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Su8AP AL-MA'un (1PL SMALL Cll1S, CPAÞ1L8 106)
1hls Surah ls Makkl, and lL has 7 verses.

Pave you seen hlm who denles Lhe 8equlLal? [1] So he ls Lhe same one who pushes away Lhe
orphan. [2] and does noL persuade (oLhers) Lo feed Lhe needy. [3] So, woe Lo Lhose performers of
salah, [4] who are neglecLful of Lhelr salah, [3] who (do good only Lo) show off [6] and refuse (Lo glve
even) small glfLs. [7]

CCMMLn1A8?: 1he |ove of the wor|d causes nat|ons to |ose fa|th and cons|gn A||ah to ob||v|on.

1hls surah denounces some of Lhe evll acLlons of Lhe pagans and Lhe hypocrlLes, and lL holds ouL a
LhreaL of desLrucLlon Lo Lhose who commlL Lhem. lf Lhese evll acLlons are commlLLed by bellevers, who
do noL re[ecL Lhe Lrue falLh, Lhey are sLlll helnous and gravely slnful, buL Lhe LhreaL of chasLlsemenL
made ln Lhls surah does noL apply Lo Lhem. 1herefore, verse [107:1] ºPave you noL seen hlm who
denles Lhe 8equlLal?" as a preamble makes lL clear LhaL Lhe person who performs Lhese evll deeds ls
one who crles lles Lo Lhe uoom, and Lhus Lhe warnlng of punlshmenL menLloned ln Lhls surah ls for
Lhose who deny Lhe rellglon and Lhe uay of !udgmenL. 1he verse conLalns a subLle lndlcaLlon LhaL Lhe
moral slns condemned ln Lhls surah are far Loo lnconcelvable from a bellever, only a non-bellever or
hypocrlLe would commlL Lhem. 1he morally bad and slnful deeds menLloned here are: 1) oppresslng
and lnsulLlng Lhe orphan, and belng unklnd Lo Lhem, 2) desplLe Lhe means, falllng Lo feed Lhe poor or
falllng Lo urge oLhers Lo feed Lhem, 3) praylng ln publlc only, noL ln prlvaLe for Lhe sake of showlng off
Lo Lhe people, and 4) falllng Lo pay ZakaL [obllgaLory alms]. 1hese acLlons are lnLrlnslcally bad and
gravely slnful, buL Lhelr commlsslon ln Lhe wake of kufr [dlsbellef] and Lakdhlb [re[ecLlon] are even
more aggravaLlng, because Lhey aLLracL eLernal perdlLlon, whlch ln Lhls surah ls descrlbed as woll
[heavy affllcLlon or calamlLy or dlsasLer or desLrucLlon].

verses [107:4-6] ºSo woe Lo Lhose performers of salah who are neglecLful of Lhelr salah, who do good
only Lo show off." 1hese verses descrlbe Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe hypocrlLes who used Lo perform Lhe
prayers only Lo make a dlsplay of Lhem Lo Lhe people and prove LhaL Lhelr clalm of belng slncere
Musllms ls Lrue. As Lhey do noL belleve ln Lhe obllgaLory naLure of Lhe prayers, Lhey are noL regular aL
Lhem, and Lhey do noL observe Lhe prescrlbed Llmes, buL offer Lhem carelessly aL Lhe elevenLh hour or
compleLely ouL of Llme. 1hey perform Lhem only when Lhey musL Lo make a dlsplay of Lhem, oLherwlse
Lhey have no place ln Lhelr llves. 1he preposlLlon 'an (LranslaLed above as ºof") ls slgnlflcanL, as lL
lndlcaLes LhaL Lhey [Lhe hypocrlLes] are neglecLful of Lhe very concepL of salah. 1hls does noL refer Lo
Lhe unlnLenLlonal errors, sllps and mlsLakes LhaL Musllms make ln Lhelr prayers. 1he Poly ÞropheL also
made Lhese Lypes of unlnLenLlonal mlsLakes ln hls prayers. 1he warnlng of Pell by Lhe expresslon of
woll does noL apply Lo such mlsLakes. lf LhaL was Lhe case, Lhe preposlLlonal phrase would have been fl
salaLlhlm [ln Lhelr prayers] lnsLead of 'an salaLlhlm [neglecLful of Lhelr prayers].

verse [107:7] ºAnd refuse [Lo glve even] small glfLs." 1he word ma'un llLerally means 'any small or
peLLy Lhlng' and ldlomaLlcally lL refers Lo small household arLlcles of common use such as an axe,
gardenlng Lool, or cooklng poL whlch aL Lhe Llme of need nelghbors borrow from one anoLher.

Anyone who ls unwllllng Lo lend such small lLems ls morally a very mlserly and mean person. Powever,
ln Lhe currenL verse Lhe word ma'un ls Laken ln Lhe sense of Zakah [obllgaLory alms] because lL ls a llLLle
amounL - only 2° ouL of Lhe enLlre wealLh. Ma[orlLy of Lhe commenLaLors llke Sayyldna 'All lbn 'umar,
Pasan 8asrl, CaLadah uahhak, and oLhers hold Lhe vlew LhaL ma'un lmplles Zakah. 1he LhreaL of woll
(LormenL of Pell) can only be for fallure Lo fulflll one's legal obllgaLlon. Clvlng small lLems Lo help ouL
one's fellow human belngs ls a humanlLarlan and phllanLhroplc gesLure LhaL carrles much reward ln Lhe
PereafLer, buL lL ls noL an obllgaLlon whaLsoever, nor does lLs neglecL lead Lo eLernal perdlLlon.
1radlLlons reporLlng LhaL ma'un refers Lo poLs, pans, and oLher household lLems of dally use are Lo
show LhaL lf a person ls relucLanL Lo parL wlLh such small lLems, how wlll he have Lhe hearL Lo parL wlLh
2° of hls wealLh? 1he LradlLlons purporL LhaL Lhese people are so narrow-mlnded LhaL Lhey are noL
wllllng Lo make Lhe leasL blL of selfless sacrlflce for Lhe welfare and well-belng of oLhers. 1hey are
morally low and mlserly ln Lhe exLreme. 1herefore, Lhey do noL pay Lhelr legal alms. 1hus Lhe LhreaL of
punlshmenL ln Pell-flre ls noL on accounL of fallure Lo do one's nelghborly acLs of klndness, buL for
fallure Lo pay Lhe legal alms and perhaps for Lhelr exLreme mlserllness.

Su8AP luSSlLA1 (8LvLLA1lCnS WLLL LxÞCunuLu, CPAÞ1L8 41)
Surah Pa Mlm As-Sa[dah ls Makkl, and lL has 34 verses.

Pa Mlm [l] 1hls ls a revelaLlon from Lhe All-Merclful, Lhe very-Merclful- [2] a book whose verses are
elaboraLed ln Lhe form of an Arablc Cur'an for a people who undersLand [3], havlng good news and
warnlng. ?eL mosL of Lhem Lurned away, so Lhey do noL llsLen. [4] And Lhey say, "Cur hearLs are
[wrapped] ln covers agalnsL LhaL Lo whlch you lnvlLe us, and ln our ears Lhere ls deafness, and beLween
you and us Lhere ls a barrler. So, do (ln your way). We Loo are dolng (ln our own way)". [3] Say, "l am
buL a human belng llke you, lL ls revealed Lo me LhaL your god ls only Cne Cod. So, become sLralghL
Lowards Plm, and seek forglveness from Plm, and woe Lo Lhe Mushrlks (Lhose who ascrlbe parLners Lo
Allah) [6] who do noL pay Zakah, and of Lhe llfe of Lhe PereafLer, Lhey are denlers." [7]As for Lhose who
belleve and do rlghLeous deeds, for Lhem Lhere ls a reward LhaL wlll never be lnLerrupLed. [8]

1he seven Surahs LhaL commence wlLh "Pa Mlm" are known as "A1 Pamlm' or 'Pawamlm'. Some more
words are added as sufflxes ln Lhelr names Lo dlfferenLlaLe beLween Lhem, for example, Lhe 'Pa Mlm'
of Surah Mu'mln ls called "Pa Mlm Al-Mu'mln, and 'Pa Mlm' of Lhls Surah ls called 'Pa Mlm Sa[dah' or
'Pa Mlm lussllaL'. 8oLh names of Lhls Surah are well-known.

1he flrsL addressees of Lhls Surah are Curaysh of 'Arabla among whom Cur'an was revealed ln Lhelr
own language. 1hey had wlLnessed Lhe marvel of Lhe Cur'an, and Lhey had also seen lnnumerable
mlracles of Lhe Poly ÞropheL, and yeL Lhey Lurned away from Lhe Cur'an. WhaL Lo say of
undersLandlng, Lhey dld noL even bear Lo llsLen Lo Lhe Cur'an. LvenLually, ln response Lo Lhe
affecLlonaLe advlces of Lhe Poly ÞropheL, Lhey declared LhaL Lhey nelLher undersLand whaL he says, nor
do Lhelr hearLs accepL lL, nor are Lhelr ears prepared Lo llsLen Lo lL, and LhaL Lhere are double barrlers
beLween hlm and Lhem, so he should carry on wlLh hls buslness and leave Lhem Lo Lhelr own.

1hls ls Lhe meanlng of Lhe flrsL flve verses of Lhls Surah. ln Lhese verses, Allah AlmlghLy has speclally
addressed and advlsed Curaysh LhaL Cur'an has been revealed ln Arablc language, so LhaL you do noL
have any dlfflculLy ln undersLandlng Lhe conLenLs. AL Lhe same Llme Lhree quallLles of Lhe Poly Cur'an
have been sLaLed. llrsLly, Lhe word 'fussllaL' ls a derlvaLlve of fasl whlch orlglnally means dlsLlngulshlng
Lhe sub[ecLs by separaLlng Lhem. 1haL means sLaLlng Lhlngs very clearly by explalnlng ln deLall, elLher by
separaLlng Lhem sub[ecL-wlse ln dlfferenL chapLers, or by menLlonlng Lhem aL one place. ulfferenL
sub[ecLs llke ln[uncLlons of Sharl'ah, sLorles, bellefs, refuLaLlon of Lhe people of false bellefs, eLc. have
been sLaLed separaLely ln Lhe verses of Lhe Poly Cur'an, and each sub[ecL has been explalned by
examples as well. 1he second and Lhlrd quallLles of Lhe Poly Cur'an have been sLaLed as LhaL of
communlcaLlng good news of everlasLlng happlness Lo Lhe bellevers and of warnlng Lhe non-bellevers
of perpeLual scourges.
Þ8CÞPL1lC 8LÞL? 1C 1PL uLnlAL Anu 8lulCuLL Cl ulS8LLlLvL8S

1he lnfldels' sLaLemenL LhaL Lhelr hearLs were covered and Lhelr ears were leaden was noL because
Lhey had become deaf and berefL of lnLellecL, raLher lL was a klnd of rldlcule and [esL LhaL Lhey used Lo
make. 8uL Lhe reply Lo Lhls offenslve rldlcule LhaL Lhe Poly ÞropheL was dlrecLed Lo glve was noL Lo be
offenslve ln Lhe llke manner, buL Lo express hls humlllLy LhaL he ls noL Cod, havlng auLhorlLy over
everyLhlng, raLher he ls also a human belng, Lhe only dlfference ls LhaL hls Lord has glven hlm guldance
Lhrough wahl, and has supporLed hlm wlLh mlracles. lL should have resulLed ln all of Lhem declarlng
Lhelr falLh ln hlm. Lven now Lhey are advlsed Lo Lurn ln worshlp and obedlence Lo Allah only and Lo
repenL and renounce Lhe pasL slns.

verses 9 -12

Say, uo you really dlsbelleve ln Lhe Cne who has creaLed Lhe earLh ln Lwo days, and ascrlbe Lo Plm
parLners? 1haL ls Lhe Lord of Lhe worlds. [9] Pe has placed flrm mounLalns ln lL (Lhe earLh) Lowerlng
above lL, and puL blesslngs ln lL, and proporLloned lLs foods Lhereln, ln four days, equal for Lhose who
ask. [10] 1hen Pe Lurned sLralghL Lo Lhe sky, whlle lL was a smoke, and sald Lo lL and Lo Lhe earLh,
"Come (Lo My obedlence), boLh of you, wllllngly or unwllllngly." 8oLh sald, "We come wllllngly." [11] So
Pe accompllshed Lhem as seven skles ln Lwo days, and seLLled ln every sky lLs (due) Lhlng. And We have
decoraLed Lhe closesL sky wlLh lamps, and proLecLed lL properly. All Lhls ls Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe All-
MlghLy, Lhe All-knowlng. [12]

1he real ob[ecLlve of Lhese eloquenL verses ls Lo warn Lhe people who, denylng Lhe Cneness of Allah,
assoclaLe oLhers wlLh Plm. WlLh reference Lo Lhe greaL creaLlons of Allah AlmlghLy ln Lhe form of
heavens and Lhe earLh, and Lhe wlsdom underlylng Lhelr creaLlon, Lhe Mushrlks are reprlmanded LhaL
Lhey are so lrraLlonal ln Lhelr bellefs LhaL Lhey belleve such a CreaL and Cmnl-poLenL CreaLor Lo be ln
need of havlng parLners ln carrylng ouL Pls dlvlne funcLlons.

