisteron. Krafft. pls. 92). Cayeux.Louis de. 270-272. cit. in that it hollows out the block and thus visualizes space (fig. 49. Pavilion de Louveciennes. Memoires secrets. Its most conspicuous feature was the spherical vaulting above the entablature of the porch. Here the concept of contrasting volume with mass was unmistakably expressed.R.146) The elliptical theatre added to the house reminds one of the interior of the Theatre of Besancon. like a smaller block superimposed on the main block. Pavilion Du Barry a Louveciennes et son architecte Ledoux. PT. Almanach. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 491 FIG. Section.143became famous for its interior decoration. Its plan was distinguished by the free asymmetrical disposition of the rooms. Almanach. among them the painters Fragonard and Vien. 68: 35. 90. 1. Guide 1: 468. and the salon are arrayed on a main axis in the traditional manner. London. built for Madame Du Barry in 1771. 147 L.. rue des Petites-Ecuries. 365.-F. Castle of Eguiere. et mod. 93). 200. Bx-Arts 2: 483. At about the same time Robert Adam favored niches screened with columns.. gives the date 1768. to which many excellent artists contributed. 91). Guide 1: 146. Dtsche. 89. pls. The upper part of the slightly projecting porch towered high over the building. Paris. Bauzeitung 48: 569." as a gift of the Marechal de 143 L. art anc. CXL. In 1770 Ledoux erected on the Chaussee d'Antin the "Temple of Terpsichore. Gaz.147opened in a huge Palladian motif (fig. FIG. CXLVI. 367. 1935. Pavilion de Louveciennes. Jean de. pls. 1784. The form of the semi-cylindrical entrance hall has a special significance.R. and the sculptors Felix Lecomte and Augustin Pajou. 201. . Thiery. 1885. Krafft and Ransonnette. pl.. Haus der Tanzerin Guimard. 3: 287. 91. (Niche-like porches occur frequently in Neufforge's designs.

and the superposed belvederes. Levallet.153 But he developed from this scheme something considerably more sophisticated (fig. J. or as an instance of vertical interpenetration (telescopic effect).PHIL. Tabary house. n.. The square. rue Rousseau) and du Bouloi. about 1783 Ledoux designed an office building for the Ferme Generale. a more outspoken example.R. The latter is a fourstoried.R. The podium alone was a full square. however. the concept of the terrace house. Pavillon de Louveciennes. Ledoux obtained more light and air for all the others. . however. 153 152 . 358. 264-266.149we begin to comprehend the significance of a feature like 69) and the frequent application of sunken panels in general. On this concept of the sub-divided square. 97). ser. 53-56. and Krafft.. By giving up a few rooms. ainsi que les portes d'entree.R. [TRANS. In 1783. subdivided into four courts. Ledoux pour la reconstruction entiere de cet H6tel. Thiery. His primary idea was to set off the main body from a sturdy podium with monumental portals. 1837. Such superficial observation will not lead to a better understanding of Ledoux. topped by a belvedere. on peut juger que ce batiment presentera une masse imposante. How we put it does not matter. Ledoux designed the Storehouse for Salt at Compiegne (today Fish market) 148 (fig. 93. Here. 95-100. A further method for visualizing the third dimension was the superposition of blocks of diminishing sizes.SOC. 83). pl. about 1800. 95). Of greater interest is the artistic solution: interpenetration of masses (three structures crossing the central structure) . L. Paris. His intention was a pattern of antithetical elements. d. fasc. Thiery. in Vieux Hotels. the lunette over the portal of the Halwil house 150 (fig. became one of the most popular plans for public buildings in the nineteenth century. annonce un caractere male. An instance of this method is the project of the Lauzon house 151 (fig. The aspect of the whole is that of a stepped building. 75.492 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. pls. Let us not fail to observe that this artistic ideal preceded the technical potential. 107. or to point out the Greek models of its columns. Guide 1: 143. 94. however. 18." Guide 1: 320. FIG. Out of the center of this rise the second and third floors. 151See n. . 3. which. 94. La corniche . and Lefeuve. (today. seems to be by Visconti. He could achieve greater monumentality by presenting the niche openly. 150 See n. and we are safe in concluding that he was inspired by an aesthetic ideal. Almanach. 1.. de Mile Mars). 106. while the upper three stories rose only above the central cross and there were only two side wings. The ground floor and a mezzanine formed one block carrying a terrace. Its partly extant entrance is an enormous niche running up almost to the gigantic brackets under the cornices. the essential thing is to recognize the artist's idea. the project of the chateau 148L. This scheme recommended itself from a practical point of view. tell of Ledoux' work on the house.. Having seen how Ledoux grappled with the problem of bringing spatial effects into plain blocks. interpenetration of volume and mass (the intruding courts). We must rather go behind the traditional forms to perceive his own architectural thought which is so clearly expressed in the new spatial and surface patterns. Guimard house. One might again interpret the structure as an instance of reverberation of a large block by smaller ones. Avertissemnent states that Ledoux was nominated architect of the Fermes in 1782.-C. 1784. 96). just as eighteenth-century cubism preceded the era of concrete. pl. pls. 149 In this connection I might refer to the garden front of Hotel de Valentinois (later. "D'apres les travaux commences par M. It is a simple matter to observe Roman reminiscences on the Guimard house. Ledoux dispensed with screening columns. played a greater role in the Guimard house: it is now the decisive factor. after Normand fils. between the rues de Grenelle of M. L. says. Paris moderne 1: pls. 15. Choix des plus jolies maisons de Paris. FIG. Jarry. Today. de Barail 152 (fig. p. stepped building on a rectangular plan. pls. Paris. glass construction permits the concept of volume versus mass to be presented far better than was possible in former times. 3-5. It seems obvious that Ledoux was not motivated by the "zoning" laws when he created this new form. 114.

. This accumulation of incongruous features represents the first stage of the process of decomposition. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 493 FIG. 10) should not Gerland. moved. 3. Storehouse at Compiegne-Grenier a sel. Ledoux had definitely parted from the traditional concept of unity.155 15 Moreux. The latter has so little connection with the main mass that. remarks "unity" in all productions of Ledoux. if it were re154 L. The Library is a cube with a superposed low block crowned by a columned. 97. Barail house. . FIG. H6tel des Fermes. 98. 42. FIG.. PT. the whole would rather gain. FIG. 96. House of Entertainment. 95. pls.R. 99).VOL. domed belvedere. which soon was to affect the entire body. But the latter's occasional praise of uniit (L. 1775 154 (fig. Strange incongruities appear in the project of the Library of Hesse Cassel. 89-93. 44. 118.

oversized stairs are loosely appended to it. i. Yet this whole complex with the dominant horizontals looks far more composed than the disrupted houses of Meilliand and Bellevue. 1728. 24. e ben finito corpo." while Raval and Moreux do not deal at all with this unusual and highly significant composition. "Das ist ein Similarly hauptsdchlicher Wesenszug des neuen Systems. The house is a piecemeal composition in which the elements have won more independence than the whole can put up with. 103. pls... Von Ledoux. . The first shows a central oblong block with a Tuscan porch. Thus far we have traced the vicissitudes of Ledoux' development in his designs of single buildings. 100). "There is a daily Application of combined Force to destroy that Beauty." Raval. 100. Its basic idea is the unrelated juxtaposition of the cubic house with the semicircular substructure in front of it. P1. The plan of the second project is very practical: the center 161This design is the outcome of a trend which can be traced back in England much earlier than in France. 101-105. London. Library for Hesse-Cassel. neither of which was carried out. 156 L. Sentry boxes are placed symmetrically at some distance. "uno intiero. THE IDEAL OF INDIVIDUALISM The project for the Rural School of Meilliand 156 was planned as a Greek cross building on a square substructure (fig. 103). Each could exist independently when taken out of the group. this concept to a new one. He. 99. I. [TRANS.. 17. all in heavy rustication (fig. Here. and two cubic houses on the sides. Discrepancy of upper and lower parts also characterizes the project of a house on the rue Neuve de Berry 162 (fig." The English eighteenth century development will be discussed in my Architecture in the Age of Reason. Levallet.. Already Robert Morris. The substructure.494 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. The plain block opens in an arcade. 211-214. 101). and the Ideal City. a columned belvedere is awkwardly set on top of the roof. Bk. II. 162 L. House Parc de Bellevue. when Ledoux was asked by the Minister of Finance. 101. The second project presents a four-square building surrounded by a low colonnade and topped by a receding attic (fig. Jacques Necker. to plan a Discount Bank on the rue d'Artois." 159 the Rural School consists of unrelated upper and lower portions. revolution.R. believes that Ledoux took the plan from that of a curia in Piranesi's map of the Campus Martius. 19. with the location on pl. Moreux. 285.163he submitted two schemes. every part represents insubordination. adding.R. FIG. finds the belvedere on top "simply useless. pl. 102). 158 Ibid. is not a compact mass but a vast open hall on arcades.SOC. 288-291. "die freie Vereinigung selbstandiger Existenzen. pls. in An Essay in Defence of Ancient Architecture. 37. The stage of temporary restoration of the old "order" was reached in architecture sooner than in politics. passed from FIG. moreover. and Harmony united in the Composition of Ancient Architecture. 159 Ibid.161 Architecture is in full FIG.158 presented "integral wholes. II. Sweetness.." 160 L. and his progressive colleagues.. 163L. xv. called barrieres. wrote. Decomposition of the whole is the chief characteristic of the project of a country house in the Parc de Bellevue 160 (fig. 157 Palladio. iii. and with his two greatest projects: the tollhouses of Paris. 88. Traditional buildings were commislead us.R. 104). posed of ruling and subaltern parts. thus degrading the utmost original master to a secondrate copyist. Further struggle for the new ideals in both fields belonged to the future. Whereas the Rotonda of Palladio.157 or his Villa Trissini.PHIL. It now remains to deal with groups of buildings." as I said.R. In 1788. 51. School of Meilliand. 288 is "Grave par Picquenot and Ransonette l'an 3em" (sic). pls.

FIG. pl.l66 The Gate of the Parc de Bourneville 167 is a further curious instance of Ledoux' experiments (fig. 64. communicating conveniently with the various offices around it. 34. For the Farmhouse de la Roche Bernard. 292-295.R. 75). The House of Entertainment (Maison de plaisir) 164 was planned as a circular colonnade from which twelve two-storied casinos would have projected radially. and with outbuildings placed at different points of the cross-shaped court. a central oblong house bridges the road between them. for they have two stories.165 The other with the legend Ferme paree shows a complicated pattern of rectangular and polygonal forms. not in the old way of frames of reference. 1788. 103. The should Moreux. 164 L. Two small circular structures form the bases for tall columns. The complex was to be surrounded by a square garden with coachhouses in the four corners (fig.. 3. each with three rooms. rue de Bourbon. 238. L. 239. PT. 1st project-Caisse d'Escompte... 297.168Ledoux expressed the interrelation of the three houses standing on a common podium.R. each based on the Greek cross.R. 189-192. Moreux. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 495 FIG. Ledoux made two plans.. 51. nor one with the legend Bergerie is rather plain. pl. pls. with the main house in the center. 98). this street is rue de Lille. of the square is occupied by a circular hall for the transaction of business. while the principal building was to be located within the colonnade (fig. but merely by the repetition of the single 167L. 42.R. dates the house 1786. In the Saiseval House.. Today. and many windows. 166 L. pls.VOL. 300. 105). missing in the 1804 ed. From the simple juxtaposition of independent elements Ledoux proceeded to the grouping of equivalent units on variegated geometrical plans. This design.. speak of the megaron form of the houses. . pls. Discount Bank.R. Raval. House rue Neuve de Berry. 102. 168 165 L. should not be considered as belonging to the Ideal City.

the pattern on the Saiseval House. 2nd project. clearer." But the drawing he refers to has nothing to do with architectural planning. which I plan to discuss in a forthcoming book on the entire eighteenth century development. 105. this correct. declaring this scheme to be a noteworthy new start in planning. Raval and Moreux accept this view. an ensemble of three houses with the main accent on the central one. 51. It is the well known figure of a man. the former. of eight houses. features: porches. domes. reproduced in many Vitruvius editions. Palladian motifs." Ramee says. 34. Moreover. This extremely refined pattern of 169 Many times. Were FIG. PHIL. Looking closer at the layout. Raval and Moreux apply the concept they borrowed to the wrong place. . unmistakably. without questioning the meaning of the design. Still more curious is that Moreux. then he. the Renaissance theory to be set forth with this figure. but presents the group of three buildings with small coachhouses twice. wants the architectural "body" related to the human body. of a checkerboard arrangement. 1924. f. FIG. in front and in the rear of the plot. tending toward humanisation or organisation." and the view reveals. Gateway of Bourneville. beginning with my essay in Rep. here. I pointed out the significance of the repetition of independent motifs has its own history. to demonstrate To make the point the theory of exemplary proportions. the draughtsman of the Cesariano edition. and praising it as a new solution. Discount Bank. 1521. and open stairs 169 (fig.496 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. 104. 45. This superficial similarity makes Moreux think of a plan craticulaire. AMER. could not speak of Ledoux' "nouvelle solution. "se composant de trois pavillons. 106). already finds the gridiron scheme in the sixteenth century. they could see that Ledoux did not think. set the figure off against a system of coordinates. Kunstwissenschaft 64: 219. 51. is diametrically opposed to the concept of the gridiron plan. gridiron plan in Ledoux' and Durand's works. Yet they are mistaken in finding. The latter means geometrisation. There are not "huit blocs egaux. SOC.

erroneCity. illustrate house no.. L. It is easy to find the negative characteristics of the designs. chiefly by the simple device of juxtaposition. Raval. Commercial building. 221-225. 3. states that Hosten want to point out his final stage after a life of lasting endeavor to find a new architectural form. depending largely on the effect of contrasted arches and rows of rectangular openings (houses 4. 178-188. 5) (fig. I 170L. They almost completely lacked Baroque gradation and concatenation. 107). pl. Raval and Moreux.VOL. 193. Ledoux was a searcher to the end. Denis. Ledoux' last opportunity to present his creative power came to him through a man of the New World. 42. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 497 FIG. About 1787 the American Hosten asked him to build a private residence for him on a large corner lot on the rue SaintGeorges (fig. These late designs have little in common with his previous experiments. and fourteen other houses to be rented.l70 was planned on a nine-partite square (fig. but no formal interplay. Saiseval house. The incertitude of the era did not allow him to reach a clear-cut formula. despite the monotony of the array FIG. nor with anything in architecture that came before or after him. 106. Krafft and Ransonette. The Commercial Building (Maison de Commerce). 111). 107. He strove to master the problem of the multiplicity of these houses.. pls. There was much unrest in the facades.R. 10. difficult to characterize them positively. .R. PT. pls.R. ously believe this house to belong to the Ideal 221-223 and index. 15. dating it 1787.171 Rather than dwell on the single plans which prove Ledoux' inventiveness in practical solutions. 35. Here again there is much reciprocity b)etweenthe single features. bought the plot in 1792. rue Saint-Denis. pls. give the intended location as 171 L. 109). and by the diversified treatment of the facades. 63.. on the rue St.

on the highest level. He was still hampered by that uncertainty which Blondel had re- marked at the outset of the revolutionary movement. erected on a sloping ground (fig. but truly monumental spatial composition. challenging those who came after. Levallet. a consistent step in the The continuous line of the architectural development. that of the hothouses by a deep loggia. 108. the revolutionary ideas lived on. Cf. . country house planned for the Princesse de Conti at Louveciennes. and at the far end. but brought into some unity only by their array on the central principal axis. All his experiments were just as premature as those of the politinew form.176 When the Ferme Generale asked Ledoux in 1784 to erect the tollhouses around the capital. Now let us turn to a much earlier project which at first glance looks just as enigmatic as the Hosten houses. 11-14. Even so. to pure geometry. showing how he passed from Baroque formality. VII. 110). Capon. turn back to the past as long as there was any hope to cal revolution. FIG. how he aimed at bringing life into the rigid This last known production of Ledoux serves to throw some light on his personality. Vie dn Prince de Coity. Yet they were not in vain. 42). n. The single structures would not have been tied together formally. pls. This. like the Revivalists. G.R. n. Apparently he was aware that he had not attained his ultimate goal in finding a attain something new. 183. tout y est inutile. The mass of the main building was to be somewhat relieved by arcades. the courts within the H-form. The Princesse de Conti named in the engravings was. 1907. Showing both the consistof the and the soundness of traditional layout ency cubism. 273-277. 33. I. It was a true link between the past and the future. and how in the large complexes he advanced from juxtaposition to more complicated patterns. niche. 174 L. was much sounder. n. and the spherical vaulting of the niche. he did not. The architect's life work ends with the confession: Non possumus. it can be considered as a landmark on the crossroads of two architectural epochs-the Baroque and the modern.174 was to be a bold and grand combination of contrasted masses and voids. 16. Hosten houses. screened by two rows of columns... Particularly characteristic were the houses Nos. "C'est un defi au bon sens . Houses 11-14 showed by alternating projections. a huge columned (fig. .. Louise Elisabeth who spent all her life at Versailles and died 1775. 173L. the pattern of rigid juxtaposition 173 (fig. to take up the struggle for their realization. he had not won clarity at all. 112)." This is unlikely for up to the early 1780's he was successful and self-confident (cp. who illustrates forty-two barrieres by Ledoux and shows their location on a 177Cf. Paris. Ledoux may have made the designs when he worked for Mme Du Barry. 2. We follow Saint-Victor 3: 839-842.. Cf. pt. 14.175 and had nothing to offer but a new experiment. 1.. The Hosten houses represent a last attempt and a last failure. 62. Yet when the last great opportunity came with the Hosten commission.. side by side. On the lowest level were to be three rectangular courts. 172 masses.R.PHIL. 119. I have attempted to trace the development of the architect.177 he gave the 175 176L. pl. through rare classicizing performances.SOC. believes that in it Ledoux tried to get rid of his "complex of failure. of equal apertures. The voids would have been the three courts sunk into the rising ground. is the Baroque heritage in the great project. 108). While the precursor might fail. 188. look like one building 172 the hothouses. is not impressed by the great composition. most probably. 377.R. Many barrieres were known under different names. [TRANS. pl. In it Ledoux would have accomplished a strange. .498 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 341. on the next level L. higher up the H-shaped main building. and only this. but in reality. 3 which. THE PROPYLAEA OF PARIS La pierre sous la touche de l'art." Raval.

128). 120.184 (fig. pls. The barrieres were badly damaged in the RevoluA few years after their mutilation. Paris. Today. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOTTX 499 fullest proof of his inventiveness. reproduced in B. no. destroyed in 1859. reminiscent of the Renaissance (Barriere de la CroixBlanche.R.R.R. de la Villette).. 17.*** terminating the Route d'Orleans. 15. 1932. 109. Hist. 182Dcade philosophiqle 1: 554. FIG.. and the small Rotunda in the map. entassees par FIG. that in Legrand and Landon. 180L. 15. 16. Dec. . 2. and map. the Barriere de Saint-Martin** powerful (or. rather than in factual data and insignificant similarities with ancient works.. Hosten houses. taking over Levallet's classification in four main types ("families"). tion 181 (fig." 182 Most of the barrieres were finally Parc de Monceau. . la tyrannie"-be transformed into memorials to honor the revolutionary victories and preserved as "monuments publics. Paris.185 will be richly reSome are munerated in scrutinizing all the projects. 187 L. Raval and Moreux discuss but a few barrieres. 80 In 1787 the work done by him was considered too expensive and too extravagant. 129). which shows the plans of all the barriercs as they were 1836. were called Propylaea of Paris by Ledoux. 110. 3. and thus a witness to how little Ledoux was thought of in his country.179 he planned also several inns (guinguettes). 114) which up to recent times was in a shameful state of degradation. 19-36. 178 L.. 42. and from Louis Prudhomme. which though commonly known as barrieres. Verniquet. 226-233. Bx-Arts." 187) . 16..VOL. pls.. 120.183 still in its deterioration. 17. reproduced in our figs. PT. . "Barriere de Chartres. 1: 41. Paul. THE HERITAGE OF THE PAST Anyone interested in the artistic significance of the barrieres. 111. FIG. Soc. Rotonde de la Villette.R. only four are still extant: the almost unaltered Barriere du Tr6ne ** (or. The stars on these plates indicate that the respective barriere consisted of two identical houses." 185 Levallet has gathered much valuable material about the executed barrieres. . 127 (three). 120 (two). Occasionally we add other names from L.R. 1i L. Miroir hist. pl.* 186 and the similar "Project V. . 1912. 87. 113 (one). 1791. de Vincennes). place de la Nation. Some of these projects were too bold to be acceptable to the patrons. the French National Convention decided that these relics of the monarchy-"des pierres .. 5. also called Barriere de Chartres. pls. pls. that by Th.. 4. . not restricting himself to a uniform scheme. asterisks refer to Saint-Victor's plates. 3. the map of Paris by Paul Verniquet. the Barriere d'Enfer. 1-3. de Paris 1: 56. 83. In this text. 186 Saint-Victor 3: 839 bis (inserted plate). L.178 While working on the tollhouses. 5. but disregards the projects and the guinguettes. Public opinion was so aroused-"Le mur murant Paris rend Paris murmurant"-that the commission was taken from him two years later. the map of the Fermiers generaux. but shaping each tollhouse in a different and peculiar way (figs. 183Jarry. Jacoubet. nearly 184L. 1807. 113. Hosten's own house. 179L. 34. 4. 176. Hosten houses.

" 189 the ground floor and the small aperture on the mezzanine of each side wall. 116). 1551. 1912. PHIL. S.. will find it hard to grasp the artist's intentions. pls. 140." 189 as Ledoux calls those who ever and again look for ancient models. For this main axis.-V. or de la Glaciere) 192is an amphiprostyle. Serlio's stone bands look as if they were of flexible 193S. L. text to plate I. both. pl.. FIG. House for the Princesse de Conti. 198Ibid. Rome ct la renaissance de l'antiquite a la fin du 18e siccle. 195S. or availed itself only of its inherent symbolism. The Barriere Saint-Jacques *** (or. which impart to the traditional feature a new expressiveness.190for instance. all are made up of classical features..) The project of the Barriere de Gentilly*** (or.* better known as de l'Etoile. dependent largely on the emphasis of the longitudinal axis. L. 1. Yet there is a considerable difference between the Renaissance columns and those of Ledoux. 18. Louis. Marengo). d'Arcueil) presents arcades instead of colonnades. 194L.) The project of the Barriere is a simple peripteros. pls.R. (It is.193 Project VII is a variant of the Roman Pantheon. irrelevant whether a cult made use of this road. [TRANS. 3: 842bis execution. with the oddity of the single window on rieres imite Poestum (a Courcelles). such as those of Saint-Mande. 839 bis. Paris.500 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER.195 and Bercy.R.-V.. Even those few barrieres where Ledoux rather strictly follows ancient models deviate from the cliche in characteristic details.. or de Neuilly. SOC. The barrieres of Monceau * 197 and Montreuil ** 198 present columns densely covered with rings.199 surrounded by arcades with twin columns (fig. Extraordinario libro di architettura. 199L. is distinguished by the application of doors and small double stairs to the side fronts which.R.. The project of the Barriere de Courcelles (rue de Chartres).R. 842 bis. 2. 190L.*** 196 the vast majority differ widely from the models of antiquity. execution. 3: 840 bis. though perhaps conditioned by practical considerations. 840 bis. 135. 3: 842 bis. Yet it is not enough to exclaim "Paestum" when confronted with the Barriere de Courcelles. 200 Sebastiano Serlio. Hautecoeur. il unit au dorique des souvenirs de Cecilia Metella (a Saint-Martin). 197 196 .. Ibid. and many others). 112.** Charenton** (or. de l'Oursine. "Ledoux dans ses bar188 192 191L. Ibid.* or "Cecilia Metella" in front of Saint-Martin. Lione. of course. Saint-Victor 3: 840 bis.R.. terminated the processional road. 36.. (In des Rats ** (or d'Aunai) 191 the execution.-V. 9. 14. Ledoux seemed particularly fond of ringed columns which remind us of those described by Sebastiano Serlio as of "cinte dalle fascie Rustiche" 200 (Barriere de Chaillot. pl.194 Except these and a few more temple-like barrieres. impair the solemnity of the Greek temple scheme. 17. It does not lessen Ledoux' claim as an innovator that occasionally he designed a capricious thing like the cabin of the police-galley belonging to the Barriere de la Rapee. The barriere itself shows cross-arms emerging from the cylindrical body.** 188 The "professeur circon- scrit dans les cinq ordres. pl. leading from the portal to the sanctuary. Ledoux applied columns ringed with square drums.

. Tollhouses of Paris.Cn 0 FIG. 113.

Eventually he presented twin columns held together by broad bands (Barrieres de la rue Royale * or de Montmartre. ated a vigorous pattern by duplicating the outline of the pediments (Barriere des Vertus. Project VI for the barrieres.. Barriere de la Rapee. project.* 204 de l'Observation. 114. 1537. project. Often he inserts a heavy keystone in the tympanum (Des Fourneaux. Barriere St. 116. too..203 and Mont Parnasse ***). Florence. xiii. VII. des Fourneaux *** or Voierie. pl.. Cp. Regole generali di architettura. plan. [TRANS. They tie the columns to the wall. 204 Ibid. and as he himself explained. . fol. FIG.*** des Ministres.-V.205)." Vignola. joined similar columns to the wall. both.*** or Paillassons. 3: 839 bis. Ammanati's courtyard of Palazzo Pitti. FIG. fol.SOC. 839 bis. FIG.201while Ledoux' square drums virtually tear the shafts apart. FIG 115. without establishing any connection with the wall. Hypolite. Sometimes he creleans.*** or 203Ibid..PHIL. 118. as his plates show. Vignole. ill. K. both. FIG. G. Barriere de Picpus. 842 bis. project. Paris.502 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 117. matter. 119. Venetia. and Loukomski. Rotonde de Monceaux.202 d'Enfer *** or d'Or201 Same. e traversano la colonna. 842 bis. xiv. 1927. "le pietre che legano. Palazzo Bocchi. 202 S. Barriere de la Sante. 205Ibid. FIG.

Cn Ch) FIG. 120. Tollhouses of Paris. .

