1ßs)(1+7)s),
N3 = 4(1  ßs)(1  ýIs)>
4(1 +ý3)(1 = CJs)
The Jacobian is defined by,
IJ(ýs, ýs)I=
where,
äý äý'
ýs qs
o3
ai18
'
(3.3.1)
as ii=11
aSs
(3.3.2)
The superscript
indicates the subelement nodal coordinate with respect to the 77axes. The 4,
(3.3.1) defined in a similar way. in Eq. terms are other Noting evaluated, that ý3 = ý4 and r73 = q4, an expression for the subelement Jacobian can be
ýJ3(i
3,0
I=
(,q, + 1)4 1 ,
(3.3.3)
in Ai is the the that is i the the curvilinear space area of subeleand subelement of number where ment. The integration into be transformed an expression, removing of a singular element can
the singularity,
1
subel
1,
r(ý i1
integration In the modified space. shape functions
Idýsdiis Js
(3.3.4)
integration between the distance the Here r represents the singular node and curvilinear scheme, the curvilinear
point in the
interpolated points are allows numerical
using the subelement implementation
defined above
This transformation
Gauss integration. using a simple
3.. 4 Integral
Operators
The object of any numerical method is to transform the governing equations into a system of equations that is amenable to numerical solution. page 50 For a boundary element method this
Collocation Method. involves approximating equations. the integral Chapter in by 2, discretized matrix equations, presented
This has to be done so that high order singularities and problems of nonuniqueness are removed or circumvented. The integral operators that form
formulation the of numerical
the components of the integral equations will be discussed individually. 3.4.1 £k Operator This operator is defined by.
fGk(PQ)(Q)dSq. Gk [01(P) _
(2.2.3)
The kernel of this integral operator contains singularities O(r1) form this operator for numerical discretization.
is there no need to transand the Ck ,
Using the element shape functions
operator may be approximated
by the following numerical expression,
ne
Gk[OI (P) _f
j =l
S'
Gk (P, q){Ne}T dS;
{ý }.
(3.4.1)
In this equation, ne is the number of elements. The integration is performed numerically in the curvilinear described field The Lachat Watson the above. of and surface method system using dSj functions is by, the the given area element and element shape using
is interpolated point
dS,  IJ I<dq.
(3.4.1) is evaluated at each of the set of collocation points {Pt},
(3.4.2)
When Eq.
a system of
be These be written can equations assembled. equations can
way,
in matrix form in the following
{, Ck[OI (Pi)l
=
[Lk]{
}.
(3.4.3)
3.4.2
Mk
Operator
This operator is defined by.
Mk[q5](P) =J
aGäPýQ)q(Q)dsq.
Sq
(2.2.4)
page 51
Collocation alethod. For this integral operator, the kernel contains singularities O(r`') is and so a way needed to in the following
avoid the integration
way,
of high order singularities.
The operator can be rewritten
[Mk
c(P)1]0=
[MkMol0+
[Moc(P)ll0.
(3.4.4)
Eq. (3.4.4) can be approximated
in terms of the element shape functions,
Mk ýýý(P)
E
n°
j=1
:
Is, ( aGk(P, q) 3G0(ß 4) . _ ön 9 an, an
iaý
{Ne}T dS;
10i }+ (3.4.5)
is i
ÖG0(P,
q)
an
IN
eT e
dS;
{0i }
c(p)O(P).
The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.5) contains singularities of O(r2). singularity integration is ignored and Eq. (3.4.5) is integrated numerically technique.
This
using the modified numerical
By taking the field point P to each of the collocation points a system of
in by, be form be These matrix expressed assembled. can equations can
{[Mk

C(P)1]I
=
[Mk

Cp]l01

[Alk
_
lo]Lq}
+ [M0

Cp]101.
(3.4.6)
The diagonal matrix the following
[Cp] is the value of c(P) evaluated at the collocation node points. Consider (3.4.6), in last Eq. the term of
definition
mil
 cl
m21
M12 m22 c2
... ...
mli m2i
min
M2n
Oi
02
[MoCp]{O}=
Mil
mat
772t;
c;
ln2n
Oi
(3.4.7)
Mni
mn2
mni
mnn

Cn
0n
The O(r2)
singularities
are distributed
by the element shape functions to the diagonal elements
of this matrix. The definition
These matrix elements can be accurately defined by using a row sum procedure. in Chapter by, 2 given c(P) was of
is
(P, j 0Go g) ds .
(3.2.13)
page 52
Collocation By using this relationship
Method.
the diagonal elements of the matrix defined in Eq (3.1.7) are given
by,
mii

ci 
1
j#i
mij.
(3.4.8)
Therefore not only are the singular elements evaluated but c(p) is also implicitly The A4
evaluated.
it be in By as, operator may numerically evaluated redefining a similar way.
[Mk
+ c(P)Z]
[Mk
+ Mo]

[Mo
ß, c(P)Zj 
(3.4.9)
the operators
in the numerical
approximation
by, are given
T
n,
k
[0] (P)
aGk (P, q)
aGoýP,
E
? =1
ifp
n` r
On
aGGO(P,
+
Q)
qý
an 9
{N
eT }
IN
e } 7' dSj
{
}(3.4.10)
j=1
JS
an q
dSj
{0j }
c(p)O(P).
This leads to the following matrix expression;
{ [MT
+ C(P)Z]
01 =
[1ý1k + Cp]{0}
[Mk M0]{0} + =

[silo

Cp]{q}
(3.4.11)
The first matrix on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.11) contains singularities O(r1) O(r2) above.
3.4.3 )/k Operator
and the
singularities
in the second matrix are evaluated using the row sum procedure described
This operator is defined by,
s a2Gk(P, Q)O(Q)dSq. tiý[¢](P) = , ön ön s9P It is this operator numerical
(2.2.6)
that, need the greatest amount of consideration when implementing that need integrating.
a
high there are order singularities method since page 53
Based on a
Collocation 11(thod. [1949], (2.2.6) in by it is Eq. into tangential Maue to the possible convert expression proof shown derivatives using the basic vector identity,
(np  Vq)(n9  Vq) = (nn nq)(Vq 0) (nq (np Vq) Vq). x x " "
(3.4.12)
By integrating
by parts, the transformed
Nk for is by, the expression given operator
Nk [01(P) J S
{(nP is
. nq)k2Gk(P,
q)O(q)

(nq
xV
q0(q))
" (nP
x
C9)Gk(P,
q)]
dSq+
(3.4.13)
n9 O9 x (q)(np x VgGk(P,
q))] dSq.
The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.16) can be transformed by Stoke's theorem into an integral around the edge of S. Therefore for closed surfaces it is equal to zero and can finally be neglected. The transformed expression for the 111, is by, given E operator
Nk[01(P)
=f
[(np s
(n9 (9)) (np dSq. Vq Vq)Gk(P, X x q)] ' n9)k2Gk(P, 4)o(q) .
(3.4.14)
The validity of this expression has been shown in greater detail by Stallybrass [1967] and Mitzner [1966]. Eq. (2.2.6) can be rewritten in the following way,
Nk0
=
[.Nk

Vol 0+
%Voc"
(3.4.15)
The first operator on the right hand side contains terms of order O(r1) of order O(r2). following
and the second terms by the
Using the element shape functions Eq. (3.4.15) can be approximated
expression,
Nk [01 (P)
J
j=1
l(nP
nq)k2Gk(P,
q){Ne}T
_
(nq X Vq{Ne}T)
ný
"
(np
x V9)(Gk(P,
q) Go(P,
q))dS9
10i }
(3.4.16)
/J
(nq x Vq{Ne}T)
(np x V)Go(P.
q)dSj
{ 0i }.
1=1
J)
page 54
Collocation The O(2) singularity
11ethod. .
in the second term of this expression is ignored for the time being and
Eq. (3.4.16) is evaluated at each collocation point to assemble the following matrix equation;
{Nk[OJ(PP)} _ [,''k]M
[_1'o]{yh}. [: Vo){¢} Vk + _  .
(3.4.1 7)
This represents the matrix made to integrate the singularity
Nz for the equation operator, [N0] in the term. occurring
and no further modification
is
It will be shown that there is of these terms. The singularity
inaccuracies due integration the to the of cancellation numerical Consider the singular integration
for A'ö the over one element operator.
is separated from the rest of the element by a disk segment of small radius e. The singular integration integration be into the over element can over the element separated a non singular
disk integration disk Iý Iý the the segment, over segment, ; and and a singular minus ,
Ij s,
The integration
(nq XVq (4))  (np x V, GO(P,q))dS9 = I,j,
Ij,
.
(3.4.18)
Iý is assumed to be accurate within
the limits of the numerical integration the
be integration for to inaccuracies The the contained within are assumed element scheme. integration
Ij2. The small disk segment is assumed to be flat and the vector T is assumed to be to the normal. The gradients within Eq. (3.4.18) can be
in the plane of the disk, perpendicular expressed as,
(nq x Oq4(r, e)) =
B)) = (np xV gGo(r,
ö«r, B)
(n9 X ''),
(np x T),
3G0(r, B)
Or
(3.4.19)
The integration
in Eq (3.4.18) can be rewritten as,
In e' In E ä0(r, 6)2oGo(r, 0) drd9. JI Ij rI ar 8r
(3.4.20)
IJI be Within taken Jacobian can as constant. where the
the disk segment it is assumed that 0
(3.4.20) is in Eq 0 the dependency the linear variation global of on position has a vector and so by, from r and given independent page 55
Collocation
1lfthod. .
00)
Or r0
= pose
(OX 0
r=0
sine
y
(3.4.21)
r_0
Using this relationship
Ij can be represented by,
Ii =Ii,
+IB1jr
.
(3.4.22)
For all elements j that contain the singularity inadequate singular integration.
there will be similar errors in Ir due to the
However since the summation of the Ie terms is equal to zero
these errors cancel each other out. Therefore it is safe to evaluate the singular terms in the [N. ] matrix using the Lachat and Watson inverse distance singularity scheme. method has
In a recent paper by Wu, Seybert and Wan [1991] a very similar collocation
been described. This shows that Maue's equation needs C' continuity at the collocation points and to achieve this on CO continuous elements the collocation points are put inside the elements to form an over determined set of equations. To achieve the integration of the Cauchy principal (3.4.18) in integral Eq. they use additional shown value This study uses a much more simple method. directly elements X, operator. regularization. Eq. (3.4.18) for singular of the
By integrating
it is recognized that there will be errors in the matrix approximation
However this work has shown that there will be cancellation of these errors when
the acoustic problem is solved and so the sophisticated treatment of Eq (3.4.18) in the work by Wu et al is unnecessary. 3.4.4 Matrix formulation for the Burton and Miller boundary
It is now possible to write the matrix approximation integral equation, Eq. (2.4.4);
([Mk

Cp]
+
a[Nk])
f01
=
QLk}
+
a[Mk
+
cr])
{o}
an
(90i foil a
ön
(3.4.23)
Eq. (3.4.23) represents a matrix equation of the form,
[H]x =
page 56
(3.4.24)
Collocation where the matrix [H], is full, complex and nonsymnmetric.
Method.
In the past considerable effort
has been made to symmetrize symmetric
this matrix equation (Mathews [1986]). For this study this non technique followed
directly equation set was solved using a standard LUfactorization
by forward and backward substitution.
The imaginary coupling constant a takes the value i/k,
since this has been shown by previous researchers (Burton and Miller [1971]) to be the optimum value. For the numerical integration 3x3 Gauss integration was used for both the non singular
for Lachat the elements and and Watson subelements. 3.4.5 Exterior pressure distribution is given by,
The exterior pressure distribution
Os(P) _ Mk[0](P)
£k[01(P). 
PEE.
(3.4.25)
This expression can be approximated
numerically by using the element shape functions,
(P)
_
j=1
öGk(P, q) fSa9 {Ne}dS
(is
{(' )i=1 I
Gk (P, q){Ne}dS
ai
=1
a
(3.4.26)
Since the field point P is exterior
to the boundary surface there is no singular kernel in this
expression that needs special consideration. For the far field pressure distribution this numerical expression can be further simplified.
By considering the geometry shown in figure (3.3) it is possible to write,
Off (P) _
eikR ný
4ýR
Js
iknq  ReikR. 9{Ne}dS
{¢ý }J
/ý ei
kiý
)f
q{: ý'e}dS
a
S
an (3.4.27)
boundary farfield field the the R surface point. point vector and q represents represents where In vector form this expression can be written as
o3

lMkf
J
{0}
{L'k'} an
(3.4.28)
page 57
Collocation Method.
Figure (3.3) Geometry for evaluating the far field pressure distribution.
3.5
The computer
code
of the collocation method was coded in FORTRAN
The numerical implementation
predom
inantly on an IBM RS6000 machine in a UNIX environment.
The code was written to primarily
evaluate the numerical method presented above and it was found that in core memory space was large enough to run problems of a large enough size to demonstrate of simple geometries. Use was made of structural geometry in order to reduce the problem size considerably. This symmetry Z the global axis and in most about for accuracy a number
done by degree a was specifying of rotational cases only one axisyinmetric
discretized. is the actually quarter of acoustic structure
3.6 Numerical
results
fron
3.6.1
Radiation
submerged
spheres
One axisymmetric
discretized into is a number of elements quarter of a sphere with radius a
for A different (3.4) the Figure the spherical problem, geometries mesh shows of equal area. Legendre distribution a with velocity surface is specified on the sphere,
an
ao aoo P(cos9).
an
(3.6.1)
The resulting normalized acoustic impedance, Z, is calculated,
page 58
Collocation %fcihod.
Zko/0'0.
(3.6.2)
and further
normalized
with respect to P,
to form the normalized modal acoustic impedance. and modes are plotted with respect to wavenuinber
The results for various discretizations
in figures (3.58). These results are compared to the analytical solution (Junger and Feit [1986]) and show high accuracy and good convergence. The effectiveness of the of the Burton and 1filler formulation nonuniqueness at critical in removing the problem of
frequencies is shown in figures (3.910). The error in the normalized
is impedance plotted at the internal acoustic eigenvalues for the interior spherical problem, modal for ka less than 10. These eigenfrequencies can be calculated analytically. high formulations for SHIE DSHIE the the quite clearly errors and critical frequencies of the interior problem. The error plots show
around the appropriate
These plots also show that with the Burton and
Miller formulation,
the error in modal impedance for these modes is less than 0.1% for n=0, and n=2 from and less than 5% for n=3. a submerged sphere
less than 1% for n=1 3.6.2 Acoustic
scattering
Figure (3.11) shows the convergence of the backscattered farfield form function for scattering of a plane wave by a rigid sphere compared to an analytical solution. The incident wave is defined by,
Oi
=
eikz
(3.6.3)
backscattered the and
farfield form function is given by,
2R 10, = aa
(36.4)
low high frequency the to This plot shows good convergence the analytical solution and and characteristics of plane wave scattering. is predominant. At low frequency the formfunction depends on k2 as
Raleigh scattering
In this frequency regime the acoustic wavelength is large depends only on the volume of the sphere. At limit. In this frequency regime
formfunction the the to and scatterer compared higher frequencies the formfunction
converges to the Kirchoff
from the illuminated is it the specular reflections
for dominate the sphere the that and surfaces
page 59
Collocation Kirchoff approximation of the illuminated frequency independent formfunction, predicts a
Ifcthod.
dependent on the area
frequency This plot also shows the characteristic oscillations due to surface.
the interference of Franz' waves. Figures (3.1213) show the scattering distribution The axis magnitudes for these plots is the YZ with unit magnitude solution. YZ in the the of surface pressure for the plane The incident in the YZ for frequencies. various plane
farfield the pressure amplitude components of
plane wave. Again the numerical results are compared to an
analytical
Figure (3.14) shows the amplitude same unit amplitude
incident plane wave, at two frequencies for different discretizations.
plotted points in this figure correspond to the nodal points on the surface mesh. These points are farfield It is for 24 the to the that solution. analytical compared worth noting elements accuracy be to greater than the surface accuracy. This indicates a degree of error `smoothing' when seems calculating 3.6.3 the farfield quantities. scattering from a submerged spheroid distributions for oblate and prolate
Acoustic
The figures (3.1516) show the farfield scattering One axisymmetric spheroids.
quarter of the spheroid is discretized and the planewave is taken of the problem. the mesh for the spheroids was The comparison to
to be incident end on to preserve the axisyinmetry
In the absence of any sophisticated meshing algorithm,
directions. in Y, Z X, by the the spherical mesh simply scaling calculated
S. for his by W. Wu, PhD project by the the numerical results was provided program written [1990]. This program was written to solve for purely axisymmetric acoustic problems using high order lineelements. The program was run using 20 such elements and the assumption made that There seems to be a high degree of accordance between
this represented a converged solution. the results.
These test cases show the efficiency of the model for geometries other than the
described above. simple spherical problem 3.6.4 Acoustic scattering from a submerged finite cylinder from a finite
The last set of numerical results concerns the farfield scattering distribution
in for Figure The L length this are shown problem mesh geometries and radius a. cylinder of (3.17). Again only one axisynunetric discretized is is the the and plane wave quarter of cylinder
incident. along the Z axis. The numerical results are compared to the results of S.W. Wu using 44 axisyrrunetric line elements.
page 60
Collocation .lfethod. Figure (3.18) shows the far field scattering results for a cylinder with length 4a and 8a. Both plots in the figure show good agreement with the results of S.W. \Vu. Figure (3.19) shows the convergence of the scattering distribution importance from the L=8.0 figure This cylinder. shows the for is the case as
discontinuities, high density the around surface of elements of a
the 104 element mesh.
page 61
Collocation
Method.
(a) 6 Elements
(b) 24 Elements
(c) 96 Elements
Figure (3.4).
The different
for the spherical problem mesh geometries
page 62
Collocation Method.
1.5 Z 1.0 n=O
0.5
0.0
0.5
` 1.0 0
246g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1 .V 1n
02468 Analytical Figure (3.5). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary
ka A.
10
modal impedance for the rigid sphere, modes 0 and 1.
quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 elements.
page 63
Collocation
Method.
1.5 Z 1.0 n=2
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
02
4
6
g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0 n=3
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5 02468
Analytical Figure (3.6). Normalized One axisymmetric Real .
ka Imaginary
10
2 3. for impedance the and modal rigid sphere, modes
discretized into 6 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 64
Collocation
Method.
1.5 Z 1.0 n0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0
2
4
6
g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0 n=1
0.5 0.0
0.5
1"
02468 Analytical Figure (3.7). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary
ka &.
10
0 for impedance 1. the modes and modal rigid sphere,
discretized into 24 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 65
Collocation
Method.
1.5 Z 1.0
n=2
0.5
0.0
0.5
V I.1A
0246
g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0 n=3
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0 1.5 
02468 Analytical Real . Imaginary
ka A.
10
Figure (3.8). Normalized One axisymmetric
2 3. for impedance the and rigid sphere, modes modal
into 24 discretized is the elements. quarter of sphere, radius a,
page 66
Collocation Method.
104
0
0
3 10
L L
n=0
e
0
O
102
e 101
100 000ee
eo e0
dý
101 sse0 o 0a 0 epe ®e e ®e
ao G
0
A A
10 2 0
0
10 3 104 02468 104 103
L
ka
10
00
n=1
eeA 0
A o AA
O
L 102 101 100 10 1 0 A, 00