º.and proporLloned lLs foods Lhereln, ln four days, equal for Lhose who ask ..." (41:10)

ºAqwaL" ls Lhe plural of ºCuL" whlch means food, susLenance, lncludlng common necesslLles of human

Allah AlmlghLy has predeLermlned Lhe susLenance and malnLenance for Lhe lnhablLanLs of every reglon
accordlng Lo Lhelr need and expedlence ln Lhe sense LhaL Pe lssued dlrecLlons LhaL such and such lLems
be produced ln such and such quallLles ln Lhls reglon of Lhe earLh. 1hls predeLermlnaLlon has caused
every reglon of Lhe earLh Lo have characLerlsLlcs of lLs own, and dlfferenL klnds of mlnerals, dlfferenL
klnds of vegeLaLlon, Lrees and anlmals have been creaLed accordlng Lo Lhe needs, naLure, and
preferences of LhaL zone.

1hls arrangemenL resulLs ln every reglon havlng dlfferenL producLs and dlfferenL dresses -'Ash ln
?emen, Saburl ln Sabur, 1ayallsah ln 8ay, wheaL ln some reglon, rlce and oLher gralns ln oLher reglons,
coLLon ln some areas, [uLe ln some oLhers, apples and grapes ln some areas, mangos ln oLhers, Lhese
dlfferences ln lLems accord wlLh Lhe dlfferences ln Lhe naLure of Lhe dlfferenL reglons. 'lkrlmah and
uahhak sLaLe LhaL Lhese dlfferences ln Lhe producLs ln dlfferenL reglons have opened ways for
lnLernaLlonal Lrade and for muLual cooperaLlon beLween dlfferenL reglons and counLrles of Lhe world.
no reglon ls lndependenL of oLher reglons for Lhe fulflllmenL of lLs needs, muLual wanLs are Lhe only
flrm basls for muLual cooperaLlon. 'lkrlmah has sLaLed LhaL ln some areas salL ls sold for an equal
welghL of gold.

ln facL, Allah AlmlghLy has made Lhls earLh, so Lo say, such a greaL sLore of all necesslLles such as food,
shelLer, cloLhes, eLc. of all lLs lnhablLanL, lncludlng bllllons and bllllons of humans and lnnumerable
anlmals LhaL are Lo come ln Lhls world up Lo uoomsday. 1hese necesslLles have been kepL lnslde lL, and
Lhey wlll keep on growlng and belng supplled as needed unLll Lhe LasL uay of Lhls world. All a man has
Lo do ls Lo Lake Lhe necesslLles ouL of Lhe earLh accordlng Lo hls need and use Lhem.

Some have llnked Lhe words 'for Lhose who ask' wlLh Lhe foregolng senLence 'proporLloned lLs foods
Lhereln" and held 'Lhose who ask' Lo mean Lhe needy people who ask for food. 1he meanlng ln Lhls
case would be LhaL Allah AlmlghLy has creaLed all Lhese dlfferenL klnds and specles of foods and
necesslLles for Lhe beneflL of Lhose who need and seek Lhem, and slnce needy people usually ask for
food, Lhey have been called 'Lhose who ask'.

lbn kaLhlr has quoLed Lhls explanaLlon and sald LhaL lL ls llke Lhe sLaLemenL of Lhe Cur'an: ºAnd Pe gave
you whaLever you asked for" (14:34). º?ou asked for" ln Lhls verse means 'you were ln
need of even Lhough lL has noL been asked llLerally, because Allah AlmlghLy has besLowed Lhose Lhlngs
even Lo Lhose who dld noL ask for Lhem.

ºAnd for you here ls whaLever your souls deslre, and for you here ls whaLever you call for." (41:31 + 32)
ln oLher words, ln !annah 'all your deslres' would be fulfllled wheLher you requesL or you don'L.' 1he
word used afLer LhaL ls 'nuaulan,' meanlng hosplLallLy, whlch lndlcaLes LhaL many Lhe dellghLs provlded
Lo you wlll be such LhaL even lf you dldn'L deslre someLhlng, as happens Lo a guesL, speclally of a greaL
personage, LhaL many such Lhlngs also are presenLed Lo hlm LhaL Lhe guesL had noL even lmaglned.

ºAnd man does noL geL weary of cravlng for (all sorLs of ) good Lhlngs, and lf he ls Louched by some evll,
he ls dlsappolnLed, devold of any hope. [49] And lf We glve hlm a LasLe of some mercy from us afLer
some hardshlp has Louched hlm, he ls sure Lo say, "1hls ls my rlghL. And l do noL Lhlnk Lhe Pour
(PereafLer) ls golng Lo occur. And even lf l am broughL back Lo my Lord, l wlll have Lhe besL (llfe) wlLh
Plm (Loo)." So, We wlll leL Lhe dlsbellevers know whaL Lhey dld, and leL Lhem LasLe a sLern punlshmenL.
[30]And when We besLow Cur favor upon man, he avolds (Lo appreclaLe lL) and keeps hlmself far aslde
(from obedlence), and when some evll Louches hlm, he ls full of broad prayers. [31] Say (Lo Lhe
dlsbellevers), "1ell me, lf lL (Lhe Cur'an) ls from Allah, and sLlll you re[ecL lL, Lhen who can be more
erroneous Lhan hlm who ls (lnvolved) ln far reachlng schlsm?" [32] We wlll show Lhem Cur slgns ln Lhe
unlverse and wlLhln Lhelr own belngs unLll lL wlll become manlfesL Lo Lhem LhaL lL ls Lhe LruLh. ls lL noL
enough abouL your Lord LhaL Pe ls wlLness Lo everyLhlng? [33] 8eware, Lhey are ln doubL abouL
meeLlng Lhelr Lord. 8eware, Pe ls Lhe Cne who encompasses everyLhlng." [34]

º..he ls full of broad prayers" - (31) 1he naLure of an lnfldel ls belng sLaLed here LhaL when Allah
AlmlghLy besLows upon hlm Lhe good Lhlngs: wealLh, honor and peace, Lhe lnfldel geLs so lnvolved ln
Lhem and so lnLoxlcaLed wlLh Lhem LhaL he becomes even more dlsLanL from Lhe Lrue
enefacLor, Allah AlmlghLy, and hls prlde and heedlessness lncrease even more. 8uL when he faces some
dlsLress, Lhen he sLarLs long and lengLhy suppllcaLlons Lo Allah AlmlghLy. Pere Lhe Cur'an has used Lhe
word 'broad' Lo descrlbe Lhelr lengLhy suppllcaLlons, because whaL ls wlder wlll auLomaLlcally be longer

'Man' here refers Lo a man who does noL belleve ln Allah or ln Pls Cneness. 1he purpose of Lhe verse ls
Lo menLlon some evll effecLs LhaL dlsbellef or kufr brlngs Lo Lhe naLure of a man, LhaL ls, he becomes
greedy, ungraLeful ln hls good Llmes and LoLally dlsmayed ln hardshlps.

Su8AP AL-Mu'Mln (1PL 8LLlLvL8, CPAÞ1L8 40)
Surah Al-Mu'mln ls Makkl, and lL has 83 verses.

Pa Mlm [l] 1hls ls revelaLlon of Lhe 8ook from Allah, Lhe MlghLy, Lhe All-knowlng, [2] Lhe Cne who
forglves slns and accepLs repenLance, Lhe Cne who ls severe ln punlshmenL, Lhe Cne who ls Lhe source
of all power. 1here ls no god buL Pe. 1o Plm ls Lhe ulLlmaLe reLurn (of all). [3] no one quarrels abouL
Lhe verses of Allah, excepL Lhose who dlsbelleve. So, Lhelr (prosperous) movemenLs ln Lhe clLles should
noL decelve you. [4] 8efore Lhese, Lhe people and Lhe groups afLer Lhem had re[ecLed (Lhe
messengers). And every group lnLended Lo selze Lhelr messenger, and ralsed dlspuLes on Lhe basls of
falsehood, so LhaL Lhey mlghL refuLe Lhe LruLh wlLh lL, hence l selzed Lhem. So, how was My
punlshmenL? [3] And slmllarly, Lhe word of your Lord has become due agalnsL Lhose who dlsbelleve,
LhaL Lhey are Lhe people of Lhe llre. [6]

1hose who are bearlng Lhe 1hrone and Lhose who are around lL pronounce Lhe purlLy of your Lord
along wlLh Pls pralse, and belleve ln Plm, and pray for Lhe forglveness of Lhose who belleve: "Cur Lord,
?our mercy and knowledge comprehends everyLhlng, so forglve Lhose who repenL and follow ?our
way, and save Lhem from Lhe punlshmenL of Lhe llre. [7] And, our Lord, admlL Lhem Lo Lhe eLernal
gardens of !annah LhaL ?ou have promlsed for Lhem, and (admlL) Lhose as well who dld good from
among Lhelr faLhers and wlves and chlldren. ?ou, only ?ou, are Lhe MlghLy, Lhe Wlse, [8] and save Lhem
from evlls (of punlshmenL). And whomsoever you save from evlls LhaL day, lL ls surely because you
bless hlm wlLh mercy. And LhaL ls Lhe greaL achlevemenL lndeed. [9]

lbn kaLhlr has reporLed on Lhe auLhorlLy of lbn Abl PaLlm LhaL Lhere was a man of sLrong and dlgnlfled
bearlng among Lhe Syrlans who used Lo vlslL Sayyldna 'umar. When he dld noL show up for a longer
Lhan usual perlod of Llme, Sayyldna 'umar &lnqulred abouL hlm. Þeople sald, 'ya amlral-mu'mlnln,
please do noL ask abouL hlm. Pe has become a drunkard.' Sayyldna 'umar called hls scrlbe and dlcLaLed
a leLLer Lo hlm ln whlch he sald:

"lrom 'umar son of al-khaLLab, salaam 'alalkum, peace on you. AfLer LhaL, l pralse Allah before you,
oLher Lhan whom Lhere ls no god worLhy of worshlp. Pe ls Lhe Cne who forglves slns and accepLs
repenLance, Lhe Cne who ls severe ln punlshmenL, Lhe Cne who ls Lhe source of all power. 1here ls no
god buL Pe. 1o Plm ls Lhe ulLlmaLe reLurn (of all)."