. Reservoir.213).* ** ronne or Fontarabie210).. Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor had already Grenelle). Project III for the barrieres. franc..-V. 421. "de Passy. 219 L.*** or d'Italie 211). wants to show that this plan resembles a "Porticus A. [TRANS. MODERN COMPOSITION FIG.* or Sainte-Marie.206 Many of the patterns which we have discussed in the foregoing chapter appear also in the barrieres. both. 842bis.* or de observed. both. In some cases he made the central arch protrude into the pediment (Passy. est un peu absorbe par la masse trop elevee qui le surmonte. L.*** All these transformations of tradi- tional features reflect the unrest that had come over architecture. *** Observation *** 208) . Paris. Project II for the barrieres. Tabl. 217Landon. both. 1798. See n. Architecture francaise. 842 bis. 3: 839 bis. R. 10..* de Montmartre. 18' et 19' siecles 3: pls. P. from the well balanced rhythm of the Palladian motif to a pattern in which equivalence was more important 206 207 Ibid. 128) and de l'Ecole Militaire upper part. 214Ibid. with a polygonal finishing. de la rev. A forceful variation of the motif presents twin columns between the arches (Belleville. L.217 The extant tollhouses of the Barriere du Tr6ne present the contrast of the solid block to the void niche like the Storage House of Compiegne. 211 Ibid. 210 Ibid. than gradation. 26.. 3: 839 bis. pls. 839 bis. 208 Ibid. Legrand on Bons-Hommes. . 216 comment of the architect J." 218 Dimier.PHIL. Those gigantic keystones were no longer willing merely to perform their humble tasks. 842 bis.." London..207 Vaugirard..214has a porch similar to that of the Guimard House. 839 bis. 842 bis. The Barriere des Bons-Hommes.-S. C. which the architect Legrand has already opens in a deep la Pompe de Chaillot. L. the expression of perfect gradation and concatenation.. Between the fragmentary plan he presents and that of the barriere there is only a very slight S. It was the same spirit of revolt against tradition that inspired all progressive architects in the Age of Reason. Ledoux frequently changed the dynamics or the rhythms of the motif.. Paris. pi.** Menilmontant.* or de Passy. n. Moreux. The Barrieres de Longchamps. LI.. Annales du Musee 5: 151. the symbol of the integral whole formed by the ruling central part and the subservient sides. Prieur..218 Interpenetration of voids into mass is visualized also in a project for the Chemin des Carrieres.219 resembling the Barriere du Reservoir. 121. in others he inserted three higher arches 209 Chabetween the low rectangular sides (Clichy. 123. . 212 Enfer. of the niche. with a cylindrical. "l'ordre .. they asserted themselves in the boldest way. Paris. 1801. 842 bis. But we should not infer that Ledoux copied them. the Barriere de l'Ecole Militaire *** 216 dramatized doors and windows by oversized keystones.. "de la Conference. Ibid. opp." [sic] in Piranesi's map of Campus Martius. Q.-G. FIG. 1: 10. both.* 20 The Barriere Picpus ** exhibits in its plan the same basic idea: 221 semi-circular niches invade the cube on Ibid. Pugin. 839 bis.R. To Ledoux the Palladian motif no longer meant what it had meant to Renaissance and Baroque architects.215resemble the Tabary house. ill. d. both. *** Bord de l'Eeau. or even five (FontaineThis means that he proceeded bleau..SOC. P."Paris.-V. hist.** or Cunette. 213Ibid.504 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER.R. Barriere Chemin de Chaillot. 2: 112. 209 Ibid. FIG. 150. 220 221 Ibid. 840 bis. both. 1831. 11. 122.* or des Martirs. 212 215 S. 66. A noteworthy feature of the Barrieres des Bons-Hommes * *** is the top-heavy (fig. 27.. de la Conference. A. 840bis.

. moreover. and the Barriere Saint-Martin. pls. Raval and Moreux. 3: 840bis. 3. In Von Ledoux. 3: 842 says. project.. pl.R. This latter denomination is wrong. Moreux. on the map nothing like a similarity. This passage is by Goulet.R.VOL. presents a pedimented block to which lower blocks with slanting roofs on each side are added (fig. Sante has the wrong legend Hypolite.R. its plan as that of Belleville. 3: 840bis. 223 L. 25. planned on the Greek cross. c'est de l'architecture franqaise: elle est neuve.** or du Combat du Taureau. accustomed to monumental simplicity and bold contrasts. capped by a hemisphere. . pleine de force et de grace. both. S. 231S. the four crossarms projecting from the tower are covered with heavy barrel vaults. pl. 3: 840 bis. 119). turns to Piranesi's map and discovers a tomb as the inspiration of Ledoux. the lower has horizontal grooves. also called des Groseillers. PT. Porticus A. The Barriere Pantin. fig.-V. Moreux again finds a somewhat similar shape in the plan of a dock (navalia) in Piranesi's map. altered. 19. Moreux dubs -it pompously "Metathese du Sepulchrum Agrippae. Moreux.223 on the front and the back facades. et l'artiste n'en a puise le gofit et les formes que dans son imagination. 118)." 233 227L. 232Legrand and Landon 3: 58.-V.** near the end of the Chemin SaintLedoux carved out of the block deep niches Laurent.226 The former. 126. not an exploiter.** 228 Their cylindrical bodies emerge from circular colonnades so that a telescopic effect results. as S. But there is the legend Porticus a S.. Denis. n'est ni egyptienne.-V.R.R.232 FIG.225 Contrasted cubic masses form the principal motif of the projects for the Barriere Saint-Hypolite.-V. with three tiny aperThere is. or de Saint Louis.. 3: 842. according to the maps. pls.-V. 24. FIG. was erected on a triangular plan. R. Saint Victor praised it: "la plus belle de toutes. 121). but present. pls.** or Ramponneau. S. 260.222 In the Barriere de la Chopinette.. 228L. From the prismatic podium a tall cubic tower rises.** 231 The architect Nicolas Goulet commented upon this last: tures high up on each side. Q. In the Barriere des Trois Couronnes. 14. Legrand and London 3: pl.-V. 6. Instances of interpenetrating masses are the Rotunda of Monceaux. The Barriere de la Sante is composed of elementary FIG. 115). though it appears in L.-V. 225 Plan in Jacoubet's map. 8. believing that Ledoux picked it out for an entirely different purpose. has read only half of the legend. ni grecque. and de la Sante. unaware that in the eighteenth century many designed triangular plans in France and England. 66. elevation. geometrical shapes (fig. or de la Boyauterie. 229L. "Project VI" 230 (fig. S. S. Project I for the barrieres. apparently ignoring that a is a Latin preposition. 66.. Barriere St. 3. Barriere de l'Ecole Militaire. 3: 840 bis. 4. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 505 each side (fig. 12. The cylindrical belvedere on top is Cette architecture." 226L. 3: 840bis. 13. The upper part of the wall is flat and unpierced.R. according to 3: preface. pl. 230 L. illustrate la Chopinette. Table and plates. The cylindrical belvedere was omitted in the execution. with bevelled corners and niches on each side. 42. 35. This project fascinates even twentieth-century observers. 7. pls. 233S.-V.. but not by Legrand. 117). 224 L.227 and the tollhouses of Reuilly. project. P. 41. 222 S. 124. ni romaine.R. 125. Of great interest are a few designs which show top-heavy cylinders rising from low substructures: the Barriere Chemin de Chaillot 229 (fig. amoenitati dicata. Since the latter's plan shows a completely different arrangement of some identical features.224both intersecting masses and emphasized volume can be seen in the arms of the Greek cross and the deep porches. 3: 840 bis. R. finished by a boldly projecting cornice. Yet Ledoux' greatness was being an explorer.

506

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ARCHITECTS

[TRANS. AMER.PHIL.SOC.

FIG.

127. Barriere du Maine, May 1, 1791, after the excise was abolished.

The Barriere du Roule * is less classical than most barrieres with its disproportion, with the conflict of the verticals and the horizontals, and the contrast of disparate features-arches on rusticated columns below,
oblong openings in smooth walls, above.234 "Project II" 235 (fig. 123) and the similar Barriere du Maine *** 236 belong to Ledoux' most dramatic de-

mentary shapes are contrasted vigorously, the prismatic cross-arms to the cylindrical drum.239 Several twin-houses tell of the compositional dilemmas of the architect. The old concept of centralization is still recognizable in the project of the Barriere SaintDenis,240 but the movement leading upward from the

signs. Both show a grand crescendo: the broad, rusticated substructure carries twin houses which are held together by a windowless wall, concave in the project, flat in the execution. The steps on top of the portal, practically of no use, point upwards to the belvedere crowning the structure (fig. 127). We may understand these grand compositions best from a passage in L'Architecture proclaiming Ledoux' artistic program: Souvent; tres-souvent, j'offrirai cette ordonnancelibre et ddbarrasseede ses entraves, cette ordonnancequi plait avec de belles masses, et doit sa pompe a l'economie subsidiaire, a des oppositions bien entendues.237 "Project III," 238a tollhouse surmounted by a rostral

sentry boxes towards the central thoroughfare is suddenly interrupted: the central pediment, instead of rul239L.R., pls. 15, 16. 240 L.R., pi 5.

column, is a highly original assemblage of incongruous features (fig. 122). On the Barriere d'Ivry, too, ele234 S.-V. 3: 839 bis. Plan in Jacoubet's map. 235L.R., pls. 30, 31. 236Prieur 1: pl. 52, showing the barriere May, 1, 1791, after 237 L., 14.

the abolition of the excise. S.-V. 3: 842 bis.
238L.R., pl. 32.

FIG. 128.

Barriere des Bons-Hommes, set on fire July 12, 1789.

Cn O

FIG. 129. Tollhouses of Paris.

508

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[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. Soc.

FIG. 130.

Inn Poissonniere.

FIG. 131. Inn Rapee.

FIG. 132. Inn Chaillot.

FIG. 133. Inn du Temple.

FIG. 134. Inn St. Marceau.

VOL. 42, PT. 3, 1952]

CLAUDE-NICHOLAS

LEDOUX

509

ing over the whole, is lower than the roofs of the sides (fig. 125). The Barriere Saint-Denis,* as it was carried out, was a sober classicizing edifice.241 "Project
I"
242

shows two houses held together by the common

gable and the powerful horizontal cylinder sitting astride the roof (fig. 124). The conflict between the opposed principles of isolation and unification is evident. "Project IV" is similar.243 A high arch bridges the gateway between the two units. On the sides the central portion recedes on a semi-circular plan, creating an effective void in the mass. The inns, which were to be erected on certain main roads of Paris,244recapitulate in brief the architectural development in the eighteenth century in all its fluctuations. The plans are modern in the sense of 1800, i.e., geometrized. All are squares except the one for the faubourg Saint-Marceau; this is a triangle inscribed in a circle 245 (fig. 135). The elevations differ widely in character. The inn for the faubourg Poissonniere presents Baroque gradation; the main accent is put on the central dome, secondary accents on the endpavilions 246 (fig. 130). In the inn, Quai de la Rapee, however, little is left of Baroque unity (fig. 131). It consists of three structures loosely connected by longstretched arcades which veil the four-partite square of the court.247 Space-mass antagonism, visualized by plain stereometrical forms, shows in the Inn of Chaillot (fig. 132). A flat-roofed, unpierced cylinder replaces the upward-pointing dome. The traditional supremacy of the center has been abolished.248 The disintegration of the old scheme becomes manifest on the Inn for the faubourg du Temple (fig. 133). Here there is no longer any relationship between the center and the pavilions.249 In the inn, faubourg Saint-Marceau, gradation and concatenation are superseded by the simple juxtaposition of three cylinders rising on the corners of an equilateral triangle 250 (fig. 134). This means absolute equality of the elements-none is exalted over the other-and equality of aspect from all sides. The pageant of the pictorial Baroque faqade has gone. Stern geometry has replaced, for the moment, the concept of organization. The chronological order of these projects can be ignored. The rivaling concepts lived side by side, each striving to hold its ground. One who faces the Barrieres Saint-Martin ** and du Tr6ne ** must be impressed by the vigorous treatment of the stone. Two unexecuted projects likewise mani241 S.-V.

fest that Ledoux was intent upon enhancing his composition by emphasizing the material; the porch of "Project II" 251 would have exhibited the full beauty of stone. The project of the Barriere de l'Ecole Militaire,252 would have shown porches composed of rough blocks set against the fronts (fig. 126). The execution of the latter was less powerful, drawing its principal effect from the deep entrance niche alone.*** The double program of dramatized composition and exaltation of the material underlies most of the barrieres, and most of Ledoux' entire work. It is laid down in the following passage from L'Architecture: Je differencieraila decorationpour la presenterdans ses contrastes. La pierre, sous la touche de l'art, eveillera un nouveausentiment,developperases propresfacultes.253 VIII. THE IDEAL CITY Une ville s'elevera ... 254 PLAN Ledoux in his Architecture illustrates two different projects for the Saltworks. In the first,255he confines himself to the manufactory and the living quarters of the personnel; in the second, he adds the plan of the city which he would build around the Saltworks, naming it Chaux, after a nearby forest 256 (fig. 140). Part of the second project was carried out between the villages of Arc and Senans, in the Franche-Comte. The still existing structures are in a ruinous condition. In 1926 the owner of the estate, afraid that the authorities in charge of the preservation of historical monuments might prevent him from tearing down some parts damaged by fire, decided to act before they made up their minds, and blew up a portion of the complex with dynamite.257 Ledoux still rated very low in his country at that time. Previously, ignorance had destroyed the majority of his buildings; now this main work of his was wrecked. The plan of the First Project shows all the houses coherently arranged around a square court, with bordering alleys forming an outer square (fig. 136). Within the court, diagonal corridors serve as additional communications between the central pavilions. The pattern of the ground plan is strictly geometrical. However, the main front is, in all its plainness, basically
251 L.R., pl. 31. 252L.R., pi. 23. 253L., 14. Lacroix, Paul, Le dix-huitieme siecle, 378, Paris, 1878, after having censured Ledoux' bad taste, remarks, "Ce qu'on admirait le plus dans les nouvelles barrieres, c'etait la coupe des pierres." This masterly stone cutting can be seen on the extant barrieres and in the large plates of Dimier (see n.

Jacoubet's map.

3: 839 bis. The plan of the executed building in

242L.R., pls. 28, 29.
243 L.R., pl. 33.

244L.R., pls. 226-233.
245L.R., pl. 231.

248 L.R., pl. 228, Menilmontant; 233, 278, Chaillot. 249L.R., pl. 227. This is the compositional stage of Boullee's Operahouseon a square. Cf. pt. I, notes 379,411.
250

246 L.R., pl. 226. 247 L.R., pl. 230.

Cf. n. 245 and fig. 135.

1. L., pl. 12. L.R., pl. 113. 256L., 35; pl. 14. L.R., pl. 115. 257Ganay, E. de, Le Vandalisme: une ceuvre de Ledoux detruite a la dynamite, B. art anc. et mod., 213, 1926.
254 L.,
255

218).

510

KAUFMANN:

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REVOLUTIONARY

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AMER.PHIL.SOC. [TRANS.

FIc. 135. Inn St. Marceau, plan.

is the portico, inserted between the houses of the workers and employees. These buildings only were carried out. In the perspective view several other structures are shown: the city hall in the rear corresponding to the portico in front; the parsonage and the courthouse at the ends of the minor diameter; and the public baths on the perimeter of the first quadrant (fig. 140). Many further projects for the Ideal City are illustrated in L'Architecture, but are missing in the map and in the perspective view.261 In the latter, the picturesque buildings seen in the immediate surroundings are apparently embellishments on the engraving, among them two churches with campanili, and the chateau with a crenellated tower. They are of little interest, although probably not the engraver's but Ledoux' inventions. Incidentally, a few words may be said about the hygienic considerations of the architect, which show him well ahead of his time. Anxious to make the houses conducive to health, as well as commodious, he provides orchards and kitchen gardens,262 and has the bedrooms facing south, the pantry north.263 Imbued with the new ideal of raising the standards of the working class, he wants to promote in his city a new way of life,264which will make the inhabitants healthier and happier.265 Ledoux was a good architect, firmly rooted
261L., pl. 15. L.R., pl. 116.
262 L., 67, "Les ouvriers sont loges sainement, les employes commodement: tous possedent des jardins legumiers qui les attachent au sol." l'ecurie 263L., 79, "des chambres a coucher, au midi . . exposee aux vents d'orient, le garde-manger au nord." 264 L., 81. Cp. n. 45, 369. 265 L., 111, "chaque ouvrier a le secret des dieux; entoure des plus douces illusions, il est avec sa femme, avec ses enfants S'il quitte ces rependant les heures destinees au repos....

Baroque 258 (fig. 138). The two-storied center and pavilions project from the one-storied wings and are distinguished by quoined angles. The main entrance is marked by a portico of four large, ringed columns. The geometrical layout is masked by a conventional front with a dominant center and subordinated sides. The practical disposition is as follows: The forefront contains the gateway, flanked by the apartments of the director and the employees; the left corner pavilion houses the circular chapel with the altar in its center, that to the right, the bakery. The wings and the pavilion of the lateral fronts include the homes of the workers. The rooms destined for the fabrication are located in the rear. The center of the court is marked by a fountain. The first plan was not satisfactory.259 Ledoux then made a Second Project, adding to the apartments and the workshops a number of buildings for common use, and fundamentally changing the general form (fig. 141). This time he decided on an elliptical arrangement.260 Its major diameter coincides with a stretch of the route leading from Besancon to the river Loue; the minor forms part of the road connecting the villages Arc and Senans. The house of the director rises' in the center of the whole. On either side it is flanked by the factories; behind it the coach house has its place. In front, where the major diameter intersects the ellipse, debats,nouvellessollicitudes."
258L., pl. 13. L.R., pl. 114. 259L., 41, "Le Roi arrete le plan general en 1774, nouveau

260L., 77; pl. 16. L.R., pl. 117.

FIG. 136. Saltworks, first project-Saline de Chaux, plan.

" 67. amuse ses loisirs. 65. in the soil. 266 and that he wanted to avoid the risk of the living quarters and the fur- 266 L. Saltworks.VOL. c'est pour cultiver un champ productif qui remplit les intervalles du travail. PT. 137. and not a mere dreamer as might be thought by those who do not fathom his depths. elevation. "On avoit concu ce projet avant de connaitre la carte du pays. 42. "La connoissance des lieux change les premieres dispositions. 139." his text he declares that he conceived the first project without knowledge of the site. 3. FIG. 138. Factory-Atelier destine a la fabrication des sels. first project. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 511 FIG. FIG. What reasons may he have had for passing from the first to the second project? Had Ledoux only the practical in mind? In traites cheries." . Gateway of Chaux-Porte de la Saline.

. the creator of modern Paris. [TRANS. and besides. It embraces the site in front." 70. Ledoux' aim was not for pictorial effect by blending architecture with nature. Ledoux' reference to the peculiarity of the site is merely one of those explanations architects habitually advance. p. Though disguised by garments borrowed from the past.267 Accordingly. he did not want the city to be simply an agglomeration of houses. 1921." 273 L. however. 67. "Les elevations ont les memes defauts que le plan. M. . built in the 1750's. Their shapes. 277L. . on verra des usines importantes. the Royal Crescent of Bath. 272 L. ces magnifiques boulevards. 68. LXXX. 1. the architectural whole already conforms to a new formal ideal. practical reasons would have prompted the change. elle n'a pas l'inconvenient des angles obtus qui morcelent les developpements. . 18. on the convex side. a "pure form" achieved.28 adding a significant remark: If the inner square were replaced by a circle.16. he wanted it to be the crown of all architectural endeavors: . des formes acerbes qui blessent le goit ..276 The main front of Ledoux' not much later complex is. que les habitations . "Un cercle inscrit dans un carre n'auroit-il pas produit les memes avantages? Sa forme est pure . . les enceindre et les couronner.SOC. 1904. . At Arc-et-Senans. 18. the artist gave up the time-honored old pattern and moved on to its successor. A precursor of Haussmann. or tying lines such as alleys and canals. In proceeding from one project to the other. London. But there is another passage in which he regrets having given up the convenient diagonal corridors of the original scheme. the single units are aesthetically independent. It is wiser to recommend a plan with practical advantages than with formal ideals..j'ai place tous les genres d'edificesque reclamel'ordre social. Chaux was conceived for an actual site.272 Afraid that this might result in harshness or abruptness. the first project is still a complex derived from the basic concept of Baroque building." 278 267 L. Neither was he strictly utilitarian. . about 1770. such as the pavilions of the Chateau of Marly. . which may be defined as follows: One part is to rule over the others and form with them an indivisible whole. Indeed." 277 In the second project of Chaux he abandoned the principle of the differentiation of the buildings according to their rank at the moment when the ideal of social hierarchy vanished: "Pour la premiere fois on verra sur la meme echelle la magnificence de la Ledoux did not want civic art to be strictly utilitarian." 268 L. expressed their interrelationship. sembloit reunir tous les avantages: elle acceleroit tous les services. too." 269 L. he wrote: "Je presenterai les chemins destines a desobstruer l'interieur de la ville. As a city planner. les fourneaux devoient etre a l'abri de l'adherence. the practical necessities could well be satisfied in different ways. some practical advantages could be obtained. 276Blomfield 2: pl.. He wanted to combine his new formal ideal with the new ideal of the garden-city. . 271 Blomfield. avoiding contact with the surroundings instead of seeking it. Ledoux was guided by a definite formal ideal. Eighteenth century architecture of Bath.. It was adopted by Raval." 270 There is no doubt. R.. embrace the hemicycle of Nancy.. mais la ligne droite n'est-elle pas la plus courte?" Here we remark that incertitude typical of the era. The second project foreshadows the nineteenth century also in that it combines traditional features with a new composition. knows that the wide plain allows for several alternative layouts. Whoever has seen the site at Arc-et-Senans.275 The crescent. he thinks of the simple device which Boullee applied: trees or shrubs make the whole more pleasant. .PHIL. . just as the colonnades of Here de Corny. CLXV.. 68. Une ville s'elevera pour 274The observation that the change from the first to the guinguette et du palais...279 L. already in Von Ledoux.273 Contrary to other Utopian cities. ill. Ledoux wanted both practical isolation and formal independence.." secondproject marks the fateful momentof transitionfrom was contained Baroqueto post-Baroque architecture. 275Green. . A. aussi peu elevee devoit etre isolee dans toutes ses parties. "L'artiste sentit qu'il devoit tout isoler. 66. Jr. . inner side of the ellipse. is on an elliptic plan. the houses of the employees -might stand alone. The momentous years which advanced the freedom of the individual brought freedom to the architecturalelements as well. .. "Remontez au principe .271were related to each other even without direct contact. "des plantations utiles rompent la monotonie des lignes. but its single buildings are moulded into a compact mass and its main front is on the concave. History of French Architecture 1: pl. 278L. erected by John Wood. the houses withdraw from the entrance. .512 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 66. The concept which underlies the second project was to become law in the future: Let the elements be free and of equal right. 147. each building-the director's house.24.274 It may be of some interest to compare the second project of Chaux with an almost contemporaneousstructure. Ledoux foresaw the nineteenth century. 17. naces being under one roof. Une facade aussi etendue.Bath. donner naissance a des reunions populeuses. in his second project. "La ligne diagonale inscrite dans un carre. 77. the saltworks. 270 To sum up. sans exemple pour l'etendue .269 He praises the ellipse of the second project: "la forme est pure comme celle que decrit le soleil dans sa course. Detached structures of Baroque complexes. 279L. partout l'homme est isol&.

second project. FIG. 3. PT. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 513 FIG. The Ideal City of Chaux. 42. Chaux. 141. .VOL. 140.

for life and all its activities in the growing modern city were now to center around the worker. which created this modernized version of classical models.. "s'il est veritablement Architecte. appears also in many passages of Ledoux' text. sloping roof.Tout est imposture. pt.. L. "Dans cette ville naissante l'activite met tout le monde a l'aise. n. It is astonishing L." 298 He ridicules theatrical statuary.283 . and the framing of the doors.514 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS PHIL. 296 L.. L. pour en exprimer les eaux. the prison. "Tout est imposture. AMER. This entrance consists of a sturdy. L. pl. 50. 146)... 283L. or a Neptune whose mighty trident brings forth from the rock a poor rivulet. its back wall is shaped as a grotto in unhewn rock.g. 137. L. n. "on est saisi d'effroi quand on voit les arts se precipiter sur ces corps a demi brises qui entrainent leur ruine.286 He rebukes the copyists who exploit others' ideas. 120. entablature. squat lower portion and a disproportionately high triangular..."299 What had seemed "natural" to the Baroque. Ledoux carefully designed each type of building needed in the growing city.on du passe. and the bakery." 286 L. il ne cessera pas de l'etre en construisant la maison du bficheron. note. L. pl... pl. Now it depends on him to ennoble his "lower" task: "Les projets les plus simples prennent la teinte de l'fme qui les concoit. the porch of the Gateway has a character of its own.SOC. 132. as "les tromperies de l'art.. 101. 137) carried. The Horse Pond 296 the Fountain.. The latter opens in three Venetian windows. according to the engraving. quelque chose que l'artiste puisse dedaigner? les thermes de Plutus.297 are architecturally of less interest.. l'humanite. .R. 207. les mettre en valeur. moreover.. 82. With all the traditional apparatus of columns. the dramatic contrast of smooth ashlar. It is significant and symptomatic that an architect who was a member of the Royal Academy and a favorite of the upper circles of society devoted himself to utilitarian projects. ici c'est une ville naissante qui demande ce The Gateway leading into the precinct of the Saltworks (fig.R. "l'Architecte de 280 L. les caprices gigantesques des Goths orientaux. 285 L.. a Thetis pressing the water from her hair. had maintained that "matter does not count. 49. 288 (fig. I. 299 L. to tell us of the saline. It was to widen the field of the architect's activities to an extent never heard of before. pl. the Building for the Evaporation of the saline water (Batiment de Graduation). pl. 148." 284 L. . All this is to him bluff. Commenting on the fountains.R. the rustication of the quoins." 27.. 292 See pt. trouvent des demeures qui leur sont propres. 293 L. 281 L.290flanking the House of the Director and (fig. etc. "l'impuissante le." 112.." .. 291 L. . 144). and the new cubism. The section looks like a warehouse rather than a home. in his earlier years. since from them grew the project of the Ideal City." 300 L. pl.. 145). 139) particularly the lateral fronts to the entrance of the Furnaces (Salle des bosses) 291 (fig. which in liveliness form an effective contrast to the surface behind them." 210. was bad theatre to the revolutionary. pl. 47.280 The buildings of practical purpose are to be dealt with first.. the source of the city's wealth (figs. "La on voit Thetis se presser les cheveux. la grange du cultivateur doivent porter son empreinte. "II assemble dans ses portefeuilles le luxe de l'Asie.293 Sideby-side with this modern tendency appears the Romantic trend-Architecture parlante 294-in the urns seemingly pouring forth the precious fluid. 25. I..281 No longer did designs of an humble structure lower the architect's prestige. UTILITARIAN BUILDINGS que la necessite prescrit. pl. on the walls of the ground floor. le hangard du negociant. pl. 139.. "il faut tirer parti de la nature.. The Houses of Commerce form a row of isolated units screened by arcades in front 295 (fig." 127.R.. L." 289 Cp. The Bourse of Chaux is a peripteral temple rising on a high stepped podium 300 (fig.R. n.. 35.285and refuses obedience to authority. Ici c'est Neptune qui frappe de son avare trident un reservoir d'ou coulent quelques pouces d'eau. [TRANS. 130. pseudo-natural Romantic finishing. 290L. The spirit of independence. "celui qui batit une grande maison et celui qui en construit une petite n'ont ils pas un droit egal sur le talent de l'Architecte?" 198. Ledoux rejects the impotent teachings of the past. pl. "Tous les arts. 192. "le cercle use du repertoire de l'cole. Thus three non-homogeneous elements are combined: classical features." 282 The utilitarian building received full attention. pt. pls. 142). pl.287and is 25. 48. Ledoux inveighs against Baroque animism and illusionism. The changed attitude towards the architect's function was a revolution in itself. "Est-il horrified by the spectacle of the arts feeding on ruins. about picturesqueness. 128. "a-t-on besoin d'autorites quand la nature des lieux commande?" 287 L. 297L. . il etablit un magazin de gofit au centre d'une ville naissante. 59. The vigorous exploitation of the material is an outstanding characteristic of all the structures erected at Arc-etSenans. 125. 298 L. There is.289 Impressive instances of picturesque architecture are the Factory. 125. Ledoux asks for "l'emploi raisonne des materiaux. 71.. e. 9. Le grand appartient essentiellement aux edifices de tout genre. 3." 294 Cf. des materiaux. 20." 282 L. 6.R. toutes les conditions. . 142). 112.288 In the intermingling of disparate traits a certain picturesqueness results which in itself is a momentous symptom of the longing for freedom from the rules.." 95. 20. pl." 292 His pupil Ledoux holds that the material should be emphasized. 133.. 295 L. Blondel. Its blocklike mass emerges from lower wings. the inscription: SALINE DU ROI BATIE SOUS LE REGNE DE LOUIS XVI L'AN MDCCLXXVI 284 It was to house the room of the guards. I. 44.