eeA00 &
oQs: O am O ta
A
$8
es0
NW MI 'Do
102
103
104 02468 Coupled . SHIE o. DHSIE ka '& . 10
Figure (3.9). Normalized
for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal quarter discretized is into the sphere, radius a, of
0 and 1. One axisymmetric 24 elements.
page 67
Collocation Method.
104 103
O V
n=2
A
A
0 A
L 102
101 10° 10 1 10 2
0
e0°°00
0 Ao
g
00
0°
®
®o
°o °
oo 000
10 3
, n4 IV
s
02468 104 3 10
LA
ka
10
n=3
00 `
2es 10
101
Ls
10
000
AS
00
e
ae
10 1
0o0 00 "
0
CPA
°0
Le 00 MEN
o49
A
o
10 2 103
00
"
104 02468 Coupled
Figure (8.10).
ka . SHIE o. DHSIE .
10
Normalized
for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal discretized is into the quarter of sphere, radius a,
2 and 3. One axisymmetric 24 elements.
page 68
Collocation
Method.
kn
o
0 0
0 0
0 0
Itt
M
0 0 0
N
0
. 4
O ri
00 
ýO r+
ýt
NO .OOOOO
00
N
uo! Jz)un, 4 uuao3
6 elements Figure (4.11). 0.24 .
elements
Plane wave backscattered form function
for the rigid sphere.
One axisymmetric elements.
quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 and 24
page 69
Collocation Method.
ka=0.1 0.015 0.010 0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010 40.015 0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
ka=1
0.8
0.6
0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2
0.4
0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Analytical Figure (S. 12). Far field form function
Numerical distribution for scattering incident of an
from left One by The is incident to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and quarter of sphere, radius a, axisyinmetric the distribution is calculated at ka = 0.1 and 1.0
page 70
Collocation
Method.
ka=3 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
ka=5
1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 0.5
Analytical Figure (3.13). Far field form function
X
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Numerical distribution
O.
for scattering of an incident
left from One by incident The is to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and sphere, radius a, axisymmetric quarter of the distribution is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 71
Collocation Method.
ka=3 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5
1 1.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
ka=5
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Analytical Figure (3.14). Amplitude
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
24 Elements
13 .
96 Elements
by for a rigid plane wave scattering of surface pressure
One is from left incident The to axisymmetric quarter plane wave right. sphere. distribution discretized is into the 6 24 the elements and and sphere, radius a, of is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 72
Collocation
Method.
k=1.0 b=0.2 a=1.0
0.20
0.10
0.00
0.10
ý0.20 . 0.40
.1
0.20
0.00
0.20
0.40
a=1.0 b=0.2 k=3.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8_ 1.8 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4
O.
1.4
1.0
0.6
0.2
1.8
S. W. Wu Figure (8.15. Farfield pressure distribution
Numerical
for scattering of an incident plane left from to incident is The by right. plane wave a rigid oblate spheroid. wave 96 into discretized is the One axisymmetric elements and quarter of spheroid the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 axisymmetric calculated using line elements.
page 73
Collocation
Method.
a=0.2 b=1.0 k=1.0 0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02 0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
a=0.2 b=1.0 k=3.0
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.03
+0.05
0.05 0.03 0.01
0.01
0.03
0.05
S. W. Wu Figure (3.16). Farfield pressure distribution
Numerical for scattering of an incident plane The plane wave is incident from left to right.
by a rigid prolate spheroid. wave
One axisymmetric quarter of the spheroid is discretized into 96 elements and the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 line axisymmetric elements. calculated using
Page 74
Collocation
Method.
(a) 72 Elements
(b) 88 Elements
(c) 104 Elements
Figure (3.17.
The different
for the cylinder problem mesh geometries
page 75
Collocation
Method.
a=1.0 L=4.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3
0.5
a=1.0 L=8.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
S. W. Wu
Figure wave (3.18). by a rigid Farfield pressure distribution for
Numerical
scattering
O.
incident of an left to right. plane The
cylinder.
The plane at k=1.0 for
is incident wave L=4.0
from
distribution quarter for
is calculated
and L=8.0.
One axisymmetric and 104 elements line
the cylinder of
is discretized
into 72 elements for L=4.0
L=8.0.
The results of S. W. Wu were calculated
44 axisymmetric using
elements.
page 76
Collocation
Method.
\o ö
Ö
4 1N
0 0 II 0
ea
yý
N O
.w.
0
N 9
i
.`
ýi
1
9
Ö
ÖCCÖÖÖ ýt NO C14 lqt ýc
S. W. Wu
.
72 Elements
f
.
88 Elements
13.104 Elements
.
Figure
(8.19).
Convergence a=1.0,
farfield the of
scattering
distribution
from
the cylin
der, L=8.0,
at a wave number
of k=1.0.
page 77
I ariaftonal
110hod. .
CHAPTER
Variational Method
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter a variational proximation of the hypersingular method is described that enables the accurate numerical apYk operator. This method is based on the work of Mariem is important operator .A for two
[1987]. Hamdi Previous chapters have indicated that the and reasons. First it is a main constituent
of the DSHIE for closed body acoustic problems, which circumventing the probdescribed in
SHIE, forms the the Burton and Miller formulation when coupled with
lem of uniqueness. Second it forms the basis of the thin shell acoustic formulation Chapter 2.
The variational integrating of resulting
is method considered since it provides an elegant solution to the problem kernel as well as resulting in a symmetric matrix equation. The is also independent of the type of numerical interpolation used.
the hypersingular
numerical formulation
Subsequent chapters will show that the variational formulation couples to the elastic formulation in the thin shell an efficient and symmetric way. of The disadvantage with the method is that it involves an extra integration which increases the computational radiation size of the problem. Results are presented for thin shell scattering and accuracy of the method. and
problems that show the validity
Both closed and non
between the thin variational method and made are comparisons and considered are shells closed the collocation in Chapter 3. described method
4.2
Weighted
Residue
Techniques
Variational the and
Method
The purpose of this section is to outline the principles behind the collocation and variational methods. highlight 4.2.1 The arguments that follow are taken from Zeinkiewicz [1989] and are presented to the relationship between the two methods. Method
Weighted
ResidualGalerkin
The general acoustic problem may be expressed by the linear equation,
A[O] (p) =8ý
(P)
(4.2.1)
page 78
Variational .11cthod.
Eq. (4.2.1) niust be satisfied at every point, domain, p, on some surface S. It follows therefore
that;
is
(p)A[¢](P)dSp =J u.,
is u'(P)B ön
(P)dSp,
(4.2.2)
where w is a weighting be approximated may
function
and Eq. (4.2.2) must be satisfied for all w. The fluid variables
in terms of the global shape functions,
{N9}T
{0},
a0
:
1, %g IT
fan
(4.2.3)
If the approximated
fluid the values of variables are inserted into Eq. (4.2.2) then it is clearly is made and u'
impossible for this expression to be satisfied for all uw. Instead an approximation is replaced by a finite set of weighting functions so that,
w=
wj,
j=1
to n.
(4.2.4)
Eq. (4.2.2) will now yield a set of n simultaneous equations given by,
f
w(P)A[{'ßr9}T
{}](p)dS=
is
J
w(P)13
{N}T
'91]
(P)dS.
(4.2.5)
This equation represents an integral of error residuals and clearly the equation set generated depends on the set of weighting functions that are chosen. If the weighting functions are chosen so that,
b(P wi =  Pj),
(4.2.6)
(4.2.5) Eq. to the is then the collocation method will correspond of nodal points set pj where described in Chapter 3. If however the weighting functions are chosen so that,
Wj
_
ý'J : ,
(4.2.7)
Galerkin is the (4.2.5) then Eq.
weighted residual method. page 79
Variational 4.2.2 Variational Method
some scalar functional
If0hod. .
For the variational
method
is generated
using some a priori
guess
as to the physical nature of the problem. may correspond to the potential
For some physical problems this scalar functional
energy or the energy dissipation of the system. The solution this functional with respect to the unknown variable.
of the problem is achieved by minimizing Consider the BEM formulation
for the thin shell acoustic problem defined in Chapter 2,
a4(P) an
[ýDl(P)Alk _
(4.2.8)
The appropriate
functional
is defined by,
n=I
The minimization the symmetry functional this of
(
Oý3 9n
2ýA1 [<D] (p) dSp.
formulation of the problem.
(4.2.9)
Due to
gives the variational
of the J1/k operator, the stationary value problem can be evaluated in a straight
forward manner,
bII =I
b(a(P)
b(DAk[(DI (P) 
dSp = 0.
(4.2.10)
It can be seen that this expression is identical to the Galerkin formulation problem. Galerkin
of the thin shell and
In general if the governing integral operator is self adjoint then the variational formulations be identical. will The whole subject of variational
methods is discussed
in great detail in the book by Morse and Feshbach [1953].
4.3
Variational
Boundary
Integral
Formulation
The full boundary integral equation for the thin shell problem is defined by,
ao(p) as (P) A, + P _ k[ýJ(P)
(2.5.6)
difference is in Chapter 1 Following the the the 3 pressure across shell. method shown where be Nk transformed can the operator into tangential derivatives; page 80
Variational If0hod.
[(
tp
*f9)k2Gk(P,
q)4(q)

(n9
X Vq
(q))

(nP
x
Vq)C'k(P,
dSq. q)]
(4.3.1)
For the variational
formulation,
Eq.
(2.5.6) is multiplied
by 6D(p) and integrated
with
respect to p over the shell surface S,
I s
bý(P)
aanP)
dsp =
Ibý(p)i1
is
[<D](p)dSp + k
&D(p)
aý (P)
p
dSp.
(43.2)
The expression for the Alk operator given in Eq. integrating by parts to obtain the expression,
(4.2.1) can be further
transformed
by
All [6
ý] =ff ,
[(np ss
(np (nq GPb(D(P)) Vq(D(q))] Gk(p, nv)k26D(P)(D(4') x x q)dSgdSp. ' '
(4.3.3)
Eq. (4.3.3) contains singularities of O(r1) it is and consequently possible to integrate [1976]. Lachat Watson scheme of and this
equation accurately using the modified integration In arriving justification
at Eq. (4.3.3) integrations around the edge of the thin shell are discarded. The
for this in Chapter 3 was that for closed thin shells there is no edge and consequently must be equal to zero. For nonclosed thin shells this is not the case. However
these integrations in Chapter
2 it was shown that the pressure difference around the edge of the shell must be must also be equal to zero.
integration for Therefore the these to shells edge zero. equal
4.4 Numerical
Implementation
The discretization interpolation by, mated
of the variational
formulation
is implemented using the same order of approxi
Vk. be for The that the numerically as operator can collocation method.
ýe
ne
i=1
j1
E {bitIT I> l [(np
(nP
" nq)k`2{N
}{Ng
}T
_
X OPlApj)(n9
X Vq{NgIT)]Gk(P,
W}. 9)dSqdSp
(4.4.1)
page 81
Variational Alethod. In Eq. (4.4.1) the gradient of the shape function axis system. is expressed in terms of the local coordinate shown
In order to evaluate these gradients it is necessary to use the relationship The Jacobian matrix
in Eq (3.2.11).
for the system, defined in Eq. (3.2.7), then enables the system.
gradient to be expressed in derivatives of the curvilinear For the integration The integration
in Eq. (4.4.1), the point p ranges over Si and the point q ranges over Sj . The singularities i=j. points when
with respect to p is performed using simple Gauss integration. will occur at these Gauss integration
in the above numerical approximation It is these autoinfluence singular integration
elements that need to be integrated
Watson Lachat the and using
scheme. For the integration
divided be to the with respect q, element, will
in figure (4.1) as shown
Singularity at Gauss point
Figure (4.1).
Subelement division.
The expression in Eq. (4.4.1) can be assembled into a matrix formulation problem,
of the variational
[N{} A
a0 
190`
älß an
0. =
(4.4.2).
where the matrix
[A] represents the numerical approximation,
ne
{b4ti}T {o}T [A]{O} =E j=1
(Isir
{Ne}{Ne}TdS
(4.4.3)
In practice this banded symmetric matrix may be further approximated page 82
by the diagonal matrix,
Variational
Method.
aii
=i' S
(4) dSq. ý! ,
(4.4.4)
The matrix the standard
(4.4.2) in Eq. is symmetric equation
and is factorized into a LLT form using
Choleski factorization
technique (Jennings [1977)). The pressure differences are The order of Gauss integration
then evaluated by means of forward and backward substitution.
used to calculate the numerical results in this chapter are summarized in Table (4.1). Chapter 2 showed that the pressure distribution exterior to the thin shell is given by,
0 (P) _
(4.4.5)
following and approximated
similar
arguments presented in Chapter 3 the far field pressure distribution
is
by the vector expression,
Osf (R) _
{111kf}
ý,
PEE.
(4.4.6)
Element
p Integration
Integration q
Singular Non  singular
j Integration within subelement
3x3 2x2
4x4x4t 2x2
Table (4.1) Order of Gauss integration
4.5
Uniqueness
Numerical the of
method was introduced
Formulation
The variational thin shells.
formulating as a way of
the acoustic problem for
In general there is no problem of uniqueness of the numerical solution for thin
domain Since density interior interior for the the tends to the of resonant zero. shell shells since frequencies is proportional to this volume, the numerical formulation for non closed thin shells
is unique for all frequencies. For rigid thin shells that enclose a finite interior domain there will be problems of uniqueness interior frequencies this of at the resonant domain. page 83 Since the variational formulation of the
Variational problem is equivalent to the double boundary layer formulation detailed in Chapter
Method. 2, the
numerical solution will become illconditioned Although resulting a hybrid boundary boundary layer formulation
interior the at eigenvalues of
Neumann problem.
overcomes these problems of uniqueness, the
layer potential
is no longer equivalent to the pressure difference across the formulation hybrid does the of problem
shell. The reason for this is that a natural variational not exist, and the corresponding Galerkin formulation
is nonsymmetric.
In this chapter no effort is made to circumvent the problems of uniqueness that arise for rigid closed thin shells. formulation the shells, However Chapter 6 will demonstrate that for the elastic, closed thin is unique at all frequencies.
4.6 Edge Boundary
Conditions
In Chapter boundary edge
2 it was shown that for non closed thin shells it is necessary to enforce an condition. The physical reality of this is that the pressure difference across the in the collocation
Since is implicit boundary be the this edges. condition not zero at shell must or variational numerical approximation .k the of
be it imposed then must operator, on the
resulting matrix
be by, This matrix equation set can represented equation set.
[H]{ýD} = {y},
(4.6.1)
[H] is the matrix where the appropriate
approximation
of the collocation or variational
formulation
{y} is and
hand side of this matrix equation; right
{ [A] {y} =
{
an _
an
} 0'
}
Variational, (4.6.2) Collocation.
a0
an
Defining
{'EJ
interior {(DI} to the that those correspond edge or vector elements of as and as,
be (4.6.1) Eq. can rewritten nodes,
HII HEI
HIE HEE
(b I 41>E
yI YE
(4.6.3)
The interior
known differences be in terms the edge pressure of pressure can now written
{yl}, known the vector differences and
page 84
Variational
lfethod. .
[HIf]Oýj}