1hen he Lurned Loward Lhose around hlm and sald, 'LeL us all [oln ln Lo pray for hlm LhaL Allah reverses
hls hearL and accepLs hls repenLance.' Sayyldna 'umar had lnsLrucLed Lhe messenger who was Lo
dellver hls leLLer LhaL he was noL Lo hand over Lhe leLLer Lo Lhe person addressed unLll such Llme LhaL
he became sober, and LhaL he was noL Lo hand over Lhe leLLer Lo anyone oLher Lhan Lhe person
lnLended Lo recelve lL. So, when Lhls person recelved Lhls leLLer, he read lL repeaLedly and LhoughLfully
whlle reallzlng LhaL lL carrled a warnlng of punlshmenL agalnsL hlm wlLh a concurrenL promlse of
forglveness for hlm. 1hen he sLarLed weeplng. llnally, he sLopped drlnklng and made such a flrm
Laubah LhaL he never Louched lL agaln.

When Sayyldna 'umar learnL abouL Lhe effecLlve manlfesLaLlon of Lhese words, he sald Lo people
around, 'ln such maLLers, you Loo should do Lhe same. When some broLher falls lnLo some sllp of
conducL, Lhlnk of ways Lo brlng hlm back Lo hls normal and beLLer self. ÞrompL hlm Lo Lurn Lo Allah, Lo
place hls LrusL ln Plm, Lo rely on Pls mercy. Þray Lo Allah for hlm, pray LhaL he ls enabled Lo repenL and
make hls Laubah. And do noL become an accompllce of SaLan agalnsL hlm (LhaL ls, lf you chlde hlm or
lnfurlaLe hlm and Lhereby esLrange hlm from hls rellglon, Lhen, you would acLually be helplng SaLan.

1hls serves as a warnlng for people who work for Lhe beLLermenL of Allah's creaLlon and serve ln Lhe
fleld of Labllgh and da'wah, Lhls verse offers greaL guldance. Pere ls someone you would love Lo
become a beLLer person. llrsL, you yourself pray for hlm. 1hen, use sofL ways Lo brlng hlm Lowards LhaL
beLLermenL. uo noL be aggresslve Lowards hlm, for lL would do no good Lo hlm, ln facL, lL would
amounL Lo helplng Lhe SaLan, for he would push hlm onLo more ways of error.

Su8AP SA8A (SPL8A, CPAÞ1L8 34)
Surah Saba' ls Makkl and lL has 30 verses
Þralse be Lo Allah, Lo whom belongs all LhaL ls ln Lhe heavens and all LhaL ls on Lhe earLh. And for Plm ls
Lhe pralse ln Lhe PereafLer. And Pe ls Lhe Wlse, Lhe All-Aware. [l]Pe knows all LhaL goes lnLo Lhe earLh
and all LhaL comes ouL Lherefrom, and all LhaL comes down from Lhe sky and all LhaL ascends LhereLo.
And Pe ls Lhe very-Merclful, Lhe MosL-lorglvlng. [2] And sald Lhose who dlsbelleve, "1he Pour (l.e. Lhe
uay of !udgmenL) wlll noL come Lo us." Say, "why noL? 8y my Lord, Lhe knower of Lhe unseen, lL wlll
come Lo you. noLhlng ln Lhe heavens and ln Lhe earLh, even Lo Lhe measure of a parLlcle, can escape
Plm, nor ls Lhere anyLhlng smaller Lhan LhaL or blgger, LhaL ls noL recorded ln a manlfesL book. [3] (1he
Pour wlll come,) so LhaL Pe rewards Lhose who belleved and dld rlghLeous deeds. lor such people,
Lhere ls forglveness (from Allah) and a noble provlslon. [4]

And Lhose who sLrlved agalnsL Cur slgns Lo defeaL (Lhe messenger), for such people Lhere ls a palnful
punlshmenL of Lhe dlvlne wraLh. [3] And Lhose blessed wlLh knowledge see LhaL whaL ls senL Lo you
from your Lord ls Lhe LruLh and lL guldes (people) Lo Lhe paLh of Lhe All-MlghLy, Lhe All-Þralsed. [6] And
Lhe dlsbellevers sald," Shall we polnL ouL Lo you a man who lnforms you LhaL, when you are LoLally Lorn
lnLo pleces, you wlll cerLalnly be (ralsed) ln a new creaLlon? [7] Pas he forged a lle agalnsL Allah, or ls
Lhere a madness ln hlm?" no, buL Lhose who do noL belleve ln Lhe PereafLer are ln LormenL and far
asLray from Lhe rlghL paLh. [8] Pave Lhey noL, Lhen, looked Lo Lhe sky and Lhe earLh LhaL lles before
Lhem and behlnd Lhem? lf We so wlll, We would make Lhe earLh swallow Lhem up, or cause pleces of
Lhe sky fall upon Lhem. Surely, ln Lhls Lhere ls a slgn for a slave of Allah who Lurns Lo Plm.[9]

lrom a narraLlon of Lhe PadlLh auLhorlLy, Pafl lbn 'Asaklr, lL has been reporLed ln 1afslr lbn kaLhlr LhaL
durlng Lhe perlod of hls rule, Sayyldna uawud used Lo vlslL bazaars and publlc places whlle ln dlsgulse
and would ask people comlng ln from dlfferenL sldes as Lo whaL Lhey LhoughL abouL uawud. Slnce,
[usLlce relgned ln Lhe klngdom of Sayyldna uawud, people were llvlng a good llfe, no one had any
complalnLs agalnsL Lhe governmenL of Lhe Llme, Lherefore, whoever he asked, Lhe addressee would
have words of pralse for hlm and express hls graLefulness for Lhe prevalllng equlLy and [usLlce.

lL was for hls educaLlon and groomlng LhaL Allah senL an angel ln Lhe shape of a man. When Sayyldna
uawud came ouL on hls rouLlne quesL for LruLh, Lhls angel meL hlm. As usual wlLh hlm, he puL Lhe same
quesLlon Lo hlm. 1he angel sald, 'uawud ls a very good man and as compared Lo everyone, he ls dolng
beLLer for hlmself and beLLer for hls people and sub[ecLs Loo. 8uL, he has one hablL whlch, lf lL were noL
Lhere, he would have been perfecL.' Sayyldna uawud asked, 'WhaL hablL lsLhaL?' 1he angel sald, 'Pe
Lakes Lhe expenses on hlmself and hls famlly from Lhe properLy of Musllms, LhaL ls, from Lhe 8ayLul-
Mal (1he Þubllc 1reasury of a Musllm SLaLe).'

Pearlng Lhls, Sayyldna uawud made lL a polnL Lo lmmedlaLely Lurn Lo Allah wlLh self-reproach,
lamenLaLlon and prayer, saylng, '1each me Lo do someLhlng for whlch l have Lo work wlLh my own
hands and supporL myself and my famlly wlLh wages from lL whlle worklng graLls (free, wlLhouL
compensaLlon) Lo serve Musllms and run Lhelr sLaLe.' Allah answered hls prayer and LaughL hlm Lhe arL
of maklng coaLs of mall and Lhe honor, beflLLlng a propheL, Pe besLowed on hlm was LhaL lron was
made wax for hlm so LhaL lL became unusually easy for hlm Lo earn hls susLenance wlLhln a shorL
perlod of Llme and Lhus use Lhe resL of hls Llme for 'lbadah (worshlp) and obllgaLlons of sLaLe

lor a khallfah (Musllm head of an lslamlc sLaLe) of Lhe Llme, or a klng, or ruler who spends all hls Llme
ln Laklng care of sLaLe affalrs, lL ls permlsslble ln Lhe Sharlah of lslam LhaL he Lakes hls average llvlng
expenses from 8ayLul-Mal. 8uL, should Lhere be some oLher means of llvellhood avallable, Lhen, LhaL
would be more deslrable -as lL was wlLh Sayyldna Sulayman.

Allah had puL Lhe Lreasures of Lhe whole world aL hls dlsposal. Cold, preclous sLones and everyLhlng
needed was avallable Lo hlm ln abundance. 1hen Allah had also allowed hlm Lo expend whaLever he
wlshed from Lhe holdlngs of Lhe 8ayLul-Mal, and accordlng Lo Lhe verse: ºSo, do favor (Lo someone) or
wlLhhold (lL) wlLh no (requlremenL Lo glve) accounL" (38:39), he was also glven Lhe assurance LhaL he
could spend ln whaLever manner he wlshed and LhaL he dld noL have Lo accounL for lL. 8uL, Lhls evenL
came Lo pass because Allah, ln Pls wlsdom, would have Lhe noble propheLs occupy a very hlgh sLaLlon
and lL was afLer LhaL, LhaL Sayyldna uawud desplLe belng Lhe ruler of an emplre -used Lo earn hls llvlng
wlLh hls own hands, and was always saLlsfled wlLh lL.

Verses 34 -38

And We dld noL send a Warner Lo a Lownshlp, buL sald Lhose who llved a luxurlous llfe Lhereln," We
re[ecL whaL you have been senL wlLh." [34] And Lhey sald, " We are superlor ln rlches and chlldren, and
we are noL golng Lo be punlshed". [33] Say, "ln facL, my Lord exLends provlslon Lo whom Pe wllls, and
sLralLens (lL for whom Pe wllls),buL mosL of Lhe people do noL know". [36] And nelLher your rlches nor
your chlldren are Lhe Lhlngs LhaL brlng you near us closely, however, Lhe one who belleves and acLs
rlghLeously (ls close Lo us). 1herefore, such people wlll have Lhe double reward for whaL Lhey dld, and
Lhey wlll be aL peace ln Lhe upper chambers (of Þaradlse). [37] As for Lhose who sLrlve agalnsL our slgns
Lrylng Lo frusLraLe (Lhem), Lhey wlll be arralgned lnLo Lhe LormenL. [38]

1he age-old saLanlc llluslon of Laklng worldly rlches and honors as a proof of belng loved by Allah All
along Lhe lanes of Llme slnce Lhe very beglnnlng, people lnLoxlcaLed wlLh maLerlal wealLh and luxury
have always opposed Lhe volce of LruLh and Laken a sLance of hosLlllLy agalnsL Lhe propheLs and Lhe
plous people, excepL Lhose whom Allah wllled oLherwlse. Cn Lop of Lhls, Lhey also used Lo argue ln
favor of Lhelr saLlsfacLlon wlLh Lhe exlsLlng sLance agalnsL Lhe people of LruLh by saylng: Pad Allah
dlsllked our dolngs and ways, why would Pe glve us wealLh, recognlLlon and power ln Lhls world? 1he
noble Cur'an has answered Lhls absurd argumenL ln several verses Laklng dlfferenL approaches.

ºAnd We dld noL send a Warner Lo a Lownshlp, buL sald Lhose who llved a luxurlous llfe Lhereln," We
re[ecL whaL you have been senL wlLh." - (34:34)

ln Lhls verse, Lhe word ºmuLraf" ls LranslaLed above as 'Lhose who llved a luxurlous llfe' has been
derlved from ºLaraf" whlch carrles Lhe sense of a llfe aboundlng ln maLerlal asseLs, ease and comforL.
Pence ºmuLrafln" denoLes rlch people of a communlLy (who are arroganL and careless abouL whaL ls
rlghL or wrong). 1he Poly Cur'an ls saylng ln Lhe verse clLed above LhaL whenever Allah has senL a
messenger, Lhese people lnLoxlcaLed wlLh Lhelr rlches and pampered by a llfe of luxury have always
confronLed hlm wlLh a flaL denlal of hls mlsslon.

