ECNG 6703 - Principles of Communications

Introduction to Information Theory - Channel Coding: Part II

Sean Rocke

October 7th , 2013

ECNG 6703 - Principles of Communications

1 / 17

Outline 1 Channel Coding Preliminaries Block Coding Cyclic Coding Conclusion 2 3 4 ECNG 6703 .Principles of Communications 2 / 17 .

. .Channel Coding Preliminaries Channel Coding in Context Consider the following Digital Comms Examples: Taking & posting a narcissistic picture of you ziplining in Chaguaramas. Channel Coding: How do we ensure that the compressed data is transmitted reliably on a possibly unreliable channel? (Error Detection & Correction) ECNG 6703 . . .com Live transmission of a Machel Montano concert over the Internet Last lecture. . (Data Compression) This lecture. . Source Coding: Representing the information to be transmitted with as few bits as possible. on your Facebook profile A GSM phone conversation Sending instrumentation data to a control system for a manufacturing plant Downloading a legal copy of an e–book from amazon.Principles of Communications 3 / 17 .

.Channel Coding Preliminaries Recall: Elements of a Digital Communications System Information source and input transducer Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulator Channel Output transducer Source decoder Channel decoder Digital demodulator Elements not specifically included in the illustration: Carrier and Symbol Synchronization A\D interface Channel interfaces (e. .Principles of Communications 4 / 17 . . RF front end (RFFE).. ) ECNG 6703 . BAN front end (BANFE).g. fiber optic front end (FOFE).

it is essential to model the channel. bandwidth efficiency. with as little power.Principles of Communications 5 / 17 . . which can be used at the receiver to overcome the effects of noise & interference encountered during signal transmission through the channel. in a controlled manner. . Channel coding challenge: How can the source output be transmitted across an unreliable channel and reliably received. bit error rate. bandwidth. implementation complexity To answer the above. and implementation complexity as possible? Key performance metrics: coding rate.Channel Coding Preliminaries Recall: Channel Coding Defined Channel encoding: To introduce. ECNG 6703 . some redundancy in the binary information sequence. power efficiency.

Principles of Communications 6 / 17 .Channel Coding Preliminaries Recall: Error Control Mechanisms Error Control Stop & Wait ARQ Continuous ARQ Go-BackN Selective Repeat Non-linear Non-cyclic Golay FECC Block codes Group(Linear) Polynomially generated (cyclic) BCH ReedBinary BCH Solomon Hamming(e = 1) e>1 Convolutional codes ECNG 6703 .

ECNG 6703 . calculate the coded bit error probability when using this best–of–five code. every data bit is repeated five times.Principles of Communications 7 / 17 .Block Coding Block Coding Examples Questions: In a communication channel encoder. a majority vote decides the value of each data bit. and at the receiver. If the uncoded bit error probability is p = 10−3 .

assuming that all symbol errors are independent and that the probability of a symbol error is p = 0. 3) code. The single parity bit c1 is chosen so that the code word satisfies the even parity rule: d1 ⊕ d2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ dk ⊕ c1 = 0 1 2 3 For k = 3 set up all possible words in the (4. ECNG 6703 .01.Principles of Communications 8 / 17 . Which error patterns can the code detect? Compute the probability of an undetected symbol error. dk ). . . a single parity bit is appended to a block of k data bits (d1 d2 .Block Coding Block Coding Examples Questions: In a single parity check code.

c3 ) and d (c2 . 101} a linear code? Consider the following code vectors: c1 = [10010] c2 = [01101] c3 = [11001] Find d (c1 . 001.Block Coding Block Coding Examples Questions: 1 Is C1 = {000.Principles of Communications 9 / 17 . 2 3 4 What are the error detection and correction properties of C1 ? Can it correct the error pattern (110)? ECNG 6703 . c3 ). 111} a linear code? Is C2 = {000. c2 ). d (c1 .

3) systematic linear block code. Decode the word by finding the location of the error and the transmitted data bits using the syndrome. c5 . .Principles of Communications 10 / 17 Now use the Hamming distance and repeat the previous question. ‘and c6 are formed from the following equations: c4 = d1 ⊕ d3 c5 = d1 ⊕ d2 ⊕ d3 c6 = d1 ⊕ d2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Write down the generator matrix. Construct all possible codewords. Determine the Hamming weghts for all codewords. What are the error detection and correction properties of this code? Suppose that the received word is 010111. G. the three parity check bits c4 . ECNG 6703 .Block Coding Block Coding Examples Questions: For a (6.

Principles of Communications 11 / 17 . Construct all possible codewords. Suppose that the received word is 110110. What are the error detection and correction properties of this code? Find the codeword that begins with 101 . . ECNG 6703 . Determine the Hamming weghts for all codewords. G. Decode this received word.Block Coding Block Coding Examples Questions: A parity–check code has the parity–check matrix   1 0 1 1 0 0 H = 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Determine the generator matrix. .

4) linear block code with the parity–check matrix   1 0 1 1 1 0 0 H = 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 Construct the code words for thsi (7. Show that this is a Hamming code. ECNG 6703 .Principles of Communications 12 / 17 . 4) code. Illustrate the relation between the minimum distance and the structure of the parity-check matrix H by considering the code word 0101100.Block Coding Block Coding Examples Questions: Consider a (7.

Principles of Communications 13 / 17 . 2 3 ECNG 6703 . 111} a cyclic code? Find the generator polynomial g (x ) for C1 and show that every code is a multiple of g (x ). 0101. 1010. 100. 1111} a cyclic code? Is C2 = {000.Cyclic Coding Cyclic Coding Examples Questions: 1 Is C1 = {0000. 011.

C with g (x ) = 1 + x + x 3 1 Let data word d = (1010). 2 3 4 5 ECNG 6703 . Find the corresponding code word.Cyclic Coding Cyclic Coding Examples Questions: Consider a (7. Sequence (1110011) is received. Repeat the first question using the generator matrix. Find the generator matrix for C . 4) cyclic code. Find the corresponding data word.Principles of Communications 14 / 17 . Find the data word sent. Let the code word c = (1100101).

Let the code word c = (1100101). Find the corresponding data word.Principles of Communications 15 / 17 . 2 ECNG 6703 . 4) cyclic code with g (x ) = 1 + x + x 3 1 Let data word d = (1010).Cyclic Coding Cyclic Coding Examples Questions: Consider a (7. Find the corresponding code word.

Principles of Communications 16 / 17 .Conclusion Conclusion We covered: Channel coding fundamentals Block coding Cyclic coding Introducing Simulink Your goals for next class: Continue ramping up your MATLAB & Simulink skills Review channel coding handout on course site Complete HW 4 for submission next week ECNG 6703 .

Conclusion Thank You Questions???? ECNG 6703 .Principles of Communications 17 / 17 .