126.304 The Market. 143." 302L. owing perhaps.. to the fact that his designs and the text originated at different times. pl. 3. Ledoux' Bourse. but is to convey the impression of the whole) etincelle au milieu des toits assourdis qui la font valoir. PT. 145. L. Ledoux planned the Bourse in the center of the Ideal City. Exchange-Bourse. 42.303 and the market with its buzzing activity.301 Ledoux' interest in his city manifests itself in visions of the life of its prospective population. Gun foundry-Forge a canons. 72. situated in the outskirts of Chaux." 302 He shows the church approached by solemn processions.306 This system appears also in the Gun Foundry (Forge a canons). pl. qui traitent de bonne foi. 140. 303L. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 515 to find this classicizing design in the work of an artist who so violently upbraided the imitators and so ardently strove for architectural rebirth. FIG. 142.R. 163. FIG.305without any formal reciprocity between them. subdivided into nine rectangles (fig. On n'echange pas l'or contre le malheur. foreground and background. In his comments on the Bourse. 124. nor in the perspective view of the city. 144. pl. The con305 L.. soit en matieres reelles. 149. Here we see again the system of independent pavilions which we found in the second project of Chaux.. like that of Brongniart in Paris. FIG. Ledoux discusses economic problems. Horse-pond-Abreuvoir.R.307 where the main accent has been shifted from the center to the pyramids in the corners (fig. Houses of Commerce-Maisons de commerce. The raised central structure is contrasted with the lower 301L. des masses offrent des effets constants. 304L. c'est le rassemblement d'hommes choisis. soit en echanges. . L. already reveals the end of the era of revolutionary elan and the rise of the morbid style of the Empire. contrary to the Baroque complexes where the parts of the house. pls. 146. and in the schemes for the Discount Bank. 164. is planned on a square. 145. Furnaces Fourneaux de la Saline. but it does not appear on the map. 143). pls. it is merely the crossing-point of the main axes. 79." 306 See n. 125. buildings in the corners. According to his text. condemning speculation and defending honest trading. 149).. L. 150. are blended into a whole. 307 L. Similar discrepancies occur frequently in L'Architecture. It is characteristic of both the Market and the Foundry that the single elements do not form into pictorial ensembles. pl. building and nature.VOL.R. FIG. No longer is the center the "heart" from which all "circulation" goes out and to which it returns. the "peuplade laborieuse. dans le plus beau lieu du monde.... "dans une ville que la philosophie fonda. "La forme pyramidale (this term is not descriptive. FIG. 42..

310 L. 316L. tout est appercu." 315 L.. 88." 313 L." 118. or in its setting.313and the hostility against decoration..peu d'accessoires..318 ing. ces corniches qui rampentcomme les reptiles du desert. The great preinte de mes facultes: tout ce que vous avez vu est motive par la necessite. 140.. "des constructions qui devoient joindre la solidite apparente a la solidite reelle.. reflected in several other passages of L'Architecture. is secondary. Were they merely borrowed from Lodoli. 168). ne devoit rien a l'art. 318L. 148. "Tout detail est inutile." pl. preparez d'heureux contrastes ." Cf. le carre. quand il divise les surfaces par des additions mesquines ou mensongeres." 25. ." 314 L." 46. FIG. "Le sentiment apprecie d'un plan est a l'abri de toute domination." 204. 5. ces formes brisees a leur One of the most striking instances of Ledoux' artistic intentions is the Coopery (Atelier des cercles) 319 (fig. 272." 316 and he incessantly inveighed against the "savants de convention. 91." 317 With the self-will of a great personality he always worked toward his own ends. and finally emerge in a new form. Ledoux must have been proud of his extremely plain little Grange (Grange paree) 309 (fig. pl. .311 for to the granger art is waste. 17L. 48. Bridge across the Loue-Pont de la Loue. So it was possible for him in one breath to advocate both functionalism and.. 311 L. Ledoux was familiar with the current ideas of his time. 147. apart from being practically insoluble. "ces lignes mollement prolongees. He is rather like a focal point in which rays from all directions converge. "Moins on divise les surfaces. not how much or how little he owed to others. . soyez avare de ces accessoires que la mode commande." 312 L. toutes les formes que l'on decrit d'un seul trait de compas. Important is the recognition artist is not a man taking one detail from here and another from there. ... . The quest for the "creator" of a style need not preoccupy the historian too much. the doctrine which had already been so fervently propagated by Carlo Lodoli about 1750. je dis plus. are assimilated. 171). pl. "des surfaces tranquilles. 50. "des ornements de mode qui fatiguent les yeux et corrompent la purete des lignes . Either way appeared promising to him who called himself "l'architecte puriste. cept of a main block in the center of a square appears also in the Carpenter's house standing in a rectangular court closed in by crude arcades 308 Now. nuisible. voila les lettres alphabetiquesque les auteurs emploient dans la texture des meilleurs ouvrages.. "II faut composer avec la place.. "A quoi bon toutes ces impostures? tous ces outrages de l'art absorbent les produits. 7. let us turn to a very humble building which shows that the doctrine of pure functionalism had also entered the thoughts of the Master of Dormans. 147).. Le cercle. for the problem of precedence.516 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. n. tout est isole. he bent them of the ideas at work in the particular period. suddenly. "La situation. I1 emane du sujet. whether he preached the Lodolian creed or the principles of geometrization. pass to geometrization. 135. . The main problem is how he reacted to these ideas. "On peut voir dans les plans et elevations l'esprit qui a dicte cet etablissement." 310 There is no "art" in the house.. FIG. et obtenir d'elle le caractere qui appartient au sujet. plus elles paroissent grandes.SOC. 48. It is a plain cube. "la masse est carree. Ledoux' main objectives were to overcome the past and to present the new individualism. 49.315) Whatever "rays" reached him. L. sont avouees par le gofit.PHIL. 52." 319L. (The trend toward the latter is clearly stated in a passage on the Recreational Buildto his own will.314 308 309 "ce petit edifice .. He puts the following words into the mouth of the granger whom he introduces as the imaginary builder: (fig. "Etablissez de belles masses. or were they Ledoux' own? Obviously. ces hors-d'ceuvre qui attenuent la pensee principale. favorisee par la nature. 65. Carpenter's house-Logement du charpentier. qui s'ecrasent sous le poids du faux gofit. il doit s'adapter a la nature des lieux et des besoins. et epousent tous les vices. 172." 45.312 The inclination towards the ideal of funcare tionalism. the four fronts of which are formed by gigantic concentric circles inscribed in fram- naissance." 108.. porte l'em- L. [TRANS.

. In the four corners of this sacred precinct are cemeteries planted with cypresses (one each for men. 42. The Grange not only recalls Lodoli. This self-contained. and their Latin-cross plans which make the nave look like an extended arm." The concept of Narrative Architecture appears also 118. pls. The churches of the counter-reformation promised ecstatic delights. boys. 46. and the Coopery may be interpreted as a document of a new formalism. as well as an outstanding instance of "Narrative" architecture. 140. L. like the many who put lyres on the walls of a theatre. "'habitude de tout analyser et de juger les hommes 321 columns each are added to all four sides. Market-Marche... 148). 61. Eventually we find him applying fasces to one of his stern cubes. women. Ledoux did not content himself with the simple apposition of shallow symbols. L. we find him here an extremist of geometrical formalism. which he himself finds pregnant with meaning. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 517 FIG. and girls). their domes with ascending ribs. Florence. wherever it could be found. 4. He explains that he wished to surpass various famous bridges of the past-Pisa.R. pl. 3. (fig.324 BUILDINGS Aussi verra-t-onque ma cite possede des Maisons The Church of the Ideal City rises on a plan in the form of a Greek Cross 325 Cp. pls. pl. 72." . 179. below the descriptions of the Pacifere and the Panare- teon." 322 L. PT. The horizontals prevail. 3. Ledoux' church promises peace and quiet..322 The Bridge across the Loue is supported by piers in the form of ancient galleys (fig. Yet the presentation of classic shapes was not at all Ledoux' 320 main end. the wide span of the era itself is reflected-an era avid for the unheard-of. ing squares. and others-by greater purity of design. 45. but also Rousseau. 150). L.R. above the center a low saucer dome finishes the whole. the Church of Chaux does not communicate with the outer world. Yet even the Greek cross seems to Ledoux not to be sufficiently restrained.323 PUBLIC de freres.VOL. 3.321 Parenthetically I want to point out here that Ledoux was deeply interested in the pseudo-scientific physiognomical studies of the era.149.320 But in the Coopery he goes beyond the literary signboard symbolism and transforms this entire building into a fantastic pattern representative of its purpose. or Mercury's caduceus on a commercial building. He girds his church with a low stone screen adorned with narrative reliefs. In these two designs. 325L. Contrary to Baroque structures with their inviting gestures. "il faut que le caractere de l'edifice ne soit point equivoque. with their dynamics. static church is a far cry from the cathedrals of the Baroque.. contributing greatly to the reposeful character of the sanctuary... After having met the functionalist Ledoux in the Grange. 324L. Porches of eight sur les formesexterieures. 108. 323L. London. "un edifice qui s'empreint de l'emanation du sujet qui l'autorise. note. 109.

. Ledoux imparts extraordinary solemnity to the room which. too. steps lead down into the crypt. Suddenly he will pass from bright daylight into the darkness of the nether world. about the location of the altar.331 combination of Romantic expressiveness and the austerities of cubism with the Roman Pantheon. 64. Church-Eglise de Chaux. The architect does not say to which denomination the church is dedicated.SOC.R. 126. to a great extent.327 side. Two stories are combined into a single room. He mentions rather vaguely side altars consecrated to the virtues and the most momentous events in human life.328 Only subsidiary stairs connect them in326 Cf.. Ledoux. "Mais si on peut faire eclore separement tant d'avantages en divisant les motifs. 157. pls. Ledoux tells of his intentions quite explicitly. n. pls. The visitor approaching the crypt will have the sensation of the earth opening wide..... 125. 93. But the alter cannot be approached on its own level.330 It may be of interest to note that he recommends creMuch the same ideas guided Ledoux when he conceived the Chapel of the Director's House 332(fig. 154. narrow doors. "pourquoiconfondre la fumee de l'encensoir commun qui repand ses parfums sur le dieu du jour. and is himself now lifted above the plane on which everyday life proceeds. Utilizing Blondel's ideas. 99. 203. . below the raised aisles for the congregation. Its interior. no doubt. 331L. and pt. Light falls from the height of the dome alone. The extremely sensitive architect disliked the idea that the worship by the living and the rites for the dead be performed in the same. 157. 159). places the main altar in the center. birth and marriage. windowless walls are reminiscent of the Paris Pantheon after its transformation in the Revolution. 155. 332 L. Thus. FIG. was influenced by the Parochial Church of Blondel. or in contiguous rooms.. Only very low. steps lead up to the altar placed in front of a niche. and during the service will stay in one of the two other cross-arms on the level of the altar. and the loggias on either side open in Pal329 L. The "incense of joy and that of sorrow should not mingle." 328 L.PHIL. 152. the tribune. Cochin. is achieved by the unpierced walls. The wish to separate neatly all the parts of the Church controls the disposition of the crypt and the cemeteries. [TRANS. 150. The niche.upper church. it is radically separated from the worshippers assembling in the opposite tribune. from which the cemeteries can be entered. hardly perceptible from the outside. sublimating and exalting the altar while the vaulted cross-arms are dipped in mystic darkness torn by the flicker of the torches.518 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. The bare." mation for hygienic reasons. 63." 329 Directly from out- doors. lead into the church of Chaux.326 high above the level of the entrance ternally with the. There is no point in comparing this great 327 L. Thus the worshipper is compelled to look upwards from the moment he steps into the church. In this whole arrangement we find once again "Narrative" architecture in a refined and elaborated form. He will then ascend the stairs in the eastern or western cross arm. I. "Ne semble-t-il pas que ces vofites obscurcies par des flambeaux oscillants contrastent avec les ombres decidees qui rembrunissentles plafonds. avec les sombres vapeurs qui enveloppentles ceremonies funebres. Misotechnites. L. pourquoi les confondre dans un seul etablissement?" 330L. From the lower story.

335 twentieth century. and to avoid any trifling accessories. . on la representeassise sur une pierre carree. . felt he had to In designing the Church. The composition is largely based on the contrast of these openings to the almost empty room. 115. both do not call for explanation or justification in the which human imagination in vain attempts to penetrate. or Conciliateur. pl. aucun ornement ne decorent leurs mosquees. .. 3. the cube of the Pacifere is the symbol of justice. make some concessions to contemporary taste by adding dans tout son eclat. however. eclaire. is a terraced building 339 I had to call to mind the heavenly spheres . however. wishing to create a monument upon piled diffused light. 185. 338L.. "l'autel est au centre .VOL. Yet when he him.R. "les Grecs appelloient un homme carre celui que l'on ne pouvoit jamais detourner de la vertu ou de ses devoirs. 92. L. 142. ladian motifs." 336 worthy induce the faithful to contemplation and devotion. pl. . and the Pacifere representing the new rights. Dans mon tout contribuat a faire valoir l'objet principal. pour inviter les fideles au recueillement. 114. The light falling upon the minister. 152). PT..337 is a mighty cube risto arrange everything in a manner to exalt the sanctuary. he abandoned almost completely the forms of the building which he has conceived is as simple as the 333 Cf. que la lumiere des pierres les unes sur les qui frappe sur le sacrificateur.. n." 343L. Ledoux. elles ne contiennent que des sentences morales de la majeste supreme. 42. voyez les Graces to the austere walls of and the Virtues statues of Mahometans . voila ce qui a determine la masse de cet elevation. Gisors' Hall will be law for which it stands. Voyez l'Ancien Testament . . "La forme d'un cube est le symbole de la Justice. 71. all around of human the dimness tell with insignifDivinity.. pl. que the future." 337L. He does descendue des cieux occupe la place dans toute sa majeste. 184. fut l'image de la grandeur et aveugle enthousiasme j'amoncelois autres. 340L. . . II falloit que 336L. il falloit elever les degres falloit annoncer les soixante marches qui conduisent a l'autel. Pour mettre en evidence ces combinaisons il representat le neant des nations .que la teinte mysterieuse qui l'enveloppe et pieuses... XIV had placed the tribune on the second floor above the entrance.. 113. the Hall of the National Convention in the Tuileries by Boullee's pupil. aucune figure. The Panareteon. . . 185. 152." 339L." l'imagination lignes. You may believe that the Deity has In my blind enthusiasm I have to descended from Heaven and has filled this place with all His Happiness. "La forme d'un cube est le symbole de l'immutabilite . temple stone majesty and splendour. . palatable to his critics. The simplicity and straightforwardness of and to show the infinite distance parting man from God. Prieur 2: pl. Such opposition of voids was the main motif also in one of the most remarkable interiors of the French Revolution. le ministre est seul an honest man a "square one. "l'edifice que mon imagination a concu . 151). . Pacifere. . should announce the ing on a sturdy podium 338 (fig. 113. . pl. is the Ledoux speaks out loudly: "I have erected a thusiasm light to be thrown.. 334 L. n. and attempted to realize as fully as possible the artistic ideals of the Revolutionary era. "J'elevois un temple au bonheur. 340 of the ideals the cube of the Panareteon. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 519 the past.. so as to of the great idea which has carried me away. les ac:essoires qui attenuent limpression des grandes parcourt et ne peut atteindre. 308. L'Architecture illustrates both his first project and the one carried out. . 342L. icance. 1.341 Even more significant is his remark that his time. he had to simplify his design. Ledoux. Panareteon. .. My chief aim was to eliminate stone. 115.333 Ledoux' Chapel calls to mind the chapel in the Palace of VerThis architect of Louis sailles by Hardouin-Mansart. les hautes montagnes. 242. In his enOnly upon the spot where the priest is to stand.. . I. 1. 151. To on his teacher and on tradition as well. . Jacques-Pierre Gisors." 343 Paving the path to seul on la divinite elle-meme croiroit appercu. n. Ledoux was still dependent justify the novel form with its symbolic meaning.. In the execution. In his city two buildings above all others are destined to serve the new ideals: the Panareteon dedicated to the new ethics. . .334 The lighting of this Chapel is similar to that of the Church: FIG. FIG. the visualization of steadhumanitarian to designed buildings glorify fastness. (fig. et je voulois en former un monumentdigne de la grande idee dont se repaissoit mon imagination. qui rappellent les hauts cieux." Ledoux' explanations were changing.342 To make his cubes more illustrated in my Architecture in the Age of Reason. pt. he appeals to the past for support. he refers to the Greek who called 3a L. n. I had The Pacifere. .. n. assigns to the altar the most exalted and most exclusive position. so that the king looked down upon the altar at the far end of the first floor. sera simple comme les loix qui doivent s'y prononcer." 341L. detruire les lumieres diverentre l'hommeet la divinite cette distance incommensurable que gentes. et mettre assourdir les surfaces des murs. 1. 1. equally unbroken surfaces. 40. . his formal will was firm.

II faut le renfermerdans le secret de son ame. 186. 345L.. 348L. contains the explanation of the statues. the House of Virtue. but mankind since has become increasingly reserved. the Panareteon. profession or trade would no longer be displayed by attire." 350 These words are contained in Ledoux' comment on the project of the House for Four Families.345and the Orient." 352L. should have emotional qualities in order to equal poetry: Si les artistes vouloient suivre le systeme symboliquequi caracterise chaque production." 350 L.. It is characteristic of the universalism of the period that he borrows his edifying proverbs and moral sentences from the wise sayings of both Antiquity. the architect resorts to the pattern of interpenetration. They prefer settling their disputes as their forefathers did. People of the Baroque. white reliefs were contrasted to the bluish fond on Wedgwood's ware. pl. and the mezzanine of the servants. . the private apartments. FIG. remarquables par un sens juste et profond." 114. Again we see Romanticism vying with the modern forms. 185. The blocks of the revolution are mute. On y donne un frein a l'immoralite. 153.. "les intervalles sont remplis d'inscriptionsd'apologues indiens. FIG. il n'y auroit pas une pierre qui. un visage. The new manner of affixing the decoration-the applique technique-became very popular in the early nineteenth century both in architecture and in furniture.. As soon as the architects will renounce the petty devices of "Narrative" architecture. Ledoux says.520 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 15. Costume and manners also developed a new reticence.344 and fasces to the Pacifere. The Pacifere and the Panareteon are crowned with The problem how to combine cylindrical belvederes." 347L." 346L. to create atmosphere. restraint has superseded outward show. too. indeed. "ecole de morale ou l'on enseigne les devoirs de l'homme.. the purposes of their structures will no longer be reflected in the outside. mais les principales maximes des moralistes anciens et modernes. "il en est ainsi des degres de la perfection.ils acquereroientautant de gloire que les poetes. to the right. L. The difference of the materials on small objects added to the effect: brass ornaments were affixed to mahogany or ebony. "la viendront ceux qui n'attendent pour rentrer dans les bornes du devoir que les conseils d'un arbitre sage et conciliant. Hospice. Public Baths Bains de Chaux. Its main purpose is not to punish. The ideal of geometry has got the better of the Baroque principle of animation. 184. [TRANS. (fig. 185. 116. the View of Chaux. orientaux. 99. illustrated in original new solutions. 140). 154. le sentiment qui nous domine. again the main interest lies in the The Parsonage.. dans leurs ouvrages. The exterior of the Baroque chateau clearly expresses the differentiation between the lordly grand salon. liked to exhibit their feelings openly and often excessively. 114." But the new feeling for restraint is clearly enough expressed in Pacifere and Panareteon. is only a justification of the modern form. is a rotunda inserted into a square substructure. . to reestablish peace among the members of a family. ne parlat aux yeux des passants.348 (The men in the foreground of the engraving appear to disagree with the modern concepts of justice. On pourroitvraimentdire de l'Architecturece que Boileau dit de la poesie: chez elle tout prend un corps. Architecture.SOC.R. let us keep them in the secrecy of our hearts. . after 1800 dress became more and more uniform..351 and their symbolism. and appears once more in the Parsonage and the Public Baths. These sculptural decorations are set against the walls.. et des chaines aux passions des cites perverties. . Ledoux thinks of the Pacifere as a court of arbitration. In these last. Ledoux eventually resorts to inscriptions to interpret his productions.349 The massive walls of Pacifere and Panareteon do not even allow a guess at the disposition of the interior. "Sur ces parois ne seront pas graves les articles sanglants du code des Dracon. the Hall of Justice. ils sont insensibles. "Au Pacifere se concilient les interets des familles et se previennent ou se terminent leurs divisions. 115. un esprit. to prevent dissension. but to reconcile." 351 L. and the Romanticists. as we know from the barrieres and the Palace of the Governor of Aix. better still.352 The Public Baths are surrounded by a low square wall. by wrestling and kick344L. "On n'est pas tenu d'exposer au grand jour. une ame. Again one may trace these two designs back to some classical models.) The Panareteon is a school where the virtues are taught and man's duties discussed. or. dans la place publique. not blended into them in the Baroque way.PHIL. 3. pl.. cylinders with prismatic masses occupied Ledoux intensively.346 Tripods on the podium of the Pacifere emit incense clouds.. Ledoux himself urges the new attitude in his text: "Let us not reveal our sentiments in public.347 ing. like the Church 349L.

pl. 17. But to us these words reveal. is that tension which results from the peculiar distancing of the rows of openings. 154). overenthusiastically calls him "le premier de nos grands batisseurs modernes. . des contrastesqui produisentdes ombres. 169. This is how Ledoux himself understood his era and sensed the great awakening in his time: "Deja l'aurore s'empare du monde. in a stretch of v. PT.361 Separate rooms are assigned to each profession. 155. 1939. "la decoration . Les bons et les mechants sont egalement recus pour la premiere nuit. no. remarks "qu'il est hasardeux d'etablir une filiation directe. 42.354 But with no uncertainty he reaffirms his credo: . let us attempt to grasp the formal ideals of the architect. . pl. What is important is not where his work comes from. aucun developpement. FIG... ironically. 6. In no way should we derive the cubic inventions of Ledoux from Oriental models. un nouveau jour commence. Even when he used some model. "Comment! Point de croisees apparentes. in fact. once more. 64. les arts se reveillent. . 156. the Hospice was to be located 357 (fig. the Hospice seems to show no Oriental characteristics. to be on the safe side.fatigue les yeux. Luilt around a square court.oods. 86.355 It is obvious that in this passage he does not give a hard and fast rule by which he worked and expected others to work.) bons continuent tranquillement leur voyage. par l'exemple du travail. les arts trouvent des salles de reunion. condamnes a seconder nos travaux. topped with a cylindrical crowning. Educational building-Maisond'education. and contribute to the improvement of mankind by separating the sheep from the goats. It would have been a shrine of Rousseauism. . pls. on the third niches separated by symbolic fasces. 117. des plans. 356 des maladies contagieuses doit etre courbe sous l'humiliation d'un emploi avili par l'opinion. pl. (On the first floor are arches. the double impact of Romanticism and Functionalism on his thought. l'effet depend du choix des masses pyramidales. des bibliotheques. He accounts for the unpierced walls by referring to that privacy which is particularly required in a building for the sick. la decorationd'un 'edificedoit emaner de l'inspiration du sujet. 146-148. par l'attrait de la bienfaisance. l'agriculture. tout ce qui n'est pas indispensable. 155). les corniches sans motifs.. et d'assujettir la licence aux lois de la subordination. Its true significance.356 FIG. 153). mais des le lendemain les d'un edificedestinea la guerison L. 169." and in Bx-Arts. Raval. 169. Architecturally. The disposition of the fa?ades is remarkable: here. L. de vastes promenoirs. 63.. it is a four-storied block. Que de contradictions! On n'a rien vu de pareil! Quelle extravagance!" 355 L. . he. unmistakably. . nuit a la pensee et n'ajoute rien a l'ensemble." 357 L. 354L. 43. "ce precurseur de l'urbanisme moderne. pls. il faut elaguer les croisees cofteuses et oisives. 358 L. et s'effacer aux yeux dans la crainte d'etre appercu." 359 The ideal of comradeship has found a home in Union House (Maison d'Union)360 (fig.358 The Hospice is a two-storied stepped house 353L. Instead of looking around for fortuitous analogies. be condemned to forced labor. Union house-Maison d'union... is that it was a most significant beginning. aucune trace de la distribution interieure.VOL.. L.R. the late eighteenth century in the arts cannot be considered altogether as the last stage of a great tradition. At a great distance from the city.. but where it leads. 18.R. if found guilty. de changer les inclinations vicieuses. 315.. la litterature.. the central portion of each front opens in arcades. 11. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 521 of Chaux. In this new artistic era.. Although Ledoux declares that he was inspired in this design by the caravansaries and in the general layout has included a pagoda and a bazaar." 360 L." 359L. . The discussion of the Baths gives Ledoux the opportunity to set forth some of the ideas that have guided him.. 361 L.. Contrary to general opinion. "Le but de cet etablissement est d'epurer l'ordre social. rising on a podium. 48. 3. 94." Yet. .. a meeting or club house. "une maison pour assembler des vertus morales . le commerce. les autres sont interroges . I pointed out in Von Ledoux. We take from his words that he must have been vehemently criticized for his predilection for unbroken surfaces. the Master of Dormans was one of the first. he had a definite reason for choosing it to accord with his artistic goal. 80-82. . whoever aroused suspicion would be put on trial and. Not every one would be allowed to continue on his journey. Their cylindrical bodies seem to be penetrated by cross arms 353 (fig.. les accessoires de mode . on the second small rectangular windows. It would shelter the worthy traveler.

had he not been fond of the bare walls which are enhanced by the contrasted columns of the porches and the arcades of the basement. . conduit l'homme a l'autel de 'Hymen vertueux." Similarly. la foret.. la violette . 160) Its halls should afford a place for exercise and play. L.364 The prostyles are about all that is left of Hellenic architecture in the design. . Elongated nude walls and horizontal lines dominate. In the nineteenth century cupolas were similarly placed on prismatic blocks. youth. . 203. "le vallon est entoure de prestiges s6ducteurs."366 As always.. is to contribute to the improvement of youth by a curious method (fig. 45. He 362 363 fancies the Oikema in a blossoming dale full of fragrance.PHIL. l'iris. L.R. pls. Ledoux finds. .. 102. Ledoux applies natural decoration. ces voites consacres a la meditation. galleries.." 363 The Oikema is very advanced in its architectural form. 241. The plan of the Educational Building (Maison d'Education) is the Greek cross within a square 362 (fig. To mitigate the severity of the composition. the practical considerations are not the motive of the architectural form. et le sentiment de la degradation de l'homme ranimant la vertu qui sommeille. The latter is expressed only on the ground floor (the concept of the Church and the Public Baths!).369 With his hygienic suggestions.. 364L. L. FIG. one might say. 156). les varietes odoriferantes de qu'il attire la depravation dans sa nudite." 366 L. "L'Oikemapr6sente a la bouillanteet volage jeunesse pls. . The interior is divided into halls. and for mental relaxation as well. and could be removed without any harm to the whole.365not afraid that so much charm will make the place attractive rather than repellent and has an obvious explanation for the lack of windows.R.. . in its innate goodness. . c'est la ou les plaisirs promis par Mahomet ont fix6 leur sejour. 368 L. soufflent leurs parfums sur ces murs. The architect could have added statues or any sort of decoration. will be revolted by the ugliness of vice and turn to the path of virtue which in the end will lead to the "altar of Hymen. its inconspicuousness. 202. n. and the lack of formal affinity to the structure. 2. le thym. 105-108. the Temple of Immorality. pls. This belvedere is distinguished from Baroque domes by its shape. .SOC. The modern architect. The exterior should not give away the interior: "ces murs tranquilles cachent les agitations du dedans. and topped by a monopteral belvedere. aux jeux. while the upper stories are formed by intersecting bodies (motif of interpenetration). ouvertes au septentrion. 157.. Oikema. and with the novel form of this design. 104. Ledoux 365 L.367and expects the community to provide a Gymnasium (Portiques) 368 (fig. . [TRANS. Often even an aesthetic improvement might result from such an amputation.522 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. low semi-cylindrical blocks are attached to each side. the House of Passion. 369 L. He wants gardens to be added to the houses of the workers. 240. 367 See note 262. 200. 218-220. que la foule trouvera la salubrite et corrobera ses poumons . or. 31. 103.. pour raffraichir l'air.... The center is occupied by the chapel running up through the three stories. L'onde amoureuse tressaillit sur la rive et l'echo eclate en sons delicieux . . Confronted with vice (in the "Atelier de corruption"). Cf. . should design recreational buildings to promote a healthier and more pleasant life. . un vent doux caresse l'atmosphere. le feuillage qui les abrite r6pand le frais et s'agite en murmures. 157). L. 263. The Oikema. pl. renversent les empires. "C'est sous ces vofites . a salon and a number of cubicles. L'Atelier de corruption lui decouvre les sources empoisonnees qui alterent la vigueur de la morale . pls. The educational experiment which Ledoux had in mind is as daring as the architectural form which he has devised.