CuoLed ln Lhe nexL verse (33) ls Lhelr saylng "We are superlor ln rlches and chlldren, and we are noL
golng Lo be punlshed." (Cbvlously by lL, Lhey meanL, 'lf we had been deservlng of punlshmenL ln Lhe
slghL of Allah, why would Pe glve us all Lhls wealLh and recognlLlon?

1he noble Cur'an glves an answer ln Lhe nexL Lwo verses by saylng: "l, facL, my Lord exLends provlslon
Lo whom Pe wllls, and sLralLens (lL for whom Pe wllls), buL mosL of Lhe people do noL know. (34:36)
And nelLher your rlches nor your chlldren are Lhe Lhlngs LhaL brlng you near us closely, however, Lhe
one who belleves and acLs rlghLeously (ls close Lo us)" (34:37).

1he glsL of Lhe answer ls LhaL havlng more wealLh and recognlLlon ln Lhls world, or noL havlng any, ls no
proof of someone belng accepLable or unaccepLable ln Lhe slghL of Allah. ln facL, lL ls ln vlew of
creaLlonal conslderaLlons LhaL Allah would glve, aL leasL ln Lhls world, properLy and wealLh ln
abundance Lo whomever Pe wllls, and glves less Lo whomever Pe wllls. Pe alone knows Lhe creaLlonal
conslderaLlon behlnd lL. 8uL, Laklng Lhe abundance of wealLh and chlldren Lo be a proof of belng
accepLable ln Lhe slghL of Allah ls sheer lgnorance because, wlLh Plm, Lhe crlLerlon of accepLablllLy,
approval, supporL and pleasure ls no oLher buL 'lman (falLh) and good deed. Cne who does noL carry
Lhese Lwo asseLs -no maLLer how much wealLh and how many chlldren one has -Lhese cannoL make
hlm or her accepLable ln Lhe slghL of Allah.

ºAnd Lhelr wealLh and chlldren should noL aLLracL you. Allah only wanLs Lo punlsh Lhem wlLh Lhese ln
Lhls world and LhaL Lhelr souls deparL whlle Lhey are dlsbellevers" - (9:83)

ln LhaL case, lL wlll end up lnLo Lhe everlasLlng punlshmenL of Lhe PereafLer. As for punlshlng Lhrough
wealLh and chlldren rlghL here ln Lhls world, lL means LhaL Lhey become so lnvolved ln and lnfaLuaLed
wlLh wealLh and properLy LhaL Lhey never flnd Lhe Llme Lo Lhlnk abouL Lhelr ulLlmaLe faLe or Lurn
Lowards Allah and 'Akhlrah -Lhe end of whlch ls punlshmenL LhaL wlll lasL forever. 1hen Lhere are many
who have wealLh and chlldren boLh. lL ls wlLhln Lhls world LhaL, for Lhe sake of wealLh and chlldren,
raLher, Lhrough Lhe wealLh and chlldren, Lhey have Lo suffer from Lhousands of dlsLresses and palns. As
such, Lhelr punlshmenL sLarLs Laklng effecL rlghL from Lhls very world.

Accordlng Lo a narraLlon of Sayyldna Abu Puralrah, Lhe Poly ÞropheL sald: ºAllah does noL see you or
your wealLh. Pe sees your hearLs and your deeds" [Ahmed]

lL ls argued LhaL wlLh regards Lo Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of susLenance beLween dlfferenL human belngs LhaL
Allah glves more of wealLh and properLy Lo some and less Lo some oLhers -all ln Pls wlsdom and ln Lhe
llghL of unlversal conslderaLlons. ln Lhe conLexL of Lhls surah, only one person and hls dlfferenL sLaLes
have been menLloned, LhaL ls, Lhls one person has, aL Llmes, more wlLh hlm Lhen aL anoLher Llmes and
Lhe same person has much less as well.

1he senLence ºAnd whaLever Lhlng you spend, Pe replaces lL. And Pe ls Lhe besL of Lhe susLalners" ln
verse 39 llLerally means: 'lor anyLhlng LhaL you spend, Allah glves you a reLurn from Pls unseen
Lreasures - aL Llmes, wlLhln Lhls world and aL Llmes, ln Lhe PereafLer and aL Llmes, ln boLh.'

ln Lhlngs happenlng around us, we see LhaL waLer comes down from above, anlmals and humans use lL
freely, needs of farms and foresLs are saLlaLed, and no sooner does LhaL supply of waLer geLs used up,
Lhan anoLher supply descends Lo replenlsh lL. Slmllar ls Lhe case of wells dug for waLer LhaL, no maLLer
how much waLer ls spenL ouL of Lhese, lL sLands replenlshed by naLure from oLher sources of waLer
beneaLh Lhe bed. Man eaLs up hls food leavlng Lhe lmpresslon LhaL he has flnlshed lL, buL Allah
provldes hlm wlLh oLher food ln lLs absence. Þhyslcal exerclse burns ouL calorles of food and oLher
worklngs of naLure Lurn lL lnLo energy. ln shorL, whaLever man spends ouL ln Lhls world, lL ls Lhe
cusLomary pracLlce of Allah LhaL Pe would replace lL wlLh someLhlng else slmllar Lo lL. SomeLhlng
happenlng conLrary Lo Lhls, as an excepLlonal case - elLher Lo punlsh one, or for Lhe sake of some oLher
creaLlonal conslderaLlon -wlll noL be deemed as conLrary Lo Lhls cusLomary ulvlne pracLlce.

Accordlng Lo a PadlLh of Sayyldna Abu Puralrah, Lhe Poly ÞropheL sald, "Lveryday when people rlse Lo
see anoLher mornlng, Lwo angels descend from Lhe heavens and pray: ºAllah, bless Lhe one who
spends [ouL of whaL ?ou gave hlm or her] wlLh lLs reLurn, and leL Lhe one who wlLhholds [whaL ?ou
gave hlm or her] flnd lL wasLed." [Musllm]

And accordlng Lo anoLher PadlLh, Lhe Poly ÞropheL sald, "Allah has Lold me: ?ou spend on people, l
shall spend on you."

1here ls no promlse of a reLurn for spendlng LhaL ls noL ln accordance wlLh Lhe Sharl'ah, however.
Sayyldna !ablr narraLes LhaL Lhe Poly ÞropheL sald, "Cood deeds are sadaqah (an acL of charlLy ln Lhe
way of Allah). When someone spends on hlmself or hls chlldren and famlly, LhaL spendlng Loo falls
under sadaqah. lL brlngs Lhawab (reward from Allah). And one who spends Lo proLecL hls lnLegrlLy and
honor, Lhls Loo ls sadaqah. And whoever spends whaLever he does ln obedlence Lo Lhe command of
Allah, Pe has Laken lL upon Plmself LhaL Pe wlll glve hlm lLs reLurn - excepL LhaL whlch ls spenL ln
(wasLeful, superfluous) bulldlng or slnful acLlvlLy, for Lhere ls no promlse of a reLurn for lL."

