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A shortcut method for investigating a whole population Data is gathered on a small part of the whole parent population or sampling fram e, and used to inform what the whole picture is like Why sample? In reality there is simply not enough; time, energy, money, labour/man power, eq uipment, access to suitable sites to measure every single item or site within th e parent population or whole sampling frame. Therefore an appropriate sampling strategy is adopted to obtain a representative , and statistically valid sample of the whole. Sampling considerations Larger sample sizes are more accurate representations of the whole The sample size chosen is a balance between obtaining a statistically valid repr esentation, and the time, energy, money, labour, equipment and access available A sampling strategy made with the minimum of bias is the most statistically vali d Most approaches assume that the parent population has a normal distribution wher e most items or individuals clustered close to the mean, with few extremes A 95% probability or confidence level is usually assumed, for example 95% of ite ms or individuals will be within plus or minus two standard deviations from the mean This also means that up to five per cent may lie outside of this - sampling, no matter how good can only ever be claimed to be a very close estimate Sampling techniques Three main types of sampling strategy: Random Systematic Stratified Within these types, you may then decide on a; point, line, area method. Random sampling Least biased of all sampling techniques, there is no subjectivity - each member of the total population has an equal chance of being selected Can be obtained using random number tables Microsoft Excel has a function to produce random number The function is simply: =RAND() Type that into a cell and it will produce a random number in that cell. Copy the formula throughout a selection of cells and it will produce random numbers. You can modify the formula to obtain whatever range you wish, for example if you wanted random numbers from one to 250, you could enter the following formula: =INT(250*RAND())+1 Where INT eliminates the digits after the decimal, 250* creates the range to be covered, and +1 sets the lowest number in the range. Paired numbers could also be obtained using;

for example every two metres or every 10th pebble . for example every 10th house or person Methodology A. for example every half hour or at set times of the day They can be regularly numbered. Methodology A. l ines and areas. They are evenly/regularly distributed in a spatial context. Advantages and disadvantages of random sampling Advantages: Can be used with large sample populations Avoids bias Disadvantages: Can lead to poor representation of the overall parent population or area if larg e areas are not hit by the random numbers generated. and marked on a map of the study area These are joined to form lines to be sampled C. Along a transect line. Sampling is done at the nearest f easible place. metre and centimetre sampling statio ns along a transect.=INT(9000*RAND())+1000 These can then be used as grid coordinates. This is made worse if the s tudy area is very large There may be practical constraints in terms of time available and access to cert ain parts of the study area Systematic sampling Samples are chosen in a systematic. or in the middle of each grid square (B). Random area sampling Random number tables generate coordinates or grid references which are used to m ark the bottom left (south west) corner of quadrats or grid squares to be sample d Figure 1: A random number grid showing methods of generating random numbers. Random line sampling Pairs of coordinates or grid references are obtained using random number tables. Systematic point sampling A grid can be used and the points can be at the intersections of the grid lines (A). Random point sampling A grid is drawn over a map of the study area Random number tables are used to obtain coordinates/grid references for the poin ts Sampling takes place as feasibly close to these points as possible B. or regular way. sampling points for vegetation/pebble data collection could be identified systematically. for example every tw o metres along a transect line They can be at equal/regular intervals in a temporal context. lin es and areas Figure one: A random number grid showing methods of generating random numbers. or in any feasible way.

Systematic area sampling A epattern' of grid squares to be sampled can be identified using a map of the st udy area. as not all members or points have an equal chance of being se lected It may therefore lead to over or under representation of a particular pattern Stratified sampling This method is used when the parent population or sampling frame is made up of s ub-sets of known size. A systematic approach can still be used by asking every fifth person. Advantages and disadvantages of systematic sampling Advantages: It is more straight-forward than random sampling A grid doesn't necessarily have to be used. for example every second/third grid square down or across the area (E) . The number sampled in each group should be in proportion to its known size in the parent population. sampling just has to be at uniform i ntervals A good coverage of the study area can be more easily achieved than using random sampling Disadvantages: It is more biased. for example woodland with distinctly different habitats. Patterns can be any shape or direction as long as they are regular (F) Figure 2: Systemic sampling grid showing methods of generating systemic points.B. for example two woodland s. lines and areas Figure two: Systemic sampling grid showing methods of generating systemic points . and then the number of questionnaires carried out in different parts of the town can be stratified in line with this information. Stratified systematic sampling The population can be divided into known groups. Stratified random sampling A wide range of data and fieldwork situations can lend themselves to this approa ch . along a beach it could be decided that a transect up the beach will be conducted every 20 metres along the length of the beach C. lines and areas. B. rock types or a population with sub-sets of known size. These sub-sets make up different proportions of the total .wherever there are two study areas being compared. line or area techniques can be used as long as the number of measu . Systematic line sampling The eastings or northings of the grid on a map can be used to identify transect lines (C and D) Alternatively.the south west corner will then mark the corner of a quadrat. and therefore sampling should be stratified to ensure that results are proport ional and representative of the whole. A. and each group sampled using a systematic approach. river catchments. For example: the make-up of different social groups in the population of a town can be obtained. Random point.

rements taken is in proportion to the size of the whole. and with point. For example: if an area of woodland was the study site. The sample points could still be identified randomly (A) or systematically (B) within each separate area of woodland. accurate up to date po pulation data may not be available and it may be hard to identify people's age o r social background effectively . line or area techniques If the proportions of the sub-sets are known. Random sampling may altogether emi ss' one or more of these. if 20 sam ples were to be taken in the woodland as a whole. Stratified sampling would take into account the proportional area of each habita t type within the woodland and then each could be sampled accordingly. and it was found that a shrubb y clearing accounted for 10% of the total area. Advantages and disadvantages of stratified sampling Advantages: It can be used with random or systematic sampling. there would likely be di fferent types of habitat (sub-sets) within it. it can generate results which are more representative of the whole population It is very flexible and applicable to many geographical enquiries Correlations and comparisons can be made between sub-sets Disadvantages: The proportions of the sub-sets must be known and accurate if it is to work prop erly It can be hard to stratify questionnaire data collection. two samples would need to be tak en within the clearing. Figure 3: A diagram highlighting the benefits of using stratified random samplin g and stratified systemic sampling within certain fieldwork sites Figure three: A diagram highlighting the benefits of using stratified random sam pling and stratified systemic sampling within certain fieldwork sites.

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