R.VOL. Cemetery-Cimetiere de Chaux. pl." 372 L.. 159. Gymnasium-Portiques. L. dancing. But it may give the mourner looking into it from the galleries. feels himself to be ahead of his time: "Ici le temps deploie ses archives precoces. 102. pl. Chapel. Its lower half opens into the galleries in alternating large Palladian motifs and small arched windows.37' The pattern on the upper floor is a precursor of the window bands of our century. 161. no practical purpose. 216.) From the city of the living. 370 FIG. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 523 FIG. . The vaulting of the upper half contains no apertures. p. 158). Only in the zenith is there a skylight. Cf... 160. "Que d'effets les Architectes pourroient tirer de ces arcs multiplies qui offrent a la combinaison. FIG. 158. 237. Apart from the four Cemeteries adjoining the Church of Chaux. There is no place in it where one can stand." 370 He points out that the artistic effect of the Gymnasium depends on the contrast of the rows of openings to the wall. 112. nor any kind of decoration which might disturb the calm surfaces. 189). (Card games are forbidden for the sake of morals 373 (fig. 373 L. des contrastes. 102. we must now turn to the city of the dead. a glimpse of immensity and a glance at Heaven's light. 42. The hall is not intended for funeral ceremonies.. Ledoux planned another large necropolis (fig. PT. des oppositions. it has L. 371 L. 529 on the Casino. so that even on the brightest day dimness reigns under the silent dome. In it subterranean galleries after the model of the Roman catacombs lead in three stories to a spherical hall with a diameter of about eighty yards. This must have been the effect at FIG. We see it in a more outspoken form on the Casino (Maison de jeux).372 destined for ball playing. 3. je vois de nouveaux produits de l'art fondes sur la nature. and chess. Workmen's houses-Batiment des ouvriers.

194.." 376 L. 163.377 Yet he feels confident that true merit will be resurrected from the ashes. Ledoux finds the spherical form as grand and as meaningful as the pyramids. No tree.SOC. 195. ni vallons. those illustrated in L'Architecture. The upper half of the gigantic globe towers high and lonely over the plain. . vaniteux fant6me se dissiper. . c'est . and his other community buildings. Avancez.PHIL. as a reformer and a visionary. 100. 99.. . L.380 FIG. [TRANS. whereas the former is a subsequent justification of the artist's boldness-or carelessness-not to think of the ceremonies. .376 The fires of the cremamonies religieuses occuper le centre de l'edifice." 378 L.. "L'artiste sentira qu'ayant couvert d'une vofite immense l'etendue des terres excavees par l'extraction de la pierre . Though they were The Baroque tradition was alive in many of his executed buildings. There is not a single instance of the pure wing type among them.R. which Ledoux aimed. pl. RESIDENCES . if we can believe him-he planned all of them as detached buildings: "toutes variees. m'identifier a ces substances immortelles. with the caption Elevation. vous allez voir ce L. ni fleuves. dans ses combinaisons avec l'art. .524 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. . Writer's house-Maison d'un homme de lettres. 194.. "C'est ici ot le merite va renaitre de ses cendres. 194. Whoever approaches it shall face an image of nothingness. Croyez-vous que l'idee de la terre lui cede en grandeur? cette machine ronde n'est-elle pas sublime ?" When in 1773 Ledoux projected the houses for the hundred and fifty in people of the Ideal City-some number. la ou l'on retrouve l'egalite. "le noir sejour ou finit la grandeur. ne connoit ni le pauvre ni le riche.. l'image du neant pouvoit offrir aux yeux ni bois. most certainly conceived within a short time. of its aims and its doubts. "vous verrez les cere- FIG. le ciel les eclaire. . 2. . The work he left behind him is an epitome of the architectural history of his period. . no lively stream relieves the gloom. vous trouverez des chapelles ardentes. 162." 381 We do not know much of the chronological order of 374L. an austere symbol of infinity.. The latter appear to be closer to the creative act. ni pres. tory chapels make him think of finality. 142. no lawn. le gofit. Oui. "l'idee de la flamme qui s'effile . 381 L. 375 L. pl..374 The outside was impressive as the interior. en determina la forme (des pyramides)." 379 L. 164. House of a councillor-Maison d'un conseiller. pl. encore moins les bienfaits du soleil qui vivifie la nature. Around the edifice there is nothing but a wide empty space. L. all the varieties of eighteenth-century development appear in them. but only meager vestiges remain in the projects for the Ideal City. et je respire encore. Je puis donc. L. Ledoux emerges as a true representative of the era of the Revolution. toutes isolees. Ledoux was not the "creator" of any of the different trends. but he was affected by them and capable of expressing the new revolutionary ideas in the most positive way... for structures connected with death and eternity. Its caption "View of the cemetery" probably means the place where the souls find rest. pl." 375 We know from Boullee's work that the pure sphere appeared particularly dignified to the revolutionary architects. House of the treasurer-Maison d'un caissier." Once more the text differs from the engravings. not one 377 FIG. ..R. a vision of the void-"l'image du neant.379 In the designs of his places of worship. n. 141. the shape of which he compares to the tapering flame. 380 L. 234. 194. des brasiers devorateurs de la matiere. 105... the cemetery of the spirit beyond the cemetery of the body.378 Characteristic of Ledoux' wandering fantasy is an engraving showing the planets moving in the sky.

the latter having a terrace. But the elliptical vestibule. 85. pl. of is We Romanticism sequently." entity. pl. Nothing is left of the differentiation of the lying buildings. have been one of the most sumptuous residences of the the elements make no effort even to acknowledge each city.. None makes an The House of the Treasurer (Caissier). The upper story is superposed on the the Louis XV style and yet there is in it much of the lower. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 525 FIG. for the pilasters on the side-fronts. "On obtint grouped in a manner very similar to Baroque disposi. Likewise.387 The chasse). . The through-going main axis no obviously got the better of the former. 42. L. 151. Each is a solid mimicking organic shapes. des saillies prononcees. and from its natural setting. the statuary on the terrace. The composition lacks in bind386 L. "on n'y voyoit pas ces applications illusoires . are flat. the Venetian wininto it.383seems to be Baroque in fragiles. note significant changes. Conthe old the lost. The buildings of the Saltworks show Classicism and longer coincides with the axis of the staterooms. The reliefs. the Director's House is thorture.de baisser la tate. is an instance of that interpenetration which was dows of the upper story are ineffective in the rusticato become a favored pattern of the rising new architec. trasts the masses in shape and size. L. desapprouveespar l'immensite de l'air qui devore tout its general layout (fig. 212." or "arms. 86. in the rear. Huntinglodge-Retour de chasse. each block is independent from the stories." L.386 Ledoux conharshness of geometrical architecture. 111. ..tion. "Le couronnement produit une masse qui coning power.382 which would attempt to come into contact with its neighbor. Now.des corps isoles. 110. 60.VOL. with the typical sequence of salon and vestibule on the tion. and center has not been quite forsaken. 165). 214. 134. nor of that "organization" which consisted in other. one block on top of the other. composed of trophies... pls. shows in its exterior that the concept of the ruling other. PT. There is still a remainder of the gracefulness of oughly modern. planned for the Prince de Baufremont. with straight and rigid edges. 3. and an elliptically-columned vestibule supporting new features mingle in the complex. dated 1778 in the engraving. although the plan the roofs of the four-corner towers also are flat. shafts of the columns disappear behind the square drums partly projecting from the house and partly intruding ringing them (fig. "Le couronnement. such as "wings.384 The intentionally deviates from the schemes of the past (fig. From this very At first glance. and. 382 ce n'etoit pas tout perdre. des ombres decidees.385has cornice. It is a square with a four-columned porch in bands on the upper stories play a marked role. 135. and the colossal almost entirely lost its traditional character. and 384L. Venetian doors are inconspicuous whereas the window 162). equilibrium interfering with the new compositional plan still find some classical decorations such as the heavy ideal. The portico of the House of the Director. Old and front. But on closer view we ce que la proportionneglige.. . although the main house rules over the outmain axis.." 387 ordonne a tout ce qui l'approche.R. Compositionally. dans sa contenance altiere.. pls. the Hunting Lodge (Retour de arrangement he expects greatest impressiveness. 383L. Although the building masses seem to be tribue a le faire pyramider" (Ledoux' italics). 165." 385L. 127. 166).

des effets piquants.SOC. . en etoient revoltes. ces contours ingenieusement tourmentes . . 113. literally. as well as Ledoux' literary style. ." 391L.526 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER." 393 L. des pierres amoncelees sans art. over-shadow all the details and he exclaims: "quelle magie! que de merveilles !" 389 Historians who confine themselves to the enumeration and description of the traditional features in the Director's House may point out that several of the characteristics were not new at all. 109.. tout est perdu. et d'autres Architectes qui ont employe de petits ordres a bossages." 392 When Ledoux started to build his city. as exhibited at Arc-etSenans: ". but for these there were quite different underlying reasons. c'est un moyen de substituer des forces a la foiblesse produite par l'eloignement..391 he produisent des ombres tranchantes. he was for progress." 389 L.. circonscrit dans les cinq ordres. a-t-on jamais rien vu d'aussi ridicule?" 392L. "Les assises carrees et rondes des colonnes .. chargeoient le sol elegant de la France. des nuds degrossis ou rustiques. sans pourtant avoir les memes motifs.393 His transformations of classical models had the definite purpose of making them more powerful. and that I force modernistic traits on Ledoux. "Les saillies produisent des ombres piquantes..388 An interesting passage in draws a clear demarcation between the still fashionable Rococo and his new manner..390 He is fully aware of being an innovator and anticipates that his modifications of the traditional forms will be attacked as "abuses".. Director's house-Maison du directeur. "que de varietes vous trouverez repandues sur la surface inactive d'un mur . "D'ou vient la stagnation? pourquoi avons-nous accredite une tradition retrograde?" 394L. and against stagnation. violees. 136. [TRANS. 136. "l'entrecolonnement se resserre pour ajouter a sa puissance ce que la proportion commande. de hautes assises profondement refendues. . ces combinaisons de l'art changent les contrastes a mesure que le soleil s'etend dans sa course methodique. "J'entendsle professeur. were to become common traits in Romantic literature. "Inigo Jones." 135. des colonnes angulaires. "des effets prononces. 136. des cailloux apparents." 395 L. . "Les sens commandees par ces jolies palmettes. 135.. 166. "l'Architecteentoure son edifice de pales fant6mes. FIG.. la flame d'un volcan s'eleve. he thought of light effects.. . quelle magie! que de merveilles!" 390L. crier apres l'abus . c'etoient les premiers poids qui sur- his text reveals that.PHIL. . 205. ces legeres toiles d'araignees.. vigorous rustication with its heavy shadows is a means to obtain picturesqueness. 134. and markedly affected the costume of the Directoire era. To this there can be no better answer than that which the architect himself provides. which. to recall only the make-up of the Merveilleuses and the Incroyables." . 109. ..394and his surface treatment was guided by the desire for picturesqueness." 395 The exaltation and exaggeration that characterize the structures at Arc-et-Senans and many projects for the Ideal City. Les regles de la grammaire sont 388L.. He remarks that there had been rusticated orders long before him. souvent suffisent pour offrir des effets prononces. eclaire les masses et fait oublier les details . The partisans of the former elegance were shocked by the heaviness of Ledoux' works. like Boullee.

pi. 402L. the deep entrance niche running up through both stories." in its plan 403 402 The Hut of the Woodcutters (Atelier des scieurs de is interesting (fig. la maison carree . Workmen 39 (fig. 170. with both houses of the Lumbermen.399 The effect of this portico is like that of the niche in the houses of the workmen (fig. FIG. 112. The second House of the Lumbermen is a cube with low gables and arcades (fig. vous offre un bon exemple. and as Ledoux points out. 3. des of logs and rises upon an original substructure 401 (fig. Each of its four sides opens in a Venetian door. 167. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 527 is emphasized and lower wings are loosely added. 32. Les fonds sont empreints de couleurs languissantes: Quel tableau!" 398L. les oppositions l'assurent.R. pl. 42.. FIG.. the roofs atop the entrances. instead of imitating the past.. qui prepare la richesse. 167). c'est l'conomie. sculpture.. 400L. 163). 22. peinture.. 89.. Hut of the woodcutters-Atelier des scieurs de bois.397 The House for the Overseers (Commis employes a la surveillance) is of similar shape. PT. L.. 161)... First house of the lumbermen-Atelier buicherons. pls. pls. Grange-Grange paree...VOL. Second house of the lumbermen.. The architect knew how to harmonize this traditional motif with the pyramid.R. pl. En litterature. pl. 135.. Three 401 L. Les contrastes.. But the chief goal is to impress with the heavy rustication. 23. . the chiaroscuroeffects. 397L. 39. Ledoux affirms architecture as an art also 204. FIG. bois) "le sentiment de l'art.. The House of a Councilor of Besancon presents a portico of three arches running up to the height of the second story.. 168. L'autre offre une lumiere piquante. "La moitie de ces edifices est couverte d'ombres transparentes. The only buildings of Chaux with some faint reminiscence of Baroque composition are the Houses of the In these the central portion 173). One house carries the inscription Logement des Marechaux. The House of the Lumbermen (Atelier des bucherons. Ledoux advises those who are not inventive enough to create something new. 101. 137. 102. L. bien entendue. Ledoux saw in these little houses truly artistic achievements. 198.400 We have seen him making ample use of prisms and other elementary forms. and single windows above serve as mediators between the discrepant elements. gardes de la foret) is a pyramid composed 396 L. to keep strictly to the cubic forms. c'est un present des dieux inspirateurs.. Coopery-Atelier destine a la fabrication des cercles. "'art du chimiste ne donne pas la couleur. pl. 169). 53. 169. but stands free 398 (fig." 403 L. FIG. 170). "Si vous n'avez pas les facultes de l'invention. 171. FIG." 399L.

The same happens on the surface with its rectangles. but carefully searching once more for some new mode of composition. too small to compensate fully for the big motif above. 'In the center of the upper floor. but became ex406L. 110. House of 1773-Maison approuvee en 1773.. PHIL. AMER. In other words. we observed Ledoux' determination to break away from tradition and to find new formal solutions. We now come to deal with designs in which he attacked. In most of the houses discussed so far. Anxious to free himself from the conventional forms -"le cercle etroit des conventions" 404-he invents the cylindrical House of the Broker (Agent de change) 405 (fig. 172. of a square-headed door flanked by rectangular windows -a degenerate descendant of the Palladian motif !-is challenged by the competition of two distant. and is echoed in the flatroofed belvedere. is the invention of one eager to find some novel pattern. The bare wall and the frameless openings alone would not justify my terming it modern. They are therefore put at a considerable distance from the entrance and thus work like a light load at the end of a lever. 407L. 173. make it a landmark in architectural history. The modernity of some of its features-modernity in the sense of the twentieth century!-with the fact of its exact date. The pattern of compensation is rare in Revolutionary architecture. was one of the 150 projects approved in that year407 (fig. 196. rather small side-windows. Within the geometrical pattern. FIG. From the latter. The ground plan. superstructures-strives to assert itself. FIG. The house is full of antagonisms. exemplifies his keeness to apply new patterns. The first instance is what I propose to call the House of 1773 which. . 172). 110. 123. each element-podium. upright logs clad the walls. Broker's house-Maison destine a un agent de change. House of the overseers-Maison des commis employes a la surveillance. 405L. but separated by a narrow corridor. each room is as selfcontained as is the entire structure." 406 The salon and the dining room are arranged on the main axis. 37. The House of the Broker in particular. or the problem of spatial arrangement. were it not that the cntire composition is so advanced. The enlarged Palladian motif above has greater weight than the rudimental motif below. body. [TRANS. Yet the latter are. small superstructures depart in opposite directions. for obviously practical reasons. with two compartments on each side of the central arch. This house shows that the architect was not swayed by emotions as he was when creating the Coopery and the Shelter of the Rural Guards. the architect has sacrificed the supremacy of the lower central group by adding the lateral windows. Different sizes and different shapes battle against each other. separately. in the second and third dimensions. 234. the problem of surface composition. pl. wings radiate from the central circular body. "L'uniformite des plans et des elevations est ennuy404L. arches. The entrance group FIG. a low conical roof tops the rustic house. To mitigate this inconsistency of the heavier over the lighter. The massive cylindrical body is contrasted with the sturdy prismatic podium. belvedere. and Venetian windows. 174. according to Ledoux.. too. weight is compensated by distance. 174).528 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS SOC.. Obviously the point of departure of the whole facade is the Baroque idea of centralization. an enlarged Palladian motif appears. But the conventional balance of the stories is completely abandoned. pl. euse.

161. 409L. reminiscent of the column of Trajan. Its tional Building. A variant of the pattern of compensation appears on the House of the Engineer (mecanicien) 408 (fig.. above. Cf. It makes a great difference whether an architect works on a commission or is free to follow out his problems in his own way. 414L. Such compositional use infor as Ledoux' in of occurs stairs the designs.410 Very characteristic also is a design 416 which I should like to name the Country House with the L. au pied de ces autels. The mother from whom life springs appears to Ledoux to deserve monuments. 20. 523. 175). combining in Palladian motifs or variants of it. marchands de nouveautes. 189). c'est le seul moyen d'etre independantdes prejuges classiques. The arch echoes the semi-circular outline of the roof. very feeble resonance in the lateral windows. 195). 42.414 408 L. 175. 180). of course.. It is a pattern thoroughly alien to the hierarchical scheme of the Baroque. and the rectangular apertures of the center find a remote. The Palladian motif as the main the Mounon in a House be found can the of ture faqade front is built up in three tiers. les Assyriens. This was a bold innovation in the eighteenth century. while the side compartments are only small windows). but it has become a common feature in ours. destined for an employee. and very attractive. presents a "maimed" Palladian motif (the central arch has the full size of a door. compartments echo the rectangular door of the basement. presents men.. One may make the distinction between them clearer by putting the difference this way: Compensation is a pattern of different sizes. House with the Palladianrow-Maison d'un employe. Still another effect in the facade is reverberation. 177. 17. There is. 177). The Memorial (Temple de memoire) 412 is dedicated to the glorification of womankind: "Ledoux. pl.415 The House with the Barrel Roof.VOL. the House of the Lumber(fig. already briefly dealt with earlier. Here the main accent is on the top floor. in the middle. and the minor arts. and the Educafeaanother instance of disturbed balance (fig. pi. Rectangular and arched apertures alternate. Novel Faqade 411 (fig. elles vous serviront mieux que la vieille tradition. The Casino. in the Broker's House. 410 411 L. as the only feature on the bare front 416 (fig. Similar. chez les Perses. vous rend grace par ces inscriptions solemnelles. The stairs and the side roofs form a pattern of of ment. 75. the narrow side FIG. en pensant a vous il fut heureux" 413 (fig.. In writing of this monument Ledoux is acrid in his sarcasm directed against the copyists: On va chercherbien loin. 161. House of an engineer-Maison d'unmecanicien. It is noteworthy that Ledoux conceived this little house at about the time he built the Baroque Palais Montmorency.. 3. reverberation is (chiefly) a pattern of similar shapes. slightly framed rectangular openings below are contrasted with a row of tiny arched windows on the second story and the huge Venetian door of the base- FIG. p. pl. 108. the broadest of which is 415L. Puisez dans les puissances de l'ame. pl. marchands de nouveautes) 409 stance. is the House of Two reduplicated slanting lines. . FIG. le style que l'on fait revivre au bout de vingt siecles. Three large. painting. The ruling enlarged Venetian window is echoed by the entrance group. note. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 529 tremely popular in our century in building. pl. 178). some interplay between the patterns of compensation and reverberation. PT. Art dealers' house-Maison de deux artistes. many Art Dealers (Artistes. The house is a cube flanked by four columns with reliefs. 413 L. 412L.. 159. 176. the terrace of the Hunting Lodge.. 98.. not the bloodstained conqueror. More interesting than the spatial composition of contrasted shapes is the surface arrangement.

there are four to counteract the superiority of the central 419 L. n. and the integration of all its parts. 528. or in the extremely original Tripartite House in the foreground of the Gun Foundry. This original invention resembles "L'Architecte de la nature ne connoit ni les palais. p. 181. FIG. even "decapitated" Palladian motif 420 (fig. 109. "un edifice peu interessant par lui-meme.R. After the "maimed" Palladian motif we find another house of an employee. House with the barrel roof-Maison d'un employe.SOC. 148). too. House with the T-pattern-Maison d'un employe... pl.R. House with the novel facade-Maison de campagne. it is worthy of the architect's skill: the House with the Barrel Roof. 81. [TRANS. it was a true symbol of Baroque order. House with three Palladian motifsMaison d'un commis. PHIL. Commenting on the House with the Barrel Roof. FiG.530 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. above. 124. even if we do not take it as the expression of a general trend. 179." or first the power of the motif was concentrated in the high central arch. pls. FIG. FIG.. destine aux FIG.. pls. pl. the central door is not higher than the lateral windows and instead of two lateral windows. 125. 80. L." 419 The new distribution of weight has syllptomatic value. ni les chaumieres. 30. Recreational building-Edifice recreations. now. 417L.. 180. tain." 420 L. 150. 183. The transformations of the Palladian motif. 418 L. L. FIG. At . peut acc6lerer le progres de l'Architecture. the House with the T-Pattern-what might be called the "degenerated. pl. Little inn-Petite h6tellerie. Ledoux again and again deprived the motif of this meaning by various modifications. and on its corner pyramids 418 (fig. near the Bridge 417 (fig. 178.. Ledoux emphasizes that no matter what the purpose or the rank of the structure. but as a strictly artistic phenomenon. on the Palladian motif. have deep significance. Originally this motif meant the supremacy of the central portion. 143). 182. Cp. 4. s'il developpe des idees puisees dans la nature. 416. 179). 149.

House of two merchants-Deux de negociants. the House e. 188. now. instead of two rectangles (rArrAr etc.. pl. House of two cabinet makers-Maison deux ebenistes. 42. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 531 FIG. changed now the rhythm.tout 10. the very classical pattern. 423 L. est isole.) only one (rArAr). Memorial of womankind. 3. 75. on the barriere of Fontainebleau (rAAAAAr). eager for innovation. 187. 123. . House of two artists-Maison deux artistes. Generally. FIG. de FIG. Ledoux. . show end-pavilions loosely connected with the main pile. 184. "dans les plans. the House with Three Palladian Motifs (fig. note. on pl. House of the modiste Maison d'une marchande de modes. 46. as well as a Little 421L. PT. P1. 422 portion. 176). and still more deviating from the basic form. "maimed" and the "degenerated" motif. pl.g.." 83. 42. 183). 181). in the form of the 422 L." as I would call it.. Merchant of Besancon (rrrArrr). Inn (Petite h6tellerie) (fig. elevations . The Palladian "Row. Variants of the latter show on pl. pls. Two more houses of employees. is a series of Palladian motifs (rAr) in which there is between the arches. 185.VOL. 84. 182). Rather simple solutions to the problem of combining independent blocks are the Recreational Building 423 (fig. Ledoux was more interested in spatial composition than in surface decoration. 172. maisons FIG. 84. destinee a FIG.. presents the enlarged Palladian motif (rrArr). as in pl. and the House with the Palladian Row 421 (fig. 186. the House of 1773. House of four families-Maison d'un pere avec trois enfants.