Su8AP A8 8A'u (1PL 1PunuL8, CPAÞ1L8 13)
Surah Ar-8a'd ls Makkl and lL has 43 verses
AoJ tbose wbo molotolo tbe telotloos Allob bos commooJeJ to be molotoloeJ ooJ feot tbelt lotJ ooJ
ote ftlqbtfol of evll teckooloq, ooJ tbose wbo obsetve potleoce lo otJet to seek tbe pleosote of tbelt
lotJ ooJ estobllsb solob (ptoyet) ooJ speoJ ftom wbot we bove qlveo to tbem sectetly ooJ opeoly, ooJ
tepel evll wltb qooJ. 1bose ote tbe ooes fot wbom tbete ls tbe oltlmote oboJe, tbe etetool qotJeos tbey
eotet, ooJ tbe tlqbteoos of tbelt fotbets, spooses, ooJ ptoqeoy os well. AoJ tbe ooqels sboll eotet ooto
tbem ftom evety qote (soyloq) "leoce oo yoo fot tbe potleoce yoo obsetveJ. 5o, qooJ ls tbe oltlmote
oboJe!' [13:20-24]
ln!unC1lCnS Anu 8uLLS Cl CuluAnCL
Speclal ln[uncLlons and rules of guldance concernlng many deparLmenLs of human llfe appear ln Lhe
verses 20 Lo 24. LlLher expllclL or lmplled, Lhey are as follows:
1. !"#$% '"# ()*(+** ,-"%+./ 0*%12% '+-" 3**4" 451 1# 5#- 6.%47 -"% 8#9%545- (13:20)
lL sLands esLabllshed LhaL abldlng by a pledge glven or conLracL made wlLh someone ls a blndlng
obllgaLlon whlch musL be fulfllled, and any conLravenLlon (lnfrlngemenL) of whlch ls Param (forbldden,
unlawful) - wheLher LhaL pledge be relaLed Lo Allah and Pls Messenger, as Lhe pledge of lalLh and Lhe
pledge Lo malnLaln relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhose creaLed by Allah, or lL may be a pledge relaLed Lo any
Musllm or non-Musllm. 8reaklng a pledge ls Param under all condlLlons.
2. 351 -"#$% '"# :4+5-4+5 -"% .%*4-+#5$ 3**4" "4$ 8#::451%1 -# 6% :4+5-4+5%1 (13:21)
We learn LhaL lslam does noL Leach abandonmenL of relaLlonshlps ln some monasLlc manner.
lnsLead of LhaL, malnLalnlng necessary relaLlons and fulfllllng Lhelr due rlghLs has been made necessary
ln lslam. As for Lhe rlghLs of parenLs, chlldren, wlfe, slsLers, broLhers and Lhe rlghLs of oLher relaLlves
and nelghbors, Lhese have been made obllgaLory by Allah 1a'ala on every human belng. 1hey cannoL be
lgnored ln favor of volunLary acLs of worshlp, noL even Lo devoLe Llme for some rellglous servlce
needed by Lhe communlLy. 1hls ls noL permlsslble. Pow could lL become permlsslble Lo forgeL Lhem
and geL busy dolng oLher Lhlngs?
As for malnLalnlng Lhe bonds of famlly relaLlonshlps, Laklng care of Lhem, and fulfllllng Lhelr due
rlghLs, Lhese have been sLressed upon ln many verses of Lhe Poly Cur'an.
ln a PadlLh of Al-8ukharl and Musllm based on a narraLlon of Sayyldlna Anas (ra), lL has been reporLed
LhaL Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) sald: A petsoo wbo bopes to bove exteoJeJ meoos of llvloq ooJ botokob lo
tbloqs Jooe most molotolo telotloos (oko ´5llotot-koblm´).
lL slmply means LhaL one should Lake care of Lhose he ls closely relaLed wlLh and help and
supporL Lhem wlLhln personal capablllLy. And Sayyldna Abu Ayyub al-Ansarl (ra) says LhaL a rusLlc Arab
vlllager called upon Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) aL hls home and asked hlm: '!usL Lell me whaL l should do Lo
come closer Lo Þaradlse and sLay away from
Pell.' Pe sald: 'Worshlp Allah. 1ake no parLners wlLh Plm. LsLabllsh
Salah, glve Zakah, and malnLaln relaLlons.' (Al-8aghawl)
Accordlng Lo a narraLlon of Sayyldna 'Abdullah lbn 'umar (ra) appearlng ln Lhe Sahlh of al-
8ukharl, Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) has been reporLed Lo have sald: '5llotot-koblm' (molotololoq telotloos)
Joes oot slmply meoo tbot yoo tetoto tbe fovot Jooe by o telotlve, tbot ls, lf be bos Jooe o fovot to yoo,
yoo Jo o fovot to blm. losteoJ, teol 5llotot-koblm (tbe lJeol fotm of molotololoq telotloos) ls tbot eveo
lf yoot telotlve folls to molotolo telotloos wltb yoo, yet yoo, oo yoot pott, ooly fot tbe soke of Allob,
molotolo telotloos wltb blm, ooJ Jo fovots to blm.'
lL was due Lo Lhe lmporLance of fulfllllng Lhe rlghLs of relaLlves and malnLalnlng relaLlons wlLh
Lhem LhaL Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) sald: 'ltesetve yoot fomlly ttees tbtooqb wblcb yoo woolJ ptesetve
yoot fomlly tles ooJ yoo woolJ be oble to folflll tbelt tlqbts.' 1beo be solJ. '1bls tole of molotololoq
telotloos bos lts oJvootoqes. lt qeoetotes motool love, pots botokob lo weoltb wblcb locteoses, ooJ
pots botokob lo yeots of llfe too' (1lrmldhl). lL appears ln a PadlLh of Sahlh Musllm LhaL Lhe Poly
ÞropheL (saw) sald: 'Most commeoJoble ls tbe oct of molotololoq telotloos wbeo o petsoo molotolos
tbe some telotloos wltb tbe ftleoJs of bls JeoJ fotbet, os tbey wete Jotloq bls llfetlme.´
3. ;5 #.1%. -# $%%7 -"% 0*%4$).% #( -"%+. <#.1 (13:22)
[1hls sLaLemenL] makes us reallze LhaL Lhe merlLs of Sabr (paLlence) whlch have appeared ln Lhe Cur'an
and PadlLh and whlch Lell us LhaL Lhe paLlenL person has Lhe good forLune of havlng Allah 1a'ala wlLh
hlm, and of Pls help and supporL, and LhaL counLless reLurns and rewards walL for hlm or her. 8uL, all
Lhls happens only when one observes paLlence for Lhe good pleasure of Allah 1a'ala - oLherwlse,
everyone reaches a polnL ln Llme when, sooner or laLer, one becomes reconclled Lo hls or her loL. As
explalned earller, Lhe real meanlng of Sabr (LranslaLed here as 'Lo observe paLlence') ls Lo conLrol one's
self and remaln sLeadfasL whlch can Lake dlfferenL forms.
llrsL of all, one should observe paLlence, noL become upseL under Lhe sLress of hardshlp and
paln, noL become dlsappolnLed, raLher keep Allah 1a'ala ln slghL and keep hoplng. Secondly, one should
observe paLlence ln carrylng ouL acLs of obedlence Lo Allah ln a way LhaL one remalns sure of sLaylng on
LhaL Lrack sLeadfasLly, even lf Lhe adherence Lo ulvlne ln[uncLlons appears Lo be hard on one's self.
1hlrdly, one should observe paLlence agalnsL whaL ls evll and slnful - even lf Lhe deslrlng self demands
LhaL Lhe road Lo evll be Laken, buL one should reslsL and refuse Lo Lake Lhe road Lo evll because of Lhe
fear of Allah.
4. And spend from what We have g|ven to them secret|y and open|y (13:22)
[lrom Lhls] we learn LhaL spendlng ln Lhe way of Allah secreLly and openly ls correcL whlchever way
lL ls done. Powever, lL ls beLLer LhaL obllgaLory charlLy such as Zakah be pald openly so LhaL oLher
Musllms are also prompLed Lo do Lhe same. As for volunLary charlLy whlch ls noL obllgaLory should be
pald secreLly so LhaL one can sLay safe from scruples of hypocrlsy and pulls of recognlLlon.
3. 351 .%0%* %9+* '+-" 2##1 (13:22)
[1hls sLaLemenL] Lells us LhaL geLLlng rld of evll ls cerLalnly a raLlonal and physlcal lmperaLlve, buL
evll for evll ls noL Lhe meLhod pracLlced ln lslam. lnsLead, Lhe Leachlng of lslam ls: 8epel evll wlLh good.
Whoever has lnfllcLed ln[usLlce upon you, on your parL you deal wlLh hlm [usLly. Whoever has noL
fulfllled your due rlghL, on your parL you fulflll hls rlghL. Whoever releases hls anger on you, on your
parL you respond Lo hlm wlLh forbearance and Lolerance. 1he lnevlLable resulL of Lhls paLLern of
response would be LhaL enemles would Lurn lnLo frlends and Lhe wlcked lnLo Lhe rlghLeous before you.
AnoLher sense of Lhls senLence ls LhaL one should make amends for a sln by performlng an acL of
obedlence, LhaL ls, lf you ever geL Lo commlL some sln, repenL lmmedlaLely and Lhen geL busy wlLh Lhe
worshlp of Allah 1a'ala. 1hls wlll cause your pasL sln Lo be forglven. As reporLed by Sayyldna Abu uharr
al-Chlfarl (ra), Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) sald: ´wbeo o slo boppeos to bove beeo commltteJ by yoo, follow
lt op wltb o qooJ JeeJ. 1bls wlll wosb tbot slo off´ (narraLed by Ahmad wlLh sound auLhorlLy, Mazharl).
1he condlLlon aLLached Lo Lhls good deed ls LhaL one musL flrsL repenL .from Lhe pasL sln and Lhen do
Lhe good deed.
Sald ln Lhe nexL verse (23) ls: -"% %-%.54* 24.1= %5$ -"%> %5-%.? 451 -"% .+2"-%#)$ #( -"%+. (4-"%.$?
$0#)$%$? 451 0.#2%5> 4$ '%**@ 351 -"% 452%*$ $"4** %5-%. #5-# -"%: (.#: %9%.> 24-%.
lL means LhaL servanLs of Allah who are rlghLeous and accepLed wlll cerLalnly have Lhe honor of
belng ln !annah, and lL wlll be ln conslderaLlon of Lhem LhaL Lhelr parenLs, wlves and chlldren wlll also
share Lhe honor wlLh Lhem. Powever, Lhe condlLlon ls LhaL Lhese people should be rlghLeous, LhaL ls,
bellevers and Musllms - noL non-Musllms, Lhough noL aL par wlLh such plous elder ln Lhelr good deeds.
8uL, because of Lhe
8arakah (blesslngs/goodness) of Lhls plous elder, Allah 1a'ala shall make Lhese people reach Lhe same
sLaLlon ln Þaradlse whlch ls Lhe sLaLlon of Lhls plous elder as, sald ln anoLher verse: AB% $"4** :47% -"%
0.#2%5> #( C). .+2"-%#)$ $%.945-$ -# 6% '+-" -"%:D (32:211).
1hls Lells us LhaL relaLlonshlp wlLh plous elders, wheLher of llneage, klnshlp or frlendshlp, shall
be of beneflL ln Lhe PereafLer as well - of course, sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlon of lman (lalLh).
6. E%48% 6% )0#5 >#) (#. -"% 04-+%58% >#) #6$%+9%1@ F#? 2##1 +$ -"% )*-+:4-% 46#1% (13:24)
[lrom Lhls verse] We flnd ouL LhaL Lhe salvaLlon of Lhe PereafLer and Lhe hlgh ranks of Þaradlse are
all Lhe ouLcome of man's paLlenL handllng of Lhe Lrlals of llfe ln Lhls morLal world where he keeps
lnslsLlng on fulfllllng all rlghLs of Allah 1a'ala and Pls servanLs' due on hlm or her and keeps compelllng
one's deslrlng self Lo absLaln from acLlng dlsobedlenLly Lo Plm.
llnally, lf we conslder Lhe sLaLemenL ln verse 23, LhaL ls: -"#$% 4.% -"% #5%$ (#. '"#: -"%.% +$ -"%
8).$%? 451 (#. -"%: -"%.% +$ -"% %9+* 46#1%, we would recall LhaL verses prevlous Lo lL Lold us abouL Lhe
reward of Pls obedlenL servanLs - LhaL Lhelr home wlll be ln Þaradlse, angels would greeL Lhem wlLh
Salam, and Lell Lhem LhaL Lhe eLernal blesslngs of Þaradlse are Lhe dlrecL resulL of Lhelr paLlence,
forLlLude and obedlence. Slmllarly, ln Lhe verse clLed above, announced ls Lhe end of Lhe dlsobedlenL
and Lhe conLumaclous (sLubbornly rebelllous_ - LhaL Lhey are under Lhe curse of Allah, LhaL ls, Lhey are
far removed from Pls mercy and LhaL Lhey have walLlng for Lhem an evll abode ln Pell. 1hls helps us
reallze LhaL Lhe breaklng of pledges glven and Lhe severance of Lhe bonds of klnshlp ls Lhe cause of
ulvlne curse and conslgnmenL Lo Pell. May Allah keep all of us proLecLed from such a faLe. [Ameen]

Su8AP AL-PA!! (1PL ÞlLC8lMACL, CPAÞ1L8 22)
Surah Al-Pa[[ was revealed ln Madlnah. lL conLalns 78 verses.

351 G.%:%:6%.H '"%5 B% 0#+5-%1 #)- (#. ;6.4"+: -"% 0*48% #( -"% I#)$% G#( 3**4"H $4>+52? AJ# 5#-
4$$#8+4-% 45>-"+52 '+-" K% 4$ K> 04.-5%. 451 0).+(> K> I#)$% (#. -"#$% '"# :47% -4'4(
G8+.8):4:6)*4-+#5 4.#)51 +-H? 451 -"#$% '"# 0%.(#.: L+>4: G$-451+52 )0 +5 '#.$"+0H 451 -"#$%
'"# 0%.(#.: M)7)A G6#'+52 1#'5H 451 F)N##1 G0.#$-.4-+#5H? 451 455#)58% 4:#52 0%#0*% 46#)- G-"%
#6*+24-+#5 #(H I4NN? $# -"4- -"%> $"#)*1 8#:% -# >#) #5 (##- 451 #5 %9%.> 84:%* -).5%1 *%45?
-.49%**+52 -".#)2" %9%.> 1+$-45- "+**> 04-"'4>? $# -"4- -"%> '+-5%$$ 6%5%(+-$ (#. -"%: 451 .%8+-%
3**4"A$ 54:%? +5 $0%8+(+%1 14>$? #9%. -"% 0.#9+$+#5 I% 249% -"%: (.#: -"% 84--*% = AF#? %4- -"%.%#( 451
(%%1 -"% 1+$-.%$$%1? -"% 0##.@A !"%5? -"%> :)$- .%:#9% -"%+. 1+.- 451 ()*(+** -"%+. 9#'$ 451 :47%
-4'4( #( -"% 358+%5- I#)$%@O(22:26-29)
1PL S1A81 Cl lCunulnC 1PL S18uC1u8L Cl 1PL PCuSL Cl ALLAP (1PL PCL? kA'8A)
AoJ jtemembet] wbeo we poloteJ oot fot lbtoblm tbe ploce of tbe noose - 22.26.

