CIVL 232 Design of Structural Concrete

Solution to Assignment 1
1. Solution (a) Two principal types of limited state: Ultimate limit state: The whole structure or its components should not collapse, overturn or buckle when subjected to design loads. Serviceability limit state: The structure should not become unfit for use due to excessive deflection, cracking, vibration and so on. (b) γm takes the account of: i. Uncertainties in strength ii. Uncertainties in the accuracy of the methods of analysis γf takes the account of: i. ii. iii. iv. Possible increase in loads Inaccurate assessment of the effects of loads Unforeseen stress redistribution Constructional inaccuracies

2. Solution (a) The weight of foundation at A can be determined by considering the following load arrangement:
1.4Gk + 1.6Qk = 46.2 kN/m 1.0Gk = 25 kN/m

1.6Qk = 192 kN

A

4m

B

2m

25 × 4 × 2 + 4 × A − 46.2 × 2 × 1 − 192 × 2 = 0 R A = 69.1 kN

1

4Gk + 1.(b) Loading case 1: 1.4Gk + 1.4Gk + 1.9 50 -50 -104.9 Shear Force Diagram 69.11 kNm 1.6Qk = 46.6 Qk on span AB and 1.6Qk = 192 kN C 2m A 4m B Loading case 2 The reaction force at A = 69 kN (downward) The reaction force at B = 64.2 Consider the free body from A to the 1.2 × M max = 69.0Gk = 25 kN/m A 4m B 2m C Loading case 1 The reaction force at A = 79.73 + 46.5 kN (upward) 2 .6Qk = 46.9 kN (upward) The maximum moment location = 79. − 79.9 × 1.9 = 1.73 m 46.9 kN (upward) The reaction force at B = 154.0 Gk on span BC 1.0 Gk on span BC 1.73 2 + M max = 0 2 79.11 Moment Diagram Loading case 2: 1.2 kN/m 1.4Gk + 1.73 m from A.2 kN / m 1 ⋅ Gk = 25 kN / m 1.6 Qk on span AB and 1.

There is no sagging moment within the span AB -476 192 284.6Qk = 192 kN A B C 2m 4m The reaction force at A = 26 kN (downward) The reaction force at B = 495.4 26.4Gk + 1.5 Shear Force Diagram Moment Diagram 3 .7 -211.9 kN (upward) There is no sagging moment within the span AB -476 192 284.2 kN / m 1.4Gk + 1.6 Qk on all spans 1.4 -69 -169 Shear Force Diagram Moment Diagram Loading case 3: 1.6Qk = 46.

9 50 26.7 70.385 -156 44 -78 43.6 … … 127.7 -70.615 -41.385 = 0.2 5m 0.2 -69.3 -35.615 0 0 4 .2 6m 3 1 × = 4 6 = 0.7 69 -104.385 156 -44 78 -43.3 35.Shear Envelope: 284.2 0.4 79.6Qk = 52kN / m 1 ⋅ G k = 20 kN / m 1. 1.2 69.4Gk + 1.4Gk + 1.0 Gk on span BC 1.6 Qk on span AB and CD.385 3 1 1 × + 4 6 5 FEM Balanced Carry over 156 -156 -156 156 DFBA DFBC = 1 − 0.9 -169 -211.6Qk = 52kN / m 6m 0.11 3.6 … … 127.5 Moment Envelope: -476 Envelope is the largest value for a particular region 192 Envelope is the largest value for a particular region -50 69.615 41. Solution (1) Loading case 1: 1.2 0.6 … … -127.6 … … 127.4Gk + 1.

6 30 -5.2 -60 60 DFBA 3 1 × = 4 6 = 0. 1.4Gk + 1.3 … … 100.8 … … -100.8 kN (upward) The reactin at B = 227.7 kNm 2 The corresponding Moment diagram is that: -127.2 0.6 Qk on span BC.3 -29.7 kNm 2 At inner span.0 Gk on span AB and BC 1.4Gk + 1.2 − 20 × 2.5 m The value of M max = −127.385 -60 -18.3 29.6 − 52 × 2.385 60 18.8 = 2.9 9.7 -14.2 -64.7 -127.5 2 + 50 × 2.6Qk = 52kN / m 1 ⋅ G k = 20 kN / m 1 ⋅ G k = 20 kN / m 1 G 25 kN / FEM Balanced Carry over 60 -60 0 0.2 174.7 Loading case 2: 1.5 = −64.7 174.2 0.7 14.2 kN (upward) At outer span.6 -30 5.The reaction at A = 134.8 × 2.6 m 52 The value of M max = 134. the location for maximum moment = 2. the location for maximum moment = 134.385 = 0.615 108.3 … … -100.9 -9.6 2 = 174.2 0.385 3 1 1 × + 4 6 5 DFBC = 1 − 0.615 0 5 .8 … … 100.615 -108.

