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0.1

Your 3.80-kg physics book is placed next to you on the horizontal seat of your car. The coeﬃcient of static friction between the book and the seat is 0.650, and the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction is 0.550. You are traveling forward at 72.0 km/h and brake to a stop with constant acceleration over a distance of 30.0 m. Your physics book remains on the seat rather than sliding forward onto the ﬂoor. Is this situation possible?

a)

Lets’s look at the forces exerted on the physics book:

+y

N

ff ric

+x

m1 g

2 2 The acceleration of the car can be calculated using vf − vi = 2a∆x

a

= = =

v2 2∆x 2 ( 72000 3600 ) 2 × 30 6.67m/s2

On the other hand, Projecting 2nd Law on the y-axis gives N=mg; For the book to slide oﬀ the seat, acceleration should overcome frction: fs µs N µs mg µs = 0.650 < < < < ma ma ma a 6.67 = = 0.68 g 9.81

This is valid and the book will deﬁnitely slide forward to the ﬂoor. 2

90 m. • d) Find the speed of the block after it has slid 1.90 m down the incline in 2.2. 0. with v0 = and x0 = 0 .2 A 2. • b) Find the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between block and plane.95m/s2 b) Newton Second Law: Fi = mg + Ff ric = ma Projection on the x-axis : mg sin α − fk = ma (*) Projection on the y-axis : mg cos α − N = 0 (**) 3 .0. a) +y N fk +x α α mg 2 We can use x = 1 2 at + v0 t + x0 to ﬁnd the acceleration of the object as it slides down. The object slides 1. this should give us: a = = = 2x t2 2 × 1. • a) Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the block.90 meters in 2 seconds.00 s.0◦ incline and slides a distance of 1.70-kg block starts from rest at the top of a 30.90 4 0. • c) Find the friction force acting on the block.

465 × 2.90m We can use the time independent equation : 2 v 2 − v0 = = = v v 4 2a∆x √ 2 × 0.81 × cos(30) c) The friction force acting on the block: fk = µk N = µk mg cos α = = 0.95 9.465 0.95 × 1.We bear in mind that fk and N are connected : fk = µk N From (*) and (**) we get : µk = = = = = fk N mg sin α − ma mg cos α a tan α − g cos α tan(30) − 0.7N d) Speed of the block after sliding 1.9m/s .81 × cos(30) 10.90 1.70 × 9.

3. a = m2 m2 5 .185.0. ﬁnd the tension in the string. frictionless pulley to a 5.3 A 9.00-kg block that is sliding on a ﬂat table. Taking the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction as 0. 0. +y N T1 T2 fk +x m1 g + m2 g T1 = T2 = T .80-kg hanging object is connected by a light. a1 = a2 = a and fk = µk N • Projecting Newton’s second law for object m1 gives us −fk + T = m1 a and N − m1 g = 0 • Projecting Newtons’s Law for object m2 on the y-axis gives us g −T m2 g − T = m2 a thereby. inextensible cord over a light.

185) 9.0 kg. m1 = 14. and the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between each block and the surface is 0. • c) Determine the tension T in the rope.80 × 5 × 9.090. = T = = = m1 m2 g (1 + µk ) m1 + m2 9.48N 0.0 kg. • a) Draw a free-body diagram for each block. 6 . Suppose F = 73.80 + 5 38. • b) Determine the acceleration of the system.T = = = m1 a + fk m1 a + µk N m1 m1 g − T + µk m1 g m2 gm1 (1 + µk ) m1 + m2 T m2 Finally. m2 = 26.0 N.81 × (1 + 0.4 Two blocks connected by a rope of negligible mass are being dragged by a horizontal force (see ﬁgure below).