1he verse calls Lo aLLenLlon Lhe facL LhaL Allah asslgned Lo Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) a place where
8alLullah (ka'ba) was locaLed. 1here ls a hlnL here LhaL he was noL seLLled Lhere already, slnce he
mlgraLed Lhere from Syrla. And a reference Lo ºLhe place of Lhe Pouse" suggesLs LhaL Lhe Pouse of
Allah pre-exlsLed Lhe arrlval of Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) , because accordlng Lo rellable LradlLlons lLs flrsL
foundaLlons were lald abouL Lhe Llme when Sayyldlna 'Adam (as) was senL upon Lhe earLh and he, and
Lhe propheLs who came afLer hlm, used Lo make Lawaf (clrcumambulaLlon) around lL. AL Lhe Llme of
ueluge ln Lhe days of Sayyldlna nuh (as) lLs upper-sLrucLure was removed buL Lhe foundaLlons
remalned lnLacL.
Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) was broughL Lo Lhls place and commanded by Allah 1a'ala: ºJ# 5#-
4$$#8+4-% '+-" K% 45> #5%" (22:26). lL ls qulLe evldenL LhaL Sayyldlna
lbrahlm (as) could noL commlL shlrk (assoclaLlng parLners wlLh Allah), because he had hlmself suffered
conslderable LormenL aL Lhe hands of polyLhelsLs afLer Lhey accused hlm of havlng desLroyed Lhelr
ldols. 1he lnLenLlon here ls Lo warn Lhe people aL large agalnsL Lhe greaL sln of polyLhelsm.
1he second command was: º0).+(> K> I#)$%" (22:26), even Lhough Lhe Pouse of Allah dld noL
exlsL aL LhaL Llme. 8uL Lhe facL of Lhe maLLer ls LhaL 8alLullah (ka'ba) ls noL [usL a sLrucLure of brlcks and
morLar, raLher Lhe Lerm encompasses LhaL enLlre plece of sacred land where 8alLullah once sLood and
whose sLrucLure Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) was now commanded Lo ralse once agaln on Lhe orlglnal
foundaLlons. As for Lhe command Lo purlfy Lhe place, CurLubl says LhaL ln Lhose days Lhe Lrlbes of
!urhum and AmalaklLes had placed ldols Lhere, whlch Lhey worshlpped (CurLubl). AnoLher vlew ls LhaL
Lhls command ls for Lhe fuLure generaLlons noL only Lo keep Lhe place free from lnfldellLy and
polyLhelsm buL also Lo pay speclal aLLenLlon Lo lLs exLernal cleanllness and purlLy.
1he Lhlrd command glven Lo Sayyldlna lbrahlm was º355#)58% 4:#52 0%#0*% 46#)- -"%
#6*+24-+#5 #( I4NN" (22:27). lbn Abl PaLlm has relaLed from Sayyldna lbn 'Abbas (ra) LhaL when
Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) was commanded by Allah Lo make Lhls proclamaLlon, he submlLLed LhaL Lhe
place where he sLood was an unlnhablLed desolaLe plane wlLh nobody Lo hear Lhe proclamaLlon
whereas he lacked Lhe means Lo convey lL Lo Lhe populaLed areas. Allah 1a'ala Lhen Lold hlm LhaL he
was requlred only Lo make Lhe proclamaLlon and Lhe responslblllLy for conveylng lL Lo Lhe four corners
of Lhe world resLed wlLh Plmself, LhaL ls Allah 1a'ala. 1hereupon Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) sLood aL
Moppom lbtoblm (SLaLlon of lbrahlm) and made Lhe proclamaLlon and Allah 1a'ala magnlfled hls volce
so LhaL lL was heard all round Lhe earLh. lL ls also relaLed LhaL he made Lhe proclamaLlon from Lhe Lop
of Lhe mounL Abu Cubals. Pe puL hls flngers ln hls ears, Lurned hls face ln four dlrecLlons and called
ouL, "O people! Allob bos estobllsbeJ nls noose ooJ moJe lt obllqototy opoo yoo to moke pllqtlmoqe to
lt. 5o obey tbe commooJ of yoot lotJ."
lL ls also menLloned ln Lhls narraLlon LhaL Allah 1a'ala also decreed LhaL Lhe announcemenL was
heard mlraculously all over Lhe world, noL only by Lhe people llvlng Lhen, buL also by all Lhose yeL Lo be
born up Lo Lhe uay of 8esurrecLlon.
lurLher on, Lhe verse descrlbes Lhe LradlLlon whlch has been esLabllshed for all Llmes as a resulL
of Lhe proclamaLlon of Sayyldna lbrahlm (as) namely, º$# -"4- -"%> $"#)*1 8#:% -# >#) #5 (##- 451 #5
%9%.> 84:%* -).5%1 *%45? -.49%**+52 -".#)2" %9%.> 1+$-45- "+**> 04-"'4>" (22:28) meanlng LhaL people
wlll come Lo 8alLullah from Lhe four corners of Lhe earLh, some on fooL and oLhers on Lhelr mounLs,
whlch wlll become lean because of Lhe long dlsLances Lraversed by Lhem. lrom LhaL remoLe Llme unLll
Loday, Lhough Lhousands of years have elapsed, people come Lo 8alLullah Lo perform pllgrlmage, [usL
as Lhey dld ln Lhe earllesL Llmes. All Lhe propheLs who came afLer Sayyldlna lbrahlm (as) and Lhelr
followers sLrlcLly observed Lhls LradlLlon. uurlng Lhe long perlod of lgnorance afLer Sayyldlna 'lsa (as),
Lhe Arabs, even Lhough Lhey lapsed lnLo Lhe evlls of ldolaLry, conLlnued Lo perform very falLhfully all
Lhe rlLuals of Lhe pllgrlmage preclsely as Lhey had lnherlLed Lhem from Lhe Llme of
Sayyldna lbrllhlm (as).
ºF# -"4- -"%> '+-5%$$ 6%5%(+-$ (#. -"%:" (22:28) means LhaL Lhe arduous [ourney underLaken
by people Lo perform pllgrlmage ls Lo Lhelr own advanLage. 1he use of Lhe word "beneflLs" as a
common noun (wlLhouL deflnlLe arLlcle) polnLs Lo Lhe unlversal beneflLs LhaL may be derlved from Lhe
pllgrlmage. AparL from Lhe splrlLual rewards, many maLerlal proflLs may also be obLalned. lL ls lndeed
remarkable LhaL people who sedulously save pennles over long years ln order Lo be able Lo defray Lhe
hlgh expenses lnvolved ln performlng Lhe Pa[[ have never become lnsolvenL, whereas many people are
known Lo have become bankrupL as a resulL of expenses lncurred on marrlages or on Lhe consLrucLlon
of palaLlal houses. lL ls a common knowledge LhaL no one has become a pauper because of spendlng on
Pa[[ or 'umrah, raLher lL has been noLlced, accordlng Lo some narraLlons, LhaL Allah 1a'ala has
besLowed such a blesslng ln Lhls worshlp LhaL many have galned maLerlally afLer Lhe rlLual.
As for Lhe splrlLual galns, Lhey are many, one belng relaLed by
Sayyldlna Abu Puralrah (ra) ln a hadlLh ln whlch Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) sald LhaL ooyooe wbo
petfotmeJ nojj lo otJet to qolo Allob's fovoot ooJ ovolJeJ slos ooJ obsceoe octs wlll tetoto os
lmmocolote ooJ loooceot os o oewboto boby. (8ukharl and Musllm) (Mazharl).
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe splrlLual and maLerlal beneflLs Lo be obLalned from Pa[[ menLloned above,
Lhere ls yeL anoLher advanLage whlch may be galned when performlng lL, whlch ls menLloned ln Lhe
followlng senLence:
ºF# -"4- -"%> :4> .%8+-% 3**4"A$ 54:%? +5 $0%8+(+%1 14>$? #9%. -"% 0.#9+$+#5 I% 249% -"%: (.#: -"%
84--*%" (22:28)
Pere lL ls lmporLanL Lo bear ln mlnd LhaL Lhe maln ob[ecL of sacrlflclng Lhe anlmals on Lhls
occaslon ls noL Lhelr meaL, buL Lhe menLlon of Allah's name whlch ls reclLed whlle Lhe anlmal ls belng
slaughLered, whlch ls Lhe essence of Lhe worshlp. 1he facL LhaL eaLlng Lhe meaL of Lhese anlmals has
been made halal (lawful) for Lhem ls an addlLlonal reward from Allah. ºF0%8+(+%1 14>$" refer Lo Lhe
10Lh, 11Lh, and 12Lh days of Lhe monLh of uhul-Pl[[ah when anlmals may be sacrlflced. 1he words
ºC9%. -"% 0.#9+$+#5 I% 249% -"%: (.#: -"% 84--*%" (22:28) are of general appllcaLlon and lnclude all
klnds of sacrlflces wheLher Lhey are obllgaLory or opLlonal.
ºF# %4- -"%.%(.#:P" (22:29)
AlLhough Lhe [Arablc] word [for ºeaL"] has been used ln Lhe lmperaLlve (command) mood, lL
does noL mean LhaL eaLlng Lhe meaL of Lhese anlmals ls obllgaLory. 8aLher, lL has been used ln Lhe
sense LhaL lL ls permlLLed and lawful Lo eaL Lhls meaL, as lL ls menLloned ln verse ºB"%5 >#) 4.% #)- #(
;".4:? >#) :4> ")5-" (3:2) for granLlng permlsslon for hunLlng.