House with the cylindric crowningMaison de campagne.532 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. The Writer's House 429 (fig. 428 L. Enfin l'Architecte. pl. 27. Kaufleute. .. The House of the Modiste and that of the Artists show independent blocks connected by tall arched gateways. pl. 94. . 192). 125. 430 L. believing architecture without ornamentation to be the architecture of the future: exterieure ait il n'est pas necessaire que l'ordonnance constammentle caractere architecturalque la severite des ordres exige . .. A fine artistic 424 erroneously. pl. 188) are more refined instances of cubic composition. de grands repos grandissentla pensee et consolident la construction. . . pi. 427L. Under this double compulsion he deFIG. full of excitement and drama. pl. Both houses have unframed windows and flat roofs. 429 L. The body of the Writer's House is reiterated in the belvederes and in its podium. Finally. of Two Cabinetmakers424 (fig. 55. 26. FIG. 26. elaguera ces chevilles oiseuses qui pourraient alterer la puretddu style. 187). des ornements somptueuxqui . 432L. 425 L.. The houses of the Cabinet-makers (fig. In the case of the House of Four Families. pi. signed three other houses of similar composition. we see four cubes and sixteen belvederes. the four roof turrets are oversized and their walls are pierced by huge Palladian motifs432 (fig.. Casino-Maison de jeux. . 94... In Kunstwiss. 191. The second house may be named the House with the Cylindrical Crowning.. with its contrasting masses. pl.. pls. since a cylinder is wedged between the belvederes.. [TRANS. 99. This house is full of antagonisms. pourquoi . the into corner turrets (fig. 164) and the House of Four Families 430 (fig. Forsch. 434L. main floor adds to the unrest and is another example of unbalance. pl.431 Ledoux seems to have been haunted by the pattern of reverberating prisms-as he was haunted by the general unrest of his era. House with roof terraces-Maison de campagne. 196). both present the pattern of reverberation in the third dimension. 431 L.. contrasting 147. bottom. 186) and the House of Two Artists427 dry428 (fig. pl. instead of Kunsttischler. 65. L. 143). 24.SOC. 27. s'avanqantdans l'avenir. 189. . L. effect results from the open stairs of this house. One of these designs is the House of Four Belvederes.R. pl. . 190.. Ledoux' comments help to clarify what he intended when designing the two houses: He aimed for serenity and grandeur. pls. as in L.. The projecting roof above the Farm (Cour de Service) 434 shows the belvederes grown FIG. 29. the House of the Modiste426 (fig. top.. and two houses in front of the gun foun- and that of the Merchants consist of oblong blocks and superimposed smaller blocks. 185). 184) and the House of Two Merchants 425 (fig. . . n'ajoutent rien a la purete des lignes. 95. 20. a bold intruder tearing apart the unity of the whole 433 (fig. 2: 150. 191). 69. 149..PHIL. 433L. 426L. In both the cube is the basic motif of the spatial pattern. . 150.

. "le superfluest rien a redouterdes habitudes incommode. si on a suivi les loix que la soliditle exige. 87. "paroitre grand. 192. filled with the conflict of rivaling elements. offrant des masses simples. Here are the foreshadowings of modern cubism and modern purism mingled with revolutionary unrest. The loggias and the turret look as if wedged into the body. and understood that the second was suitable only in monumental architecture. From this refined scheme he turned to the dramatic ac- FIG. PT. 439 437L. The simplest method. des planstranquilles. Farm house-Cour de service. "la decoration. and a 435 du jour. 19521 CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 533 directions." FIG. Ledoux abhorred the first." 437 or to the fuller version of this precept: On aura fait quelquechose pour le succes de l'art. they became the most important and successful for the future development in architecture. he believes. 191)." FIG. 190). 82. pl. embellishment by decoration. This last method is liable to undermine both unity and grandeur. .. . 24. is best achieved through simplicity. It is difficult to determine whether Ledoux proceeded in the order I have presented here. They conform to the formula "assez et rien de trop. Many passages scattered throughout the text of L'Architecture explain the intentions of Ledoux when he designed these houses. L. At last. This much we can assert with some certainty in the twentieth century. but was impractical. House of the foresters-Logement des gardes de la foret.." 122. was not in harmony with the steadily increasing functional feeling. 193. 438 L. centuations in the Farm and the House with Four Belvederes. House of the charcoal burners-Logement des charbonniers. Not willing to confine himself to this restricted field. The design which I should like to call the House with Roof Terraces 435 consists of a prismatic body with inserted high loggias on each of the four sides. extraordinary dimensions. In its dramatic quality it surpasses the Country House with the Cylindrical Crowning 436(fig.438 Ledoux' final objective is grandeur. 18. 94. The superfluous is offensive. si on agrandit les surfaces. as may be seen in the disproportions of the Farm and the House with Four Belvederes." 440 L.. 94. "le gofit se trouve partout oi la purete des L. Another method. Ledoux has found a pattern of elementary geometrical forms which grants the rights of the individual parts and is full of dramatic life-the pattern of interpenetration. pl. 42. The rigid elementary forms could be made expressive and more appealing by several different methods.. If the complex solutions were not the latest achievement in his career. suited the Romantic sentiment. n'aura L. 194.. produire des effets piquants avec 105. Juxtaposition in twin houses was the first pattern he tried. dans les situations les plus communes.VOL.439 Practicality. he had to find the way to enliven normally dimensioned residences. si on offre des effets inattendus. Then he proceeded to the pattern of reverberation in the Houses of the Writer and of Four Families. and contrasting surface arrangement. effecting a tremendous spatial tension. . Upon the plain nine-partite square-the cool gridiron scheme-the structure rises. 3.si on supprimeles details qui attenuentla pensee.440 There are no decorative ac436 lignes est presente. cylindrical turret emerging from the center (fig.

" 447L. XLVIII. Louis-Ambroise.que par la rechercheabusive des details. planned on the Greek ferred and which he taught his students. the Parsonpl. L. 13.: II ne pardonnaitpas les mesquineries. inThis was the type of architecture which Ledoux preof blocks. 121.447 entrance of the Public Bath 448 (fig. which represents one J.." 443 larly true of the stepped House 41. concerned apparently only with formal problems. House of four belvederes-Maison de campagne. presents volume pervading mass (fig. XVII. n. 92. House of a Scientist. . . FIG. 82. as we know terpenetration cross (fig.il voulait que les masses fussent toujours grandeset plus imposantespar leur dispositions. AMER..446with its deep niche. Dubut designed the telescoping. the 197).) He was still to some extent heir of the Baroque when he conceived House 3 with a dominating main block and lower side pavilions. 196.cet isolement look rather tame. 197. 97. but that the type originated long before practical regards recommended it. C. The House of a Merchant of Besangon. even the he was to overcome the traditional scheme of centralizacolumns have been transformed into square piers. 206). but compared with Baroque producenfinqui offre en tout sens le contraste des masses. Calm masses de batiments qui contrastent entre elles. or thinks of a definite purpose.444 Hardly less daring than Ledoux in his boldest experiments. Belleville. 446 L."des tions they were extremely advanced. des contrastes. 193). pls.. The plans reveal how anxious cessories on the House with Roof Terraces. 201). patterns and applied to the body first a Gothicizing.. "L'art preside au logement de la fourmi et de l'elephant. This is particumassescontrastees qui assurentdes effets pour les elevations. 148. Masking the struggle for a new basic idea is the presentation of antagonistic masses: composition with forms borrowed from the past was to ". and because his work is the true link between the older revolutionaries and the ninteenth century. C. PHIL. III. Carrieres.la vue perspective vous offrira la disposition des become typical of nineteenth-century architecture." 442L. 10. 1837. [TRANS. Thus. then a Renaissance facade. pl. Paris. To people of our time these solutions from the obituary by J. of the commonest types of our century.et cependant les dessinent. 28. 82.534 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS SOC. 448L. 195.. I feel I should briefly comment on his achievements. Architecture civile. 203). des saillies bien combinees. FIG.443 Of Ledoux' pupils. 7. Memorial in honor of womankindTemple de memoire. 11. 1803. cylindrical 441 L. LXXIII. Louis-Ambroise Dubut appears to have best understood the master's ideas. House of a merchant of Besancon-Maison d'un marchandde Besancon. The single forms mattered little to the architect when occupied with House 2 (fig. Picpus. 202). ing (fig. What seems important to me is not the mere fact that there was such a stepped house already about 1800. pls. The art of architecture went ahead of city planning. House 10. 2." Here follows a passage inspired by functionalism. 445L...."442 juxtaposition characterizes House 24 (fig. R. A further instance of interpenetration of masses is the House of the Foresters (Gardes de la foret) 445 (fig. 205). or House 28 (fig. in creating new forms. des ombresportees. 46. although as a rule he distinguishes the houses by numbers. he bestowed the center with overwhelming power (fig. pl. For this reason.441 Its tion and open vistas. Thus it reminds us of several barrieres. 2nd ed.R. "les seuls effets que l'on puisse tirer des corps. V." 154. 26. the terrace build444Dubut. 153). this group is an outstanding instance of disturbed balance. les jardins sont pittoresques. pl. XLVII. yet instead of harmonizing the elements. "Les elevations offrent des masses progressives. 204). (Here he gives his project a name.. "les pilastrescarresfont la fonction de muroffrentdans les interlignes des ombresqui plain. . He wanted to find new surface FIG.

R. accoutumes a retracer servilement ce qu'ils voient. "on voit ces savants de convention lutter contre les elements qui impriment a nos sens les idees premieres. 3. pl. 453L. accompanying one of the most original and most powerful inventions of Ledoux.454 Rousseau's Utopianism inspired two large complexes destined to promote happier ways of life: the Tenementary forms. 51. L. the void of the tunnel versus the massive masonry. The open stairs. 116. Cenobie. L. and a superimposed horizontal semi-cylinder451 (fig. It may teach us that architecture can and should be more than the plumber's domain. Man's mastery of the flood is visualized so vividly that one might easily suppose some present-day expressionist had devised it for a hydraulic power plant." These passages. We must look at it as a "great picture." 52. L. and moss in order to conform with the natural surrouhdings. Such sentimentalism found vent in the petty fabrics of the "English Gardens. 199.. 454L. 140). . now familiar with the architect's inclination to dramatize form. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOIUX 535 age 449 (fig. It would prove but little understanding of architecture as an art. as the symbol of human rule over nature. enact a drama for themselves. be interpreted as architecture parlante. in the Houses of the Woodcutters and the Lumbermen. pi. Ah! donnez nous des modeles qui parlent aux yeux. The composition may. Ledoux makes the river pass through the building so that the mightly vaulting is set astride the rushing waters. and grandeur for grandeur's sake." 452 and as the reflec449L. 452L. pl.. as well as those of the creative. L. pl. "Deja j'entends les architectes de portrait crier a l'extravagance. Tenement-Maison de campagne. ils frapperont plus que les preceptes. ascending in opposite directions.. and in the House of the Charcoal Burners (Atelier des charbonniers) 453 (fig. It represents a naked man under a tree. However.. rocks. tableau. It tells of the desire for innovation and for a new order of the elements. 109. straw. 33. FIG. sheltered only by Heaven's goodness. of the semi-cylinder and the curves over which the cataract falls. House of the surveyors of the river-Maison des directeurs de la Loue. 42. All of Ledoux' designs are not as great as the Surveyor's House. 39. pl.R. pl. 161). The House of the Surveyors of the River (Maison des directeurs de la Loue) consists of a low prismatic block with open stairs on each side. of the struggle after form for form's sake. There is tension between the tiny apertures and the large lower ones. to ridicule this design because of its practical defects: the disturbance caused by the rushing water and the inadequacy of the small upper windows.200. rarement ils s'occupent de la conception d'un vaste 450 tion of an outstanding period in an outstanding mind. pi. Often the sentimentalism of the period tinges his most serious attempts at a new artistic form. It is among those inventions which have a higher purpose than satisfying the miserable lower necessities of life. There is reverberation of the double outline FIG. and the Houses of the Workmen 450 (fig. we understand that the floods are to produce an uproar which stone alone cannot bring about. independent architect.. 451 L... This side line of Romanticism does occasionally crop out. the rigid edges versus the gushing waters. of course. Ledoux' reaction to the humanitarian ideals of his day shows in the engraving of the Home of the Poor (L'abri du Pauvre).VOL." which made extensive use of logs. as in his grotto in the Gateway of Chaux. 137. The house is full of contrasts: the vaulting versus the stepped substructure. 198). 198. 110. PT. pl.R. 50.. 15. attack the conventionalists and proclaim the rights of the ele- FIG. 6. 194). where the good intention must compensate for its poor artistic quality.

so that the inhabitants can live undisturbed by the noise of the outer world. pls. where people. la variete des ses sujets. tired of sophisticated urban life." 458L. 206. 86. With few exceptions. dans le grand livres des passions. 45 L.456 The apartments of the Tenement are arranged around a square court (fig. L. he says. House of a scientist. En variant les plans. sheltered by extended woods. les elevations seront plus piquantes. its idea.. 21. FIG. pi.. SOC. House 24. 86. 89-91. PHIL. FIG. 201. de la felicite" should be above all a refuge for artists desiring to mature their ideas in 457L. . FIG. variety in the plans.457He had no model when he created this house. . "les details sont inutiles . the windows open into this court. 243-245. Ledoux here did not forget his greater artistic ends: restraint in decoration. may return to "natural" conditions (fig. The main building in the center of the square contains service rooms common to all. 203. came to him from his knowledge of the longings of the human heart: Ici ce n'est pas l'Architecturequi forme l'Architecte. FIG. . 202.536 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS [TRANS. pls.458 ment455 and the Cenobie. 204.R. Despite his concern with the practical disposition. 456L. This "azyle du bonheur. 205. House 3. AMER. House 10..c'est l'Architectequi puise. House 41. House 2. 199). "piquant" elevations. FIG. The Cenobie the House of Communal Life-is thought of as an idyllic dwelling. FIG.. 28. 200).

459 In its beautiful surroundings sixteen families would find happiness. . .. In reviewing the manifold productions of Ledoux we become aware that he saw some distinct artistic goal ahead of him. la salle a manger. des pressoirs. . vous eprouverez dans la solitude des sensations qui s'empreindront de teintes sombres. Ne vous y trompez pas.-Un philosophe moderne. But to posterity. ce que le jeu des masses peut offrir..VOL.. tells more of the aspirations of his era. L. la saillie du corps qui donnent le caractere decide . 181. the uniquebookof a uniqueartist. l'inquietude commence. c'est le seul effet que l'on puisse tirer d'un plan qui a pour baze la stricte economie. He expressed both in his architectural work. They would enjoy peace and freedom under patriarchal rule and worship in an enlightened mode. "Seize familles vivoient ensemble dans le calme des bois. par les ombres portees sur les nuds des murs. des champs cultives. sometimes inspired by the past. "Jeunes artistes. des pres. ils exprimoient leur reconnoissance au Createur. 459 the Cenobie presents projecting and interpenetrating masses: . des vignes. se multiplient a raison des conceptions differentes . unless some "philosopher" intruded and interfered with their innocent ways. He tried to approach his ideals with untiring efforts. ils n'avoient aucune idee du mal. If Rousseau's ideas never were realized in actual life. des vergers. tous les besoins de la vie isolde: des jardins legumiers . Everywhere something is wrong.461 While the House with Roof Terraces shows masses forcing their way into the main block. Les chefs de La religion les atfamille gouvernoient par la confiance. le bonheur fuit. 180. more often foreseeing the future. d'autres reserves aux paturages. ouvrez ce grand livre pour etudier les contrastes. It is understandable that the architect who could present some new architectural "truth" had more students and followers than the searcher. ." 460 L. . . . although hardly less affected by the diverging trends of contemporary thought. than the work of any other architect. teachable formula. and the House of the Surveyors presents a huge cylinder driven into the substructure. la lecture d'un nouveau systeme social occupe les esprits: les idees se croisent. le salon de rassemblement. . yet did not in the least reach a definite. c'est-la que vous mediterez sur les grands evenements de la vie. Le culte etoit celui que la raison laisse a nos propres lumieres. the Cenobie is calm and serene. only in Switzerland there is liberty. never content with his findings. 1952] CLAUDE-NICHOLAS LEDOUX 537 solitude. PT. succeeded in working out a doctrine of strict cubism. About France he prefers to keep silent. tous les accessoires qui assurent l'aisance et la commodite etoient reunis. elles avoient chacune un appartement complet. 42. un economiste paroit. ils prennent l'art de raisonner pour la raison ellememe.460 Architecturally. living on the yields of their fields. Boullee.. c'est la projection des masses. ils sont lies plus qu'on ne croit aux produits de. Ledoux knew of the struggles of his era and he knew about its hopes. 183. and their vineyards. their orchards. l'esperance du bien et les alarmes du vice. 3. its illusions. Ledoux wonders where in the world he might find satisfying conditions. they have become true in Ledoux' vision. On peut juger. tachoit aux lois du pays. les communs." Having given this picture of a Rousseauian idyll. ils trouvoient dans son exercice consolant la vie douce et tranquille. and its ill fate brought about by the rationalists. the work of Ledoux with its overwhelming richness. tinged with a Romantic hue. 461 L.. chacun s'agite. l'art. . et vivoient dans l'accomplissement des devoirs imposes par la Divinite: entoures de toutes les vertus. This quotationmay conclude our anthology from .

" 2 B. LEQUEU On the day following his arrival he sought to present himself. n. gen. Ha 80b. Paris.2 a sideboard (buffet) with Rococo carving. and friend of Boullee. the layout of a garden. Papiers. 61. Hist. Nat. the portals. Soufflot vous honore. . 538 . 4. pi. 1909. Fortuna at Praeneste. 1). Ha 80b.. 12. Same. Soufflot. was favorably impressed by Lequeu's ability and wished him to carry on his architectural studies in Paris. that architecture played the major role in his life. Recueil. Mobilier francais du 17e et 18e siecle. "Sr. Feb. 7Precis analytique des travaux de l'Acad. Mondain-Monval. Then Soufflot recommended him to the architect.. 4. N. 6 Cf. the renowned editor of Ruines . Paris. cf. the garden. Boullee calls Le Roy his friend. 45. n. with several letters of introduction. 1757. who had just arrived from Rome. 60. 207) representing. but the aging architect of the Pantheon was ailing and could receive him only a few days later.. Francois Soufflot. d. signed and dated 1750. 1779. In his manuscript. Jean-Jacques-Francois seems to have been a cabinet maker or a designer of furniture. Jean. 5 Ibid. Letter of application (see n.. 1918. he was awarded prizes in 1776 and 1778. Molinier. 8 Letter of Descamps. Ha 80a." About Lequeu's work under Soufflot. Emile. 4: 45. Fortuna temple of Praeneste. 10 B. 3.. by Lequeu is illustrated. Letter of Lequeu to Descamps. FIG. Ha 80a. 1896. the latter's reconstruction of the temple. Villen des Palladio. Cabinet des Estampes.7 The director of the school. the temple of IX. 3 Ibid. 420. 208. The younger Lequeu was to follow the father in his various activities but with this difference. Rouen. N. to JacquesGermain Soufflot.PART III JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU'S LIFE Jean-Jacques Lequeu was born at Rouen on September 14.. 1780 "faites toujours vos efforts pour meriter les bontez dont M. dated 1766. 49. interior decoration the minor. 1778. where also a drawing of the church of Ste.. apparently. Drawing instruction-Methode de tracer. Durand. . the painter Jean-Baptiste Descamps the elder. roy. Scattered among the collection of drawings by his son in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris are several by the elder Lequeu: a mantelpiece. Ha 80.1 His father.4 the elevation of a monumental terrace building (fig.10 In his later days he donated a collection of engravings of Souf9 B. N. Ha 80. Paris. B. Cp. a fait le meilleur prix depuis notre Etablissement [here follows a blank] il dessine bien il a du Genie et une bonne conduite. Leipzig. Descamps persuaded the artist's uncle. Burger.8 According to a letter of applicationdirectedby Lequeuto the Minister of the Interior. 54. Ha 80. Soufflot also permitted him to work in his own studio together with his nephew. Genevieve. 113. fol. Letter of Descamps to Lequeu. a priest. Julien-David Le Roy. N. Reconstruction. signed and dated 1745.. 40.3 two portals for the palace of an archbishop. Le Queu mon eleve . de la Grece. The letter appears to have been written in the year X (1801/2). 4 Ibid. Paris.5and others.9 Lequeu never forgot Soufflot's benevolence.. 21. FIG. p1. Ha 80. des arts appliques3: 204-209. with some interest in landscape architecture and in architecture itself. who accepted him as a student of the Royal Academy. Aug.6 As a pupil of the school of design at Rouen. kept among Lequeu's drawings in the Bibl. Fritz. 207. to grant the young man a twoyear pension and Lequeu went to the capital in 1779. 19. top.

N. the note. Mobilier. Recueil. In the afore mentioned application." 15 B.16 In a further note. 210. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 539 FIG. Ha 41. Ha 80a. 56. "quime valait un titre a l'academieroyale de cette ville. 30.. several painters and the architect. For the application.VOL. Resume sur les Dessins cy-joints pour le recueil . Belles Lettres et Arts de Rouen. . Krafft. Lequeu says of his city hall project. Ha 80. N. N. Lequeu continued to devote himself to teaching architectural design just as he had already done at Rouen. attachedto 12. and several drawings also testify to this journey. According to Resume the house was not completed because of the death of the count. 1786. 13 B. (In a drawing he calls this house "Temple du silence. Ha 80.. pls. Ha 80. Ha 80a. Lequeu. . A letter attached to Ha 80a. and a brief handwritten record of the great architect's life. plan. 22 Molinier. Padiglione. the sculptors Caffieri and Gois. 208). attached. Kiinstlerlexikon. both signed by Descamps. in 1786.17Lequeu states that he built the Casino of Madame de Meulenaer in 11B. FIG. such as the engraver and secretary of the Academy of Painting. 54. and the location. the note. Bouville. Chapel of the Emperor-Chapelle de l'un des quatre palais de l'Empereur. N. 45.."1 Most certainly Lequeu called on other artists also to whom he appears to have been recommended by Descamps." and a third.. Krafft." dating it 1788. providing also designs for furniture. 67. Ha 80a. Ha 80b. n.15 Back home. 12B.see n. 21 Letter of application. dating it 1786.18 In this application he declares he also erected a tion in which he names himself Soufflot's pupil. N. dated. When the younger Soufflot carried out the H6tel Montholon on the Boulevard Montmartre.20) About this time he was still employed by Soufflot. N. Ha 80a." 20 B.22 I could not ascertain whether our architect executed the Church of the Capuchin Nuns of Marseille. was nominated adjoint associe of the Academie Royale des Sciences.. 209. In 1779. 3. which later brought him recognition in his native town 14 (fig. elevations. 25. It must have been in the early seventeen-eighties that he made the Italian tour with the Comte de Bouville.. perhaps still before his journey to Paris. names as a pupil of 1778 the son of the Rouen attorney Thouret. "Candelabre antique a Ste. Aug. 1. A handwritten announcement of his lessons ("Avis aux amateurs") and many painstakingly carried out drawings dated from 1777-1784 inform us about this side of his activities 13 (fig.. Maison de plaisance for the Comte de Bouville in the same year19 (fig. pl. Recueil." The "Progetto . unsignednote. Ha 80. del Grande flot's works to the Bibliotheque Imperiale. 14 B. 16See n. with a dedica- Padiglione Italianamente" (sic) is dated 1783. 14. 57-60. 19 Krafft. N. N. illustrates some of the furniture. 17B. also with the surname Temple du silence. PT. the other Italian drawings. . Cochin. 215). 5. the Meulenaer house. N. Cf. Franque. state that Lequeu was an adjoint associe of the Academy of Rouen. 5." another "Nella villa Medici. 12 verso. 1810. 1786. though living in Paris. Krafft and Ransonette. he tried his hand at a large architectural project. ascribe it to Soufflot le Romain. an official certificate and a letter. 55. assumes that Lequeux [sic] himself built the house in 1799.21 Lequeu was "a draughtsman and inspector" under him. who till his death by the guillotine was a friend of Lequeu. de Mr.. B. and the Italian tour.-Monument to Athena. pi. "pres de Portenort.. Agnese. Allg. He mentions it in a little note. 24. referring to the work for Meulenaer. "dit le Romain" (as he describes him to distinguish him from the architect of the Pantheon). Fiissli. . 37-39.12 In the first years of his stay in Paris. 42. and also in an application submitted to the Minister of the Interior in 1801. One carries the legend "al campidoglio. 214). Histoire 3: 204 f. interiors. a town hall for Rouen. which 18 B.