090 × 9.4.94m/s 7 . a)Free body diagram for each block b) Projecting Newton’s 2nd Law of the two blocks on the y-axis gives: n1 = m1 g and n2 = m2 g On the x-axis for m1 : T − f1 = m1 a.81(14 + 26) 14 + 26 2 0. with f1 = µk n1 we get T = µk n1 + m1 a = µk n1 g + m1 a On the x-axis for m2 and with f2 = µk n2 m2 a = F − T − f2 = F − (f1 + m1 a) − f2 = F − µk n1 − m1 a − µk n2 Bearing in mind that n1 = m1 g and n2 = m2 g we should ﬁnally get: a = = = F − µk g (m1 + m2 ) m1 + m2 73 − 0.0.

The coeﬃcient of static friction between the block and the wall is 0.2◦ with the horizontal.0◦ angle with the horizontal as shown below.) • b)What happens if |P | has a larger value than |Pmax |? • c) )What happens if |P | has a smaller value than |Pmin |? • d) Repeat parts (a) and (b) assuming the force makes an angle of θ = 12.52N 0.94) 25. 8 .5 A block of mass 1. (If there is no maximum.260.75 kg is pushed up against a wall by a force P that makes an angle of θ = 50.090 × 9.c) Tension in the rope T = = = = µk m1 g + m1 a m1 (µk g + a) 14(0. enter NONE in that answer blank. • a) Determine the possible values for the magnitude of |P | that allow the block to remain stationary.81 + 0.

2nd Law requires: mg − fs = p sin θ and N = p cos θ with fs = µs N mg − µs N cos θ = p sin θ 9 .260 cos 50 = 28.81 = sin 50 − 0. and the reason is that the friction force will either push the object up if it slides down or it will push the object down as it slides up.67N = For the object to be stationary in the sitution at right. P P fs θ N N θ fs mg mg For the object to be stationary in the sitution at left.75 × 9.5. 2nd Law requires: mg + fs = p sin θ and N = p cos θ with fs = µs N mg + µs N cos θ p(sin θ − µs cos θ) p p Pmax = p sin θ = mg mg sin θ − µs cos θ 1.0. a) We will drwas two free body diagrams for this problem.

9 m/s instead? Let’s call F1 and F2 the forces exerted at speed v1 and speed v2 respectively. the horizontal total force on the driver has magnitude 149 N.75×9. d) If the angle changes to 12.60N b) If p has a larger value than pmax the object will slide up the wall.6 A curve in a road forms part of a horizontal circle. What is the total horizontal force on the driver if the speed on the same curve is 23.1 2−0.75 × 9.88N The block is capable of sliding down the wall under this value of Pmin 0. As a car goes around it at constant speed 14.9 2 = 149( ) 14 = 10 .2◦ we will have: . c) If p has a smaller value than pmin the object will slide down the wall.81 sin 50 + 0. .0 m/s.81 pmax = sin 12.81 and pmin = sin 12. we have: F2 F1 F2 2 mv2 /r 2 /r mv1 v2 = F1 2 2 v1 23.260 cos 12.75×9.p(sin θ + µs cos θ) p p Pmin = mg = = = mg sin θ + µs cos θ 1.260 cos 12. 2 The two are centripetal forces of magnitudes mv r .260 cos 50 18.2 = negative value !!!!! The block will not slide along the wall.2 = 36.1 2+0.

= 434.23N 11 .0.6.

00 m.0.7 Consider the following ﬁgure.00 m apart. and the strings remain taut.00 m/s. The object rotates in a horizontal circle at a constant speed of v = 3.00 kg in the ﬁgure above is attached to a vertical rod by two strings of length = 2. T α r ac α T d mg 12 . The strings are attached to the rod at points a distance d = 3. Why is the following situation impossible? The object of mass m = 4. The rod rotates along with the object so that the strings do not wrap onto the rod.

81 = 39.32 0.0.66T2 = mv 2 4 × 32 = = 27.52 1.32 = 2 = 0.81N and T2 = −5.66 = sin α d/2 l 1.24 We should get T1 = 46.32m cos α r l 1.7.66T1 + 0.5N !!! This value of T2 is not possible in our situation and it implies that the lower string is pushing the object rather than pulling it.75 = Back to our ﬁrts equations we solve for T1 and T2 0. a) A projection of Newton’s 2nd Law on the centripetal direction gives: T1 cos α + T2 cos α = mac = mv 2 r A projection on the vertical direction gives: T1 sin α − T2 sin α − mg = 0 The geometry of the problem requires r = = = d l2 − ( )2 2 22 − 1.5 = 2 = 0. 13 .75T2 = mg = 4 × 9.27 r 1.75T1 − 0.