Su8AP AL-Cl?AMAP (1PL 8LSSu8LC1lCn, CPAÞ1L8 73)
1hls Surah ls Makkl. lL conLalns 40 verses
ulvlnL WCnuL8S ln 1PL 8LSu88LC1lCn Cl 8CulLS
Allah ls able noL only Lo ralse man's dead body agaln, buL also Lo reconsLrucL every parL of hls
body perfecLly up Lo Lhe mlnuLe deLall of Lhe very dellcaLe flngerLlps and lndlvldual flngerprlnLs. Man
wlll be glven Lhe same body as he had ln hls worldly llfe wlLhouL Lhe sllghLesL dlfference. Slnce Lhe
lncepLlon of Llme unLll Lhe end of Lhe world, zllllons of human belngs of dlfferenL shapes and slzes
come and dle. Lven lf anyone remembers Lhem, lL ls an lmposslble Lask Lo recompose Lhem preclsely.
8uL Allah says ln Lhe verse under commenL LhaL Pe ls qulLe able Lo recreaLe noL only Lhe large llmbs,
members and organs of Lhe dead, buL Pe ls also able Lo puL LogeLher hls flngerLlps. 1he [Arablc] word
8oooo [or] 'flngerLlps' ls speclally menLloned here because Lhey are among Lhe smallesL parLs of Lhe
body. lf Allah ls able Lo recreaLe such small parLs [wlLh such preclslon], lL would noL be lmposslble for
Plm Lo recreaLe Lhe larger llmbs of Lhe body, such as arms or hands or legs or feeL.
AnoLher reason why 8oooo [or] 'flngerLlps' flnds a speclal menLlon ls LhaL l Allah has
characLerlzed every human body wlLh some ldenLlflcaLlon marks Lhrough whlch one person could be
dlsLlncLly recognlzed and dlsLlngulshed from Lhe oLher. lor lnsLance, Lhe human face ls no more Lhan a
few square cenLlmeLers, yeL lL has such dlsLlncLlve characLerlsLlcs LhaL no Lwo faces look exacLly allke.
uesplLe man's Longue and LhroaL belng allke, Lhe sounds and volces of young and old, and of men and
women are easlly dlsLlngulshable. Lven more amazlng Lhan Lhls, are Lhe flngerLlps and flngerprlnLs. no
Lwo LhumbprlnLs or flngerprlnLs are allke. llngerLlps look allke, buL Lhe flngerprlnLs are dlfferenL. 1here
are zllllons of human belngs, buL Lhe paLLerns of llnes on Lhe sklns of Lhe flngers are dlsLlncLly
recognlzable. 1humbprlnLs have played a declslve role ln courL declslons and [udgmenLs. 1echnlcal
analysls reveals LhaL Lhe paLLerns of llnes are noL only on Lhe skln of Lhe Lhumbs, buL also on Lhe sklns
of all Lhe flngers - dlsLlngulshable and recognlzable.
ln sum, man ls amazed as Lo how Allah wlll reassemble hls bones and glve hlm a new llfe agaln,
buL he should Lhlnk furLher Lhan Lhls. Pe wlll be ralsed wlLh Lhe same face, shape and slze, and wlLh Lhe
same dlsLlncLlve feaLures, so much so LhaL hls flngerLlps and flngerprlnLs wlll be reshaped as Lhey were
ln Lhe flrsL lnsLance of hls creaLlon. la-Labllrak Allahu Ahsanul khallqln - 'Clorlous ls Allah, Lhe 8esL of
ºQ)- :45 '+$"%$ -# 2# #5 9+#*4-+52 3**4"A$ +5N)58-+#5$ ,%9%5 +5 ()-).%/ 4"%41 #( "+:@@@" (73:3). 1he
[Arablc] word omom slgnlfles 'ahead or fuLure'. 1he verse purporLs Lo say LhaL Lhe unbellever or Lhe
unmlndful does noL ponder over Lhe manlfesLaLlons of ulvlne CmnlpoLence, so LhaL he may regreL hls
denlal ln Lhe pasL and make amends for Lhe fuLure. ln facL, he wlshes Lo perslsL ln hls denlal,
polyLhelsm and slns even ln Lhe fuLure.
ºF#? '"%5 -"% %>%$ '+** 6% 14RR*%1? 451 -"% :##5 '+** *#$% +-$ *+2"-? 451 -"% $)5 451 -"% :##5
'+** 6% N#+5%1 -#2%-"%.@@@" (73:7-9). 1hls descrlbes Lhe scenes of Lhe 8esurrecLlon. 1he [Arablc] verb
botlpo means for Lhe eyes 'Lo be dazzled and unable Lo see'. Cn Lhe uay of 8esurrecLlon, Lhe eyes of all
wlll be dazzled and wlll noL be able Lo see conslsLenLly. 1he [Arablc] verb kbosofo ls derlved from
khusuf, whlch means 'Lo lose llghL and become dark'. 1he verse purporLs Lo say LhaL Lhe moon wlll lose
lLs llghL or wlll be ecllpsed. 1he sLaLemenL LhaL 'Lhe sun and Lhe moon wlll be [olned LogeLher' slgnlfles
LhaL noL only Lhe moon wlll lose lLs llghL, buL also Lhe sun wlll be ecllpsed. AsLronomers have
dlscovered LhaL Lhe sun has Lhe orlglnal llghL, and Lhe llghL of Lhe moon ls borrowed from Lhe sun. Allah
says LhaL Lhe sun and Lhe moon on Lhe uay of
8esurrecLlon wlll be fused LogeLher, so LhaL Lhey boLh wlll lose Lhelr llghLs. Some scholars lnLerpreL Lhls
sLaLemenL Lo mean LhaL on LhaL uay Lhe sun and Lhe moon wlll rlse from Lhe same polnL, as some
narraLlves reporL. And Allah know besL!
ºK45 '+** 6% +5(#.:%1 #( '"4- "% $%5- 4"%41? 451 '"4- "% *%(- 6%"+51@@@" (73:13). Sayyldlna
'Abdullah lbn Mas'ud (ra) and lbn 'Abbas (ra) are reporLed Lo have sald LhaL 'whaL he senL ahead' refers
Lo Lhe good deeds he has senL forLh before hls deaLh. 1he words 'whaL he lefL behlnd' refer Lo Lhe good
or bad, useful or harmful cusLom he lnvenLed and lefL behlnd whlch people follow. Pe wlll conLlnue Lo
recelve lLs reward or punlshmenL. CaLadah (ra) sald LhaL 'whaL he senL ahead' refers Lo a good deed he
dld ln hls llfeLlme, and 'whaL he lefL behlnd' refers Lo a good deed he could have done buL dld noL do
and wasLed hls Llme or opporLunlLy.
ºM4-"%.? :45 '+** 6% 4 '+-5%$$ 424+5$- "+:$%*(? %9%5 -"#)2" "% :4> #((%. "+$ %S8)$%$@@@"
(73:14-13). Cne meanlng of Lhe [Arablc] words boslt and bosltob ls 'Lo see'. AnoLher meanlng of
bosltob ls 'evldence', as for lnsLance ln:
º!"%.% "49% 8#:% -# >#) %9+1%58%$ (.#: >#). <#.1" (6:104). ln Lhls verse Lhe word boso'lt ls Lhe plural
of bosltob and lL means 'evldence, proof, argumenL or lnslghL'.
1he word mo'oJblt ls Lhe plural of ml'Jbot meanlng, 'excuse'. 1he verse purporLs Lo say LhaL for
purposes of followlng Lhe procedures of falrness and [usLlce, man wlll be shown each of hls deeds on
Lhe Þlaln of 8eckonlng, alLhough ln facL Lhls wlll noL be necessary for hlm, because every man knows
whaL he does ln Lhls world, and he wlll recall hls deeds ln Lhe PereafLer, even Lhough he wlll make
excuses. lurLhermore, he wlll see all hls good and bad acLlons on Lhe Þlaln of 8eckonlng as Lhe Cur'an
º@@@351 -"%> '+** (+51 '"4- -"%> 1+1 4** -"%.%" (18:49).
lf Lhe word bosltob ls Laken ln Lhe sense of 'evldence, or proof, Lhe verse slgnlfles LhaL man wlll
be a clear proof agalnsL hlmself, ln splLe of any excuses he mlghL offer. Powever, man falls Lo reallze
LhaL ln Lhls slLuaLlon, Lhe llmbs of hls own body [hls hearlng, hls slghL, hls Lwo hands and hls Lwo legs]
wlll LesLlfy agalnsL hlm. 1hls ls Lhe meanlng of Lhe words º%9%5 -"#)2" "% :4> #((%. "+$ %S8)$%$@"
1hus far, Lhere was Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe condlLlons and horrors of Lhe uay of 8esurrecLlon.
1he nexL four verses are a speclal guldance for Lhe Messenger of Allah (saw) for hlm Lo follow aL Lhe
Llme of revelaLlon. When !lbra'll (as) descended wlLh a seL of verses, Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) feared LhaL
Lhere mlghL be dlscrepancy ln hls llsLenlng and reclLlng lL accordlngly. Pls oLher fear was LhaL he mlghL
forgeL some porLlon of lL, or some word mlghL escape hls memory. As a resulL, when !lbra'll (as) reclLed
a verse, he would exerL hlmself ln repeaLlng Lhe words lmmedlaLely upon hearlng Lhem. ln Lhls
manner, Lhe sLraln would be mulLlplled. Allah revealed four verses ln whlch he (1he ÞropheL (saw)) ls
advlsed noL Lo exerL hlmself so sLrenuously, because Lhe maLLer has been slmpllfled for hlm.
Allah has Laken upon Plmself Lhe responslblllLy of collecLlng lL ln hls hearL, maklng hlm reclLe lL
and conveylng lL Lo Lhe people, Lhus: º[C E.#0"%-?/ 1# 5#- :#9% >#). -#52)% ,1).+52 .%9%*4-+#5/ (#.
,.%8+-+52/ +- ,-"% L).A45/ $# 4$ >#) .%8%+9% +- +5 ")..>@ ;- +$ $).%*> )51%.-47%5 6> T$ -# $-#.% +- ,+5 >#).
"%4.-/? 451 -# *%- +- 6% .%8+-%1 ,6> >#) 4(-%. .%9%*4-+#5 +$ 8#:0*%-%1/@ !"%.%(#.%? '"%5 +- +$ .%8+-%1 6>
T$ ,-".#)2" -"% 452%*/? (#**#' +-$ .%8+-4-+#5 ,6> 8#58%5-.4-+#5 #( >#). "%4.-/@@@" (73:16-18). 1he word
Cur'an here means 'reclLaLlon'. ln oLher words, when !lbra'll (as) reclLes Lhe Cur'an, you should noL
reclLe lL along wlLh hlm, buL llsLen Lo lL aLLenLlvely. When lLs reclLaLlon ls compleLed, follow lLs
reclLaLlon. Pere Lhe words 'follow lLs reclLaLlon', by general consensus of Lhe scholars, means 'when
!lbra'll (as) reclLes, be sllenL and llsLen Lo lL.'

Su8AP AL-'Aul?A1 (1PL 8unnlnC PC8SLS, CP. 100)
1hls Surah ls Makkl, and lL has 11 verses.

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Accordlng Lo Sayyldlna lbn Mas'ud, !ablr, Pasan 8asrl, 'lkramah and 'ALa (ra)
Surah Al-'AdlyaL was revealed ln Makkah and, accordlng Lo Sayyldlna lbn 'Abbas, Anas, lmam Mallk and
CaLadah, Lhe Surah was revealed ln Madlnah [CurLubll.
ln Lhls Surah Allah descrlbes Lhe speclal feaLures of war-horses or chargers, and swears by
Lhem. 1he sub[ecL of Lhe oaLh sLaLes LhaL man ls very ungraLeful Lo hls Lord. lL has been explalned Llme
and agaln prevlously LhaL lL ls Lhe prerogaLlve of Allah Lo swear oaLh by any of hls creaLures Lo recounL
an evenL or seL down ordlnances. lL ls noL permlLLed for any of Lhe human belngs Lo Lake oaLh by any of
Lhe creaLures. 1he purpose of swearlng an oaLh ls Lo conflrm or glve welghL Lo a subsequenLly sLaLed
LruLh. lL ls also menLloned earller LhaL when Lhe Poly Cur'an swears an oaLh by an ob[ecL, lL has some
nexus (connecLlon) wlLh Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe oaLh. Pere Lhe hard Lasks of Lhe war-horses are called Lo
bear LesLlmony Lo Lhe facL LhaL man ls very ungraLeful for Allah's favors. ln oLher words, man needs Lo
look aL Lhe horses, especlally Lhe war-horses, who rlsk Lhelr llves Lo Lravel under very dangerous and
dlfflculL condlLlons, especlally ln Lhe baLLleflelds where Lhey follow Lhe commands of Lhelr masLers,
even Lhough man has noL creaLed Lhem, he has noL even creaLed Lhe fodder he glves Lo Lhem. Pls Lask
ls merely Lo glve Lhem Lhe fodder LhaL Allah has creaLed. 1he horses recognlze and acknowledge Lhls
llLLle favor man does Lo Lhem, and are prepared Lo rlsk Lhelr llves and bear Lhe greaLesL of hardshlps. As
agalnsL Lhls, Allah has creaLed man wlLh an lnslgnlflcanL drop of sperm and endowed hlm wlLh hlgh
faculLles, ablllLles, lnLellecL and senses Lo perform varlous Lypes of Lasks, Lhus maklng hlm Lhe crown of
Pls creaLlon. Pe [Allah] provlded hlm wlLh all Lypes of food. laclllLles are creaLed for all hls needs and
necesslLles ln an amazlng manner. 8uL man does noL recognlze and acknowledge any of Lhese subllme
favors, nor does he express hls graLlLude Lo hls CreaLor.
1he currenL seL of verses descrlbes Lhese evll quallLles of man ln general Lerms, whlle ÞropheLs
(as), frlends of Allah, and many of Pls rlghLeous servanLs are free from Lhese evll quallLles or from any
earLhly aLLachmenLs. 1hey acqulre wealLh Lhrough lawful means and absLaln from acqulrlng lL Lhrough
unlawful means. 1hey are ever so graLeful Lo Allah for Lhe wealLh Pe has glven Lhem and spend lL ln Lhe
way of Allah. So how Lhese evlls are aLLrlbuLed Lo man ln general Lerms? 1he answer ls LhaL mosL
people have Lhese evll quallLles, buL Lhls does noL lmply LhaL all, wlLhouL any excepLlon, are
characLerlzed by Lhese quallLles. 1he uprlghL people are excluded from Lhe general sLaLemenL. Some of
Lhe scholars resLrlcL Lhe word 'man' Lo 'unbellevers'. 1hese Lwo evll quallLles are Lhe essenLlal
characLerlsLlcs of unbellevers, and lf Lhey are found ln a Musllm
[Cod forbld!], he needs Lo reflecL and be careful. Allah knows besL!