31 B. 212. he illustrates in a drawing dated 1788 23 (fig. 75b (main sheet). Ha 80a. 4. He retained the unbridled mind he had before. "Renvoye par le Comite de Salut publique au Comite des Inspecteurs pour faire enregistrer et exposer. 25 thermidor. 75a.540 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER." 29 B.. Lequeu wrote on the back of this life-saving drawing the remark.. Monument a la gloire de nombre d'hommes illustres. . FIG. he produced an odd drawing titled "Porte du Parisis. The era of political upheaval brought about an important change in Lequeu's career. Ponts et Chaussees. Ha 80.28 Later. [TRANS. his art was to do him a good service in a highly critical moment." The patriotic plan of the year I. 75a (prefixed sheet). 211. N. 1790. 74. n'accusons point le sort. 15. Letters by Lequeu and the Ministry of the Interior. N.. It refers to the victims of the Terror.. was unfavorable to building. 24 Letter of application. Monument en l'honneur de plusieurs citoyens sur la place de l'Arsenal.. 28 B. Ha 80a.31 In the year IX Lequeu entered the competition for the erection of commemorative columns in the departements. B. was exhibited in the same hall.. N. to which he had added the timely verses: "Ne pleurons pas sur eux. FIG. The latter was pleased with the extravagant composition and the drawing went on exhibition in the Salle de la liberte.. This however is not true of his non-architectural drawings rang30 B. appendednote. B. for he had lost all his property. N. of course. Ha 80. and Certificate of the Commission d'employes of 13 thermidor an I. 12. and in the year XI he took part in another held in the Galerie d'Apollon in the Louvre. Ha 80. N. in vendemiairean II. Both were exhibited in prairial an II.32 The change of profession had not changed Lequeu. 27 N. de la caverne infernale du grotto-Entree jardin chinois. 238). B. 213-Infernal Small fort-Fortin. FIG. 277) may just as well have been inspired by enthusiasm as by fear. He must have aroused suspicion." 27 and submitted it to the Committee of Public Safety (fig.. N. 251). Ha 80. The dated designs of the seventeen-eighties and those of the seventeen-nineties are equally extravagant. 260). He also states that he was the Chef de l'un des ateliers publics in the faubourg Saint-Antoine in 1790 and 1791 and that he took part in the preparations for the first great revolutionary festival.24and the general situation. the strictly antiRevolutionary gloss on this drawing most certainly was written when there was no more risk in siding with the conservatives.26 Yet in the beginning of his new career in the year II. on July 14. N. C'est pour la liberte qu'ils ont brave la mort. N. 74. Nov. 32 B. 1813. Ha 80. "Dessin pour me sauver de la guillotine" and the ironical comment. "Tout pour la patrie. He entered the office of the cadastre in the first year of the Republic (1793).an II.SOC." 30 However. 26 Letter of application. Germain-enLaye and one for a hospital at Bordeaux in 1788." In the same year II and the same place he exhibited also the project of the Monument in Honor of Illustrious Men29 (fig. Barriere for Rouen. "Monument destine a l'exercice de la Souverainete du peuple" (fig. 25 Ibid.. Ha 80. the Fete de la federation on the Champ-de-Mars. Ha 80. In the application of 1801 he lists as further achievements the project for the parochial church of St.PHIL. and attest of the Ecole Imperiale des 23B.. "Ce temps ou on immolait des victimes humaines a la liberte. To prove his genuine republican feelings. He had to give up the free profession of an architect. and became a civil servant.25 and remained employed there until the office was discontinued in 1801.

to a faction. They cannot be dealt with in this context. I am preparing a separate essay on them. n. and planned to embellish the Chamber of Deputies and the bridge leading to it. See pt. 42. 216. First he worked on maps of Paris. In 1801 Lequeu's application for another position met with success. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 541 FIG. Chinese house-La demeure du jardinier.. Still in the same year he 33 B. Among Lequeu's drawings is a copy of that poster of the year II in which Boullee. Ledoux. including a bust of Louis XVI. 308. In 1815 he projected a Mausoleum on the Place de la Concorde. Ha 80. as the slanderer would make believe. I. FIG. FIG. Egyptian house-Habitation a l'egyptienne. N. FIG. Le Roy. in memory of the martyrs who had been beheaded there. and the sculptor Dardel were violently attacked.VOL. FIG. His interest in it certainly was only due to the fact that it was directed against his former teacher Le Roy. appellee du cirque. 215. Town hall-Hotel de Ville. There is no indication that Lequeu was the author of the libel. PT. ing from delicate Rococo pastels and animated studies after classical sculptures to intimate sketches from nature.219. 218. 3.33 The placard. Temple du silence. 214. Maison chinoise. on maps of the French Empire. . 217. addressed "Aux citoyens du concours"-the participants in a competition-informs us that the four artists were regarded as belonging to a group with reactionary aims. or. He was appointed a cartographer in the Department of the Interior. and later in the Bureau of Statistics. Arch-Arc triomphal du chemin des triomphateurs FIG. Terrasse sur le bord du fleuve.

besides maps. Ha 80. Aug. commercial. and loneliness lay heavily on him. 1817.. Sanctuary of the Creator. Dec. Persian sanctuary-Lieu des oraisons Persanes. tragic years of the aged artist. 1817. 1824. verso attached note. de la ferme. and his portrait. 221. Paris. In 1817 he offered for sale ninety-three architectural drawings. Wine press-Espressoir FIG 222. now forming the frontispiece of 35 Galignani's Messenger. FIG. 227. Journal de Paris politique.35one in 1822. May 22. on a the Ministere de 1'Interieur. FIG. July 12. 30. 1815. 20. Petite Synagogue. [TRANS. phare. Ha 80. suppl. le Journaliste des Feuillets des Arts avec architecte. retirement. Bulletin de Commerce.542 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS PHIL.34 Then began the last. 21. 36 Journal de Paris. SOC." about the Mausoleum. suppl. 220. 362. and one in 1824. Mr. peared in 1817. Persian porch-Porche FIG 226. Le Queu Certificate of . 4. 1822. as we know from advertisements announcing the sale of his drawings..36 He must have been forced to part with a good deal of his property. 212: 400. Persan du theatre. letterhead of "Entrevue de M. FIG. Two of these ap34 B. FIG. 225. 16. 1815. Turkish house-Habitation FIG. Ibid. sanctuaire. FIG. retired with a pension. possibly the one dated 1792. Want. AMER. 224. turque du bficheron. dated Sept. et litteraire. Paris. N. 193. frustration. 15. Beacon-Colonne cochlide. dated Jan. 223. Temple of Terpsichore.

39 A note probably written in his last years. . reveals the artist's absent-mindedness. FIG. "Donne par lui-meme a l'honneur de la Bibliotheque Royale. however. were exhibited in the Louvre.. ler Decembre 1814. Thtetre Royal.. Sauveur. Lequeu nous invite a inserer sans y changer un mot la notice suivante. according to the latter's inventory of 1825. In 1822 and 1824 he was anxiously concerned that not a single word of the textes he had composed for new advertisements should be omitted from print. Yet even if he lived for several more years." Lequeu never composed a continuous text. but added merely brief comments to the drawings. is full of complaints about "injustices et ingratitudes. N. 8 . FIG. . et au premier escalier c6te gauche. J.VOL. Ha 80. The inventory lists the calf-bound volumes of Lequeu's drawings under the numbers 7123-7131.229. he asserts in the advertisement. the volume Traite des edifices. that he was abnormal from the beginning.. 45. "M. "par M. Le . Should we leave him to the psychologist and exclude him from art history? It is not necessary to have recourse to the simple generalization that all artistic creation is beyond the normalcy that makes and marks every-day life. 33. meubles. Pigeon-house-Colombier. DE QUEUX." 40 The design of his own tomb bears his portrait in relief. though unfortunately they were not listed in the catalogs. if alluding to his cartographic work. 38 The announcement of 1822 begins. . These." This unusual spelling. must be a later addition to the drawing. J. project of a Theatre Royal. Lequeu de Rouen. with the inscription "J. Ha 80. the tomb. "Donne par l'auteur [in the case of 7131. des Chinois par Chambers. One of his latest designs is the 37 B. and on the bottom. frere de Jesus. 230. the remark. one of which was Le faux Deme'trius. "Fait par J. there is no doubt that by 1824 his career as an artist had been long since finished. both. suivante. . Rather 41 B. if it is not by another hand. his life-long sufferings: Sepulchre de l'auteur. PT. 42. no. N. for his neighbors hardly knew him. fortunately. ". 3." that of 1824. Those frantic outbursts and the somewhat confused text of an undated note scribbled on a letterhead of the Ministere de l'Interieur with Annce 181 (sic) might confirm one's first reaction to Lequeu's drawings. "Son domicile actuel est rue des Deux-Portes St.41 In or after this year Lequeu died. we may say.228. The "Plan de la Ville de Paris" beside his portrait. For then Lequeu decided to donate all his drawings and a copy of the treatise on Chinese building by Chambers to the Royal Library.." In another note he bitterly assails his colleagues. Ha 80. To eacll item Queu"] en 1825" is added. 40 B..37 The title page of this volume reads Architecture civile de Jean-Jacques Lequeu. It is pathetic to read of his fear that no one would be interested in the works of an unknown artist. il a porte sa croix toute sa vie. no success. II avertit le public qu'il est peu connu dans l'enclos de cette cour. habits etc." This is the more curious as he states ini a draft to the announcement of 1822 that he had lived in the same house since 1786. a inserer textuellement l'annonce FIG. and that some prospective buyer might not find where he lived.38 In 1822 he wanted to sell also "eight or nine" plays he had written. Hen-house-Poulailler. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 543 the first volume of his designs in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris." 39 Announcement of 1824. the caption." Like the previous advertisements also that of 1824 had. "acteurs d'intrigues. faiseurs d' architecture Parisienne. Dairy-Laiterie. N.under 7131. similarly.

To measure their inventions by the standards of a perfected. as in any less eccentric achievement worthy to be considered art. the same trend toward abstraction. The handwriting is calligraphic. What counts is not whether abnormality is more or less manifest in their production but whether their presentations have the qualities of any normal work of art. they were not out to discover some novel FIG. Descamps. Soufflot. The comments are clear. but the general unrest of the period must account for his production in the first place. They are neither to be judged by any aesthetic canons of mature style. Almost all of his known works originated before the end of his civil service career and long before the possible outbreak of insanity in his last years. Duke's chapel-Nef . We can find in Lequeu's drawings the same will to master form. Classicism was the field in which the unoriginal. Later.and Le Roy regarded him as a gifted student whom they liked to encourage and to assist. should we refer to such great figures accepted by art history in spite of their deranged mental condition as El Greco. [TRANS. d'Eglise applique au Temple d'Isis bati par les Gaulois et conserve par Francois I. The question whether he was sane in his early years can be answered by pointing out some characteristics of the designs." or. d'entree de la Chapelle Ducale. They laid down their novel ideas in passionate words. The independent minds strove to free themselves from the old heritage. minute rather than extravagant. Temple of Isis-Portail FIG. SOC. the minor spirits. had he not behaved like a normal person. he makes sarcastic remarks which prove sound reasoning. The attitude of his environment is likewise elucidating. 232. stable style or tradition would be to misjudge their position and significance in the history of art. 231. or in ecstatic designs which must be looked upon as expressions of evolution. They are works of art in which we recognize the man. Borromini. the banal.PHIL. and the same wish to enhance the "normal. and through which we apprehend the period.544 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. the same desire to express human feelings. Van Gogh. in one way or another. If ever there was such a thing as l'art pour l'art. Building for patrons after classical canons must have been for Lequeu in his early years just as boring as delineating charts and maps in his advanced age. nor to be approachedwith any expectation of practical utility or even possibility. Unlike the artists at the end of the nineteenth century. Though Lequeu wandered beyond the regular bounds. I believe that not a personal condition. His patrons had similar opinions. Nor would be have been employed for twenty-two years in republican and imperial offices. felt at home. Lequeu's dream-architecture marks the end of the period at the beginning of which stand the architectural dreams of Le Geay. we find it in the outbursts of the revolutionary architects. his fantasies are more than extravaganzas. most of them sober and technical.

But he transformed his models in the most daring and most unorthodox ways. and its yearning for the unheard-of.the archcraft-allows men. but perhaps can say that he passed from the first stage to the second in the 1780's. and still more when they merely dream of . when they build their sanctuaries or their homes. Ledoux. the late Baroque as well as the rising fashion of Neo-classicism. Modern historians hold that some of the leading ideas which were to shape the nineteenth and twentieth centuries originated about 1700. In his second phase his strong individuality began to assert itself with great intensity. This is what the drawings of the revolutionaries make evident. Tomb monument-Sepulture pres Voorhout. Less bold than Ledoux. FIG. Let us remember that the dawn of the Renaissance came prior to the Reformation. 237. its will to innovation. preceded the political cataclysm of the twentieth century. and art nouveau. art historians were not aware of the crisis of the close at the eighteenth century. Boullee. 42. PT. he availed himself almost exclusively of forms of the past and did not think of presenting undisguised geometrical shapes. Cf. Arbour. the impetuosity of youth is gone and with it the revolutionary enthusiasm. Look-out of the game keeper-(Poste garde-chasse. and that the last stage began about X.42 They became formative in architecture much earlier than in life. The fact that Boullee's. 1935. In his third and last stage. Rendez-vous de Bellevue. We cannot. LEQUEU'S WORK In Lequeu's development one can distinguish three phases: As a youth he followed the main currents of the time. The transition from a stabilized tradition to diametrically opposed They were less artificial than those who belonged them. expect a clear demarcation line between each of these phases. Contrary to other historians.VOL. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 545 FIG. 235. Hazard. 42 goals brought about an uproar in any field. the symptoms of the Baroque came earlier than the absolute monarchy. and Lequeu's fantasies-at least part of them-originated long before the political revolution broke out gives one much to think. Hermitage. and created designs unparalleled in architectural history. and Lequeu had to speak out because they were swayed by the emotions and the needs of the moment. Like the heroic architecture of Boullee and the reform work of Ledoux. to the art nouveau movement. FIG. Ledoux'. and shared the Romantic interest in medieval architecture. FIG. Architecture. of course. 236. 3. La crise de la conscience Europeenne 1680-1715. Paris. Lequeu's fantasies reflect the main trends of the period. to express their yearnings long before they dare to reform their social institutions. They registered the works of the Revivalists. du) FIG. 233. with all its excitement. Paul. its passion for grandeur. art. 234. but they did not see the seers.

47 (259)..:: ::~:.." From this self-confident.: . 76 (243).. There is much movement and plasticity in the design but there is no trace of the stern classicism which at that time already had become fashionable. .i~::.. 31 (253). . 55 (235). 68a (279). 60' (211). .::: * ![ ^ . 67 (264). 38 (273). 72b (272). is typically late Baroque.. 59a (229).. 56 (225).... 4 (277).. Descamps. 43b (281). 37 (219). When. -:: - : FIG. The frieze in high I consists of a multitude of figures hiding almost |relief the wall to which they are applied. 52a (232). From Ha 80b: 10 (271). 15 (260). 56 (226). It is composed in sweeping curves and rich decoration. Clouds tU. a sheet for the instruction in light and shade has become.. 37 (218). SOC.. Pompe a feu.. Lequeu noted on the back that it was shown ' . he wanted to explain some abstract subject. l artistic form. 22 (244).. overdecorated chapel of Sainte-Genevieve in the Emperor's Palace must have originated... 35 (216). In each phase there were high and low tides.. 68a (280).. 25 (246). *'WWWWM 4il. 22 (245). 44b (255).. Dairy. 59a (228). "Par nous Le Queu architecte et envoyve :-.. 52b (223). 42a (283).. ^ ' lj ' JQuitedifferent is the design of a barriBrefor Rouen . FIG.jll^l "completely ^il' efface the architectural lines of the upper part of the structure. 21 (213). 211).:~:. 57 (261). 30 (249). 74b (251).. 55 (233). 48a (222). . 240. AMER.l:. .. 74 (258)... A ______ to Descamps. 75a (238). i rJ~ : "B::: . 25 (247).'i:i .. 73a (275).. 33 (270). but..'ii11:.. 48a (221). 238.. 52a (231). 28b (256).. 32 (230). 43a (278)... almost childish enunciation. 54a (276). moments of ecstasy and moments of despondency. 23. 71a (237). interior... 55 (234). Not much later the pompous.. 71b (274). 75b (269). he presented his diagrams in an . 45b (227). 43 These are the drawings which are reproduced in this book. 77a (210). For instance. a specimen of Romantic art full of vigorous contrasts 43 (fig. An inscription on it states that it was sent (fig..-::: ^ iiBi A A *''. Powder magazine-Magasin 'a poudre.. 72a (250). *::. 1800. or even at an earlier moment when he wanted to show his hand to the master.. From Ha 80a: 21 (207).in parentheses.. [TRANS. . The de. .'. in his hand.. 27 (267).. 241. Monument a la gloire de nombre d'hommesillustres.m" :. FIG. 208). 34 (268). 71a (236). 49a (248). or. 52b (224). 67 (265).546 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS PHIL.. 27 (266).. 'lgl. . moments in which he rose high above the fashions of the day and moments when he lagged behind. 210). From Ha 80: 2 (208)....:i 11tH /aM. The barriBrein the "castellated" style is a prod- FIG. 209).to . 74 (258). 46 (263). 48a (220). 5 (215). 239.. 21 (212). 54b (240). (214). on the other hand. . we may infer that it was made when Lequeu was a student under Descamps. if carried as an outdoor monument. 62 (284). 43b (241) 76 (242).. 35 (257). and from the immature character of the drawing itself.4.. with the numbers of our illustrations. the bulky substructure and the comparatively tiny figure of the goddess would hardly produce a pleasant effect. 38a (282). BAROQUE AND CLASSICISM The Monument to Athena which he conceived when still a student at Rouen in 1776.. 54b (239). 73b (254). Rococo in character (fig. "l:i :"~::~~'i! *sign might make a good model for a decorative piece in porcelain. 33 (209).. 46 (262).. 27 (252). Soufflot and the King (fig. Even in his most fantastic designs he added sober instructions for the students.. 35 (217)..

FIG. Baroque. 44Le Carpentier's project is illustrated in Encyclopedie (see pt. Lequeu. like an ancient temple. Le Carpentier. Monument des braves citoyens morts pour la patrie. 31). 180 pl. There is no movement in the front. XXXVII. n. London.-Temple du FIG. 22. Pierre. especially the columns of the second story. He evidently hoped that his project might be accepted to replace the scheme which Antoine Mathurin Le Carpentier. uct of early Romanticism. note 18. 1765. a battlemented tower rises above the roof. 242. Blomfield. Temple to the Unknown God. Though Lequeu's design is based on that of his predecessor it reveals unmistakably a changed attitude toward composition. 58. but all Baroque liveliness has gone. Paris.44 According to Lequeu's own statement the Royal Academy of Rouen approved of his design which belongs to the type of cool. however. History of French Architecture. 2: 183. It lacks the latter's rich decoration. 244. pl.45 But the porch is followed by the 45 Cf. pl. 1921. In the Casino of Terlinden at Sgrawensel. The old-timer Le Carpentier was still intent upon unification. The Small Fort (Fortin) is likewise derived from medieval castles. The elongated structure consists of a rusticated groundfloor with arched windows and a second story with straight-headed openings. To this end he used the two-story pattern both in the center and on the sides.VOL. M. impersonal buildings common to the Louis Seize style. The arrangement is. disrupts the continuity of the front by adding the colossal portico. Recueil. Memorial to Victor Moreau. FIG. Reginald. en l'honneur des braves Arch of the brave-Arc de la patrie. illustrates the Memorial. pl. 245. 42. I. Dieu inconnu. 212). The plasticity of its rendering points to a later date (fig. 243. CXCIX. The porch of the plain house is finished by a curious crenellated pediment. slightly projecting end-pavilions frame the whole. had worked out for Rouen in 1758. The central Doric portico runs up to the height of the Mansard roof. about the project of A. Lequeu's project differs from Le Carpentier's chiefly in two ways. Krafft. .a member of the Paris Academy of Architecture. Patte. and the single elements appear to be frozen. the main entrance is on the short side of the rectangular plan. Proces 6: xxi. and the central portion is considerably altered. 214). built for a certain dowager Meulenaer in 1786. who exalted the crowning feature by inserting an attic story between it and the main floor of the building. Monumens eriges en France a la gloire de Louis XV. His dome is less conspicuous than that of the former master. FIG. PT. 3. In 1779 Lequeu made a design for a Town Hall (fig. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 547 basically. a dome with a spire terminates the composition.

PHIL. The architect was not free in designing the plan. Maison de plaisance. of course. behind which the rooms are lined up in two rows. erected to enshrine the bust of a woman. Yet it is significant that the patron himself followed the new fashion. permit a centralized arrangement. Inn of the enchanted garden-Guinguette petit bois admirable. du staircase.SOC. 248. Whoever was responsible for the temple-dwelling of Terlinden. or orientation around a dominating element. The interior decoration was strictly Louis Seize. such as the upright wreath on top of . It shows various odd details. 249. foreshadows Lequeu's later inventions. A structure that was supposed to imitate a classical temple did not. FIG. FIG. and this is contrary to truly Baroque plans. its interior indicates that the loose arrangement of the rooms was satisfactory at that moment. In the era of the Baroque the formal pattern was imperative and no patron would have wanted a house deviating from it. FIG. 247. Tribunal seigneurial. 250. stiff and rather closely following Greek models. A Memorial in the garden. FIG. 246.548 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. The plan is definitely lacking in centralization. Mausoleum of Voltaire. Belvedere. FIG. [TRANS.

His judgment can be appropriately brought to bear even on the work of those who came one or two generations after him. EXOTICISM If we are now to discuss the designs of Lequeu's revolutionary period. He was. Temple au Dieu des Armees. Jacques-Franqois Blondel. Grotte de Cypris-Temple de Bacchus. called "Temple du silence. FIG. a renowned teacher and artist of acute insight." resembles the Casino of Terlinden outside and inside 46 (fig. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 549 FIG. as we will recall. the framing arch. 215). note 19. Justice of the peace-Justice de paix. Of course. we can save ourselves the trouble of looking for the right words.VOL. 46 Cf. Porte du Parisis. 252. 42. 251. PT. also born at Rouen.253. 3. We may now benefit from earlier having dealt rather extensively with his views. and the bird-wings affixed to its sides. for he died in his school in the Louvre at about the time when his young fellow-citizen . Lequeu's drawing differs in some details from Krafft's engraving. FIG. The House of the Comte de Bouville near Portenort. provides us with the most appropriate comments. 254. FIG. he did not know the designs of Lequeu.

. FIG.. It means that the trends which Blondel had observed about 1750-1760 were still alive FIG. [TRANS. Public warehouse-Magasin public.:::: :: . Tomb of Porsenna. the doctrine of Laugier. started studying architecture. 255. nor Viel's acrid criticism-Blondel's text and Lequeu's fantasies ._:?. it means much that many passages of Blondel could be illustrated with the drawings of Lequeu. 258. ---: . about 1780-1790. AMER. If nothing were left of the architectural thought of the period-neither the inventions of Boullee and Ledoux. House of the astronomer-Maison astronomique. and that the latter's strange designs can be explained with Blondel's comments.'-::?*_lr. The two men had more in common than any mere outer connection which might have tied the work of the one to the words of the other.550 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS PHIL. 257. SOC. 256. However. FIG.--::-:::: :. :: ::: : : : ::::L_:-___ FIG. Entrance to the deer forest-Porte du parc de la chasse.

3. and the Pigeon-House (fig. 230). FIG. We find in Lequeu's work also the idea that structures destined to stand in free nature should FIG. Church for Marseille-Eglise de Marseille. indiscriminately. 261. are far more personal than the sober copies of most of the Gothicists. bati par les Gaulois et conserve par Franqois ler. a Little Synagogue (fig. 229). 218).VOL. We find in Lequeu's designs the confusion of borrowed styles so disapproved by Blondel. (fig. a Hen House. especially the decoration of the portal. Castle on the sea-Le vieux chateau. The Duke's Chapel was obviously inspired by Venetian Renaissance buildings (fig. There is an Egyptian House. 220). Temple of Ceres. appears in the legend: Portail d'Eglise applique au Temple superieur d'Isis. FIG. Nymphee. 227). 221). 232). Yet the absurdity of mixing up different styles. such as the Dairy (fig. 262. le quel fit revivre l'Architecture Grecque. Ice house-(ilaciere. . 228). The details of the latter. 260. and the front of the Temple of Isis (fig. the Winepress (fig. mixtures of Oriental and geometric shapes. 259. a Chinese House (fig. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 551 together could testify to the vitality of the great movement of the architecture of the French Revolution. PT. FIG. a Persian Porch (fig. 225). a Persian Sanctuary (fig. with Oriental motifs (fig. a Turkish House (fig. 231). des Capucines FIG. 42. 216). 263. There are several gothicizing projects. 223).

but the fact that such different realms simultaneously entered the consciousness of mankind may teach us that there was a great awakening about 1800. 233). distorted forms on the Pompe a feu 47 (fig. 242). 249).. The remarks on the drawing are very specific. SOC.. oversized pattern (fig. In the last two designs the roof lines are transformed into features of great expressiveness: mute matter here speaks of restive elements. The desire for innovation also speaks out clearly in the Seigniorial Tribunal (fig... and the Arch in Honor of the Brave (fig. 213). Entrance to the abode of PlutoDemeure de Pluton.. FIG. the Hermitage (fig. The Mausoleum of Voltaire is a polygonal pavilion ap> proached by curiously shaped arcades (fig. THE SEARCH FOR NEW FORMS We find in Lequeu's projects other excesses which Blondel had condemned.. dated an 2 de la Republique (fig... columns transformed into bizarre shapes without any "order" appear in the Entrance of the Infernal Grotto (fig. ` -"" i.. . 222). [TRANS.. I ji!:: FIG.. Temple of wisdom-Temple look as if belonging there: For example. 246) and the Rural Retreat (fig.:. 241). both of 1785.. Lequeu knew how to raise the ordinary to something extraordinary... orators267. but a mixture of both with much of Lequeu's own (fig.. 238). 1939. as was usual with our architect.ttArch for the Triumphal Road (fig.. 2134. 244). though there was no need to add the explanatory words plume and globe terrestre to the neatly delineated symbols on top of the structure.*-----l THREE REVOLUTIONARY . have little in common with the classical precedents. 265. 264. 239).. .)and the Look-out of the Gamekeeper (fig. Art Bulletin 21: 217. Each of these designs might be regarded as just a playful pastime of the Romantic Mood.. 2'36) are made up by knotty trunks or clad with bark. i::: :.. and the Powder Magazine (fig. de la sagesse. Kaufmann. the Belvedere (fig... the Arbour (fig. Overabundance of statuary characterizes the Monument in Honor of Illustrious Men. fig. show how freely he handled traditional features and how free he felt to change traditional composition. the imaginative artist FIG.. and his variations on classical themes in artistic value surpass the most "correct" duplications of the unimaginative copyists.Boull&e.. Tribuneof the revolutionary Tribune des harangues. ':::~[l~[l~!~g insipid works of the Classicists.PHIL. ARCHITECTS AMER. .... But this was Lequeu: the phantastic. Likewise. His i. The Memorial to the Citizens Who Died for Their Country is not a pedantic imitation of Egyptian or Greek motifs. 243). The winding stairs of the Beacon (Colonne cochlide) also have become a fanciful.. 247)... .. uncertain of its goals in the beginning but untiring in the effort to reform architecture.. His capricious metamorphoses of every-day features are far more stimulating than the 47 k i . 217). 3..552 KAUFMANN: __. 248). the Memorial : to Victor Moreau (who died in 1813) (fig.

42. 271. Monument of deserving citizen-Monument en l'honneur de plusieurs citoyens sur la place de l'arsenal. Temple de l'egalite. The Inn of the Enchanted Garden (Guinguette a l'entree du petit bois admirable) deviates from and Venus when he made this drawing. conventional houses in many regards. (crowned by the) Bonnet de la liberte. On the lower margin he lists dozens of names of wines to be put on . Symbolic order. 19521 JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 553 FIG. In this particular case the comparative artistic discipline is the more and the pedantic cartographer. 269. FIG. 268. PT. FIG. 3. FIG. Nice inventions are the sun dial and the fountain in a niche on the sheet with the astonishing as Lequeu's wild and perhaps ever unfulfilled dreams appear to have centered around Bacchus Mausoleum. 270. Obelisk-Monument (pour) la maison de campagne du citoyen Prouy. but is "normal" all in all architecturally (fig.VOL. 250).