{y'}

[HIE]{(ýE}.
(4.6.4)
If (D is equal to zero on the edge of the plate, this equation reduces to,
[HII]{(DI}
=
{yI}.
(4.6.5)
Imposing the edge boundary condition in this way is equivalent to making the shape function for an edge node equal to zero so that there is no contribution difference within to the interpolated pressure
the element from this node. Consequently the way the pressure difference goes
to zero, depends on the other shape functions within the edge element. This problem has not been delt extensively before in previous work. (Mariem and Hamdi [1987], Terai [1980], Warham [1988]). These studies have used constant value elements and condition is satisfied when
for these cases there are no edge nodes and the edge boundary distributing
differences from the element constant value to the nodal values. the out pressure described in this the that method above satisfies the chapter show results larger found it is However there that are numerical errors adequately. boundary the condition. edge of One possible im
The numerical edge boundary
condition
due imposition to the these edge points at provement implemented not
in this study would be the modification
of the shape functions in
the edge elements, so that the edge boundary condition is included in the numerical formulation implicitly and thus more efficiently.
4.7
Computer
Code
The variational environment
FORTRAN like the using method collocation method was coded
in a UNIX
in the collocation method program were used the same routines used and many of Again all matrix routines are performed in core, however the symmetry be in that they more efficiently stored can a method means
little modification. with
in the the variational matrices of triangular
form, reducing the strain on memory requirements. feature of the variational in increase is the computational method time
The most striking
the to matrix assemble needed due to the extra integration.
equation set. This increase in computational
time is clearly method the
For both methods, but especially the variational page 85
Variational computational
order
Method.
effort needed to generate the numerical matrices will depend heavily on the
used.
of Gauss integration
Table (4.2) shows a comparison of accuracy for different orders of integration for the 6 element test case using the variational boundary condition and collocational method with a constant normal velocity
at ka = 1.0. The singular integrations represent the integrations within the
Lachat and Watson subelements and the non singular integrations represent all other numeriintegrations. cal computational integration contribution This data allows the selection of the optimum integration balancing scheme, non singular
speed with accuracy. Such an integration scheme seems to be 2x2 singular integration.
and 3x3
However for this relatively small problem the timing from
due to the singular integration is high. For large problems the ne contribution integrations
the nonsingular
will dominate the timing however accuracy will depend strongly
on the order of singular integration. Some timing data is shown in table (4.3), for both the collocational and variational methods, applied to the thin shell formulation. is used within erwise. matrix For this direct comparison of timings, 3x3 and 2x2 integration integration is used oth
the subelements of the singular integration
This data is shown graphically
in figure (4.2). The assembly time for the variational
is clearly greater than that of the collocation matrix and both assembly times show the ne . There is a significant difference in the times of matrix times are significantly less than the re
dependency of approximately same factorization.
Whilst for both methods the factorization
factorization time, the spective assembly
timings show a n3 dependency. For large problems for
become dominant factor, favouring factor 100, thus the this time the variational » will which n.e Choleski factorization. the quicker symmetric method with
4.8 Numerical
Results
4.8.1
Spheroids The thin shell formulation is used to calculate the backscattered form function for different
spheroidal
function form in by, The incident given geometries with an end on plane wave.
f
2Rb Off _
a2 0t
(4.8.1)
for the case of a=b spherical where spheroidal
this equation reduces to Eq (3.6.4).
The spherical and
in Chapter the 3. those geometries are same as mesh page 86
Variational
3ffthod.
Method
Non Singular
Singular
Timing sx 102
Accuracy (%)
Collocation
2x2
2x2 3x3
4x4
219 376
579
1.55 0.74
1.05
3x3
2x2 3x3 4x4
365 509 723
589
0.68 0.08 0.23
1.04
4x4
2x2
3x3 4x4 Variational 2x2 2x2 3x3
4x4
730 937 333 509
732
0.30 0.60 1.38 0.65
0.23
3x3
2x2 3x3 4x4
1157 1550 2204
3111
0.65 0.81 0.43
0.32
4x4
2x2
3x3 4x4
3847 4942
0.43 0.56
Table (4.2) Comparison
integration different orders of of accuracy with
page 87
Variational
Method.
Method
Elements
Nodes
CPU Timing in seconds x 1O' Assembly Factorisation Total
Collocation
3
6
19
33
172
367
1
3
173
370
12 24 48 96 Variational 3 6 12 24
48
61 113 217 417 19 33 61 113
217
1039 3071 9680 36708 205 518 1437 4348
15258
7 49 457 5598 0 1 10 24
179
1046 3120 10137 42306 205 519 1447 4372
15437
96
417
58364
1205
59569
Table (4.3) Comparison
1UUU(o
factorization of matrix assembly and matrix
times
Assembly
10000
CPU Seconds
x10'2
1000
v
c c
V
100
Factorisation
1n
IV
10
100
Number of Elements
times for the variational,
Figure (4.2).
Matrix
factorization assembly and matrix (c), methods
(v), and collocation,
page 88
l'ariulion(il. For those closed geometries there will be problems of uniqueness at interior
1lcthod.
resonant fre
quencies and 110method is ii pleiuented to reinme these problems. This is likely to account. for the breakdown of the numerical results with respect to frequency since the range of wavenuinbers over which the numerical problem is illconditioned at a critical wavenumber increases wit Ii
frequency until there is an overlap. Loss of accuracy at low frequencies is unlikely to be evident unless the vavenuiuber is very close to the critical wavenuniber. Figure (4.3) shows the results calculated using both the variational compared to the analytical and collocation method
solution for a sphere. The 6 element results show high accuracy at at ka = 2.5. There is
low frequencies with a breakdown of both numerical solutions starting no significant no breakdown variational difference in accuracy between the two methods. of the solutions below ka =5
The 24 element results show better accuracy for the
but the there is slightly
results at the higher frequencies.
Figures (4.45) show the two methods compared to the results generated by S. W. Wu's axisymmet ric method respectively. using 20 high order elements applied to prolate and oblate spheroids
In the case of the prolate spheroid, the breakdown of both numerical results occurs difference in accuracy between them.
at the same order of frequencies, and there is no significant
Since the mesh geometries for the spheroids are simply a scaled spherical mesh, higher accuracy would be obtained if a more intelligent mesh were used that reflected the geometry and boundary conditions of the specific spheroid. breakdown of the numerical methods for both mesh
For oblate spheroid there is no distinct
densities. The 24 element case shows high accuracy for all frequencies. For the 6 element case the accuracy of both methods degenerates at about ka = 3.0 with the variational slightly 4.8.2 higher accuracy. Flat Disk of the dimensionless radial surface presa baffle. The results and method showing
Figures (4.714) show the numerical sure on a circular are calculated collocation Chapter disk radiating
calculation
with constant normal velocity without
using the mesh geometries shown in figure (4.6) using both the variational
methods.
The equation for the surface pressure field for a thin shell was presented in
2. For a flat continuous surface with no incident wave Eq. (2.5.5) gives a relationship
for the surface pressure,
2ýdý+(P)+0(P))
_ .Mk[ý](P)
= 0.
(4.8.2)
page 89
I
Variational Therefore the dimensionless surface pressure is given by,
Mcihod.
2k (D
(4.8.3)
an /o (11..) 0 represents the constant normal surface velocity. Figure (4.710) show the amplitude (4.1114) figure show the phase. and
where
of this quantity
The numerical results are compared to results extracted from work by Weiner [1951], which from diffraction were calculated data published by Leitner [1949]. Similar results have also been variational procedure.
[1987] by Ginsberg
All results show convergence between 20 and 80 elements and there is little that separates the accuracy between the collocation and variational degree high Overall is there a methods. at the
decreases however, is from It that these significantly accuracy graphs clear of accuracy.
density improve does disk. the The to the the of elements as not seem edge accuracy at edges of is increased. Figures (4.1516) show the radiation reactance and resistance of the disk calculated using both the variational and collocation methods. The radiated power and rate of radiation of
kinetic energy for the disk are given by,
11_
K=1
1
Is on
2iwP JS 2k;,ßpsn
dS a dS (4.8.4)
aý
(9
The radiation
impedance is defined using Eq. (4.8.4) by,
or = or,
11 Ui = *
damping,
(4.8.5)
is the positive radiation 0r where radiation damping.
resistance, representing radiation
is the and oi
is that usually positive; reactance
fluid fluid than rather mass representing added
[1951] Weiner the and results of In both figures the numerical results compare well to Bouwkanip [1941], with a slightly higher degree of accuracy with the variational page 90 method. The
Variational resistance results from the work by Bouwkarnp were calculated for the complementary The results are plotted on logarithmic dependency quency of the radiation radiation resistance.
lfethod. . aperture.
scales in figure (4.15) to show the linear low order fre
reactance and the higher order frequency dependency of the
The final result for the flat disk, figure (4.17), shows the convergence of the radial pressure for the three mesh discretizations. amplitude The 28 element mesh is distinguished by the high
density of elements near the edge, however all the mesh geometries show similar inaccuracies at the edge of the plate. To improve the accuracy at the edge of the disk it seams that a more sophisticated
4.8.3 Flat
imposing boundary the way of edge condition needs to be developed.
Square Plate
Figure (4.1819) show the radiation
for the square plate resistance and reactance calculated and collocation
length L. The both the variational calculated of side numerical results are using from by «'arham to the and results extracted methods are compared work There is good agreement using all methods but the non logarithmic is higher accuracy with the variational method.
[1988].
plot shows that there
The results from \Varham correspond to his mesh show
for his fine Comparison for `practical' the with results mesh. an asymptotic results that there is a significantly collocation and variational
higher degree of accuracy and rate of convergence for both the methods. This would be expected since Warham's method uses a
discretization. piecewise constant element 4.8.4 Terai's Problem
Terai's paper [1980] provides a comparison between his numerical results and an experibetween (4.20) the Figure the collocation and variation results comparison shows mental result. and the measured result extracted from Terai's work. The results are the pressure gain in dB
The 0.31 due to are calculated at a radius of results point source. a around a rectangular plate from the origin, in the XZ from distance 0.5 is the origin along the of at a source plane, and 0.3 0.2. dimensions has x plane
the Z axis. The rectangular plate in the XY
Both the collocation results and the variational results agree well with the measured values, and show a significantly higher degree of accuracy than Terai's results.
91 page
Variational 1.2
Method.
1.0
0.8 f 0.6
0.4
Elements a/b=16
0.2
nnv v.
0 1.2
1
2
3
ka
4
1.0
0.8
f
0.6
0.4
a/b=124 Elements
0.2
0.0 01234
Analytical Figure (4.3). Variational "" . Collocation
ka 
5
The far field backscattered form function
for a sphere discretized
into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational and collocation thin shell formulations.
page 92
1.2
Variational
Method.
1.0
i
"i
0.8
f
0.6
t" 5
0.4
alb=0.5 6 Elements
0.2
nn
v. v
U 1.2
1
2
3
ka
4
1.0
0.8 f
0.6
., , ,
,
0.4
0.2
a/b=0.5 24 Elements
0.0 , 0123 S. W. Wu Figure (4.4). variational . Collocation
ka 
4
The far field backscattered form
function
for a prolate spheroid
discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. using the variational incident plane wave.
page 93
The numerical results are calculated formulations shell with an end on
and collocation
thin
Variational
bfethod.
1.5
w
" ."` "
1.0
"ý i
f
0.5
Elements 6 a/b=2
0.0L 0
1.5 r
1
2
3
4
ka
5
.
,
1.0
f
0.5
Elements 24 alb=2
0.0 01234
S. W. Wu Figure (4.5). Variational ......... . Collocation
ka 
5
The far field backscattered form function
for an oblate spheroid
discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational plane wave.
Page 94
and collocation
thin shell formulations
with an end on
incident
Variational
Method.
(a) 20 element disk
(b) 28 element disk
(c) 80 element disk
(d) 36 element plate
(e) 24 element Terai problem plate
Figure (4.6). The thin plate mesh geometries
page 95
Variational
%ffihod. .
2.0
2 3
IPI
4
.... i
1.0
ka=1
0.0 " 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Variational
Figure radiating
The dimensionless
radial pressure amplitude
on a circular
disk
with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational
results
disk discretized into 20 the with one quarter of elements. were calculated
page 96
Variational
Method.
2.0
IPI
1.0
0.0L0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Variational
Figure radiating
(4.8).
The dimensionless
radial pressure amplitude
on a circular
disk results
The baffle. variational with constant normal velocity without a
80 into disk discretized the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
97 page
Variational
Method.
::::: '....:...
2.0
2 3
IPI
5
4
1.0
ka=1
0.010.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Collocation

Figure radiating
(4.9).
The dimensionless
radial pressure amplitude
on a circular
disk
The baffle. collocation with constant normal velocity without a
results
20 into discretized disk the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
page 98
Variational
lfffhod. .
2.0
IPI
1.0
0.01'0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
Collocation
radial pressure amplitude on a circular The baffle. collocation results a without velocity radiating with constant normal 80 into discretized disk the elements. of were calculated with one quarter Figure (4.10).
99 page
The dimensionless
disk
Variational
lfethod. .
90
S
60
4
30
3
0
30
2
60
ka=1
90 0.0
I
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Variational
 .
The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational results were discretized into disk 20 the elements. calculated with one quarter of
Figure (4.11).
page 100
Variational
Mdhod.
90
5
60
4
30
0
 ................................................................ ............. .9 ...............
30
a
60
ka=l
90 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
Variational

.
disk radiatcircular a on phase dimensionless The pressure radial Figure (4.12). The baffle. were results variational a ing with constant normal velocity without 80 into diýcretized disk elements. the of quarter one with calculated
page 101
Gariational
Method.
90
5
60 4)
4
30
.....
3
0
1""" 1111*1 .................::: ;.
..
30
........................................................................................ I ........... ..........
60
ka=1
90 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
Collocation

. disk radiat
Figure (4.18).
The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular
The baffle. collocation results were ing with constant normal velocity without a into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter calculated with one
page 102
Variational
Method.
S
ý" ....
40
a
4
10
3
'4.
z
\
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
1
r/a 1.0
ka=1
`90 0.0
Wiener
Collocation
.
Figure (4.14). The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The collocation into 80 disk discretized the elements. calculated with one quarter of results were
page 103
l ariational
Method.
10
1
.1
01
001
0001
0
0 11
Variational Bouwkamp Figure (4.15). normal The radiation 
ka
10
Collocation
O. Wiener
.
impedence of a circular disk radiating The variational and collocation
with constant results were The results
velocity without
baffle. a
into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter one with calculated
frequency dependence. low highlight logarithmic the to scale are plotted on a
page 104
Variational
affthod.
1.5
resistance
1.0
ý,,,.
J~ýý"
ýd.
v,. ir.. "
i
0.5
reactance
I
0.0 ` 0
246
ka
8
10
Variational
Collocation

.
Bouwkamp
Wiener
O.
Figure (4.16).
The radiation
impedance of a circular disk radiating with constant
baffle. These figure the the without a velocity are same results as normal previous but plotted on a linear scale.
page 105
Variational
Method.
1.0
ka= 1
0.8
IPI
0.6
0.4
3k
0.2
Di
0.0 0.0
L
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
ka=4
2.0
IPI
1.0
a
0.0 0.0 Wiener Figure
0.2 .
0.4 o.
0.6
0.8 o.
1.0
ka
1.2 . mesh
20 Elements
28 Elements
80 Elements
(/x. 17). The dimensionless at ka =1
for different radial pressure amplitude
densities Method.
The the ka 4. and using results are calculated variational =
page 106
Variational
Method.
1 10
100
reactance
101
;ý
resistance
10 2
10
.1
1L
/ý
10
Variational
Collocation
 .
Warham

Figure (4.18). normal
The radiation
impedence of a square plate radiating with constant The variational and collocation results were
velocity without
baffle. a
discretized into 36 The the one quarter with of elements. plate calculated results logarithmic frequency highlight low dependence. to the scale are plotted on a
page 107
Variational
Method.
1.5
r
"".
1.0
reactance
i"
0.5
resistance f. "
ýrý"
An
U.V0
L/%,
3
Variational
Collocation

.
Warham

Figure (1.19).
impedance of a square plate radiating with constant figure baffle. These the the previous same results as are normal velocity without a but plotted on a linear scale. The radiation
page 108
Variational
Method.
4
dB
I.; '
0
I
` 4 0
90
180
270
0 360
iv
Microphone Source
Measured Figure (4.20).
Variational
 .
Collocation