Su8AP lu8CAn (CPAÞ1L8 23)
Surah Al-lurqan was revealed ln Makkah and lL conLalns 77 verses
1here ls consensus among Lhe commenLaLors LhaL Lhls Surah was revealed ln Makkah. Powever,
Sayyldna lbn 'Abbas and CaLadah (radlyallahu 'anhum) & conLend LhaL Lhree of lLs verses are Madanl
and resL of Lhe Surah ls Makkan. ?eL CurLubl and a few oLhers malnLaln LhaL Lhe Surah lLself ls Madanl
and only a few verses are Makkan.
1he glsL of Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe Surah ls Lo descrlbe and deflne Lhe greaLness of Lhe Poly Cur'an
and Lhe LruLh of Lhe propheLhood of Lhe
Poly ÞropheL (saw), Lo whlch Lhere were doubLs expressed by Lhe unbellevers. 1he Surah conLalns
answers Lo Lhelr ob[ecLlons.
1here |s great w|sdom |n econom|c d|fference between peop|e
351 B% "49% :41% $#:% #( >#) 4 -%$- (#. $#:% #-"%.$ (2S:20).
1here ls an alluslon ln Lhe verse LhaL Allah 1a'ala had compleLe power Lo make all humans wealLhy,
prosperous, healLhy and of hlgh sLaLus. 8uL Lhls way nobody would have been poor, weak or slck - a
poslLlon whlch would have creaLed lnnumerable soclal problems resulLlng ln chaos and confuslon.
1herefore, Allah 1a'ala has made some rlch and some poor, some healLhy and some slck, some sLrong
and some weak, and some wlLh hlgh sLaLus and some oLhers unknown. 1hls way every slngle lndlvldual
ls aL LesL because of hls or her pecullar placlng ln socleLy and communlLy. 1he rlch and healLhy people
are aL LesL for Lhelr Lhankfulness, whlle poor and slck persons are on Lrlal for Lhelr paLlence. lor Lhls
very reason Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) has advlsed LhaL whenever you see someone who ls wealLhler,
healLhler, sLronger or hlgher ln sLaLus you should aL once Lry Lo Lurn Lowards Lhose who are lower Lhan
you ln wealLh, healLh, sLrengLh and sLaLus so LhaL lnsLead of feellng [ealous, whlch ls a sln, you should
Lhank Allah 1a'ala for glvlng you beLLer placlng ln Lhls world as agalnsL Lhose who have less Lhan you.
(8ukharl, Musllm, Mazharl)
1PL S1C8? Cl 'uC8AP 8ln A8l Mu'Al1
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woe to me! woolJ tbot l boJ oot tokeo so-ooJ- so fot my ftleoJ (25.28):
1hls verse (2S:28) was revealed on a speclal occaslon, buL lLs lmpllcaLlon ls unlversal. 1he background ls
LhaL 'uqbah lbn Abl Mu'alL was one of Lhe chlefLalns of polyLhelsLs ln Makkah. lL was cusLomary wlLh
hlm LhaL whenever he would reLurn afLer an expedlLlon, he used Lo lnvlLe Lhe noblllLy of Lhe clLy Lo
dlnner. Pe also used Lo call on Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) frequenLly. When he presenLed Lhe food Lo Lhe
Poly ÞropheL (saw) he sald "l cannoL eaL your food unLll you proclalm LhaL Allah ls one and no one can
be assoclaLed wlLh Plm ln worshlp and LhaL l am Pls 8asul." 'uqbah reclLed Lhls senLence (sLaLemenL of
falLh) and Lhen Lhe Poly ÞropheL (saw) aLe Lhe dlnner accordlng Lo hls promlse, 'ubayy lbn khalaf was a
close frlend of 'uqbah. When he learnL LhaL 'uqbah has accepLed lslam and has reclLed Lhe kallmah
1ayyabah (sLaLemenL of falLh) he was very crossed wlLh hlm. 'uqbah Lrled Lo defend hlmself by
explalnlng LhaL Muhammad (saw) was an emlnenL person of Curaysh and lf he had reLurned wlLhouL
havlng hls meal aL hls house, lL would have been very degradlng for 'uqbah. 1herefore, ln order Lo
please hlm, he repeaLed Lhe senLence (sLaLemenL of falLh). 'ubayy lbn khalaf dld noL accepL Lhls
explanaLlon and asked 'uqbah Lo go and splL on Poly ÞropheL's (saw) face lf he was really ashamed.
1he wreLched man obllged hls depraved frlend and dld as he had suggesLed. Allah 1a'ala dlsgraced
Lhem boLh ln Lhls world as well, as boLh were kllled ln Lhe baLLle of 8adr (8aghawl). 1he LormenL he
wlll face on Lhe uay of !udgmenL ls descrlbed ln Lhls verse LhaL when he wlll see Lhe LormenL before
hlm, he wlll blLe hls flngers ln dlsLress and repenLance and say "would LhaL he had noL made 'ubayy
lbn khalaf hls frlend ln Lhe world". (Mazharl & CurLubl)

Su8AP nAML (CPAÞ1L8 27)
Surah An-naml was revealed ln Makkah and lL has 93 verses
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$*49%$@O ,X_Z \Y= 2014-tafseer-packet | Islamic Belief And Doctrine | Religious Belief And Doctrine

AoJ sotely we qove koowleJqe to uowoJ ooJ 5ololmoo. (27:13)
1he knowledge glven Lo Sayyldlna uawud and Sulalman ('Alayhlmasalaam) was obvlously Lhe speclal
knowledge normally glven Lo Lhe propheLs abouL Lhelr funcLlons and obllgaLlons as propheLs, buL aL Lhe
same Llme lL may also lnclude oLher sclences and arLs, as Sayyldna uawlld ('Alayhlsalaam) was glven
Lhe arL of maklng armor. Sayyldlna uawud and Sulalman ('Alayhlmasalaam) en[oyed a speclal poslLlon
among Lhe propheLs ln LhaL Lhey were also besLowed wlLh Lhe emplre along wlLh propheLhood. 1he
emplre was of a very speclal naLure ln LhaL Lhey ruled over noL only Lhe humans buL also Lhe !lnns and
anlmals. Whlle relaLlng all Lhese graces, knowledge ls menLloned flrsL, whlch ls a clear hlnL LhaL
knowledge ls superlor and paramounL among Lhem all. (CurLubl)
1here ls sense and lnLelllgence Lo some degree ln all anlmals and blrds. Powever, lL ls noL developed Lo
such an exLenL LhaL Lhey were made Lo follow any ln[uncLlons of Lhe Sharlah. 8uL Lhe humans and [lnns
are besLowed wlLh such perfecLed sense and lnLelllgence LhaL Lhey are made Lhe addressee and
followers of Lhe ln[uncLlons of Allah 1a'ala. lmam Shafl'l (rahmaLullah 'alayhl) has sald LhaL Lhe dove ls
Lhe cleveresL of all Lhe blrds, and lbn 'ALlyyah has sald LhaL anL ls very lnLelllgenL anlmal, lLs smelllng
power ls very sLrong . lf lL geLs hold of a graln lL breaks lL lnLo Lwo, so LhaL lL does noL germlnaLe, and
Lhus lL sLocks lLs food for Lhe wlnLers. (CurLubl)
1he expresslon "speech of blrds" ls used ln Lhe verse because of Lhe lncldenL of Lhe hoopoe whlch ls a
blrd, oLherwlse Sayyldna Sulalman ('Alayhlsalaam) was LaughL Lhe languages of all Lhe beasLs, blrds and
Lhe lnsecLs, as menLloned ln Lhe nexL verse abouL undersLandlng Lhe language of Lhe anL. lmam
CurLubl has menLloned ln hls 1afslr dlfferenL lncldenLs ln whlch Sayyldna Sulalman ('Alayhlsalaam) Lold
Lhe people how dlfferenL blrds chlrped and whaL Lhey meanL. 1he chlrplng of each blrd was a word of
AoJ we bove beeo qlveo of evety tbloq (27:16).
1he [Arablc] word [for] ºevery" applles Lo everyLhlng of a klnd, buL someLlmes lLs appllcaLlon ls noL
unlversal buL perLalns Lo a speclflc purpose. Pere lL ls also used ln LhaL sense and "everyLhlng" refers Lo
Lhose Lhlngs only whlch are needed by Lhe governmenL or an emplre. CLherwlse lL ls obvlous LhaL Lhey
dld noL have alrplanes, moLorcars or rallways ln Lhose days.
My lotJ, eooble me, (27:19)
lL [Lhe Arablc word for ºenable me"] ls derlved from [Lhe Arablc word] woz´, whlch lexlcally means Lo
sLop or resLraln. Pere lL means 'enable me wlLh ulvlne help so LhaL l should have Lhe LralL of graLlLude
wlLh me all Lhe Llme and do noL parL wlLh lL ever', whlch wlll resulL ln resLralnL.
AoJ tbot l Jo tbe qooJ JeeJs ¥oo llke (27:19).
Pere [Lhe Arablc word for] ºllklng" means accepLance. 1hus Lhe meanlng ls 'C Allah! Crace me wlLh
ulvlne help for such rlghLeous deeds whlch are accepLable Lo ?ou'. lrom Lhls lL ls argued ln 8uh ul-
Ma'anl LhaL lL ls noL necessary for Lhe rlghLeous deeds Lo be accepLed, buL Lhelr accepLance ls
dependenL on cerLaln condlLlons. lL ls furLher explalned LhaL Lhere ls no relaLlon beLween
rlghLeousness and accepLance elLher raLlonally or ln rellglous law. lL ls for Lhls reason LhaL Lhe propheLs
used Lo pray for Lhe accepLance of Lhelr rlghLeous deeds. Sayyldna lbrahlm and lsma'll
('Alayhlmasalaam) prayed whlle consLrucLlng Lhe Pouse of Allah (Oot lotJ occept ftom os - 2:127). lL
shows LhaL afLer dolng a good deed, one should noL be complacenL, buL should pray Lo Allah for lLs
Desp|te hav|ng done good deeds and the|r acceptance the entry |nto Þarad|se w||| not be poss|b|e
w|thout the grace of A||ah
AoJ oJmlt me, by yoot metcy, omooq yoot tlqbteoos sloves (27:19).
uesplLe havlng performed good deeds and Lhelr havlng been accepLed, Lhe enLry lnLo Þaradlse wlll
depend on Lhe grace and klndness of Allah 1a'ala. 1he Poly ÞropheL (saw) has sald LhaL no one wlll
enLer lnLo Þaradlse relylng only on hls deeds. So Lhe companlons enqulred from Lhe Poly ÞropheL
"Lven you Loo?", and he answered "?es, me Loo, buL l am surrounded by Allah's favour and grace".
(8uh ul-Ma'anl)
Sayyldna Sulalman ('Alayhlsalaam) was also praylng for Lhe grace of Allah for Lhe enLry lnLo Þaradlse ln
Lhese words 'C Allah, grace me also wlLh your favour so LhaL l become enLlLled Lo enLer Þaradlse'.
keference: "Maar|fu| Çur'an" by Muft| Shaf| Usman|