Paris. L'art Etrusque.. . Instead of the five pyramids carrying the metal globe. Giulio Q. one of those who disdained the rules handed down by the generations. . and instead of the pyramids on top of the globe he adds a canopy on slender columns. Jules. as Blondel would have said. 1935. 272. pls. C.C. 252). the Tomb of Porsenna (1791) (fig.. SOC. 253). Palais champ6tre. The :?:Y~ . Porte du Parisis. Most of these designs combine a classical background with unclassical composition. 273. ~~Etruscan . figs. XI. 1940. which he quotes on the of his drawing. the House of the Asrepresented as a Heracles with a Phrygian cap. XCIII. TOWARD A NEW COMPOSITION The drawing which saved his life. A. 255). These two drawings originated from different motives.48 The Etruscan B. He was very free in the details. figs. 48 Cf. etc. 251). shows openings out of proportion with the facade (fig. Ugo. But if we compare his Tomb with bowls on high stands of the seventh and sixth centuries we notice significant differences. . felt urged to discard the "regular" proportions. Temple de la terre. the Temple of the God of the Armies (fig. house of the Justice of the Peace. . 257) would have ~ appeared "monstrosities" to Blondel. yet their compositional concept is identical. N. pls. hall-Lieu des Fro. 9. 254). 307. For Etruscan work with plastic heads of animals cp. Richter.. Lequeu took the general layout of Porsenna's Tomb from the description in Pliny's Natural History (XXXVI. un .:!::! :_~ "i . the signs of the Inn and tells of the delights of the garden by depicting a love scene on the right margin. 274. L'arte Etrusca. 301. assemblies. Tarchi. Metropolitan Museum of Art. or.I7 I~34~. Milan. FIG. XIII. Tarchi. ::?~~??~~~~margin kg" a . XVI.554 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. Handbook of the Etruscan col- IU ~ T "i i. XCIV. pl. 256).~j.i' "1. 1889.. Y.. the latter is a serious project. The remarkable fact is that the discovery of the immense artistic possibilities in disproportionalitygoes back to the era of the French Revolution. Giglioli. XLII. etc. XCII. the Public Warehouse (fig. . PHIL. It is a massive gate upon which the gigantic figure of the Free Nation rests. i . L'arte Etrusco-Romana.. ?--:I:'''': .[ lection. The Grotto of Cypris (fig. - . dated an 2 de la Republique. Gisela M. 273. The former was to make fun of people who had menaced the artist's life. [TRANS. Court Courthall--Lieu des assembles. he presents small cones on truncated pyramids.. The unruly Lequeu. 19).. 6. Lequeu may have known original work.~i::~. The main effect of Lequeu's Tomb is derived from the contrast of the giant globe to the other features. FIG. m'lange mal assorti (fig. Giglioli. Martha.-and ~}: -~ '~ ': 4!~I 11~ -? : i ' ~ . r FIc. or "Arc du Peuple. =~ ~:~'~J'"'i tronomer (fig. If these drawings were stigmatized as insane. pls." presents an assemblage of incongruous elements. then most of our great twentieth-century architecture would be too.

This work of architecture is the perfect counterpart of the restless waves. "Narrative" architecture is carried far in the Cowshed in the form of a cow with a jug on her head and in that antler-shaped gate. In this extravagant composition he is a classicist turning to a primitive stage of ancient art. decorated with plastic heads of a stag.~ -. the .-:%~: these particular objects and not the "organic" type... The Temple of Ceres is unobtrusive "Narrative" architecture..$ FIG. Lequeu. :~:-~a .Art Al:::. (fig.. In the dim interior of the cave we discern a globe topped by a flickering flame (fig.VOL. 3) 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 555 _ . 277. boars. i:iWe would still have to ask why the architect copied i _. however. and hounds (fig. PT.. products show supple. almost organic shapes with lavish sculptural decoration in harmony with them.-!!i::0:.i~ design than the ordinary bowls on high stands. a tall cylindrical house. . The Temple of Terpsichore is flanked by platforms on which a 49 Kaufmann.:~.. 2'58). 275. builds up his Tomb of rather geometric forms. the delicate work of a skillfull decorator (fig. IN THE STYLE OF THE STAGE Many of Lequeu's designs might very well serve as theatrical decorations of that higher type which aims at sentation.. Monument to the sovereignty . The new compositional principle of independence of the elements appears in the imposing Castle on the Sea . 263).' Even if we were to find Etruscan objects more like his :. . The Temple to the Unknown God is a cave carved out of rock and framed by a rusticated arch in which a pedimented Ionic portico has found place. compositional principle of the Tomb of Porsenna and the Castle on the Sea appears again in the apparently totally different Church of the Capuchin Nuns of Marseille of 1788 (fig. and a polygonal superstructure forming the base of a square spire.. 260). FIG. 42. The Nymph&eis a vaulted. The composition of the i ii Tomb is typical of the new time. . :: . 261).. with a halo-like FIG. Romanticism in austere grandeur. niche-like structure built around fountain. It is a "castellated" building free of pettiness. a spherical dome.Here we face of the people.. and flanking prisms. 276. This consists of a low cylindrical substructure.. crowningarch. la Sainte Cite. as is the fantastic element in it. in the midst of the woods (fig. A further very curious invention is the Entrance to : : : ' : the Deer Forest. 259). His aim now was to create an agglomerate of inorganic shapes rather than a compact plastic body such as his early Monument to Athena. a hemicylindrical portico. Island of love-L'ile d'amour. 245). although it differs widely from the usual" ' . From the point of view of its artistic meaning. fig. we should not be satisfied that we had discovered his true model. 17. Holy city-Aqueduc pour conduire 1'eau vierge Bulletin 21: 225. X:'~'~:i ':. .S ' Romantic productions. This is also an agglomerate of elementary geometrical forms.. Again early Etruscan objects appear to have been Lequeu's inspiration.

.PHIL.SOC. too. 16. conceived in delicate colors. but simple and grand.. [TRANS. the I u brave genel Place de 'Arsenal. . The Obelisk for the estate of the Citoyen Prouy. not confused or bizarre. KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS STRUGGLE AMER.. The Temple of Wisdom (Temple de la sagesse). is in its plainness and monu6 i. d.. E v i 1 | !1 !K _ = f0 by a statue stands near the base of the larger one. . P l. plannedFI. 2... 50 Ibid. . 266). 265).:i.-." The 51Ibid. fig. This design was devised in the year II of the Revolution to glorify a revolutionary ideal.." Much later he offered the design to *ethe . . Lequeu created many designs of re- ! 4 S. FIG..". serving as the entrance to t a garden.b tocrates et leurs complices subalternes' (fig. . with its severe design.. is rather bad literature than fine arts (fig.. for the FIG. and is of superior artistic quality 50 (fig.:~:. FOR GRANDEUR . . unhappily combines classical features and revolutionary symbols (fig. a veritable prod. 268).. Funeral Monumente-Spulture du brave generaln . 270). 280. These two designs are architecture parlante at its lowest.~ = Setting aside eccentricities. Soldier's Memorial-Monument 'a eriger au centre de 1'Etoilede la superbe avenueRoyale (qui) conduitau symbolism here is less obtrusive and the will to artistic Pont de Neuilly.""^: '7t ?: !:. The Interior of the _ Dairy is transformed into a pattern composed by the jugs and the posts carrying the t roof (fig.272). It s Lequeu attempted later to symbolize his era in several designs which. Two notes on the verso manifest how tenaciously Lequeu strove for success and how easily he changed his political views... When he exhibited it in the year II.L mentality a precursor of scenic decoration of our time. -. et qui ne s'accommoderont jamais avec leurs semblables.:>:9^*^ J _I B -_g5 l g8S*X( s 8f "tiny . dancers perform (fig.t de The onument of Deserving Citizens. theatrical fantasies. and weak symbolisms... to the noblest 0 4 * i inventions by Lequeu (fig. dated an 1... . fig. 269). he saw in it a means "pour retablir . conceived by the "Citoyen Le Queu' is somewhat better. Its mass is effectively contrasted to the immense void. ~"y:"' ':~'"" ti ^ I ::tFi^X89 A 'i |" ft :: ill IBs& i li %i 2 i1[ [ | lr |_ 9 Terre is similar in shape and artistic qualities 51 (fig. as all productions prompted by nonartistic motives. I'eternelle egalite. It is. . B 1111 k ^^^B111' ' | t . In the Symbolic Order(lrdre de la superbe avenueRoyale (qui) conduitau symbolique de la Salle des Etats d'unEtoile Palais National).. 226). . the entablature is carriedby enchained enemies of the people "seigneurs aris-z. dated 1789. were quite poor.556 . 212. "parce qu'il est veritableinutile aux Francais enemis de l'egalite.. 279.^. The ^^ Porte Flamande. Pagode Indienne. 240). 278.<2Sa _t_ k k ^ment XI Pere Lachaise cemetery. w HI1^. belongs. 225.-* -a . The drawing with the Ent:e :^ trance to the Abode of Pluto.:. Xuct of the stormy time. It bears above its entrance the legend A la Sagesse Supreme. 264). FIG.... 1 and with dramatic lighting. form more conspicuous (fig. The equally dignified Temple de la . . .

The pure. 274). Somewhat morbid and perhaps even somewhat infantile.. It is FIG. Casino-Casin a partie.53 A pile of primordial scale is the Tomb Monument near Voorhout (Sepulture des plus Illustres et des plus Savants Hommes pres Voorhout) 54 (fig. 275). The monumentality of all these designs may well have been derived from the same sense for greatness which inspired many of the leaders of the French Revolution. According to a note on the back of this drawing. One of these architectural dreams is called Palais champetre (fig. 1952] JEAN-JACQUES LEQUEU 557 FIG. to be engraved on the wall of the canopy in the center: "Perisse maudit de Dieu avec sa race. 281. 3. 235). fig. 273). This is built up by receding cylinders and a massive conical dome topped by a temple. 20. both "great" structures like the Castle on the Sea and humble utilitarian buildings like the Ice House (fig.52 Recalling the trivial symbols of many works about 1800 we become aware of Lequeu's superior ability to express the significance of the structure by strictly architectural means. Placed at the beginning of the road to the impressive basic forms with a minimum of decorathe Holy City. Often the artists present 55Ibid. celui qui agira. 54Ibid. 15. feeling of grandeur which strikes us in the spherical forms of the two temples shows with still greater intensity in a mighty vaulted Court Hall. 225. too. 221. parlera ou pensera contre la republique. 226. Stepped terraces crowned by a temple are flanked by lower houses. primitive shapes suffice to sublimate balancedmerely by the distant hills. In the extraordinary variety of architectural features and in the marginal description of the fountains and the flowers. fig. The one is the aqueduct with the Sainte Cite in the background55 (fig. which calls to mind the interior of Boullee's Library. its tower to the left has no counterpart to the right. 282. 267). Yetwe must give him credit for his great inventiveness and his comparative independence from his models. Lequeu submitted it to the President des Etats Generaux . Trees and trellis clad with foliage mitigate the sternness of the stonework. the most extraordinary of Lequeu's inventions. 42. he appears in this house from fairy-land almost like one of the common-run Romanticists. des Pays-Bas in 1785. . similar to Boullee's thought to plant trees on the Cenotaph of Newton. whereas asymmetry is stressed in two other designs. or whether he just found them suitable. we recognize Lequeu's exuberant fantasy which distinguishes him from the austerity and the restraint of Boullee and Ledoux. 52Ibid.. The Island of Love is another great dream of the architect-poet (fig. wished to build in a new and grand manner.. On the margin we read the revolutionary curse. 1.. fig. . PT. fig. dated an 1. the birds and the beasts of the park. 11." I do not know whether these strong words were originally those of the then revolutionary architect. . The architects. 262). 237). Tall flanking obelisks and cypresses planted on the terraces add dramatic accents. is great and plain with reticently applied classical features (fig. Grandeur and fantastic beauty mark several large projects. The contrast of the boldly advancing tribune and the curved wall behind it is grand. dated an 3 de la Republique (fig. 53Ibid.VOL. the tower seems to the onlooker to be countertion. The other is the Rendezvous de Bellevue (fig. The Tribune of the Revolutionary Orators (Tribune des harangues). 276) . Temple of Virtue-Temple a la Vertu. The whole is strictly symmetrical. 212. The deep unrest of the period which so ardently strove to overcome the old and to attain the new becomes manifest in this fantasia. The elementary forms have in themselves the quality of grandeur which agreed so well with the intentions of the revolutionary architects.

a Venetian window. Boullee and Ledoux restored the elementary forms to their rightful place in architecture. but unlike the latter. Boullee and Ledoux. 282) is a terrace building with roof gardens. Jan. A mixture of incoherent and incongruous features. they have much of that severity which architecture in our own time was to reach after long and strenuous efforts. the motto of this book. The Indian Pagoda is one of Lequeu's most advanced compositions (fig. 278). 281). note 359. the Rendez-vous tells much of the period which struggled for innovation. 1952. it is asymmetrical. Ecclesiastical Prison-Prison de la juridiction des choses spirituelles et temporelles. from classicism and exoticism. stepped houses of the remote future. But their vision most certainly ushered in that "new day" which Ledoux so hopefully awaited. 59: 89-96. Architecture is beginning to calm down. Le Geay and Lequeu. A Greek temple on top of an attached tower. bearing the name of Louis XVIII. and the quotations pt. 283. Roy Inst. Though Lequeu. and plain frameless windows appear side by side. who ended in doubt. 219) and the Temple of Virtue (fig. The Ecclesiastical Prison is of utmost sobriety (fig. the elucidating article of Nikolaus Pevsner. [TRANS. In these designs the architect once more availed himself of various features of the past. Cf. WHEN THE TEMPEST STILLS Lequeu's post-revolutionary phase reveals that there was a road from fantastic inventions to a more realistic but nonetheless. as now. dated an I de la Republique presents all the beauty of elementary shapes (fig. in its rigidity.558 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS PHIL. one of his earliest inventions. hardly inferior in artistic quality to the Castle on the Sea. then. and now contrasts both in size and shape mean more than balance. Lequeu passed to the preternatural. Ledoux showed his progressiveness in his attempts to find a new order of the elements. Lequeu was destined to introduce into building the emotional and the irrational in a higher degree than the two older artists. note 399. pt. 284." Jour. for it has a personal touch. FIG. who died in the dark. looked back to remote times and remote regions. a gothicizing door. About the spreading of the new architectural concepts to Germany cp. 279). and the Funeral Monument (fig.56 56 Ledoux. 280). Pavilion Romain. SOC. he was nonetheless a forerunner of a significant current in the early twentieth century. From the ultimate stage of the Baroque with its marked exaggeration of forms and its affections. Although they are still somewhat restless. haunted by weird dreams. The concept of unrelated blocks appears also in the Terrace on the River (fig. FIG. here and there expressiveness counted more than formality. On the way to this future stand two late designs: The Soldiers' Memorial (fig. "Schinkel. None left examples for easy imitation. I am concerned only with the continuity of ideas. 284). 86. all were seers of faraway goals. Anticipating the twentieth century. great and dignified works emerged from the turmoil. a donjon carrying an observatory. II. Architecture. The date MCCCC on the roof should certaintly read MDCCC. It is not my intention to imply any direct connection between 1800 and 1900. His weird fantasies reveal much of his era to one who is interested in the development of artistic ideas rather than in practical improvement. and again and again turned to the past. Here and there similar unrest and similar incertitude inspired strange performances. The Roman Pavilion is an instance of the return to the Renaissance which became characteristicof the nineteenth century (fig. The Casino (fig. There is less tension here and less vigor than in Ledoux' Prison of Aix. which. like all Romanticists. The strong portal with the oversized keystones calls to mind similar forms on Ledoux' barrieres. is a far cry from the plasticity of the Athena Monument. Thus a further characteristic of the conventional art has been given up. artistic architecture. Moreover. . it already foreshadows the Brit. Although it seems to be just one of the Romantic excursions into far-away countries. This is not a slavish copy. AMER. The simultaneous appearance of forms of diversified origin is also a significant symptom. I. 283). 277). The circular monument to the Sovereignty of the People. Arch.

-F. 1935. 1948. 68: 35-48. who comCHAMPEAUX.-Arts 12: 138-141. and Ledoux. Klassik. . Apr. Ledoux.-N. Bauz. Art decoratif dans le Vieux Paris. 52: 3-21. Rosenau. Kunstliteratur. Das Werk 25: 84. Blondel. 1931. 1927. Soc. 1860. Historians 3: 12-30. Hist. ABEL. 1902. MARCEL. CHARLES. 1924. Berichte. 1928. Ledoux. Sum- Boffrand. in the second. pares Lequeuwith divers architects. DE. GANAY. Ministere de l'instruc- Bull. 1932. HELENE. Aug. Kunstg. Haus der Tanserin Guimard. C. LEQUEU 1862. Reviewed in Z. Ledoux. Arch. 1935. and the rediscovery of Ledoux. Architecture 40: 23-27. Salines d'Arc et Senans. Deals also with Boullee.1927. POLTI. Ledoux. Jour. Speaks also of Boffrand. Blondel. see the footnotes. EMIL. Metz. Monuments his- bourg-Paris. Hist. Bx. by H. Forsch. Bauz. Klassizismus als Tendenz und als Epoche. Art SOULANGE-BODIN. For further reference. Soc. Rotonde de la Villette. 1936. J. EMIL. ROSENAU. Les theories de l archiBORISSAVLIEVITCH. 64: 197-237. Parisienne. 1929. C. 1933. 49-68. Bx. . 1933: 92-96. . Oct. 1924. B. Art Bull. Paris. . Amer. Art franc. 1926. franzosischenArchitekturtheoretiker von 1650-1780. Der preussische Stil. BRION. The Contributionof J. Art SCHAPIRO. Architekturtheorieder franz6sischen KAUFMANN. J. Durand. 1943. Dec. Commentsalso on Boffrand and Laugier. Proces-verbaux 1925: 78-85. KURT.1933. Ledoux. E. general works and articles of general interest. F. LEDOUX KAUFMANN.-N. 1933. Propylees de Paris. 130-135. J.and my moderne.PAUL. Gaz.-Arts. 48 (58). 1935. 1948. Ledoux a Aix. 31: June KAUFMANN. 1934. Lequeu.-J. JULIUS. Un de l'architecture 1937. particularlyto the sources. Blondel to Mariette's Architecture Francoise. Mag. Thieme-Becker Lexikon 22: 536-537. 26: 189-225. Reviewed in Art Bulletin 18: 265. 67: 213-224. C. et mod. Ed. Kunst 63: 38-46. Versailles et Seine-et-Oise 35: 6-24. 2: 131-160. 88: 162-168. A. LEVALLET-HAUG. 1949. Kunstwiss. July 1946.-Arts. On the projects for Aix. Kunstwiss. Benouville. R. 69 (135): 22-29.-F. Emporium. Mai 1929. R. C.-Arts 70: 249-252. Reunion Soc. 1912. 42: Rep. KAUFMANN. C. Krit. Art Bulletin 31: 58-59.-Arts. Art franc. d'art et d'archeologie 34: 157. Hist. 1926. BERLUC-PERUSSIS. On Halwil house. Bx. Deals also with Lequeu.Arch. JEANNE. Die Stadt des Architekten Ledoux. 1936. . Besancon. ERNEST R. Pavillon de Mme Du Barry a Louveciennes. 18: 265-266. Acad.1934. Paris. Laugier. f. L'architecte Ledoux et la cloture de Paris.-N. toriques de la France year 3: 17-27. 1: 88-99. L'art a Besancon au 18e siecle. 1945. Architecte 5: 5-8. Archit. 1927. EMIL. JARRY. Soc. Criticism. RAVAL. GABRIEL. Art Bulletin 21: 212-227. 1892. Z. MONNOT. 1936. 103: 274. LENOTRE. C. G. 9. art anc. VAUTHIER. . Durand. 1938. Deals also with Blondel as a teacher. 1939. GENEVIiVE. BOULLEE KAUFMANN. . Lequeu. Dtsche. art anc. Ledoux e le sue opere. art anc. 115-148. DONNER. C. franc.JEAN. 271-285. Ecuries de Mme Du Barry. 1933. MILOUTINE. Laugier. Berichte Jg. 90: B. Krit. Architektonische Entwiirfe aus der Zeit der franz6s. et mod.MEYER..-N. Blondel. Burlington School. 1910. R.-Arts Depart. Hist. BLANC. 1949. Grammairedes arts du dessin. 1928. 16.-N. L. f. Revolution. 201-214. Chateau de Benouville. Blondel. MARCEL. MOREUX. . DE. 1929/1930. Bx. Art Bulletin 30: 288. Salines Royales d'Arc et Senans. PLANCHENAULT.-N. PETER 124-126. 1914.-Arts. Z. RENE. Dubut. Dtsche. Reviewed in Arch.-F. Bx. 106. The New Viennese ANONYMOUS. Bull. prompted an essay on CAYEUX (CAILLEUX). 288-295. Soc. Soc. Deals also with Boffrand and Laugier. Hist.. R. HARING. 1909. Aesthetik 30 (2): 278.but ignoring the Lequet documentsdoes not provide biographicalinformation. Discusses also marized in Rep. tion. Von Ledoux bis Le Corbusier. 1933. Bull. Etienne-Louis Boullee. Bx. BLONDEL AUGUSTE. 166. 1935. Ledoux. 1941. LEJEAUX. PROST. EMIL. FREMY.and J. Kirchenkunst 3: 61-65. 1938. 4: 353. Wien-Leipzig.-CH. Gas. Art Bull.-N. Soc. 212. HUGO. Paris. L'enceinte de Paris. Apr. J. tecture. bild. C. Salle de spectacle a Besancon. H6tel de Ville de Neuchatel. 1931. SCHLOSSER. Bx. 1939.BIBLIOGRAPHY This list contains monographs. article on Boullee. R.-N. GENEVIEVE.1949. Jan. Oct.in the first place. 65-73. Paris. Berlin. 1936. 1931. LEVALLET-HAUG. Vienna. f. precurseur The Lequeuillustrationsin my Von Ledoux. f. EMIL. R. 223-234. Parnassus 8: 16-18. Die asthetischen Hauptbegriffe der CASSIRER.. 2. Ledoux. 559 . -. June 1936. et mod. Stras- iconogr. R. 1933.

454. see also Napoleon Bordeaux. 454 Boullee. Temple. 454 Combes.INDEX Academy. 455 Church de la Madeleine. 459. 442. 455 Interieur de Ville. 451 Berluc-Perussis. 37 Palace of justice (Palais de justice). 45 Memorial (Phare). 35. 514. 549 Brault. Beaujon (Evreux. Hedwigskirche. 19 42 Chateau Chauvri. 455. 476 Besanqon. Jacques-Denis. 44. 43. 464. Jean de. 502 Andrieux. 39 Compagniedes Indes. 446. H6tel de. Germain.455 Chateau Pereux. G. 446-448. 455. Comte d'. 470. 512 Blondel. 461 Petite Force. 515 Brussels. 465.Marie-Jean-Antoine. Elysee). fig. 490 Burger. 469. 20 Square temple. Paris. 446. 465.453-473. 454 Circus for Place de l'Ptoile. chateau. 484 Arc-et-Senans.459. member of the Royal Academy. Royal. 454 Monumentde la reconnoissancepublique. 446 Bolton. 455 Antoine. 456. 450 Adam.Jean-Jacques. Charles-Nicolas. 465. 473. 458. 463. Pierre-Louis. 451. Paris. his critics. Paris. 455 Porte de Ville. 461. 2 Programmes. contribution to. 454. 474.. 23 Opera house. 489 Collins. 450. censuring Ledoux. 21 City gates. 38 Library. figs. 449 Bonaparte. 440 Ammanati. fig. and Soufflot. fig. Procesverbaux. 457.Louis de. 456. garden of. H6tel de. 454 Boffrand. 448. 456 Compiegne. 454. Francois. Fritz. 461. 38. 454. 33. 456. Francesco. 458 Benoit. 48 Newton memorial (Cenotaphe de 560 Newton). 470. fig. Paris. fig. Pierre C. Comte d'. 470. 473 Church of Saint-Roch. 450 Misotechnites aux enfers. 456 Briseux. 32. 15 Museum. 471 Sepulchral Chapel (Chapelle des morts). 461 Metropolitan church (Metropole). Gabriel. Louis-Josephde. 477. . 471. 47 Triumphal arches. 512 Baudin. see also Ledoux Alberti. 461. 27. L. and Boullee. 22. 40 Palais Royal. 29 Library. 454 Bastide. fig. 436. 466. Paris. 465.436 De la distribution des maisons de plaisance. Leone Battista. Jacques-Franqois. 454. 47? Chalgrin. 434 Berlin. 476 Capon. 41 Town hall (Palais Municipal). 440 Discours sur la necessite de l'et:idede l'architecture. 454. d'Architecture. 448 Voyage d'Italie. 436 Doorway (Porte dans le genre moderne). Spire. 455 Chateau de Versailles.(456). 471 Chateau Tasse. 539. fig. Bartolommeo. 455 Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Cours d'Architecture.Lucien. Public. fig. 464. 460. 459. 455.477 . 455. 454. architectural. 443 WRITINGS Architecture Francoise. Boullee's teacher. Paul-Adolphe.436. 455. 455. Sir Reginald. 491 Barreau. 455. figs. . 442. sur la Bibliotheque du Roi. 479. Paris. 456 Chauvigny. 463. 455. 479 Chambers. 446. 25 Opera house on a square. 458 Boudin.. 454 Bachaumont. 456. Enea. Jean-Francois de. 46 Church on Montmartre or Mont Valerien. 461. figs. 456. fig. 6 Malgrange. Etienne-Louis. 34 Necropolis (Grand monument funeraire). 448. fig. 538 Caffieri. 450 Angivillers. 491 Celerier. . fig. 479.470 f.see Ledoux Conde. Arthur Thomas. 438 Cours d'Architecture. Alexandre (Colanges). 455. 437.454. Memoire . figs. 436 Ordre Persique. 1.William. 541. Pernon. 446 Wiirzburg. his pupils. 458 PROJECTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS Batiment a l'Italienne. 454. figs. 446. 434. of Architecture. 473 Musee Franqais. Palace of. 455. Robert.436-446. Artois.446 PROJECTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS Bouchefort. (456). 18. England. 454. Franqois-Joseph. 460. 465. Jacques. 489 Benard. Joseph. 24. 489. 454. 468. fig. 441. 3 Parish church (Eglise paroissiale). 7 Seignelay. Paris. 463. 471. 472. comte de. 444 Manor House for a Gentlemanfrom Florence. 549 PROJECTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS Encyclopedie. 454 Condorcet. 442 Clive. 457 Algarotti. see Ledoux Babeau. 462. H6tel de Fleury. 436. Collection des prix . 467. 28 WRITINGS L'Architecture (Essai sur I'artmanuscript) 458. Jean-Franqois-Therese. 466. 471 Blondel. 473. 455. 471. student of Blondel. 5 Country houses (maisons de plaisance). work at. 455 Chateau Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 454. 467. 441. 463. 467. 470. Paris. 452 Blomfield. fig. 439 Conventual church (Eglise conventuelle). and Ledoux. 438 Metz. 454. 474. 450. Paris. Paris. 455. 476. 455. 455. 461. 442 Utilitarian buildings. 455 Bouville. Paris. 445. Paris. 498 Cayeux. 459. 479. . 456 Cochin. Francois. 454 Supplicationaux orfevres. 460 Bridge near Place Louis XV. 445 Bath. 460. figs. 489 Benard. Charles-Joachim. 439.436. Bourbon. fig. Paris. fig. 458.539 Calonne. 17. 454. Demonville. 460. 454 Cenotaphs. Royal Crescent. Prison. 460. 457. and Lequeu. see Ledoux Arnaldi. Paris. fig. figs. 445 Blondel. see Ledoux Cleemputte. his views on architecture. 30. 36 Mint.442 Brongniart. Thun. 459. H6tel des Ecuries d'. L. Albert. 445. see also Lequeu Borromini. 488. Francesco. 479.Alexandre-Theodore.446 Assembly hall (Assemblee Nationale). 456 Belanger. 454 Livre d'architecture.439. Brunoy. 543 Chantilly. 469. 464. Palace of. 474. 440. Charles Alexandre. 435. Charles-Etienne. 539 Memoires inedits. 31 Versailles. 457. Academy building. 14. Tourolle. fig. 45/ Cleemputte. 476. 436 Discours sur la maniere d'etudier 'architecture. 455 Bourse. 446. figs. 472. of Le Geay. 39 Residences. 4 Profiles. and Laugier. 470. 436. 434. Elie.Louis. 460. 461.. Porte Saint-Denis. 26. 465. fig. 518. 451. 466 Spiral tower (Tour tronc-conique). 489 Artois. 470. fig. 476 Coblence. 455 Auxerre. 459. Paris. Lord Robert. 489. of Boffrand. 491 Aix-en-Provence. 469f. fig. 439 L'homme du monde eclaire par les arts. chateau de. see Ledoux Bezout. Paris. figs. discussed by Boullee. Palais. de. 446 Torcy. Pavilion de. 16 Bibliothequedu Roi. fig.

