# Chapter 8-SAMPLE & SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Presentation Transcript 1. Sample and Sampling Techniques 2. THE POPULATION?

Consists of the totality or aggregate of the observations wit h which the researcher is concerned 3. ? Population is an accessible group of people who meets a well-defined set of eligibility criteria.? The utmost importance in selecting a population is that ? gthe population should be clearly defined so that the sample can be accurately identified. h 4. ? The Specific Population types are: ? Target population ? is a group of indi viduals who meets the criteria. ? Subject or respondent population ? refers to a group of individuals participating in the study. ? Strata or stratum ? is descr ibed as a mutually exclusive segment of a population established by one or more characteristics. 5. THE SAMPLING? Sample ? Subset of the population that is selected for a study ? Also called subjects or respondents of the study 6. ? Sampling ? Process of choosing a representative portion of the entire popul ation. ? an integral part of research methodology. ? involves selecting a group of people, events, behaviors or other elements with which to conduct a study. 7. ? Element ? most basic unit about which information is collected. 8. ? Representativeness ? means that the sample must be like the population in a s many ways as possible. ? The accessible population must be representative of t he target population. 9. ? Example of a sample: ? The population of BSN students is 600, only 200 BSN students are included as the target population and only 100 students are chosen as samples for the actual study. 10. Eligibility Criteria 11. ? Eligibility Criteria? A description chosen by the researcher to define whi ch elements should be included in or excluded from the population.? Such criteri a may include sex, age, marital status, education level and diagnosis. 12. SAMPLING THEORY 13. SAMPLING THEORY? is developed to determine mathematically the most effective way to acquire a sample that would accurately reflect the population under stud y. 14. ? Key concepts of sampling theory includes: ? Sampling unit ? refers to spec ific place or location which can be used during sampling process. ? Sampling fra me ? describes the complete list of sampling units from which the sample is draw n. 15. SAMPLING CRITERIA 16. SAMPLING CRITERIA? refers to the essential characteristics of a subject or r espondent such as ability to read and write responses on the data collection ins truments. 17. The steps involved in sampling include:? Identify the target population? Ide ntify the subject or respondent population? Specify the criteria for subject or respondent selection? Specify the sampling design? Recruit the subjects 18. SAMPLE SIZE 19. SAMPLE SIZE? Prior to the selection of sampling technique, the nurse-researc her must first determine the size of the sample. 20. ? A sample size can be determined using the Slovin fs (1960) formula, which is as follows: N n = --------------- 1 + Ne2 Where: n is the sample size N is the population size e is the margin of error 1 is a constant value 21. ? Example: ? From the population of 10,000 clients with tuberculosis, a nurs e-researcher selected a sample size with a margin of error of 5%. ? The desired sample size is computed to be 385 22. TYPES OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 23. TYPES OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES? two basic sampling techniques used in nursing research: ? probability (random) sampling ? nonprobability (nonrandom) sampling. 24. SAMPLING TECHNIQUESNON-PROBABILITY PROBABILITYCONVENIENCE SIMPLE RANDOM QUOT A SYSTEMATIC PURPOSIVE STRATIFIED CLUSTER MULTI-STAGE 25. ? Probability Sampling? Involves the selection of elements from the populati

6. Characteristics of Non-Probability Sampling2. 36.8. The samples are not so reliable.on using random in which each element of the population has an equal and indepen dent chance of being chosen. 33. Multi-Stage Sampling ? Selects samples using more than two sampling techn iques ? Rarely used because of the complexity of its application ? Requires a lo t of effort. Systematic Sampling Technique? Type of probability sampling which selects samples by following some rules set by the researcher which involves selecting the Kth member where the random start is determined. 34. Cluster Sampling ? Used when population is divided into groups or cluster s ? Samples are selected in groups rather than individuals which is employed int o a large-scale survey 30. Non-Probability Sampling ? Involves the selection of elements from a popu lation using nonrandom procedures. 5. 4. The techniques lack objectivity in terms of th e selection of samples. 3.? The names or codes of all members are written on pieces of paper cards and placed in a container. ? This is useful when a group of subjects is neede d to participate in a pretest of newly developed instruments or when a group of experts is desirable to validate research information . Types of Non-Probability Sampling1. 29. ? Used w hen the population is too large to handle and is divided into subgroups (called strata) ? Samples per stratum are then randomly selected. Simple Random Sampling? Each m ember of the population has an equal chance of being included in the samples? Mo st commonly used method is the lottery or Fish Bowl technique? In using the lott ery method.5. Types of Non-Probability Sampling 35. but considerations mus t be given to the sizes of the random samples to be drawn from the subgroups. The members of sample are draw n or selected based on the judgment of the researcher. Non-Probability Sampling 32.? A system is a plan for sel ecting members after a starting point or random start has been determined. ? An example of procedure to use is proportional allocation which selects the samp le sizes proportional to the sizes of the different subgroups. Convenience or Accidental Sampling ? Inv olves the nonrandom selection of subjects based on their availability or conveni ent accessibility. 2. and cost 31.2.? The researcher draws the desired number of sample from the container. 26. there is a need for a complete listing of the members of the populat ion. 2. 2.? Then every nth member of the population will be determined by the system in drawing or selecting the members of the sample 28. Quota Sampling ? Involves the nonrandom selection of elemen ts based on the identification of specific characteristics to increase the sampl e fs representativeness. The results of these te chniques are relatively biased. Types of Non-Probability Sampling3. Four Classification of Probability Sampling1. time. Stratified Random Sampling ? Type of probability sampling which selects m embers of the sample proportionally from each subpopulation or stratum. Purposive of Judgmental Sampling ? Invol ves the nonrandom selection of elements based on the researcher fs judgment and kn owledge about the population. The techniques are convenient and economical to use.4.? The process is relatively easy for small population but relative ly difficult and time consuming for a large population 27.