Nearfield pressure gain for a point source wave scattered by a 18.44. The numerical results are calculated using 24
rectangular
plate at k=
by from Terai. is the the measured result extracted work elements and
page 109
The Superposition Method.
CHAPTER
The Superposition
5.
Method
5.1 Introduction
Superposition
methods have long been used as a bench test for other numerical analyses of Song and Fahnline [1989] suggested that a superposition
fields. Recently Koopmann, acoustic
method could be extended into a general solution technique for calculating acoustic fields. In the work of Koopmann et a1 [1989], Song et al [1991] and Miller et aI [1991], a complex radiator is replaced by an array of simple monopole sources of unknown magnitude constrained to lie on a surface interior to the body of the radiator. The magnitude of the simple sources is calculated
by equating the normal velocity prescribed on the surface of the radiator to that generated by the array of simple sources. This is performed at the same number of points as there are simple is generated. The solution of this equation set sources and consequently a system of equations gives the magnitude of the simple sources and from these values an exterior pressure field can be calculated. Since the superposition for integration the need singular method removes techniques is
has been suggested that the method improves on the traditional supports
BEM. The author however methods spoil the
the view of Katz [1987], who suggests that some [superposition]
but they they general are not some cases, and work with will produce will whole approach ... ill conditioned systems in some cases. It was decided that the superposition method was worth investigating in order to establish that in a hierarchy of integral methods, the BEM represents of the superposition method.
the limit in terms of accuracy and conditioning Although,
the superposition method described above circumvents the problem of uniqueness interior the point sources to be on which constrains at another set of critical wavenutnbers. These to the
in formulation found BEMs, a of solution interior an
does become illconditioned surface
Dirichlet interior to the the problem unrelated eigenvalues of wavenumbers correspond
layer distribution integral The is to a single source superposition now equivalent source surface. be Although, have to these eigenvalues. shown a nonunique solution at and as such can it is
interior lie the to that source surface so outside the any critical wavenumbers reduce possible frequency range of interest, there is also a potential loss in numerical stability. In this chapter,
be that this will presented strategy circumvents uniqueness problem, allowing the a numerical
page 110
The Superposition Method. optimum choice of interior be to surface made, in order to obtain the maximum improvement
in numerical stability
of the solution.
The problem of uniqueness has been overcome in this study by considering the superposition integral in terms of a hybrid combination of single and double layer potentials. to the problem of uniqueness in B. E..N1's is discussed by Filippi [1983]. A similar solution
[1977], and Colton and Kress
As noted by Koopmann et al [1989] it is possible to use derive a superposition integral either by assuming that the source distribution interior Green's function each and are constant over in Green's function to the some manner vary and In this paper the first
by distribution the allowing or source element and the kernel function
to be evaluated using Gaussian quadrature.
denoted (PSNI). Superposition is Point Results are also presented Method the as source method for the second method which is denoted as the Integrated source Superposition Method (ISM); the source distribution and geometry are approximated by the use of quadratic interpolation
functions defined using 9 noded surface elements.
5.2 The Superposition
Integral
For a body radiating with a prescribed surface velocity it is desirable to calculate the exterior field. The principle pressure for that the acoustic solution shows some of wave superposition interior to the
distribution is body to the acoustic solution of some source equivalent radiating
body. If both systems satisfy the same Neumann boundary condition on the surface of the body then the pressure distributions field by both since an exterior pressure equivalent are generated Koopmann et al proposed that the solution of
is unique for a prescribed boundary condition. the equivalent superposition formulation
of a problem offers many significant advantages over a
B. E. M solution of the same problem. The validity of the superposition method can be shown in the following way. Q. in This distria volume source of sources contained is S there a prescribed normal velocity on which surface
Consider a continuous distribution bution is interior to a closed fictitious distribution
S is denoted by S denoted D is to the The exterior volume and enclosed volume u,,.
(5.1). figure in is This E. shown geometry
page 111
The Superposition Method.
E
S
Figure (5.1).
The geometry for formulating .
the superposition
integral.
Applying
the principle of mass conservation (Pierce [1989] Chapter 4 p162) to the volume
leads by S defined by, to a modified reduced wave enclosed equation
v2 p(r) + k2P(r) = iwpgo(r),
rED.
(5.2.1)
A time dependence of e'wt is assumed and qo(r) is the interior source strength defined by,
q(r) qo(r) = 0
rES2, (5.2.2) rEDexcluding ft
Using Eq. (5.2.1) the modified interior Helmholtz integral equation can be developed in a similar by, is Helmholtz interior the to given equation and standard way
ý Js
iwpu(ro)Gk(r,
öGk (nr,ro) ro)  p(ro) ö ra
d'Sr, +
fniwp4(ro)Gk(r,
(1
T= IT vol
ro)dVra (5.2.3)
 c(r))(r)p(r),
ikr Gk (r, ro) =1e 47rr
The unrelated exterior Helmholtz equation is independent of the interior source distribution
and
identical to the exterior Helmholtz equation for a real surface S with prescribed normal velocity distribution is defined by, This equation u,,. page 112
The cuperpositaon ,
Method.
Pro) S
ÖGk(r, ro)
a n*o
1.ý pun(ro)Gk
dS'ro
= C(r')P(r').
(5.2.4)
In the source distribution indicating
model of the vibrating
body, the surface S is a construction
where the normal velocity distribution
is prescribed. Consequently the pressure and When r is taken to be on S, Eq.
distributions velocity
across the surface must, be continuous.
(5.2.3) and Eq. (5.2.4) combine to give,
fipq(ro)Gk(r, P(r) = ro)dVro.
(5.2.5)
Eq. (5.2.5) is the superposition integral. Associated with this equation is its differentiated
form,
defined by,
In 2dn(r) = q(ro)ÖG3(ro 0 d###BOT_TEXT###.
(5.2.6)
5.3
Uniqueness
In the derivation of Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) the Helmholtz integral equations are cirdomain for interior that a source contains no volume, numerical implementations cumvented and frequencies. However S2 is the these all are unique at choice of equations of volume arbitrary implementation for ease of numerical and over an interior it is best to locate the interior source distribution integral will now in
S' 6r. However the superposition thickness of small surface
This be demonstrated wave numbers. nonuniqueness can exhibit nonuniqueness at critical the following manner. For the case where Sl is chosen to be a thin shell, Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) become,
IS/ P(r) =I
iwpq(ro)Gk(r,
ro)brrdSfo.
(5.3.1)
is,
un(r) =J
8GO(r'ro) 4(ro) o page 113
brdS;.
o.
(5.3.2)
The Superposition Method. In the limit as the thickness of the surface S' becomes zero, these equations show the pressure distribution notation, being defined in terms of a single layer potential. Using the integral operator
it is possible to write Eq. (5.3.1) and Eq. (5.3.2) in terms of a single layer potential in terms of a double layer
along with an associated expression for the pressure distribution potential. These expressions are defined by,
iwpCk[ P(r) 's](r),
(5.3.3)
u(r)
P(r)
[t3](r), Mk =
= 2Wp ik [11d](r),
(5.3.4)
(5.3.5)
Yk[0d](r), um(r) _
(5.3.6)
Consider the case of the single layer potential
formulation
for u
=0
Since S. the on
pressure field exterior to S' is unique for all wavenumbers then u, =0 and p+ =0 on S. The () (+) interior indicates the the surface pressure or velocity evaluated on exterior or superscript discontinuities S'. By the surface consideration of of in the integral operators Gk and Mk, it is
(5.3.4) limit in (5.3.3) S' from Eq. Eq. the to the exterior tends to as r r0 on and write possible domains. These interior equations are, and
p+(ro) = P(r0)
iwprk[0, = (Mr
](ro), 2{
(5.3.7) s](ro). (5.3.8)
(ro) (ro) 0s(ro) un = = um Eq. (5.3.7) shows that the pressure distribution if p+ =0 and consequently
is continuous across the single layer surface
then p = 0. From Eq. (5.3.8) with u,+, = 0, v, is nonzero when
Dirichlet interior S. At # the Since 0. to this of problem at eigenvalues occurs only p =0 un these frequencies, 0, will have a nontrivial is these that critical unique at not t,,, means become illconditioned. (5.3.4) Eq. will of for distribution zero a velocity solution S. This on
wavenumbers and the numerical implementation
A similar treatment for the double layer potential
(5.3.6), interior Neumann is in Eq. 1d the the that eigenvalues of nonunique at problem shows interior to S. To eliminate the problem of uniqueness at critical wavenumbers, a hybrid combination for the superposition problem
layer double potentials of single and becomes,
is used. The formulation
page 114
The Superposition
Method. .1
[v, Ck iwp(. iTlMk) + 7(r), P(? ') = (Mk utz(r) = + ii \
(5.3.9)
(5.3.10)
The value of the real constant 77 in Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) is chosen to be 1/k to compensate for the order of frequency terms in the integral operators. The advantage of the superposition method using this hybrid formulation is that there is no high order singularity in the operator .A
since the source surface S' is not coincident with the boundary surface S. It should be noted however that in regions where there is a high density of critical wavenumbers, a high degree of is accuracy needed to reduce the range of wavenumbers over which the nonhybrid operators are illconditioned, hybrid formulation that the so is efficient.
5.4 Numerical
A numerical
Formulation
implementation of the superposition integral has several advantages over a
BEM. A major factor in any BEM is the numerical treatment of the singularities that inevitably formulation. in the occur In the superposition method the source distribution Consequently there is no singularity is interior to the
body and therefore not coincident. (5.3.10). (5.3.9) Eq. Eq. and of
in the Green's function
In Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) the surface S' can be discretized into a number of elements, have Using interior The the a corresponding surface node. source elements must each nodes of n. the definitions interior is the the on node source corresponding surface of previous researchers This definition be extended to refer to the self element which can
known as the self node.
is the source surface element that contains the self node. Eq. (5.3.10) can be approximated numerically by,
n
un(r) =E
1ý,
aGk(r,
am
ro)
02Gk(r.
ro)
ý
Ö12ranr.
7(ro)dSro7=1
For the PSM it is assumed that the kernel of Eq. (5.4.1) and be it written can element and in matrix form by,
is constant within the '(r0)
{un} = DA{ ;'}, page 115
(5.4.2)
The Supfrposition
With,
Method. .
r"n; Dij = Gk(r) r+
rni i77 rr
r=ri
r. nj
(G(r)
Gk(r) Tr
r=Irl.
Ge(r)
nj 7zß.
C x. 4.3)
 rj.
A is diagonal the and area matrix. In Eq. (5.4.2) {u} is the vector containing the n values of u evaluated at the points r;
boundary interior defined the that to the the surface, on surface correspond on n nodal points rj. The source surface nodal points are defined at the centroid of the source surface element. 4j interior ý, the the , source surface and . contains n values of j evaluated on
The vector {0}
interior to the the nodal positions. of point source situated at amplitude radiators corresponds The discretized form of Eq. (5.3.9) is defined in a similar way to Eq. (5.4.2),
{p}

(5.4.4)
with,
M; j = Gk(r)
+ iriG' (r)
r"nj r
(5.4.5)
This is Eq. (5.4.2) and Eq. (5.4.4) can be combined to give an expression for p in terms of ums,.
written as,
{p} = MD1{u}
(5.4.6)
In the PSM the principal assumption is that the interpolation given by,
of the source distribution
is
V= b(ro, rj)Zj,
(5.4. i)
defining V)j is is (ro, the the the 6 zero otherwise, and and element at nodal point one rj) where distribution the source nodal value of Within made. for the element. For the ISM a different assumption is
the element the source distribution
is given by.
page 116
Thf Superposition Method.
{1Ve}T{ VI)=
a},
(5.4.8)
{Ne} where
is the vector of element shape functions and {ýJ}
is the vector of element nodal by Eq. given (5.3.10) now
values of the source distribution. becomes,
The numerical approximation
un(T)

ES J=1 ý°
(ýGk(rro) Onr + . ýa2GkI. (9nrOnr %Te}TdSr°{2J}. (5.4.9)
The numerical
integration
in Eq. (5.4.9) can be performed using simple Gaussian quadrature
be is for A there assembled matrix equation set can no singularity retracted source surfaces. since for the acoustic formulation eliminating 0, the global vector of nodal source strengths,
{p} = MIDI'{un}
(5.4.10)
In this study the interior
in for both PSM ISM the the and were generated points nodal
in is PSM, for Since the the the these nodal points needed element only nodal point same way. for ISM. To the the to the conditioning optimize nodal points can correspond definition the matrices, of the D and DI Following
is boundary the critical. and source surface nodal points of
by, defined interior the source points are previous work
Tj
=
Ti

d1
2,
(5.4.11)
defined is d as the retraction where to ensure optimum conditioning.
distance. The relationship in Eq. (5.4.11) is not sufficient
The boundary nodal points have to be defined so that,
ITi
Tj
Ij,
4i >
ITi
'I=i
.
(5.4.12)
These relationships ensure that there is optimum symmetry and diagonal dominance of the equation set. This requirement is important in reducing the degree of ill conditioning of the
formulation,
however such a restriction
boundary the the surface nodal points on positioning of
boundary the independent be applied of conditions. will page 117
The Super position
Method.
For radiation scattering
problems u
is simply the prescribed surface normal velocity. For plane wave
(Junger be [1986]) Feit to be equal to, u1. can shown and
PI wp

&I r
(5.4.13)
is fluid the where uj particle distribution, source amplitude 5.4.1
velocity on the boundary surface in the absence of any interior
generated by the incident pressure wave. The incident pressure wave has
kI. pl. and wave vector Condition Number
Matrix
A well recognized failing of the superposition method is the ill conditioning of the generated lack This of conditioning matrices. is due to the numerical instability of Fredholm equations of
the first kind (Arfken [1985], Miller [1974]). One loss of conditioning is due to the loss of diagonal dominance as the source surface is retracted from the boundary surface. Computationally loss of conditioning means that small changes in the surface velocity distribution the
can have a
large effect on the source distribution.
Following Golub and VanLoan [1983] a conditioning
be linear The the that gives a measure of sensitivity of a system. matrix calculated number can be for ISM PSM the can stated as, or problem
{un}
D{O}. =
(5.4.14)
If the boundary
system,
velocity
distribution
is perturbed
by an amount {6u } then for this linear
{b}
D1{bu, =
},
(5.4.15)
from the properties of vector and matrix norms, and
11 11 116un11 JID111 < 11011 11011
(5.4.16)
tun III
IIDIIIIVII.
(5.4.1 7)
page 118
The Superposition 11Eihod. . Therefore condition the perturbation in un is related to the perturbation in L by means of the
number n;,
IIa'+'II IIv'II
<K
IIbun II IIti II
(5.4.18)
IIDIIIID111. =
In this study the conditioning number is calculated in terms of Euclidean matrix
(5.4.19)
norms.
The equality in Eq. (5.4.18) states that the conditioning
is the related of matrix equation set
to t;. However, the accuracy of the matrix equation solution need not be directly related to this quantity. This condition number can not reflect the improvement in solution accuracy that is
if the symmetry possible
relationship for nodal point placement is observed. The superposition
(5.4.14) be decomposition, defined in in Eq. terms can written of a singular value problem
{un} = XS2YT {b}"
(5.4.20)
The square matrices X and Y represent orthogonal matrices and the diagonal matrix Q2, repis DT D. The the to the the problem given solution symmetric matrix, eigenvalues of resents
bY,
lo}Y
Qlf, =
un}X,
(5.4.21)
Y the X the the the onto respective orthogof vector projection represents and subscript where onal matrix. If the matrix D is nearly symmetric then the source distribution boundary the and An eigenvalue
distribution velocity (Strang analysis
in be the terms of same orthogonal matrix. expressed will
[1988]) of Eq.
(5.4.21) shows that when D is symmetric the eigenvalues of Therefore increasing the symmetry of the superposition
this equation are perfectly conditioned. matrix, 5.4.2 significantly Velocity
improves the overall conditioning of the numerical formulation. Error Norm
Reconstruction
In order to select the optimum position of interior nodal points a measure of the solution is needed. accuracy distribution This may be done by an a priori knowledge of the boundary pressure Another measure of the accuracy of
however this is clearly not always possible.
the superposition
is the extent to which the prescribed normal boundary velocity is method
page 119
Thf Superpo.'iiion reconstructed by the source distribution. By using the numerical approximations
110hod. .
of either the
PSN1or ISM the reconstructed surface normal velocity is given by,
it,, (r) = {D(r)}T
D1{ u, }.
(5.4.22)
When r corresponds to a boundary surface nodal point, Ti, then clearly,
(5.4.23)
For other points there will however be some difference in the prescribed and calculated surface difference is the velocity reconstruction error norm, this normal velocities and a measure of
Ilun
Ilun
unllo llo
(5.4.24)
where,
j(uun it'll, = (5.4.25)
This error norm will be closely linked to the error in the boundary surface pressure and can be used to select the optimum interior nodal positions without an a priori knowledge of the
boundary surface pressure distribution.
5.5 Numerical
Results
The superposition radiation
formulations
were applied to spherical and spheroidal scattering
and that
due boundary These to the cylindrical symmetry were chosen surfaces problems. boundary conditions. In all cases one quarter of the boundary
for appropriate exists is discretized, optimize distributed
surface
making use of the problem symmetry of the resulting superposition
to reduce the problem size. In order to matrices the surface nodal points are
the symmetry
boundary the as possible surface. as evenly over at critical wavenumbers of the A constant normal
Figure (5.2) contrasts the non uniqueness characteristics formulations layer double single and distribution velocity
with that of the hybrid formulation.
is prescribed for a sphere with radius a and the source surface is retracted
page 120
The Superposition J10hod. by 0.5a. These graphs show the variation of the condition number, n, and velocity reconstruction for ka For the to the spherical geometry the critical spherical problem. error norm, a, compared wavenumbers will occur at,
k(a  d) = kn.
(5.5.1)
For the breathing mode problem, ko is equal to it and 4.493 for the single layer and double layer problems respectively. resulting The loss of conditioning is clearly shown at these points along with the The hybrid
loss in numerical accuracy for the single and double layer formulations. removes the problem of non uniqueness at these frequencies.
formulation
The potential function
for both PSM form ISM back the the calculating accuracy of and scattered
for both spheres and spheroids is shown in figures (5.34). In figure (5.3) the PSNN1 and
ISM applied to the spherical problem is compared to the analytical result and the collocation BEM result. The retraction distance is taken to be 0.5a. The superposition method results show high degree due high to the of symmetry very accuracy between the spherical boundary and
improves The the the resulting matrices significantly conditioning of symmetry surfaces. source is The high that the possible. reduced size of the source surface elements accuracy problem so of boundary the to the surface elements also allows superposition methods corresponding compared to have a more accurate surface representation for this particular example.
Figure (5.4) shows the same comparison for the spheroidal back scattering problem. The b 0.5, has where a and represent the minor and major radii an aspect ratio of alb = spheroid respectively and a retraction distance of 0.4b is used. A converged solution is taken to be the
result of an axisymmetric calculated
BEM solution with a large number of elements and these results are by Wu [1990] using 40 quadratic line elements. The PSM
by a program written
results show satisfactory
high BEM the results show accuracy compared to the accuracy whilst
less accurate results of the ISM. The results of the ISM suggests that the solution accuracy is dependent on the conditioning In order to illustrate retraction of the superposition matrices. is dependent method on the
that the accuracy of the superposition
distance, the far field scattered pressure was calculated for the problem of a plane wave
incident upon a sphere. An error quantity, E, is defined as the error of the far field back scattered form function with respect to the result for a 96 element BEM calculation. The variation of
log the together the log this with of velocity reconstruction error the of page 121
error norm, a has been
The SupErposition Method. function d/a, for ka in figure (5.5) of a plotted as a = 1. Figure (5.5a) shows the results for the point superposition The condition figure (5.5b) for integrated the and method superposition method. number of the solution matrix for both superposition methods is given in
figures (5.6a) and (5.6b). The results for the spherical and spheroidal geometries are presented. Comparsion of the error measures in figure (5.5a) with the condition number of the matrix
P5M1 in figure (5.6a) indicates little correspondence between these the generated with spherical quantities. As the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is less than the far field error, the ma
trices are conditioned such that the accuracy is dependent only on the order of the interpolation distribution. the source of As the source surface is moved closer to the boundary surface, both
error quantities increase until the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is greater than the error in the far field back scattered form function, F. The results for the ISM, shown in figure (5.5b), indicate that between d/a = 0.9 and 0.5 the trend in the conditioning similiar. of the problem, shown in figure (5.6b) and the error indicators a and e is distances the degree of symmetry in the problem increases, to allow very accurate
For this range of retraction
d=0.5 until at about
the problem became sufficiently wellconditioned
be to attained. solutions the internodal
The far field error, a, increases as d tends to zero, while the error in in formulation The the accuracy remains small. could be
velocity reconstruction
increased for these low retraction in the BEM. The velocity reconstruction
ratios by simply using the singular integration techniques used
error, a, and the far field back scattered form function error,
The for the values of a and e were calculated as a problem. spheroidal e, were also calculated function of d/b at kb =1 for both the point superposition and integrated superposition methods. The results are given in figures (5.78). For both methods the variation of a is similar, revealing for a particular a minimum significant. retraction due before d became the to numerical error small ratio,
The value of d/b where this occurs decreases with increasing n. The errors for the
PSM show there is a greater range of retraction distances over which there is low error reflecting the greater symmetry of the corresponding superposition matrices.
5.6 Conclusion
A numerical solution to acoustic problems has been described along with a strategy to The superposition formulation
hybrid formulation. of uniqueness using a overcome problems
breakdown be formulation the to the and valid of numerical was shown page 122
at the eigenvalues of
Thf Superposition Method. the interior demonstrated. source surface was The accuracy of the formulation was measured
through use of a velocity reconstruction
The problems that with solutions accuracy significant numerical results
error norm.
method applied to radiation and scattering results indicate
of the superposition
are presented careful with
for spherical
and spheroidal
surfaces.
The numerical
choice of boundary accuracy
and source surface nodal points that it is possible to attain classes of problems. unlike the surface The demonstrate results approaches, the accuracy that the to a
high
to both method,
of the superposition
integral than
depends
degree on the conditioning
of the problem
rather
of the source
representation.
It should be noted that both formulations tested are numerical approximations to Fredholm first kind the of equations As demonstrated and therefore subject to a inherent instability of the formulation in the solution process.
in the results the conditioning
deteriorate will as as the of the
deterioration boundary Despite from is the the surface. retracted source surface surface condition number, for a certain range of retraction accurate solutions are possible
distance,
however, once out of this range large errors occur in the calculated nodal surface velocities. The numerical face retraction conditioning be the optimized problem can of by reducing the source sur
distance, and therefore, increasing the diagonal dominance of the formulation. distance is reduced close to the boundary surface then the
However, as the surface retraction
integration due inadequate deteriorate to the the of source sinagain once solution accuracy will gularity. Another factor that will increase the conditioning of the formulation, thus for specific
in degree is the high the resulting equation of symmetry accuracy, solution problems giving a formulation depend [1991] Song by the the the However, of will symmetry on et aI noted as set. the retraction points, nodal surface distance and the interpolation distribution. the of source
The numerical experiments indicate that for optimal ditioning
solution accuracy and problem con
then the source nodal points need to be placed at a fixed distance along the normal locations, If the at any other are placed source nodal points nodal points.
from the boundary
then a dramatic loss of solution accuracy will occur. The results also indicate that in order to make the solution accuracy solely dependent on the discretization then the boundary of the problem, while optimizing the numerical conditioning of the formulation
and source surfaces need to be coincident.
page 123
The Sunervosition
8
'Method. .
Single layer
6
K 0
4
OOOOOOO00000000000
2
0
"
"
2
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
" "
a "
"
"
4 6. ý 78 6.280 6.282 6.284 6.286 ka
"
6.288
Double layer
6
OK
4
O0OOOO
2
" "
0
" "" "
""''''''""
""a
2
A
It
8.982
8.984
8.986
8.988
ka 8.990
The effect of the hybrid formulation on the elimination of critiformulations. for layer PSM layer double The the single and cal wavenumbers for distribution d=0.5. a sphere with and constant normal velocity are results The solid line represents the hybrid formulation.
page 124
Figure (5.2).
The Superposition Method.
a
N
a a " a
"
"
M
>,
C w
C
Cn
il
SC
¢ as a º.., "
a
13
0
N
LO
1:
" " " " "
O r
LC) 6
P
NO 00 ÖÖÖOO CO It NOO
uorppunj WJod
(5.3). The far field form function
Figure sphere. result.
for plane wave backscattering for a and analytical
The superposition
results are compared against a BEM
page 125
The Superposition Method.
U, N
aa d 134
13 m
N M
C
C
N
Gý .1
13
3 Ma .
0 4 a
0 N
0 a 4
40
13
LO
a
0
C3 L 6
J°
NOc O
c0 Ö
IT 6
N 6
o° 0
uoip:)un,4 W.io,4
Figure (5.4). The far field form function for plane wave backscattering for a
The BEM 0.5. superposition results are compared against a spheroid with a/b = by S. W. Wu. result and results calculated
page 126
The Superposition Afethod.
1
r`
St
C
0
a
1
2
3
1
4
PSM
5
Sý
0
.00.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
d/a
to
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
d/a
1.o
Figure (5.5).
The variation
for d/a of e and a against a sphere calculated using (a) PSM with n= 33.
the PSM and ISM. (b) ISM with n=6.
The log of the error values is plotted.
page 127
The Superposition
Method.
20
T,
1
3' 
ýd
n=33 pSM n=113 n=417 Sphere n=33
10
00.0
20
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
dlb
1
.o
ýý°
n=6 n=24 n=96 Sphere n=6
ISM
ýd
10
00.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
d/b
1.0
Figure (5.6).
The log of the superposition matrix condition number as a function
(b) (a) ISM. for PSM. the 0.5. d/b prolate spheroid with alb = of
page 128
The Superposition Method.
PSM