516. 454 Couture. 482.454. 456. 453 Ledoux. figs. 492.. 474. Discours sur le gout. Montpellier. 189. 479 Lecamus de Mezieres. fig. 454 Grosdidierde Matons. 479 Hume. 158. Pierre. 455 David. Charcoal burners' (Atelier des charbonniers). 490 Gois. 516. 520. 537. 434. 488. 435. fig. 450. 448 Gabriel Jacques-Ange. 490. 101 Benouville. 474. J. of Trouard.P. 436. 451. 448450. 459 Dussieux. figs. 479. 456. 457. 535. Nicolas. PT. Michel d'. fig.Annales du Musee. 458. 437. 454 Gisors. Cabinet makers'. 517. fig. his pupils. 456 Guilmard. 489. 546 Desmaisons. 481 Cousin.455. Franqois-Michel. A. Robert-Guillaume. 159. publications. 479. 491 Lecreulx. 445. 478 Dulaure. 518. 441. 502 477 Fontaine. 479. Palazzo Pitti. Salomon. 479 Florence. Francois. 492. Marcel. Nicolas. G. 518. 474. 509. 538. Guillaume-Martin. Antoine-Mathurin. 516. 523. 436 Dimier. representative of architecture parlante. 489 Lacroix. 479. 475 Joyant. Francois. 533. 477 Fragonard. 545 Hegemann. Cenobie. Recueil et parallele des edifices. 442 Debard. Bourse. Jean-Baptiste. 539 Abbaye de Panthemont. 509 La Font de Saint-Yenne. student of Blondel. 42. Augustin-Charles. Paris.Jules. Maurice. 148. 145. 84. 477. 477. . Etienne-Pierre-Adrien. 528. Councillor's (conseiller de Besancon). 446 De la Porte. 451 Lebon. 476 Frezier. 456 Frederick II of Prussia.474 Barail house. Jean-Charles. 558 Giesecke. 1952] INDEX Gerland. 521. 457.Louis. Parallele . 86. Chapel. Louis-Ambroise. Nicolas-Henri. Church. 454 Lebrun. 450.441 Halle au ble. 488. cathedral. 201-206 Du Fresne. Fouche.477. 455. Recueil d'Architecture civile. 490. 458 Guepiere. see Ledoux Heurtier. 163. 454 Here de Corny. 476. des salles de spectacle d'Italie. fig. Educational building (Maison d'Education). Louis. fig. 534. 519 Goetghebuer. influencedby Servandoni. 517. Otto. fig. 474 Jardin. see also Chaux Auxerre. 520. curator of the Musee central des arts. 442. 440 Husson. Armand. 177. 449 Le Carpentier.. 514.L. 166. Jacques-Pierre. Cemeteries. 436. 187. 452 Giglioli. J. 490. 498 Cordemoy. 474 Du Barry. 459 Damesme. 514. 510. 447. 166.VOL. fig. 448 Observationssur l'architecture. Pierre-Franqois-Leonard. governor of Franche-Comte. Of the Standard of Taste. 534. gateway. 441. governor's palace. 454 Lapauze. 49. Chapel of Versailles. 459. 477. 521 PROJECTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS Conti. 526. 105 Chauvigny en Poitou. 537. Court house. 493. 470 Ixnard. 448 Courtonne. member of the Royal Academy. 532. Ledoux. 194. Coach house. Princesse de. 524.. Giulio. 456 Debrosse. 535. 481. 476 Jarry. Jean-Charles. Director's (Maison du directeur). 510. fig. 456. 552 Krafft. 459. Engineer's . 505 Gourdon. 541 David. 85 Bourneville. 487. Artists'. Traite de l'architecture. Baths. 451. Emil.446. Edouard. Coopery (Atelier des cercles). Paris. F. Kaufmann. 455. Paul. 434.Jean. Claude-Nicolas. 539 Lacore. Edouard. Casino (Maison de jeux). Louis-Emmanuel-Aime. 454 Landon. chapel. 529. 449.theatre. Etienne-Maurice. 455 Larrabee. 474537. Antoine-Joseph. Paris. Robert. figs. Court house (La Jurisdiction). Description de Paris. Architecture civile. L. Commerce. ' Madame. 504 Hazard. 454 Fournerat. Paul. 521. 458 Lancret. 489.. 479. fig. fig. quoted. 491. 461. 499 Jolimont. 476. 475 Germany. Paul. 509 Gerard. 534. 439 Encyclopedie. Nicolas-Claude. aine. 526 Joseph II. 455 Daviler.455 Dumolin. 434. 476. 517. 532. Mathurin. prisons. Two (Deux ebenistes). 458 Green. Nicholas. 514. Guarino. . director of the Tresor Royal. Georges-Eugene. 547 Lecomte. 448 Lajoue. 200. 144. 454 Grands Prix. 454 Aix. Amedee-Franqois. 436 Guarini. David. fig. 519 Haussmann. 441. Nicolas.477. Ernest de. 456. Pierre-Etiene. 536. 477 Fouquier. 520. 454. Felix. 492. emperor. 527. 455. 456 Dardel. Philippe de la. Jean-Francois. Examen d'un Essai sur l'Architecture. 150. 496. 518. Bridge (Pont de la Loue). chateau de. 97 Bellevue.. 529. 465. 538 Dureme. 459 Girodet. fig.Anne-Louis. Honore. Louis.445.. 477. Antoine-Jean. 83 Chaux. Jacques. T. 510.. Memoires critiques d'architecture. J. 459 preferred to 561 Lavallee. his critics. 454 Dumont. 474. 554 Girardin. 535. 439 House Rue du Coq. 479. 490 Damoye. 456. 440. Portes cocheres. 456 J. Public (Bains de la ville de Chaux). Maurice. fig. Inigo. 469 Genie de l'architecture. Henry. 184. 454 Descamps. E. Marcel. 484 Ganay. 455 Dezallier d'Argenville. Parc de. Jacques-Louis. Fig. Choix des plus jolies maisons de Paris. Jacques-Antoine. fig. Marc-Antoine. 500 Hawksmoor. 489 Durand. Remarques sur quelques livres nouveaux concernant l'Architecture. 512 Gros. Emmanuel.houses of (Maisons de commerce). 439 Falconet. 474. fig. fig. Two (Deux artistes). 517. fig.D. 488. 446 Goulet. Normandie. 455 Horace. 504 Dormans sur Marne. Pierre. 476. fig. 490. Joseph. 147. 522. 523. 539 Gondoin. 437 Delafosse. 459 Jones. 498. Harold A. 476 Laugier. C. 55 Besanqon. 483. 495. Charles. 453 Essai sur I'architecture. Ledoux' birthplace. Werner. 156. Art dealers'. fig. Carpenter's (Logement du charpentier). 3. 512 Hautecoeur. 509. Abbe. 525. fig. 459. 532. 491 Dubut. 450 Henard. Plans des plus belles maisons a Paris. fig. 445. City Hall. the Ideal City of. 474. 446. 451 Fremin. 518.456 Crucy. 153. Albert. Jules. 436. G. Gabriel-Pierre-Martin. 529. fig. 512. 451 Hardouin-Mansart. his views on architecture. 510. Jacques. 455 Eaubonne. 477. 491 Franque. 514. M. 482. 171.448 87. see Ledoux Eisen. Broker's (Agent de change). Jean-Nicolas-Louis..474.Charles-Paul. 494. 174.512 Hesse-Cassel. Lauzon house. 440 Place du Peyrou. 457 Institut de France. 88 Arc-et-Senans. 536. 541.. fig. fig.-454 Fillon. 440 Fremy. 510.

516. 535. figs. 482. departmental. 146. fig. 53. 479. 529. chateau de. 543 Plays. figs. 455 Le Geay. fig. 476 Lefeuve. House with the Palladian row. fig. 437. 258 Architecture. theatre. Du Barry palais. 533. 259 Chapel in the Emperor's palace. fig. fig. 498. 476. 208 Architecture civile. Oikema. fig. Grange. Montmorency. Tabary.Henry. 167. 539. exterior. 495. 70. Discount Bank. fig. 176. Tripartite. Meulenaer casino. fig. Pheasantry. Town hall. 197. fig. 522. Evaporation building (Batiment de graduation). 482. Church of the Capuchin nuns. 68. 113-129. 484. entrance of the Infernal. fig. with a belvedere. 499. 178. 535. 556.558. fig. fig. 456. 243 Arch for the Triumphal Road. 140. 149. 192. 487 Architecture (treatise). 246 Casino. 175. 490. 515. 498-509. House with three Palladian motifs. 485. Montholon h6tel. fig. 525. 551. 215 Prouy estate. fig. fig. Description de Paris. Tenement. 228.484. 519. 515. Rural school. 251 Arch in Honor of the Brave. 180. 229 Hermitage. hospital. 61 Schemitt house. fig. fig. 186. figs. Georges. 80 Paris houses: Atilly. 497. 108-111. Andre. 492 Saint-Vrain. 535. 516. 95. 509. fig. 556. Jacques-Guillaume. fig. Fermes. 79. 492. 529. Writer's (Maison d'un homme de lettres). House with the T-pattern. 549. 512. of Soufflot. 531. project. 543 Portenort. 56. Du Barry stables. 483. fig. figs. fig. 152. 529. Episcopal palace. figs. fig. figs. 551. 532. 474. 546. fig. 514. Home of the poor (L'abri du pauvre). 521. 485.540 Court hall. House with four belvederes. fig. 484. 514. Gun foundry (Forge a canons). 479. fig. 538. 540 Marseille. Jarnac. Horsepond (Lavoir et abreuvoir). House with barrel roofs. fig. 490. censuring Boullee. 541. fig. fig.Lamberthouse. fig. associate of the Academy of Rouen. 169. Mausoleum for Place de la Concorde. fig. fig. fig. fig. fig. 216 Fort. first project. fig. 66 Neuchatel. 533. 234 Arc du Peuple. 217 Astronomer'shouse. fig. 103. 527. 112 Eaubonne. fig. fig. fig. 521. 532. 139. 492. Cafe Militaire. 504. 458. 173. 60. fig. Treasurer's (Maison d'un caissier). fig. 190. 196. fig. 450. 269. 77. Foresters' (Gardes de la foret). teacher of Boullee. fig. fig. 522. of Le Roy. 514. Halwil. Lumbermen's (Atelier des bucherons). fig. 515. 75. fig. fig. Fountain. 165. 91. 546. fig. fig. 164 Ideal City. Shelter for the rural guards (the spherical house-Maison des gardes agricoles). surveillants de la Loue). 195. House with the novel facade. 168. 199. 476. 179. 552. Library. 94. 532. 552. House on the mountain. 532. 100 Monument de popularite. 509. Bretagne. 213 Hen house. student of Descamps. fig. THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 476f. 99 Legrand. fig. 73. 554. 64 Meilliand. 546. Uzes. figs.529. Tomb Monument. 504. 494. cathedral. Bouville house (Temple du Silence). 555 Dairy. 143. 282 Castle on the Sea (Le vieux chateau). 92 Marseille. fig. 510. 104. Parsonage (Paroisse). 554.SoC. 551. 504. see Chaux La Roche Bernard. fig. 555. Barriere.church. 476. 489. Monumentfor deserving citizens on Place de l'Arsenal. Saiseval. 514. fig. 253 Grotto. 514. 71. 557. 193. fig. fig. Mannery house. 556. 483. 280 Grotto of Cypris. 183. fig. 481. Furnaces (Fourneaux de la saline. 515. 474. Surveyors of the River (Directeurs. 157. 552. 543 PROJECTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS Designs for definite sites Bordeaux. Du Barry. fig. Hospice. 154. fig. 557. 497. fig. 510. 57 Salins. fig. House with the cylindrical crowning. 528. 539. 218 Columns. fig. 552. 527. Hunting lodge (Retour de chasse). 538. 237 Architectural fantasies Abode of Pluto. 107. 552. fig. 493. 514. 510. figs. 222 Bellevue. Factory (Atelier destine a la fabrication des sels). 488. 554. see Chauvigny Louveciennes. fig. 552. 539. 510. 210 Chinese house. 544. 495 Lauzon house. fig. 89 Spherical house. 494. 535. 482. 525. 484. 59 Eguiere. fig. 530. fig. 498. Barrieres. 535. fig. fig. entrance. 136. 520. 531. 551. 106. fig. fig. 538-558. 547. Memorial in honor of womankind (Temple de memoire). etchings. 509. 483. 557. Panareteon. Conti house. 530. 459 Lemonnier. 539. 82. 450-453. 532. 494. 474. Guimard. Memorial. 52. town hall. 531. 522. Ledoux. 50. Workmens' (Batiment des ouvriers). Prospectus. Overseers' (Commis employes a la surveillance). 484. 504. Jeanne. Market. second. 551. 552. fig.house of (Maison de plaisir). 483. fig. Pacifere. Saint-Germain. fig. 490. 483. House with roof terraces. Hosten. fig. Recreational building (Edifice destine aux recreations). Rendez-vous de. 58 Sens. 539. 54. 72.chateau de. 188. 436 Lelievre. 529. 492. 235 Belvedere. 270 Rouen. figs. 454 141. 90 Entertainment. fig. fig. 264 Arbour. 492. 539. 233 Ice house. [TRANS. Jean-Jacques. Charles. 520. 539. 191. teaching design. figs. 151. chateau d'. 96 Conti house. 556. 65. 488. fig. figs. Little Inn (Petite Hotellerie). 434 Len6tre. Rue Neuve de Berry. 67. fig. see Maupertuis. 81 Maupertuis.474 Sisteron. 211. 534. Rue Poissonniere. fig.484. fig. 262 . 160. Jean-Laurent. H6tel des. fig. announcedby Thiery. 93. 260 Paris. House of 1773. 498. Hocquart. 534. 547. Gymnasium (Portiques). 457. figs. 485. 482. 555. store house (Grenier a sel). 520.PHIL. Salle des bosses). 535. fig. 484. fig. fig. 51. Four families' (Maison d'un pere avec trois enfants). Theatre Royal. 483. 76 Witt house. 181. interior. 519. Saltworks (Saline de Chaux). with a balcony. Propylaea. 112.539. 491. 532. 78. 527. fig. 479. 491. fig.562 KAUFMANN: (Maison d'un mecanicien). 437 Lequeu. 495. fig. fig. 161. figs. fig. 74 WRITINGS Lejeaux. Merchants' Two (Deux negociants). 255 Beacon. obelisk. fig. 510. 520. 155. fig. 488. fig.. 547. House. 62. 485. 532. farm house. 172. 548 Voorhout. 474. fig. 214 Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 436. rue d'Artois. 531. Evry. 69. 212 Funeral monument. 130-135. 481. 558. Farm house (Cour de service). 63.455. 185. figs. 555. Thelusson. 72. fig. 484. fig. 142. 232 Egyptian house. fig. fig. Woodcutters' (Atelier des scieurs de bois). 535. fig. 492. fig. fig. 527. 8-12 Duke's chapel. 198. 240 Deer Forest. Merchant of Besancon. fig.557. fig. fig. 540. figs. Pierre. 486. Union house (Maison d'Union). Valentinois. 484. Inns (guinguettes). 162. fig. fig. 535. 170. 182. fig. Rue Saint-Denis (Commercial building). see Barrieres. 453 Len6tre. 138. Versailles. Du Barry pavilion. 533. 540 Terlinden. Compiegne. Espinchal. 273 Cow shed. 98 Hesse-Cassel. 512. 102. 484. Modiste's (Marchande de modes). Gateway (Porte d'entreede la saline). 137.

471 Rivoli. Richard. 481 563 Montmartre cemetery. 558. Antoine-Francois. 494. 479. 446 Meissonnier. Ledoux. St. see also Ledoux. fig. Villa Ragona. 450 Plan. 488. fig. N. 554. 499 Pugin. 518 Place de la Concorde. 487. 496 Raymond. 481.. 553. fig. Louis-Joseph. Jules. reconstruction. Marie-Joseph. fig. 473. 484 Halle au ble.see Ledoux 450 Paul I. Gisela. 552. G. 552. censuring Ledoux. 220 Warehouse. fig. fig. garden of. Nikolaus. 244 Memorial to Victor Moreau. 454 Pineau. Gustave. 459 Peyre. 283 Roman pavilion. fig. la gloire de Louis XV. fig. 504 Raffaello. Louis-Marie. fig. 546. Ledoux' last resting place. 494. 236 Maison de plaisance. Joseph-Jacques. Jean-Baptiste. fig. 247 Mausoleum of Voltaire. of Russia. fig. Jean-Charles-Alexandre. 554 Riemer. 275 Justice of the peace. 454 Mansart. Nicolas. 440 Saint-Gervais. 445 Prudhomme. Charles.Rene. fig. Theatre. 479 Nancy. 529. 554. Auguste. . Boullee. Juste-Aurele. 459 Perault. 461 Panthemont. fig. 492 Oppenort. 518. 458 Metz. Horst. 552.. 476 Napoleon III. 467 Ramee. 440. 474. 459. 445. 554 Martin. 272 Temple to the unknown God. 479 Mathieu. 437. Daniel. fig. 558. 478 Montmartre cemetery. 455. Mae. 456 Mondain-Monval. 446. fig. rue de. 207 Le Roy. 505 Planchenault. Rural Architecture. 494. 482. 446. 231 Temple of Terpsichore. Pierre. 454 Saint-Sulpice.552. Pierre-Adrien. fig. 487. 556. 257 Tribunal seigneurial. Frick collection. 441 Robertson.448 Saint-Roch. Temple of Fortuna. 487. 554. 458. 435. 474. 245 Temple of Virtue. Edgar Presto. 515 Carousel. 551. de la Charite. Augustin. 556. J. see Academy of Architecture Prost. 540. 435. 238 Porte du Parisis. 446. 479. Jean. 452. 461 Elysee palace. 491 New York. 551. 266 Powder magazine. 265 Terrace on the river. 496. 268 Pagoda. Antoine. 496. Pantheon. Jean-Francois de. see Franque Moreau. 491 Portenort. fig. fig. 249 Memorial to the Citizens who Died for their Country. Abel. 491 Palladian motif. 251 Porte Flamande. 476 Richter. 479 Place de l'Etoile. 456 Prieur. 531 Palladio. Jean-Jacques-Francois. Emile. Rotonde du. 475 Peets. 42.450 Moreux. 447. 209 Monument in honor of illustrious men. 279 Synagogue. 449 Od6on. 539 Molinos. 557.471. 556. see Paris Montpellier. Rotonda.479 Rennes. fig. 496. Claude. 261 Temple de l'Egalite. fig. 3. Pierre de. 446.VOL. Inn of the enchantedgarden. fig. 449.Charles-Louis. 556. Lecamus. 500. 552. 552. 247 Sainte Cite. 227 Pigeon house. 459 Rouen. 456. 551. 459 Palais Royal. 514 Loukomski. 445. 479. fig. 474. Sanzio. Tableaux historiques de la Revolution Franqaise. censuring Ledoux. 540. 450 Palais de justice. 558. 456 Pont-Rouge. 538. 450 Peloux. 483. 557. 486 Ramee. 538 Monnot. 274 Persian Porch. 445 Piranesi. 558 Peyre. 477 Montesquieu. 456 Porte Saint-Denis. 551. fig. 455. 455 Patte. 554. Indian. 437 Mourey.450 Pierre. 474 Portalis. 543 Tomb of Porsenna. Peter's. Monuments eriges . 540. Marcel. 516. 459 Maupertuis. 471 Bourse. 512 Polti. 552. 458 Tuileries. 502 Louveciennes. K. PT. 487. 456. 230 Pompe a feu. 455 Peyre. Andrea. fig. 454 Raval. fig.discussed by Boullee. fig. 471 Rondelet. J. Essay in Defence of Ancient Architecture.476 Ransonette. 455. 551. fig. Jean-Louis. 512 Nantes. fig. 487. 281 Temple of Wisdom.. 557.Jean-Arnauld. 458 Outardel. 558. 491 Nolhac. 454 Fleury h6tel. Vicenza. 463 Rome. 551. 459 Timbre National. 519 Louis XV. Jacques. fig. fig. Ch. chateau de. 552. 455. 551. 437 Madeleine. 441 Temple. 528. 557. (Euvres d'architecture. fig. Julien-David. 505 Morris. 454 Pajou. Roger. Boffrand. 504. 517 Louis XIV. fig. fig. 504 Proces-verbaux. 241 Prison. fig.440. 248 Tribune of the revolutionary orators.470. Emplacementdu. 224 Soldier's Memorial. 471. 494 Neuchatel.see Ledoux Max Emanuel of Bavaria. 436. 489. Lequeu. Antoine-Marie. 446 Maulgue. 1952] INDEX Macon. 558. 253 Temple of Ceres. 512 Marseille. 276 Sanctuary of the Creator. 242 Monument to Athena. Charles du. Louis. 226 Temple de la Terre. 467. Hall of the National Convention. Augustus. Robert. 552. Nicolas-Marie. 555. 474. . 476. 530. 558. Carlo. Gianbattista. 470. 457. Viel) Arc de triomphe de l'Etoile. 478 Louis XVI. Abbaye de. 450. 440. fig. fig. 267 Turkish house. era of. fig. 2184 Rural retreat (Maison de plaisance). 556. see Ledoux Neufforge. 271 Temple of the God of the Armies. 483. fig. Cochin (Saint-Jacques du HautPas). 487. D. 459 Napoleon Bonaparte. 455 Normand (fils). 225 Persian sanctuary. Henry. 541 Levallet-Haug. 538. 219 Tomb of the architect. 552. Franque. 555.fig. 519 Paris. 238 Monument to the sovereignty of the people. 437. fig. Villa Trissini. fig. cathedral. Basilica. Genevieve. 558. 254 Temple of Isis. Gabriel. 477 Perard de Montreuil. Teatro Olimpico. Colosseum. 263 Ordre symbolique. 504. fig. Villa Foscari. 488 Lodoli. 439 Pantheon (Sainte-Genevieve). fig. 555. 456 Molinier. 278 Palais champetre. 456 Hospitals. 484. 436 Marly. 256 Wine press. see Blondel Mique. fig. 488. 456 Richardson. 474 Rigorists. 438. 448. 277 Nymphee. 467 Matignon h6tel. 554. 456 Luxembourg. see Hardouin Mariette. see Lequeu . 482 Plagiarism. 439.453. Beaujon. Ecclesiastical. 221 Lequeu. 494 Paris (see also Antoine. S. 558. 470 Pevsner. see Lequeu Potain. 555. Jacques. 450 Necker. 250 Island of love. Georges. fig. 223 Temple of Bacchus. 474. Paris moderne. 477 Notre-Dame. 439.. Gilles-Marie. 13 Louvre galleries. 555. fig. 479 Percier. fig. Lequeu Martha. 252 Look-out of the game keeper.Jean. Albert. fig. 457.

472 Stern. Charles-Franqois. 482. Guide des amateurs. see also Boullee.Ledoux Viel de Saint-Maux. 451. 496 Voorhout. Rousseau. W. 450 Soane.457 H6pital Saint-Jacques du Haut-Pas. 439 Schenectady. 451 Ward. John. see Boullee. [TRANS. 456 Swarte. 474. H. see Ledoux Serlio. Auguste. 454 Salins. 538. Hardouin-Mansart. 447 Wittkower. New York. see Lequeu Thibault. 457 Sisteron. 458 Decadence de l'architecture. 455. 539 Soufflot. 476 Winckelmann. 520 Wille.454. see Lequeu Wailly. 451 Schneider. J. 558 Schlosser. Julius. Louis. Union College. 535. Petit. Victor de. 13 Lettres sur I'architecture. Sir John. 439. 458 Vien. 436 Visconti. 440 Wood. Camillo. Lequeu Saint-Victor. 456. church. Paris. Almanach du voyageur. Rene. Rudolf. 448 Schmitz. see Ledoux Scamozzi. Tableau historique et pittoresque de Paris. 474 Simond. 457. Louis-Francois. 457. Pierre. 519. 448. 502 Vignon. 517. Jean-Nicolas. 504 Vauthier. 512 Wiirzburg. Charles. 441.454 Trianon. 477. 455 Tarchi. 483 Stael. Joseph-Marie. Jean. 538. Simon-Louis du. censured. fig. Sebastiano. Giovan Niccolo. 459 Thiery. Madame de. 452 Sens.-M. 474 Valenciennes. 492 Vitruvius.-B. Jacques-Germain.churchof Saint-Amand. Jean-Thomas. Silvestre de.451. 5001 Servandoni. Josiah. 455 Stuttgart. Vincenzo. 474 Trudaine de Montigny. Hugo. 476 Versailles. John.PHIL. see Ledoux Sitte. Karl Friedrich. Gabriel. the younger. 474 Sobre. 537 Ry.564 KAUFMANN: THREE REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTS AMER. 484 Trouard. 476 Schinkel. Luc-Vincent. Cesariano edition. de. theatre. 446 . 554 Terlinden. Francois. 459 Saint-Amand en Flandres. 478. 491 Vignola. Charles de. 457. 455. 450. 457 Principes de l'ordonnancedes batimens. 477 Villar. 449. Johann Georg.442 Vanbrugh. 442 Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 434. Hermann. 474 Sacy.Johann Joachim. 484 Wedgwood. palace. 546 Soulange-Bodin. Jean-Jacques.458. 454. 477 Soufflot.SOC. Giacomo Barozzi da. quoted. 457 Schoy. Jean-CharlesPhilibert.