385 = 0.385 3 1 1 × + 4 6 5 DFBC = 1 − 0.6 Qk on all spans 1.7 -57 … … -164.2 -100.3 kN (upward) The reactin at B = 206.615 108.6Q k = 52 kN / m FEM Balanced Carry over 156 -156 0 0.615 -108.615 0 6 .7 57 … … 164.4G k + 1.9 62.16 2 = 46.2 0.5 m The value of M max = −100.9 kNm 2 At inner span.3 = 2.16 m 20 The value of M max = 43.5 = 62.The reaction at A = 43.385 -156 18.385 156 -18.3 14. the location for maximum moment = 43.2 0.2 -156 156 DFBA = 3 1 × 4 6 = 0.7 … … -164.7kN (upward) At outer span.3 kNm 2 The corresponding Moment diagram is that: -100.16 − 20 × 2. the location for maximum moment = 2.2 − 52 × 2.7 … … 164.5 2 + 130 × 2.3 -29.3 46.9 Loading case 3: 1.4 -78 35.3 -14.3 × 2.2 0.4Gk + 1.2 46.4 78 -35.3 29.

08FL 0. the location for maximum moment = 2.09FL 0.7 kNm 2 The corresponding Moment diagram is that: -164.11FL 0.6 = 2.08FL 0.7 -164.4 kN (upward) At outer span.47 − 52 × 2.5 = −1.5 2 + 130 × 2. the location for maximum moment = 128.47 2 = 159 kNm 2 At inner span.6 × 2.2 159 From BS 8110.The reaction at A = 128.5 m The value of M max = −164.09FL 7 . the design moment is as follows: 159 0.07FL 0.2 -1.11FL 0.6 kN (upward) The reactin at B = 313.2 − 52 × 2.47 m 52 The value of M max = 128.

11FL = 0.11 × [(1.08 × [(1. the values are still conservative for inner span and supports.6 × 15) × 6]× 6 = 205.5 91 168.6 × 15) × 5]× 5 = 91 kNm The values of span and support moment is compared as follows: Span Max Sagging Moment (structural analysis) Max Sagging Moment (BS8110) Maximum Hogging Moment (structural analysis) Maximum Hogging Moment (BS8110) AB BC CD supports 174.The corresponding values are: 0.7 - 168.4 × 20 + 1. However. Nevertheless.4 × 20 + 1.67%. in the homework.7 164.2 205. BS 8110 method may not predict the possible occurrence of the hogging moment in the middle span and it seems that it is unconservative for the outer span design moment.5 kNm 0.4 × 20 + 1. the difference between two spans is 1 m and the corresponding percentage difference is 1/6 = 16.7 62.09 × [(1.6 × 15) × 6]× 6 = 168.4 × 20 + 1.3 174.9 Comments on the values determined from BS 8110 and structural analysis: • The method presented in BS 8110 requires that the spans differ by no more than 15 per cent of the longest span.5 - 64.08 FL = 0.6 × 15) × 5]× 5 = 104 kNm 0.07 FL = 0.9 kNm 0.09 FL = 0.07 × [(1. • Under this condition. 8 .

67 k B rB PB = Pd + Pr = 0 + M t ∑ (kr 2 ) 10 × (15 − 10) = 7. (2) The torsional moment is M t = F ( x − 20) = 100 × (30.4.24 kN 30 6776. Solution y 32 m B: 10k 15 m A: 5k 20 m D: 10k + Centre of rotation E: 15k C: 5k x 20 m F = 100 kN (1) The relative stiffnesses of the walls orientated in x and y directions are ∑k x= x = 5 + 10 + 15 = 30 .67)2 = 6776.67 9 .67) − 1067 × = 31.67 m 30 ∑k x x Taking moments of ky about the axis x-x of Wall C. y ) = (30.10m) .87 kN 6776.67m. ∑k y = 10 + 5 = 15 Taking moments of kx about the axis y-y of Wall A.67)2 + 15 × (40 − 30.67 − 20) = 1067 kNm (clockwise) (3) Calculation of applied forces in Walls B and D: ∑ (kr 2 ) = 5 × 30.67 2 +10 × (15 − 10) 2 + 5 × 102 + 10 × (32 − 30.67 k k D rD PD = Pd + Pr = F D − M t ∑k ∑ (kr 2 ) = 0 + 1067 × = 100 × 10 10 × (32 − 30. y= ∑ ( k y ) = 10 ×15 + 5 × 0 = 10 m 15 ∑k y y The location of the centre of rotation ( x . ∑ ( k x ) = 5 × 0 + 10 × 32 + 15 × 40 = 30.