n=33 n=113 n=417
`%
111
i
Y
i
2
r
i 1i
3
4`0.0 1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
dlb
to
ISM
0
`%
1
%
/
4 `d
.
..
4
i i
2
3
n=6 n=24 n=96
d/b
4`0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Figure
(5.7).
The far field error as a function
for the d/b prolate spheroid of
(a) (b) PSM. ISM. 0.5.. with alb =
page 129
The Superposition Method.
8
PSM
6
ö bD
0
4
'
n=33 n=113 n=417
2 J` 'el 0
/
'2 0.0 8r
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
d/b
1.o
ISM
6 b1D O
n=6 n=24 n=96
4
R'
2
r
0
2`' 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
dlb
1.0
Figure
(5.8).
The velocity reconstruction
function error norm as a
for d/b of
(a) PSM. (b) ISM. 0.5. the prolate spheroid with a/b =
page 130
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
CHAP TER 6.
ElastoAcoustic Problem
6.1 Introduction
Previous chapters have been concerned with the acoustic analysis of rigid submerged structures. When a submerged structure is elasticly deformed by the acoustic pressure acting on its interaction.
be for fluidstructure the to this to expanded account acoustic model needs surface, The established technique for modeling the elastic deformation
is the Finite Element Method for
(FEM). An elastoacoustic analysis is performed by coupling the BEM to a FEM structural mulation. The resulting equation set can be solved for the structural and acoustic excitation.
displacement and surface
in terms of the structural pressure
In this chapter the elastoacoustic
be thin presented. shells will analysis of
6.2 Structural
Problem
For an extensive treatment
is FEM the the reader referred to specialized texts, e.g. of section
Zienkiewicz and Taylor [1989], Hughes [1987], Hinton and Owen [1979]. The following
is an outline of the thin shell FE11 used in this study. For the thin shell domain, Sl, of density p, there exists a equilibrium forces, f, inertial forces the the applied surface equation relating
R and the local displacement vector, u,
Cu+R=f,
(6.2.1)
from formulated is The FEM the C is the minimization operator. elasticity where functional, energy
following the of
II=
2J
(Cu+Rf))" CUT .
(6.2.2)
The local displacement vector in Eq. (6.2.1) will have six degrees of freedom; three disthree rotational and placement components,
page 131
Elasto Acoustic Problem.
u=0.
uT uy u,z
T
(6.2.3)
ey eZ
It is related to the global displacement vector by means of a transformation matrix,
u=TU,
(6.2.4)
is T the matrix where
directional of
cosines and U is the displacement vector expressed in the
global coordinate system. The structural dimensional domain is modeled by Mindlin type thin shell elements, defined in three element
space. These elements are derived from a three dimensional continuum
degeneration degeneration The technique. a using relies on two assumptions; first the normals to the mid surface of the element remain straight after deformation and second the stress component is to the shell constrained to zero. normal The thin shell elements are defined geometrically boundary in the acoustic used structural element problem. by the same set of interpolation functions
This conformity
between the acoustic and however it is believed achieved
between formulations, the the two coupling meshes simplifies
that in most cases, refinement of the resulting formulation by different acoustic and structural Using the shape functions terpolated written surface meshes.
would be most efficiently
defined in Chapter 3, the local displacement vector can be inFor the element j, this interpolation can be
from the element nodal displacements. relationship,
as a matrix
71{vj}.
For nine noded elements the shape function matrix
(6.2.5)
N will have dimensions 6x 54 since { UP }
has six components per node. The local displacement vector given by Eq. (6.2.5) represents the displacement mid plane vector defined at 0. displacement The field is through thickness =
displacements by, the to surface mid related
page 132
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
ýr = ur+zOy, icy=tcy
üz = Uz ,
SOX
(6.2.6)
from local the z variable ranges where h/2
to h/2, where h is the thickness of the shell.
These equations reflect the assumption of constant through thickness displacement. The strain displacement differential operator matrix is defined by,
Ex Ey Ery
E12
a ax
ay
0 a ay
ax
0
ux 0 uy
fl, x
(6.2.7)
a 0
Z
Eyz Eq. (6.2.7) can be written
az
0 a
ay
a
in terms of the mid plane displacements using Eq. (6.2.6),
Ex
y
fxy
E= =
ax 0 ä y O 0 0 0
0
ay
0 0 o
ä
0 z z
ay
äx z 0 zä y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
L
ux y
ä x o 0 0 0
ä 0 x
ä 0 0
txz 7yz
The
1 0 0
z z
y
pseudostrains
(6.2.8), defined in Eq to the this stage eliminate nuat are yaZ and tiyz freedom, 0, in final degree drilling the that the can of arise associated with The structural be in terms of the element nodal written strains can now
\
(6.2.8)
difficulties merical structural
formulation.
displacements,
E=
ýBý
J L#
)
(6.2.9)
where,
[Bý= AIM.
The operator 9 represents the differential (6.2.8). in Eq. matrix operator
(6.2.10)
The local stressstrain relationship
is defined by,
page 133
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
a=
Dc,
(6.2.11)
D, the reduced constitutive where matrix
equation, enforces the assumption of zero normal stress. This
by, be be to given shown can
1 v 1 D E 1 v2
0 0 µ
0 0 0 0 O 0 µ O µ
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0, 0
(6.2.12)
where,
v= E=
Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, 1v 2 (6.2.13)
The constant K defines the pseudostrain / pseudostress relationship and takes a small value of
104.
The inertial forces in the structural domain are approximated by,
R _0
Ps 0 0 0 ps 0 0 p, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[ps]u,
o 0 0
0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
üx
uy üZ 9x ey 9y '
(6.2.14)
= W2 and the structural equilibrium
relationship
be defined using the variational can now by, defined equation set
principle
(6.2.2). This in Eq. in results a structural shown
([K]
{U} {1"} =  w2[M]) ,
(6.2.15)
from the mass matrices and the are assembled elemental components; stiffness where page 134
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
[k' ]=
in (6.2.16)
in [m'ý [MT ][Jdv, [p, =
and,
{ F' }=
j[rs7]T7fdS .
(6.2.17)
The expression for the applied body forces in Eq. (6.2.17) is integrated over the surface S. thin the shell, of to thermal expansion. Gaussian quadrature This assumes that there are no internal body forces due for example The numerical integrations in Eq. (6.2.1617) are performed by using localcurvilinear the and derived Chapter in 2. relationships
6.3 FluidStructure
Interaction
Force
When a submerged elastic thin shell is vibrating, the shell. This force is the fluidstructure formulations. and acoustic
the fluid exerts a force on the surface of
interaction force, and it serves to couple the elastic (6.2.17) consists of two
The applied surface force vector in Eq.
fluid interaction force, forces the the structure and applied external components;
{F} = {FA}  {FI}.
(6.3.1)
The force F1 acts in the opposite direction to the normal, and the negative sign in Eq. (6.3.1), fluid. force is defined The Fj in by done is terms the the the that of structure on work shows bp, difference the across shell, pressure
{Fj} =
f[N]n6pds. ,
(6.3.2)
The modified structural
by, is equation now given
(K
{U} {bp} {FA} CA + =  w2Al) ,
page 135
(6.3.3)
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
by diagonal be A Chapdefined in the the same where approximated can area matrix area matrix ter 4. The matrix C represents the transformation of the normal values to the corresponding
in the global coordinate system, normal vectors
{FI} = C{FI },
(6.3.4)
FI where structural
is the normal components of the interaction
force. For the conforming acoustic and
meshes used in this study the coupling matrix C has dimensions nx 6n and is simply and acoustic meshes are used
direction different If the of normal composed structural cosines. this matrix must accommodate the two sets of interpolation
functions.
6.4 Coupled
Equation
Set
6.4.1
Fluid
Filled
and Non
Closed Shell Problems for the thin shell problem was derived in Chapter 2. This formu
The acoustic formulation
lation depends on the assumption that the fluid density is equal on both sides of the shell. This formulation acoustic is valid for non closed thin shells; i. e. shells that do not enclose an interior
fluid density fluid the the thin that of with same as enclose a volume closed shells volume, and surrounding the shell. This class of problem will be called fluid filled shell problems (FFSP). and variational by, given respectively acoustic equation sets are
The collocation
Nk{6p} + = PW2CT{u}
x {bp} = pw2ACT {U} +A
än 1
ý l (9n I'
(6.4.1
(6.4.2)
Combining the acoustic equation sets in Eq. (6.4.1) and (6.4.2), with the structural equation in Eq. set variational (6.3.3) gives the combined elastoacoustic formulations, acoustic for the collocation sets equation and
(K  w2M)
CT
CA
Nk/w2p
U
bp
FA
of
(6.4.3)
(K  w2M) ACT
CA Nk/w2p
page 136
(ýp) U
(u)' FA =
(6.4.4)
ElastoAcoustic with,
Problem.
UI =
ap, /2 w
an
p.
(6.4.5)
The variational consistent formulation
BEM/FEM
formulation
in Eq. (6.4.4) is symmetric.
This is due to the
of the structural
and acoustic equation sets. The coupled equation set is
the result of minimizing functional is given by,
an energy functional that is symmetric with respect to bp and U. This
II =2
[{U}T (K
 w2M){U}
{bp}T Nk {bp}] + {U}T AC{bp}. 
(6.4.6)
Eq. (6.4.4) can be derived from the minimization
problem,
ýu =
an
= O(bp)
The collocation BEM/FEM formulation is non symmetric and cannot be formulated in terms the Insted it can be thought of as the result of minimizing
Off
(6.4.7)
of a similar variational functional 6.4.2
procedure.
in Eq. (6.2.2) subject to a constraint given in Eq. (6.4.1). Closed Shell Problems
Evacuated
The other class of elastoacoustic problem considered in this study is the evacuated closed domain (ECSP). in For this the thin shell encloses a problem which the acoustic shell problem identically is pressure difference Consequently the pressure across the surface of the shell zero.
is simply the exterior surface pressure. The acoustic equation set for the exterior problem is Chapter 3. Neglecting in acoustic excitation, given by, is problem given exterior acoustic the Burton and Miller formulation of the
([Mk
Cpl + aNk) 
{p+}
(Lk + a[11ý1k + Cp]) CT {U}. = W2p
(6.4.8)
The coupled ECSP elastoacoustic problem is now given by,
(K
 w2M)
CA
(np) U
(u7)' FA
GGG'
(6.4.9)
H/w2p page 137
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
where the matrices G and H represent the left and right hand side matrices in Eq. (6.4.8) and ul represents the acoustic excitation
The coupled equation
for the Burton and Miller problem.
In previous work this equation
(6.4.9) in Eq is non symmetric. set
set
has been symmetrized by using the energy functional for the acoustic problem (Zienkiewicz et al [1977], Mathews [1979][1986]). This procedure differs from the true variational formulation in that the functional elastoacoustic
is reconstructed using the non symmetric fluid impedance mauses the variational principle as the starting
trices. The variational for the method. point The formulations
elastoacoustic formulation
in Eqs. (6.4.3) (6.4.4) and (6.4.9) will be referred to as the collocation the variational coupled method (VCM) Buton the and and Miller may
(CCM), coupled method, (BMCM). coupled method,
With the correct definitions of G and H, all three formulations
be generalized by Eq. (6.4.9).
6.5 Solution
Coupled of
Equation
Set
The coupled BEM/FEM tionally
be directly. equation set may solved
However this is computa
it requires the factorization expensive since
of a 7n x 7n equation set. The normal
into The is the to structure variable methodology, equation set other. one substitute procedure (SVM), involves substituting the fluid equation set into the structural equation set. This method The fluid vari
[1977], fluid formulation. in by Zienkiewicz results a modified elastic et al used able methodology Derivation involves substituting the structural
fluid into the equation set equation set. [1978] with subsequent work by Mathews
by first Wilton this given method was of
[1979][1986].
6.5.1
Structure
Variable
Methodology the elimination of the fluid variables from Eq. (6.4.9) gives,
Neglecting acoustic excitation,
(K
w2M+w2
pCAH1GCT)
{U} = FA.
(6.5.1)
Eq. (6.5.1) is a matrix equation of size 6n x 6n and can be rewritten
in a more concise way as,
(K
{U} 1I Mf]) FA, w2[. = page 138
(6.5.2)
ElasioAcoustic where Alf is the added fluid mass matrix.
Problem.
This is a misleading name since the fluid interaction
dependent damping fluid The form frequency term. this mass and actually represents a mass of matrix depends on the acoustic formulation;
Alf = pCANk 1CT TACT pCANk = _1Il Aff = pCAH'GCT
(CCM), (N, 'CM), (BMCM).
(6.5.3) (6.5.4) (6.5.5)
Only equation (6.5.4) for the fluid stiffness term derived using the variational symmetric, the others are only symmetric in the continuous limit.
is method
These terms defined by Eq.
(6.5.3) and (6.5.5) are not exactly symmetric for the following reason presented by Hartmann
[1989].
The generalized collocation acoustic formulation,
He{p}
= w2pG'
{u
},
(6.5.6)
distributions, displacement between the the and pressure surface coupling expresses combination of collocation are not strictly
given by a
is finite SHIE DSHIE. However the the only satisfied at a coupling number and of points. Consequently the interpolated displacements and pressure distributions
identity, i. the e. compatible;
lun}T
A{PI
=
iP}T
Alu,
},
(6.5.7)
is not satisfied since the matrix identity,
{. V'9}T {1'\*9}H1G
=
[{N9}T
{: v9}H1G]T
,
(6.5.8)
holds only at the collocation points. The possibility of symmetrizing the fluid stiffness matrix has been mentioned before. How
[1979] and Tullberg and Bolteus [1982] find that the highest accuracy is possible Mathews ever with the unmodified forms of Aff given by Eq. (6.5.3) and Eq. (6.5.5). page 139
ElastoAcoustic 6.5.2 Fluid Variable Methodology
Problem.
Eliminating
the structural
fluid from Eq. (6.4.9) the equation set. variables gives modified
H +GC L0 p
[K_w2M]1
CA
{bp}
=GCT
[K_W2M]1FA+uj.
(6.5.9)
This equation set is considerably smaller than the modified structural resents a matrix equation of size nxn. acoustic excitation,
matrices,
it repequation set and and neglecting impedance
Writing
the normal applied force as f
this equation set can be written
in terms of fluid and structural
(I + ZfZ3 1) {6p} = ZfZ» 1fn,
(6.5.10)
where,
1= CT [K 1 CA,  w2M] iwZs
(6.5.11)
and,
Zf = iwNk Zf= Vk 'A
i
(CCM), (VCM), (BN1CM),
(6.5.12) (6.5.13) (6.5.14)
Zf = iwH1G
Only the VCM results in both symmetric fluid and structural The fluid variable method is the preferred formulation distribution surface pressure
impedance matrices. The
of the elastoacoustic problem.
is evaluated using Eq. (6.5.9) and the corresponding displacement first the
field is found using Eq. (6.3.3). There are two main advantages with this methodology; formulation the coupled size of is significantly smaller than the structural
variable formulation given in Chapter
filled distribution fluid for thin the shell problems exterior pressure and second displacement. field. The the independent is of 4, most computationally Eq. (6.5.9) is the backward and forward substitution
page 140
expensive part in solving formulation into the
of the structural
ElastoAcoustic acoustic formulation. size of the structural This computational equation set. burden can be significantly
Problem.
reduced by reducing the
6.6 Eigenvector
Reduction
Elastic the of
Formulation
The reduction mations. reduction.
of the structural
equation set can be performed by a variety of transfor
These include static condensation [Guyan 1965], Lanczos reduction and Eigenvector In connection with the elastoacoustic is the most estabproblem modal reduction The equation set. structural eigenproblem
lished technique for reducing the size of the structural is defined by,
ýIi