27 r 1.76N .b) The variables in this problem that can make this situation physically acceptable are the speed of the object and the g value of gravity.711 = 14. 14 .55N and T2 = 10.75T1 − 0. In Mars for instance g = 3.32 0.66T1 + 0. our eqations become 0.84 This gives T1 = 30.75T2 = mg = 4 × 3.66T2 = 4 × 32 mv 2 = = 27.711m/s2 .

2 cm/s.8 A coin placed 30.8. • a) What force causes the centripetal acceleration when the coin is stationary relative to the turntable? • b) What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between coin and turntable? a) N fs ac mg a) The centripetal force is provided by the static friction fs 15 . 0. horizontal turntable slips when its speed is 50.2 cm from the center of a rotating.0.

• a) Find its centripetal acceleration.102 = 14.b) Projecting Newton’s 2nd Law on the vertical gives mg = N On the centripatal direction : v2 r v2 m r v2 gr (50.00 m/s2. • b) It continues to ﬂy along the same horizontal arc.18m/s2 = ac 16 .10 m/s.10 m/s. but increases its speed at the rate of 1. Find the acceleration in this situation at the moment the hawk’s speed is 4.302 0.81 × 0.085 fs = µs N µs mg µs = m = = = = 0.2 × 10−2 )2 9. a) The centripetal acceleration is : v2 r 4.2 m at a constant speed 4.2 = 1.9 A hawk ﬂies in a horizontal arc of radius 14.

The overall vector aceleration of the hawk the moment its speed was 4. • b)Find the force exerted by the seat on the child at the lowest point.10. each 2.0-kg child swings in a swing supported by two chains. b) ac at The hawk is now starting to accelerate along the horizontal with a tangential acceleration at = 1. (Ignore the mass of the seat. The tension in each chain at the lowest point is • a)Find the child’s speed at the lowest point. 17 .98 m long.00m/s2 .10 A 43.10m/s becomes a = ac + at having a magniutde of: a = = = 2 a2 c + at 1.) a) At some time of this motion the child on his seat will be on a vertical position.0. this will help us derive equations easily: The seat and the child as one object are moving with same speed.182 + 12 1.54m/s2 0.

81 × 2.98 − 9.T T ac = mv 2 r mg We should have : T + T − mg = mv 2 r and v = = = 2T r − gr m 2 × 352 × 2. experiencing only gravity mg and the normal force N exerted by the seat: we should have: N − mg N = mv 2 r mv 2 r = mg + = 2T 704N 18 .98 43 4.42N b) The child is now our sole object.

11 A roller-coaster car has a mass of 499 kg when fully loaded with passengers.11. The path of the coaster from its initial point shown in the ﬁgure to point B involves only up-and-down motion (as seen by the riders). • a) If the vehicle has a speed of 19. what is the force exerted by the track on the car at this point? • b) What is the maximum speed the vehicle can have at B and still remain on the track? a) On point A.12 499( + 9.1 m/s at point A . Assume the roller-coaster tracks at points A and b are parts of vertical circles of radius r1 = 10.0.81 10 23099N m(g + 19 .0 m and r2 = 15. 0.0 m.respectively. with no motion to the left or right. the force exertad by the track is the normal which is also the centripetal force and we have: N − mg N = = = = mv 2 r1 v2 ) r1 19.

81 12. the normal force pointing downwars along with gravity should go to zero to allow the roller-coaster to remain in track.b On B.13m/s 20 . gravity is thus the only centripetal force: mg vmax vmax = = = = 2 mvmax r √ 2 r2 g √ 15 × 9.

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