TAKING CARE OF THE PLANTATION

28. When the cocoa trees have been planted, the work is not finished. The grower still has a lot of work to do to look after his cocoa trees. A grower who does not look after his plantation properl !annot har"est #ig pods and will not earn $%!h $one & To look after your plantation properly you must:
o o o o o

Replace seedlings that have not grown Remove weeds and keep the soil covered rune the cocoa trees !pply fertili"er rotect the cocoa trees from insects and diseases.

REPLACING 'I((ING (EE)LING(
2#. $ometimes certain cocoa seedlings do not grow well. They remain small or die. %uring the months following the day when you planted your seedlings, you must always look to see whether the cocoa trees are growing well. &f you see diseased or dead cocoa trees, pull them out and burn them, and also those encircling them in case of swollen shoot disease 'see paragraph (2). &n their place, plant other young cocoa seedlings, from among those that you have kept in the nursery bed or in baskets.

*EE)ING AN) (OIL CO+ER
*+. ,any weeds grow among the cocoa tree rows. ,o% $%st not let weeds take no%rish$ent awa fro$ the !o!oa trees& When the cocoa trees are young, you should weed ( or - times every year. When the cocoa trees are bigger, they cast a lot of shade and so few weeds will grow. &t will be enough to weed once a year. When you are cultivating be very careful not to damage the trunk and roots of the cocoa trees. -.& /etween the rows of !o!oa trees0 o% sho%ld not lea"e the soil #are& .ou should cover the soil either with cut weeds or with palm fronds, if available. &n this way the soil is protected against sun and erosion/ it stays moist and cool. When the weeds rot, they give the soil organic matter.

! crown of * to .. at less than 0 metre above ground level. PR1NING COCOA TREE( *2.main branches forms about 0. $ometimes. straight trunk. C%t off these shoots and lea"e onl the strongest& $ometimes the crown forms too low down. during the first year.metres above ground level. Choose a shoot whi!h grows straight %p and let it de"elop& ! new crown will then form at a good height.oung well1grown cocoa tree .o% !an also sow a !o"er !rop0 for Instan!e leg%$es& This will give the soil good protection against sun and erosion. . several shoots form on the trunk. The cocoa tree is a tree that develops well. and the first crown will stop growing. **.. &t has a single.

Then cut down the old trunk.. When a cocoa tree gets old. 2ocoa tree which forms its crown too low down -2& Alwa s !%t o%t all dead #ran!hes0 dr twigs and s%!kers& ! s%!ker is a twig that grows upward out of the trunk. 2ut off the suckers very close to the trunk. *3. . it no longer yields many pods.oung cocoa tree with two shoots *(. 4ut you can make cocoa trees young again by letting one or two suckers grow low down on the trunk where they can develop their own roots. and you will again have a cocoa tree that yields many pods.

ING FERTILI3ER( 5ertili"ers cost a lot of money. but be careful not to put any on the trunk. $o the grower should use fertili"ers only when this will make him earn more money. where most of its small roots are. the branches or the leaves of the cocoa tree: otherwise the fertili5er will #%rn the tree& $pread the fertili"er in a ring around the trunk at a distance of about 0 metre from it. -4& *hen o% ha"e tended o%r !o!oa trees0 when o% ha"e hoed the weeds0 then o% sho%ld appl fertili5er& $pread fertili"er around each cocoa tree.APPL. !pply fertili"er twice a year: in !pril and $eptember. .

5or e6ample. The 7uantities for each tree are as follows: o during the first two years: in !pril: 02. along the coast.grammes/ in $eptember: 02. phosphoric acid and potash: fertili"er formula 0*10+10-/ on the more granitic soils of the interior. The grower loses his money. in &vory 2oast: o o on the more sandy soils. which contains nitrogen. &f the plantation is not cared for properly. -7& )ifferent soils ha"e different fertili5er needs& !sk the e6tension service how much fertili"er to use. use compound fertili"er. the suckers and the weeds. . use another compound fertili"er: formula 0210-108.-6& It Is %seless to appl fertili5ers in a plantation that is not well !ared for& ! grower who does not prune his cocoa trees and who does not hoe the weeds should not apply any fertili"er. fertili"ers do nothing e6cept feed the trunks of the cocoa trees.grammes.

use Lindane or Aldrin& :. &f attacked. !t the place where they make a hole. the pods rot and die.& /la!k pod disease This is caused by a fungus which chiefly attacks the pods. To control capsids.o during the third year and from then on: in !pril: 2-+ grammes/ in $eptember: 2-+ grammes.ou can control borers with ))T or )ieldrin& 2apsid 4orer The $ost dangero%s diseases that atta!k !o!oa trees are the following8 :.oung trees attacked by capsids often die. PROTECTION FRO' IN(ECT( AN) )I(EA(E( The $ost dangero%s inse!ts are the following8 -9& Capsids These insects prick the twigs and pods.& /orers The larvae of these insects bore holes in the trunk or branches. the tree dries out and the sap no longer circulates. . . .

all the trees circling it must be cut down also to avoid the spread of infection.2ontrol this disease by picking off diseased pods and burning them. . when a diseased tree has been discovered and cut down. 2ontrol this disease by cutting down diseased trees and leaving them to wither.ealy bugs carried about by ants can transmit the disease from one tree to another.ou can prevent the disease from spreading by spraying the sound pods with copper preparations. . . . Remember that.ou will see that the leaves are mottled. $ometimes some twigs become very thick and the tree soon dies. :<& (wollen shoot disease This is a very serious disease. which has caused much damage in 8hana.