w'M]{ek}
_0
The eigenvectors, ek, correspond to the n3 non trivial solutions to this equation at the eigenvalfollowing The identities E, that the set of orthogonal eigenvectors, ues, wk. are normalized so
hold,
ETME ET KE=
I, = S2, eigenvalues.
(6.6.1)
Q is diagonal the set of structural the matrix where
Using these identities the inverse of the dynamic stiffness matrix can be written of a modal summation,
in terms
n,
fek}fek k
}T
[K
 w2M]i
k=1
(6.6.2)
By assuming that,
W «Wm,
(6.6.3)
it is possible to write,
m [K  w21\f]1
k1 2w2 kk
T_
n+
=mß1
{ekl f fk}T
64) k
m<n,
(6.6.4)
page 141
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
The second summation in Eq. (6.6.4) is a frequency independent static correction term. If m is large enough then this term can be neglected. Eq. (6.6.4) can be used in the FVM in order to significantly of the structural reduce the computational equation set into the fluid response, the number of
burden of the backwards and forwards substitution formulation. To accurately reconstruct
the fluid modified structural
`dry' eigenvectors used must be carefully selected. This is not always straight forward since the structural structural eigenmodes of a complex structure can be unpredictably by fluid. The the modified
inverse impedance in Eq. (6.5.11) can be approximated by,
m{
en
2WZs1ý
k=1
}{e" ký k IT
(6.6.5)
uJk W2
where
{en}
{ek }. CT =
(6.6.6)
Using Eq. (6.6.5) has the added advantage that the individual
be `coleigenvectors may
lapsed' to their normal degrees of freedom only once, insted of at each frequency point.
6.7 Interpolation
Even with careful use of structural solution,
symmetry after the calculation of the `dry' eigenmode time needed to calculate the components of Benthien [1989] proposed that
large the total computational of part a
the FVM is taken by the assembly of the acoustic matrices.
the acoustic matrices could be calculated at a reduced number of frequency points and then interpolated this study. At wavenumbers greater than one the dominant frequency term of the H matrix exponential term of the Green's free space function. By using the transformation, is the for intermediate interpolation This points. for is implemented the FFSP in scheme
hi'
(k)
_
eikhij
(k),
r=1r1vu,
(6.7.1)
the interpolation
is defined by, scheme
page 142
Elasto. 1 coustic Problem.
ki (hij (k2) h'ij(ki)) h'ij(k) h' (k1) +kk2  kl
At low frequencies the fluid matrices can be assumed to be constant. improvements in computation allow very significant schemes Kirkup modes. [1991]) have used interpolation
(6.7.2)
Such interpolation
times and recently researchers (eg
techniques in order to calculate elasto acoustic eigen
6.8
Uniqueness
Coupled the and
Problem
The problem of a rigid submerged thin shell that encloses an interior domain can be conintegral The DSHIE the the general elasto acoustic problem. acoustic special case of sidered as infor for the the the thin the closed shell consists of equation equation exterior problem and terior problem. Denoting p and p+ as the interior and exterior nodal pressure distributions
these equations are,
H{p+}
 w2p+G+{'u
}=
{2ll},
H{p}
 w2pG{u}
0, =
(6.8.2)
where,
H=
Nk
and
G± =
[±i
+ Mk
.
(6.8.3)
The vector u
is the normal components of the nodal surface velocity distribution
is the and p±
density of the fluid exterior and interior to the thin shell respectively. For the purposes of this interior is it the that assumed study ie the the acoustic same; and exterior waveneumbers are
domains is interior both in the equal. exterior and speed of sound The structural be for the written as, elastoacoustic problem can equation set
S(w){U} + CT A ({p+}  {p }) = CA{ f },
dynamic the stiffness matrix where structure interaction is denoted by S(w). The excitation
(6.8.4)
forces and the fluidIt
forces act on the normal direction degrees of freedom of the structure.
page 143
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
is advantageous to factorize out the other degrees of freedom. Denoting the normal degrees of freedom with the subscript n and the others with m, Eq. (6.8.4) can be rewritten as,
Snn 5'mn
Snm smm
un um
+A0
p+ 0000000
p_
(A
0f
(6.8.5)
It follows that the structural
impedance equation is given by,
Zs{il}
+ {p+}  {p} = ff },
(6.8.6)
where,
2WZ3

A1
[Snn 
SnmSrnmSmn] .
(6.8.7)
The generalized fluid filled thin shell problem is better illustrated transformation,
by making the following
bp=p+p,
(6.8.8)
P=p +P
and,
6p=p
p p++p . as,
(6.8.9)
Using these transformations
it is possible to write the coupled formulation
iw
Z [bpMk +2 pI] iw [pMk + 2bpI]
I0 Nk
0
0
Nk
ü bp
f
j=
eil
ui
(6.8.10)
Consider the coupled formulation p, variable
for (6.8.10), in Eq. the moment the fluid neglecting given
Z{ } + f6p}= ff},
Page 144
(6.8.11)
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
ýw
SpMk +2 pI
{u} + :ýýk{6p} {ý; }. :
(6.8.12
At eigenvalues of the interior Neumann problem, both the following homogeneous equations have nontrivial solutions,
Nk{v} = 0,
(6.8.13)
Mk + 2I
{v} = 0.
(6.8.14)
Assuming that bp # p, then at the interior Neumann eigenvalues Eq. (6.8.12) defines ü uniquely bp, but fluid bp defined is to the variable with respect to the surface not uniquely with respect ii, normal velocities, However the structural defines (6.8.11), both Eq. uniquely equation set , both are defined uniquely at frequencies
it,, and 6p, and consequently in the coupled formulation corresponding to the Neumann eigenvalues.
When bp = p; ie for the "evacuated" thin shell problem, Eq. (6.8.12) defines neither ufz or bp uniquely and the coupled formulation has longer a unique solution. The coupling of the no for 0 0, the that equation set, ensures p
by fields interior the structural pressure exterior and formulation coupled is unique for all frequencies.
By considering the uncoupled expression for the second fluid variable, p, given in Eq. (6.8.10), is is possible to see that at the interior fined since, Neumann eigenvalues it is not uniquely de
Nk{p} = iw
IPMT +
26PI
{Ti}
+ {ti7}.
(6.8.15)
Thus Eq. (6.8.10) is uniquely defined fort definition use a
however, for is, bp but It p. not and possible to
for interior derived from SHIE the p, the and exterior acoustic expressions of
frequencies, for defined in is p terms that all of uniquely problems,
{p} = Mk{bp} 21
iwSpLk{ü} 
+pi.
(6.8.16)
page 1/5
Elasto. acoustic Problem. The advantage of this formulation variables, without is that it gives p in terms of the other fluid and structural
the need for matrix factorization.
Consider the specific example of a closed shell containing the same fluid in the exterior and interior domains. Neglecting acoustic excitation the FVM and SVM elastoacoustic equation
sets are respectively,
(Z71
1) 1{f}, {bp} Zs +Zd = ={f}"
(6.8.17) (6.8.18)
(Zs+Zf){t}
At eigenvalues of the interior ill conditioned
Neumann problem the inverse of the fluid impedance matrix is ill defined. In Eq.
is
and the fluid impedance matrix
(6.8.17) the structure as in Eq. as,
impedance matrix removes the ill conditioning
from the left hand side. Formulated
(6.8.18), the SVM will be ill defined at the critical frequencies. However it can be rewritten
(z7'z3
+ i) {ü}
Z1{f}. =
(6.8.19)
It is perhaps computationally
unfeasible to formulate the SVM in this way, but it illustrates the
SVM frequencies. A for the the evacuated thin the similar argument at critical uniqueness of both Zf1 ZI fails and since shell defined interior ill Neumann problem. the are at eigenvalues
In order to obtain a unique solution for the evacuated closed thin shell problem, it is necessary to use the Burton and Miller formulation of the exterior acoustic problem.
Huang [1984] proposed that whilst the evacuated fluid interaction problem was in theory ill conditioned is ill in internal this conditioning practice critical wavenumbers, at is not seen. His
discretization that reasons were
degeneracy the of the eigenvalues of the H and errors remove
G+ matrix in Eq. (6.8.12). However the numerical results in this Chapter along with previous [1986]), ('1Mlathews this that proposition show results interpolation. surface Since the elastoacoustic problem does not break down at the interior Neumann eigenvalues, it is is interesting the long to the properties of physical shell at these nonzero, consider pas as critical wavenumbers. Following the notation [1986], Junger Feit modal pressure and of and is not valid for the high order fluid and
by, surface velocity are related page 146
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
Wn
=
fn,
fn, Zn 2t "n Zn 7"n
(6.8.20)
(6.8.21)
+n Pn +
Pn
_ =
fn Zn +4Zn ,
(6.8.22)
where,
Z
ip c_
jn(ka)
(6.8.23)
impedance the and other relationships
defined are on page 161 and 233 of Junger and Feit.
For the fluid filled thin shell at the eigenvalues of the interior Neumann problem,
in' (k a) = 0"
(6.8.24)
Assuming p 00 and c 00
then the following relationships will hold;
wn=o,
(6.8.25) (6.8.26) (6.8.27)
Pn =1,
Pn  fn
At the interior Neumann eigenvalues the spherical shell will show a rigid response for that it display independent interior Dirichlet interior the will a response eigenvalues of at mode, whilst fluid.
6.9 Elastic
Thin
Plate
Problems
The treatment
of rigid plate problems has already been introduced in Chapter 4. For the is approximated in Eq. (4.6.5) by,
difference distribution the pressure collocation method,
HII{5pi}
=
{uj}.
(6.9.1)
page 147
ElastoAcoustic
Problem. is
The pressure difference on IF is constrained to be zero. The consequence of this constraint that in general for the rigid plate problem the reconstructed interface to the not equal specified velocity,
is the the plate edge of velocity on
{UE}
0
HEI{SPI}.
(6.9.2)
For the elasto acoustic plate analysis the edge pressure difference can be constrained to be in As in the rigid plate problem, constraining zero a similar way. zero on the edge in this way will result in a discontinuity of the plate. The results for the rigid plate acoustic problem in chapter 4, indicate that the acoustic defined for is This is the the especially case nodes that are situated not well at edges. problem be further investigated by The the the can edge of plate. plate problem extending the analysis on Sl (6.1) divided into Figure two thin thin and regions, shells. represents a closed shell of closed S2. The interface between the two regions is the line F. Assume that there are two different boundary conditions specified for Sl and S2; the pressure difference to be
in the displacement field at the edge
U1 = U0,
(6.9.3) bp2 = bpo.
F
S7
n+
r
Figure 6.1. Representation
of plate problem.
If Sl is assumed to be igid, and öpo is zero, then the acoustic equation set can be written,
page 1,(8
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
Hll
H21
H1`'
H22
bpi
0
u° _
U2
(6.9.4)
For the case where r does not contain any surface nodes then this equation may be rearranged to give a solution in terms of the known quantities,
Hip H21
0 1
bPi u2 _
uo 0
(6.9.5)
Continuity
displacement by interpolation IF is the of pressure and over satisfied then Eq.
functions.
If however the edge nodes are taken into consideration determined set of equations for bpl ;
(6.9.5) results in an over
Hll{bpl}
{uo}, =
(6.9.6)
Hrl{bpl}
{uo}. =
(6.9.7)
Ignoring Eq. (6.9.7) gives the solution technique given in Eq. (6.9.1). An improvement (6.9.7) by least (6.9.6) Eq. Eq. be the a squares method. and solution of might
on this
6.10
Numerical
Results
The elastoacoustic methodologies were fully implemented in FORTRAN.
This was done by
into large The the FEM the the matrices existing acoustic resulting code. and coupling coding size of the resulting structural lack the of an out of core solution procedure meant matrices and be could modeled. Ther majority of numerical
that only problems of a moderate complexity
in to the this analysis of submerged elastic spherical shells since correspond chapter results analytical forward. The other problem modeled was solutions are well established and straight
the cantilever plate.
6.10.1 Cantilever Plate
The cantilever plate shown in figure (6.2) was studied with dimensions; a=0.4064, 0.2032 and t=0.00267. v=0.3 The plate has constitutive material properties; E=0.2068
b= x 1012,
These 7830. be the parameters p, were chosen = so results could and compared to was incorporated
[1989]. Fyfe The Coyette and rigid wall anchoring the plate at X=0 those of page 149
ElastoAcoustic into the model by assuming acoustic reflective symmetry in the YZ
Problem.
The plate was plane. 998) and the
discretized into 24 elements. The plate is submerged in water (c = 1500 and p= first four eigenvalues are calculated.
These results are shown in Table (6.1) and compared to [1965]. et al due a
the results of Coyette and Fyfe and the experimental results of Lindholm The numerical
results are calculated in two ways. First the pressure distribution
point load is calculated over a range of frequencies and the eigenvalues are extracted graphically (VCM). Second the fluid added mass is calculated in the incompressible limit (c = oo, k= 0)
done is on the resulting structural and an eigenvalue analysis equation set was formulated using the variational method.
equation set (FAM). The acoustic
The agreement between all results in Table (6.1) is satisfactory.
However the success of
the incompressible results shows that the analysis is at low frequencies and consequently not a formulation. test the of rigorous
6.10.2 Spherical Shell
The 24 element spherical shell illustrated acoustic radiation and the structural and scattering symmetry problems.
in Chapter 2 is used to model a number of elastoAgain only one quarter of the shell is discretized
is incorporated into the FEM by fixing the appropriate degrees of
freedom on the symmetry Structural
planes. This involves intro
damping is included through a hysteretic approximation.
ducing a complex component to the stiffness matrix,
KD = K(1  iy).
If modal reduction is used for the structural by making the `dry' eigenvalues complex,
damping be introduced this then equation set, can
[KD W 2M]1 N
'r` E k
{ek } {ek }T wk(1 17) w2
(6.10.1)
Unless specified the dimensionless structural
for the spherical shell are, constants
h/a = 0.01,
p3/p=7.67,
page 150
v=0.3,
ElastoAcoustic
Problem.
/c iy/2), 3.53(1 cp = The thickness of the shell is denoted h and the structural
7=0.01.
speed of sound, cp is defined by,
ECp =
1/2
(6.10.2)
v2)
Ps(1 Table (6.2) shows a numerical
modal analysis of the in vacuo and submerged evacuated
[1986] from Junger Feit The the to spherical shell compared eigenresults extracted and p282. indicate which structural value results eigenvalue corresponds to the axisymmetric analytical
dimensionless defined by, frequency is the mode, and undamped
SZ = wa/cp.
(6.10.3)
An eigenvalue analysis is performed on the `dry' structure to extract the numerical eigenfor discretizations. 6 24 the and element values The results show that the numerical `dry' results is satisfactory. The sub
eigenvalues converge and the agreement with the analytical
frequency from graphical plot, to three significant places, a merged eigenvalues were evaluated between discrepancy found is Junger it the that there coded analytical and a slight and was and Feit submerged eigenvalues. Again these results show good accuracy and convergence. The second set of results showing the ratio of tangential to radial displacement are more informative. The results for the lower branch modes again show good accuracy for the in vacuo
looses however the the of calculation submerged ratios numerical rapidly and submerged ratios, branch. There higher two for the the are contributory upper of modes accuracy factors to this
inaccuracy. First there is the inaccuracy of the dry eigenvector and second the inaccuracy of the fluid modification of the eigenvector. Whilst a refined mesh would reduce the inaccuracy, it may independently. and acoustic problems It is the author's
be more efficient to refine the structural belief that such a methodology efficiency.
increased balance the complexity would
with much improved
Figures (6.34) show the pressure gain in the far field from a fluid filled elastic spherical between force. is by The the far the unit point gain as ratio a calculated pressure shell excited field pressure and 1pPa For the variational The contribution the structural formulation there is high accuracy up to ka = 3. however
to the scattering from the lower branch modes is over approximated, For the collocation
damping for the test case is very small.
method however,
151 page
ElastoAcoustic there is a similar accuracy in the underlying
Problem.
response, but the excitement of the lower branch to the far field radiation
ka be 0.5 is less After there ; zzý should modes no contribution accurate. from the lower branch modes. Although formulation, excitation
by a point source is a severe test of the of the variational BEM and
these results indicate that the consistent formulation
FEM may have the edge in accuracy over the coupled collocation BEM/FEM The results in figures (6.56) show the backscattering
formulation.
form function for the fluid filled
A little the shell. comparison elastic spherical collocation and variational results shows very of difference in accuracy and close agreement with the analytical result up to ka = 8. The difference between these results and the radiation results for the point excited spherical shell indicate that the accuracy of the structural be limiting response may a factor for consistent structural and
fluid meshes. Figure (6.7) shows the back scattered form function for the evacuated thin shell, Burton formulation. Miller the collocation and calculated using
The behaviour of the coupled shell, SHIE and Burton Dirichlet and Miller formulations applied to the (6.8).
"evacuated" Figure problem (6.9)
spherical compares
at the first
critical
frequency Miller and
is shown in figure formulations
the coupled critical
DSHIE
Burton and
for the same
at the first Neumann
frequency. formulation
Both set of results disprove Huang's conjecture for the "evacuated" thin shell problem. The
for the a modified need and show results elastic removes that in figure thin
(6.10) however support
the proposal
in for this that made study a fluid filled problems by the elastic formulation (6.10) show
shell, the coupling of uniqueness
of the exterior at the critical
and interior frequencies.
problems
The results of figure
first Neumann the at pressure.
frequency
the surface pressure difference will be equal to the applied
excitation
Figures (6.1114) indicate the advantages of frequency interpolation. collocation and variational
The results for the step of Aka =
interpolation frequency both indicate that a methods
1.0 is possible before significant loss in error. Such a frequency interval in these plots represents the calculation impedance fluid matrices at approximately of 1% of frequency points.
page 152
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
A*o .
NL...
_ý
Z
x
Figure 6.2. Cantilever plate geometry.
In Vacuo Mode Theory C&F Numerical Experimental
Submerged C&F FAM VCM
1 2 3 4
13.8 59.3 83.9 194
13.8 59.. E 899.1 198.5
13.9 60.0 89.2 198.4
5.1 29.8 34.4 99.1
6.1 34.8 40.8 120.2
6.0 34.0 40.0 116.0
6.0 33.1 40.1 112.6
Table (6.1). plate.
Comparison
for In the cantilever of submerged and vacuo quantities
page 153
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
Undamped dimensionless natural frequency Eig e avalue In Vacuo Submerged
Mode Lower 1 2 3 4 Upper 0 1 2 3 4
n=6 1 2 5 7 11 15 19 29 38
n=24 1 2 5 7 25 27 39 51 68
n=6 0.000 0.713 0.909 1.237 1.613 1.979 2.733 3.744 4.707
n=2.4 0.000 0.702 0.835 0.896 1.613 1.975 2.724 3.642 4.614
J&F 0.000 0.701 0.830 0.881 1.610 1.980 2.720 3.640 4.600
n=6 0.000 0.322 0.424 0.700 1.270 1.800 2.290 3.370 4.250
n=24 0.000 0.323 0.407 0.467 1.270 1.800 2.300 3.360 4.390
Anal. 0.000 0.324 0.407 0.465 1.270 1.800 2.300 3.360 4.390
J&F 0.000 0.318 0.392 0.461 1.220 1.820 2.550 3.420 4.420
Ratio of tangential to radial displacement In Vacuo Submerged
Mode Lower 1 2 3 4 Upper 0 1 2
3
n=6 1.000 0.275 0.117 0.118 0.000 3.500 0.593
0.608
n=24 1.000 0.271 0.122 0.069 0.000 0.500 0.616
0.673
J&F 1.000 0.270 0.123 0.070 0.000 0.500 0.616
0.680
n=6 1.000 0.252 0.107 0.113 0.000 0.669 53.700
22.400
n=24 1.000 0.250 0.116 0.067 0.000 0.668 153.0
77.8.0
J&F 1.000 0.250 0.117 0.068 0.000 0.646 1.080
3.280
4
0.688
0.679
0.713
34.200
110.0
5.500
Table (6.2). thin shell.
Comparison of submerged and In vacuo quantities for the evacuated
page 154
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
130
ci
120
dB
110
100
90
80
Analytical
""""""""' Variational
70
.1
1
ka
10
Figure (6.3).
The ; ar field back radiated pressure from
filled fluid a sphere ex
force. discretized into 24 The is by the elements and unit sphere point a cited formulation The to the thin shell was used acoustic response. model variational is 100 set reduced using eigenvectors. structural equation
page 155
Elasioacoustic
Problem.
130
120
dB
F
110
r, 1
100
90
80
"°"""""""
Analytical Collocation
70
1
1
ka
10
Figure (6.4).
The far field back radiated pressure from
fluid filled a sphere ex
force. discretized into The is 24 by the unit elements point sphere a and cited formulation The thin the to shell was model acoustic response. used collocation is 100 set reduced using eigenvectors. structural equation
page 156
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
10
f
1
i i /
/ ' ' / ý,
.1
i
i
01
Analytical """""'. '. " """" Variational Rigid
001 . 1
1
ka
10
Figure (6.5).
The far field baclcscattered form function
for a fluid filled
elastic
discretized is into The 24 the variational elements and sphere sphere. formulation to used model the acoustic response. was The structural
thin shell equation
100 is using eigenvectors. reduced set
page 157
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
10
f
1
I
i . 41
i
i
.1
i '
.
01 .
Analytical Collocation Rigid
001 . 1
1
ka
10
Figure (6.6).
The far field backscattered form function
for a fluid filled
elastic
The is discretized into 2.4 the sphere and collocation elements sphere. formulation was used to model the acoustic response. The structural
thin shell equation
100 is eigenvectors. reduced using set
page 158
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
10
f
1
1'",,
.;
NX, "
i i i i i
i
1
i i
i
1
i
i i
i i i , i
""""
Analytical Numerical Rigid
01 . 1
1
ka
10
Figure (6.7). sphere.
The far field backscattered form function
for an evacuated elastic Miller and
The sphere is discretized into 24 elements and the Burton
formulation collocation
The to the was used structural model acoustic response.
is Lanczos 50 reduced using vectors. equation set
page 159
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
1.2
0.62 Real Pressur Difference "
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4
I
0.2
Imaginary Press
v. v
nn 3.0416
nAQ v. to
e Difference
ka 3.2416
3.1416
ka
3.2416
3.0416
3.1416
0.7
0.25
Real Displa cement
Imaginary D splacement
40
0.3
0.30
"
"
". "tý..
l..
"
0
ZS
""
"
L0.1 3.0416
V.
_n
J
3.1416
ka
3.2416
3.0416
3.1416
ka
3.2416
Analytical
.
BYM

SHIE
f.
Figure (6.8). first Dirichlet
The surface pressure and velocity distributions critical
in the region of the The
for an evacuated elastic spherical shell. wavenumber
by discretized into is 24 is excited unit constant pressure. elements and surface
page 160
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
1.1
03 Real Pressur Difference
" "w " "
1.0
40
 
0.2

Imaginary
09
Al
Press
e Difference
ka 45934
4.3934
4.4934
ka
45934
4.3934
4.4934
0.05
0.1
Imaginary Dis
acement
40
0.00
0.2
" ""
"
Real Disp
nS _n 4.3934
4.4934 ka 4.5934 0.3 43934
"
4.4934
ka
4.5934
Analytical
_.
B&M
 .
DSHIE
f.
Figure (6.9).
The surface pressure and velocity distributions
in the region of the
first Neumann critical wavenumber for an evacuated elastic spherical shell. The discretized into is 24 by is elements and surface excited unit constant pressure.
page 161
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
1.03
Lure Real Pr Difference
0.001
1.00
0.000
Imaginary
0.97'4.3934
nnni
Press re Difference
v. w
i
4.4934
4.5934
4.3934
4.4934
4.5934
0.03
0.003
Imaginary
Displacement
0.00
0.000
Displacement
0.03 4.3934
4.4934
4.5934
0.003 4.3930
4.4930
' 4.5930
Analytical
Collocation
f.
Figure (6.1 D). The surface pressure and velocity distributions first Neumann critical
in the region of the The
filled fluid for elastic spherical shell. wavenumber a
discretized into by is is 24 unit constant pressure. elements and excited surface
page 162
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
130
dB
110
90
Analytical . ka=0.1
70 
0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
130
dB
110
90
Analytical Oka=0.2
70 0.
1.1
ka
2.1
Figure (6.11).
The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere The results are calculated using the collocation (b) (a) Oka Oka 0.1 0.2. at and = =
force. by a point unit excited
frequency interpolation method with
page 163
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
130
dB
110
90
Analytical Oka=1.0
70 0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
130
dB
110
90
.....'°......
Analytical Aka=2.0
70 0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
Figure (6.12).
The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere
force. The by the using collocation calculated a point unit results are excited (b) (a) frequency interpolation 2.0. Oka Oka 1.0 at and = method with =
page 164
Elastoacoustic
Problem.
130
dB
110
90
...............
Analytical 1 Oka=O.
70 0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
130
dB
110
90
...............
Analytical Oka0.2
70 0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
Figure
(6.13).
The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere
force. by The the variational a point unit results are calculated using excited (b) frequency (a) interpolation Oka Oka 0.1 0.2. at and with = method =
page 165
Elastoacoustic
Prvblem.
130
dB
110
90
.....'.".. "
Analytical Oka=1.0
70
0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
130
dB
110
90
. ..............
Analytical Aka=2.0
70 '
0.1
1.1
ka
2.1
Figure
(6.14).
The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere The results are calculated using the variational (b) (a) Oka Oka 2.0. 1.0 and at = =
force. by a point unit excited
frequency interpolation method with
page 166
Lanc: os vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
CHAP TER Lanczos vectors
7. analysis
in elastoacoustic
7.1 Introduction
This chapter evaluates the use of Lanczos vectors in the coupled Boundary Element Method and Finite Element Method with a view to improving the currently available solution techniques, for exterior field problems, in terms of computational that the fluid variable method been has It shown speed and accuracy.
is the most economical solution technique for these exterior is substituted set equation into the
field problems. In the fluid variable method, the structural acoustic equation set, the structural of the resultant matrix
displacement vector is subsequently eliminated and solution
disadvantage The the of equation set yields normal surface pressure. is effort expended into the acoustic
solving the coupled system in this manner is that considerable computational in a forward and backward substitution dynamic the of structural matrix
basis Therefore it is to technique to represent the use a reduced advantageous equation set. dynamic structural back substitution matrix, in order to reduce the computational burden of this forward and
frequency. process, required at each in matrix was used order
In Chapter 6 an eigenvector reduction of the dynamic structural to ease this computational
burden. The difficulty in using the modal approach, is the large num
ber of eigenvectors required to accurately represent the dynamic response of the `dry' structure. Recent work (NourOmid [1989] [1984], Chen Taylor Clough NourOmid and and and and Regelof Lanczos vectors to the solution of interior fluidstructure
brugge [1989]) on the application interaction structural
fewer far Lanczos has dynamic to the are vectors required represent shown problems matrix. The increased accuracy of these vectors is due in part to the manner in which into their generation; the starting vector for the Lanczos allater in the chapter, is the dynamic deflection shape. Not only
the loading vector is incorporated gorithm, demonstrated be as will
the fewer Lanczos far to submerged elastic structure, represent accurately required vectors are these vectors are also, computationally less expensive to generate than eigenvectors.
In this chapter two different methods for which the application of Lanczos vectors are used to solve the coupled fluidstructure interaction be First the solution of presented. problem will
the exterior acoustic problem for evacuated closed thin elastic shells is studied. The collocation formulation is to the that ensure and used acoustic method the methodology range, quency is valid throughout the entire fre
of Burton and Miller is implemented. page 167
The finite element model
Lanc: os rectors in elastoacoustic analysis. of the structural boundary Lanczos the to then coupled vectors and problem was reduced using fluid the variable methodology. using for arbitrary Second the variational formulation
element formulation
of the acoustic formulation
thin shells is used to evaluate an added fluid mass cor
finite fluid for finite This the term element problem element elastic problem. modified rection is then reduced using complex Lanczos vectors. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and computational both to radiation solutions in an infinite corresponding advantages of these methodologies, to an elastic submerged sphere
and scattering problems pertaining
both the to using media are generated and compared similar results calculated exact analytical solution and an eigenvector methodology.
7.2 Lanczos
Vectors
Consider a dynamic structural
system defined by the matrix equation,
(Ik
{U} IF}, =  w2M)
(7.2.1)
The Krylov subspace of this system, given a starting vector rl, is defined by,
[ri, (k1M) Rm =
(K1M)2rl,..., ri,
(K1M)(mi)rlj
(7.2.2)
The Lanczos vectors for the system defined in Eq. by orthogonalizing subspace
(7.2.1) are derived from this Krylov
each vector with the previous two, as they are generated. It can be
form Lanczos is in that the theory this the that vectors set of procedure of result a set shown of Morthonormal iteration contributes vectors. The strength of these vectors is that each successive vector in the
to the dynamic response of the system. Furthermore if the starting vector
displacement direction be in is the then to the the shape, static of no static chosen sequence of displacement is the characteristics static needed since correction iteration. subsequent To increase the rate of convergence of the Lanczos series, a spectral shift of the stiffness is An frequency by the to a made. appropriate a value a also eliminates need of constrain matrix Consequently the body transformed modes. matrix rigid is defined by, implicitly are included in each
page 168
Lanc: os rectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
KQ=Ka2M.
(7.2.3)
This spectral shift improves the Lanczos representation of the structural equation set by forcing the starting be to vector a more appropriate dynamic displacement shape. [1989] [1984], NourOmid Clough Chen Taylor and and and
It can be shown (NourOmid
[1989]) is Lanczos Regelbrugge for that the given vectors algorithm generating successive and
by,
Kam' FA, ro = qo = 0, Qj _ ýrý 11L1rýi)1ý2. , rj1 qj = a' rj = Kv'Mqj, aj = qý MTA,
ri = ri  aj qj 3jgji,
(7.2.4) (7.2.5) (7.2.6)
(7.2.7)
(7.2.8) (7.2.9)
(7.2.10)
defined by, Lanczos the vectors are set of m where
m
Qm =
qi.
(7.2.11)
Using this set of Lanczos vectors it is now possible to reduce the dynamic structural tion. By writing,
equa
1 {x}. u} = Q, n
and premultiplying by, given Eq. (7.2.1) by QmMKý 1, the transformed dynamic structural
(7.2.12)
equation is
page 169
Lancxos vectors in elastoacoustic
analysis.
[(Qm1ý1(wm ý2QmMKo 'MQm) w2Q
1 {F'}. (7.2.13) {x} Qmý1KQ MAC1,11Q, = n]
From the orthogonal properties of the Lanczos vectors, Eq. (7.2.13) can be greatly simplifled. The left hand side can be transformed by noting that,
QmMK;
1MQ, QT=
Tm, = n Im,
(7.2.14) (7.2.15)
where the tridiagonal
defined by, Tm is matrix
a1 32
/32 az 03
TI.
Qm1 am1 Qm Qm am
(7.2.16)
The right hand side of Eq. (7.2.13) is given simply by,
QT MKS 1{FA} = {9,,,},
(7.2.17)
is by, identity Im, first defined the is if the given matrix g,,, column of as el where,
{g,,, } = ßi{el}.
(7.2.18)
Finally the reduced dynamic structural
be written as, equation can
[im + (0,2 w2) Tm] {x} }. {g,,, _ 
(7.2.19)
There are several numerical points that need to be considered before numerically Lanczos algorithm. menting a Although in theory the orthogonalization page 170
imple
Lanczos of each vector
Lanczos rectors in elastoacoustic analysis. with the previous two should ensure the orthogonality of the complete set, in practice this is not the case. Because of rounding errors orthogonality is lost as the iteration One way proceeds.
to overcome this problem would be to perform a full reorthogonalization this is computationally expensive and unnecessary. A more satisfactory
However at each step. be to method would reorthog
degree the examine of orthogonality onalization be could performed.
at each step and when necessary, a GramSchmidt
In this study a method proposed by Simon [1982] was used, of the current
that iteratively
generates a test vector that represents the degree of orthogonality
Lanczos vector against all other Lanczos vectors. This vector is tested to indicate the degree of orthogonality at each step, and if necessary full reorthogonalization is performed. It was found
in this study that the rounding errors in the Lanczos algorithm became serious only when the value of o corresponded too closely to a `dry' eigenvalue. The second point is the determination of the point at which enough Lanczos vectors have
been generated to ensure convergence of the reduced system to the full dynamic response. Previhave ous researchers also evaluated error estimates of the accuracy of the reduced system which be determine to can used a point at which the algorithm should stop. However the accuracy indicators of such in purely structural has (Chen been into doubt analysis called and Taylor problem there is another factor to be considered.
[1989]) and for the coupled fluidstructure The interaction of the structure of a surrounding
fluid with a structure can often modify the `dry' eigensolution Therefore it is way. only with a prior understanding of
in an unpredictable
the problem that an adequate number of Lanczos vectors can be chosen. For this reason an automatic termination is difficult. Lanczos the algorithm very of For the purposes of this study response is specified for
the number of Lanczos vectors used in the analysis of the structural each problem.
7.3 Fluid
Variable
Methodology
The full coupled elastoacoustic Chapter 6,
formulation
for an evacuated closed shell was given in
7K
G'
 w2M
CA
(U)
Fa _ 0
H/w2p
bp
(7.3.1)
If the dynamic structural
matrix is reduced using Lanczos vectors Eq. (7.3.1) becomes, page 171
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
(In+(o2_w2)Tm
Qm 111 h'ý 1CA
GCT Qm
x
gm
H/w2p
bp
0
(7.3.2)
Following the fluid variable methodology the `participation' the fluidstructure interaction equation is given by,
factors x are eliminated
and
GCQm wH p+
[I,
+
1QT Tm] 02  w2)
%I K471CT A
{bp}
=
I{9m}. [I,, (cr2 GCQr T"]+ _W2)
(7.3.3)
Defining,
CQm = Om, Qm11Ko1CT = [CKo 1MQm]T  O'm
[Im + (0.2 Tmý  w2)
(7.3.4) (7.3.5)
(7.3.6)
Eq. (7.3.3) can be written
more concisely as,
H+
GemS1®
A {bp} = GO,, S'{9m}.
(7.3.7)
7.4 Added Fluid
Mass Methodology
In Chapter 6 the elastoacoustic problem for an fluid filled or open thin shell was derived in terms of a fluid added mass term,
(K

[M w2
Mf(w)]) 
{U} = {Fa},
(7.4.1)
formulating by where plex, symmetric
the acoustic problem in terms of the variational
method, ßllf is the com
and frequency dependent `fluid mass' matrix, page 172
Lanczos rectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
Mf(w)
= pCANk1
ACT
(7.4.2)
The symmetry position. Algorithms
of the added fluid mass term makes it more amenable to Lanczos decomare available for Lanczos decomposition of non symmetric equation sets
(Rajakumar
[1991], Rogers NourOmid and
[1991] [1983]), Golub but Van Loan al and and et
in (7.4.1) in be Eq. this terms of Mf evaluated at some study. are not considered can rewritten shift frequency o. This gives,
[K
{U} (Ms {Fa }. (o))] (o)) (Mf (w) Mf Mf + w2 =  w2 
(7.4.3)
The third term in the left hand side of Eq. (7.4.3) will be a small correction term, assuming the added fluid mass and fluid damping has a small variation with respect to frequency in the region of a. A Lanczos decomposition is performed using Eq. (7.4.3) with,
Ka =KcT2(M8M1(u)),
(7.4.4)
M=ms
Mf(Q).
(7.4.5)
In the first instance, if the small correction term in Eq. (7.4.3) is neglected the Lanczos reduction by, be given will
[(0,2_
w2)Tm
+ Im]
{Xm1
= t9m}"
(7.4.6)
be T,,,, complex. x,,, and g,,, will where The numerical solution of Eq. (7.4.6) will be extremely efficient for a range of frequencies. However its usefulness as an accurate model will depend on the assumption that the third term in the left hand side of Eq. (7.4.3) is negligible. The work performed in this study indicates that for ka « 1. where a is the same order as the size of the structure, the assumption that the added fluid mass is frequency independent
page
is
173
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis. valid and leads to little loss in accuracy. However, for ka  1 and ka >1 it will be shown that this assumption is inadequate.
7.5 Results
To test the different methodologies the spherical shell described in Chapter 6 was used. Hysteretic damping was implemented decomposition. Figures (7.14) show the results of the fluid variable methodology cretizations before by Lanczos the numerically modifying stiffness matrix
applied to different disre
different with numbers of Lanczos vectors to characterize the `dry' structural
The sponse. nodal normal velocities were normalized firstly by P(cosO) formula, the malized with
and then further nor
12 1Olog Ivn(n + 1)I2
exact
(7.5.1)
The modal analytical
solution was taken from the work by Geers and Felippa [1983] and elastic sphere
for lightly damped, the to solutions obtained a submerged, corresponds vibrating loads functions by Legendre that the are of polynomial. excited
The results in figures (7.14) show that only 5 Lanczos vectors are needed to accurately dynamic deflection the of the structure. represent For more complicated shell geometries care
in Lanczos in be the to choosing number of vectors shown order not to exclude higher needs structural be that may significantly modes perturbed by the influence of the fluid interaction.
Tables (7.12) show in more detail the degree of accuracy of the results shown in figures (7.14). The solutions for the higher modes would converge with the use of a finer mesh. Figures (7.58) show the results of an eigenvector decomposition of the dynamic structural however higher These good and convergence, accuracy a results also show number of matrices. for Figure 7 Lanczos than convergence. shows the absence of a vectors eigenvectors are needed structural is 50 that accurately reproduced with only eigenvectors, a resonance resonance with
5 Lanczos vectors. The added mass formulation correction was tested in the far field region only, with the fluid mass constants were used
being evaluated at the lowest frequency. The same structural page 17!
Lanczos rectors in elasioacoustic analysis. for the fluid filled shell as previously. be 1500m/s. The acoustic speed of sound in water was assumed to by a
Figure (7.9) shows the results for the farfield pressure radiated at 9=0
fluid filled sphere excited by a point force at 0=0.
The pressure is measured in dB using one is given on series solution
level. The exact analytical the reference micropascal at one metre as the same figure.
It was shown in Chapter 6 that the elastoacoustic problem for fluid filled or open shells is in general well defined at all frequencies. However, for fluid filled shells, the added fluid mass will be defined will not well at the eigenvalues of the interior Neumann problem. This problem can be circumvented by calculating the added fluid mass term away from these critical frequencies. the agreement
It may be observed from Figure 9 that for low frequencies, that is ka «1 with the analytical
is difference between The solution excellent. using 10 or 40 Lanczos vectors that the solution converges for a small number of Lanczos vectors.
is very small, indicating
However as the frequency increases the converged numerical solution displays a loss in accuracy in comparison to the analytical solution. This loss in accuracy was expected in this frequency
(7.4.3) hand in is longer Eq. term the third the on right side negligible at these no regime as higher frequencies. For this methodology to be effective at these higher frequencies, high order frequency terms would need to be added to the formulation. It was thought scattering problems. that use of the Lanczos methodology would be particularly The reduction of the dynamic structural beneficial for
matrix is performed in terms of
the incident acoustic wave and FA in equation (7.2.4) is defined by,
{FA}=ACT{p}
(7.5.2)
incident is the pressure. where p; Figure (7.10) shows the results for the far field back scattering of a plane wave by an problems.
for the the values as used parameter radiation shell with same spherical evacuated One quarter of a sphere was discretized into 24,9noded fluidvariable the using methodology, elements.
The results, calculated a commonly
are presented as a plot of form function,
Lanczos Twenty measure, against vectors were used to model the wavenumber. used scattering elastic structural The response. results obtained are compared to an analytical series solution loss factor. Higher solution
[1986], Feit for different Junger by two and values of structural given
increased damping. It with attained structural was appears therefore, that considerable accuracy determination in is the needed accuracy, of the structural elastic response.
page 175
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
w/(nß1) 0.1 7r
n=0 0.12 1.33
n=1 2.13 2.49
n=2 5.06 10.10
n=3 21.30 48.70
2ir 10
0.42 1.64
4.96 18.30
11.00 9.12
9.08 1.88
(a) 6 elements and 5 Lanczos vectors
w/(n+1) 0.1
n=0 0.12
n=1 2.13
n=2 5.06
n=3 21.30
7r 2ir 10
1.33 0.39 0.79
2.95 4.94 10.50
9.05 13.10 9.09
46.40 7.65 2.04
(b) 6 elements and 20 Lanczos vectors
Table (7.1). variable structural
The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid Lanczos 6 reduction with elements and dynamic the of
methodology matrix.
page 176
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysts.
w/(n+1)
n=0
n=1
n=2
n=3
0.1 ir 2ir
10
0.01 1.56 0.72
0.32
0.20 2.31 0.21
0.97
0.30 6.38 0.91
10.00
1.46 21.90 1.96
0.26
(a) 24 elements and 5 Lanczos vectors
w/(n+1) 0.1
n=0 0.01
n=1 0.20
n=2 0.30
n=3 1.46
7r 2ir 10
1.56 0.73 0.31
2.34 0.20 1.03
6.46 0.73 9.50
24.60 1.15 0.98
(b) 24 elements and 20 Lanczos vectors
Table (7.2). variable structural
The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid
Lanczos dynamic 24 the and reduction of elements methodology with matrix.
page 177
Lanczos rectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
w/(n+1)
n =0
n=1
n=2
n=3
0.1
0.12
2.46
5.06
21.30
T 27r
10
0.55 0.02
0.88
2.60 5.19
12.20
6.37 18.30
9.19
42.00 10.90
1.77
(a) 6 Elements and 50 eigenvectors
w/(n+1)
n=0
n=1
n=2
n=3
0.1 7r 2ir 10
0.12 0.56 0.01 0.63
2.46 2.38 5.15 17.00
5.05 6.06 12.30 9.87
21.30 42.20 10.40 1.85
(b) 6 Elements and 100 eigenvectors
Table (7.3).
The percentage accuracy of modal surface velocity for the fluid
dynamic 6 the reduction of elements and eigenvector variable methodology with structural matrix.
page 178
Lanc: os vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
w/(n+1)
n=0
n=1
n=2
n=3
0.1 7r
21r
0.01 0.79
0.35
0.52 1.20
0.06
0.29 3.49
0.87
2.43 37.40
17.20
10
0.14
0.93
10.30
16.10
(a) 24 Elements and 50 eigenvectors
w/(n+1) 0.1 T
n=0 0.01 0.79
n=1 0.52 1.20
n=2 0.29 3.44
n=3 1.45 15.40
2ir 10
0.35 0.14
0.05 0.93
0.86 10.10
1.92 0.76
(b) 24 Elements and 100 eigenvectors
Table (7.4).
The percentage accuracy of modal surface velocity for the fluid
dynamic 24 the reduction eigenvector and of elements variable methodology with structural matrix.
page 179
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
20
dB
0
10
dB
n=
20
i stU
30
_40
L
.1
1
10 10
.1
1
62
10
30
40
20
n=
20
n=
10
dB
0
dB
0
10
In '. v
.1
1
(0/3 10
20L .
.1
1
U4
10
Figure (7.1).
Velocity response for n=0,1,2
3 excitation and
of a submerged
fluid the discretised into 6 variable methodology elements using spherical shell The frequency dimensionless is Lanczos the 5 velocities are w/c. vectors. w and normalised with respect to v(n + 1)exact.
page 180
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
20
dB
0 dB
10
n.
20
30
L
fiL2i1
,10 40
`
.1
1
w
10
.1
1
62 10
30
40
20
n=
20
n=
10 dB 0 0 10 In w
Yii[C H2O `
dB
.1
1
wý3 10
(r .1
1
w/4 10
Figure
(7.2).
Velocity response for n=0,1,2
3 excitation and
of a submerged
discretised spherical shell
into 6 elements using the fluid
variable methodology
frequency The dimensionless Lanczos is 20 the velocities are vectors. w w/c. and normalised with respect to v(n + 1)exact.
page 181
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
20
dB
0
10 dB
n=
20
L 30
ee
ssss
,fin VtJ.
.1
1
w
10
1
1
o/2 10
30
40
20
n=
20
10 dB 0
n=
dB 0
10 L 20
20
.l
1
W3 10
.1
1
oY4 10
Figure spherical
(7.3).
Velocity
for response into
n=0,1,2
3 and excitation
of a submerged methodology are
discretised shell vectors.
24 elements
fluid the using frequency
variable w/c.
Lanczos 5 and normalised
dimensionless is the w
The velocities
with respect to v(n + 1)exnct
page 182
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
20
dB
0 10
n=
dB
20
30
.l
1
10 10
/2 .11
10
30
40
20
n=
20
n.
10
dB
0
dB 0
10
In w
i 4. [ L If(ý lii[] [) CL44[]SLYi[1
.l
1
°3
10
oY4 10
Figure spherical
(7.4).
Velocity
for response
n=0,1,2
3 excitation and
of a submerged methodology are
discretised shell vectors.
into 24 elements
fluid the using frequency
variable w/c.
Lanczos 20 and normalised
dimensionless is the w
The velocities
with respect to v(n + 1)esact "
page 183
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
20
dB
0
10
dB
n=
20
l"l[[
30
.1
1
co 10
'41ýA0 .11
c&2 10
40
40
n=
20 dB
0
n=
20 dB
0
L 20
scisa
cttý 20
Fscsss
14
gcsss
aii
.1
1
co/3 10
.11
oY4 10
Figure (7.5).
Velocity response for n=0,1,2
3 excitation and
of a submerged methodology
fluid discretised into 6 the variable elements using spherical shell 50 eigenvectors. and normalised frequency dimensionless is the w/c. w
The velocities are
with respect to v(n + 1)ezact"
page 184
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
20
dB
0
10
dB
n=
20
nil
lii[]lLC Ot
30
L
[[]fLi
i[
i[ 40
.1
1w
10
.11
(o/2 10
40
40
20 dB 0
n=
n=
20 dB
0
L 20
20
.1
1
°3
10
.11
U4 10
Figure
(7.6).
Velocity response for n=0,1,2
3 and excitation
of a submerged
fluid discretised 6 into the elements using spherical shell 100 eigenvectors. and normalised
variable methodology The velocities are
frequency dimensionless is the w/c. w
to 1)eract. + respect with v(n
page 185
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
10
zu
0
0 dB
dB 10
n=
20
1
20 40
n _'
f.n
.11
10 10
.11
OY2 10
40
40
n20 dB 0 20 dB
0
n
20
L
IA
.1
13
10
.11
aY4 10
Figure spherical
(7.7).
Velocity
for response into
n=0,1,2
and 3 excitation
of a submerged methodology are
discretised shell
24 elements
fluid the using frequency
variable
50 eigenvectors. and normalised
dimensionless is the w
w/c.
The velocities
with respect to v (n + 1)exact
page 186
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic
analysis.
10
zu
dB
0
0 n:
10
dB 20
40
nil
1 o'2 10
30
.1
1
10 10
Ti
Kn
40
40
n: 2
20 20 dB
dB 0
0
20
L
LL
t7Ffi2I2Flit[72fLGi2L7SSi3t1 20
.1
1
w/3 10
.11
oY4 10
Figure spherical
(7.8).
Velocity
for response into
n=0,1,2
3 excitation and fluid the using frequency
of a submerged methodology are
discretised shell
24 elements
variable
100 eigenvectors. and normalised
dimensionless is the w
w/c.
The velocities
with respect to v(n + 1)exact"
page 187
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic
analysis.
8
öö
ÜÜ V
bOO
L 8
"o "
"""
oa
8 M
CIO
Q0o
00
a
o°°
8 N
OOOO0 ý4 v4 "d
8
O,\ 00
'Lý
Far field radiated pressure at 0=0 for a fluid filled steel spherical One is discrethe force by 0=0. of sphere quarter a point at excited shell, fluid the 24 added mass tised into elements and the results were calculated using Figure (7.9). methodology.
188 page
Lanczos vectors in elastoacoustic analysis.
8
f
"
Analytical yß. 01
6
4
2
oý 0
3
1
ka
2
f
" 2
Analytical yam.l
1
oý 0
Figure (7.10).
1
ka
2
Far field backscattered form function hysteretic damping, (a) y=0.01,
for an evacuated spherical (b) y=0.1. The structural
different shell with
Lanczos is 20 modeled using vectors. response
189 page
Conclusions and Recommendations.
CHAP Conclusions
TER
8.
Recommendations and
8.1 Conclusions
For the numerical acoustic analysis of arbitrary
three dimensional structures the boundary In this study a
becoming is element method established as the preferred solution technique. collocation and variational
BEM have been presented. Both methods make use of isoparametric
but (e. [1980]), BEM Terai they are independent of the order of unlike many previous elements g. interpolation used. The difficulty in implementing the Burton and Miller composite formulation
formulation the thin shell acoustic or integral operator. Both the collocation
has been the accurate evaluation of the hyper singular and variational formulations presented make use of the
conversion to tangential
derivatives first presented by Maue [1949]. derivatives there still remains a Cauchy type O(r2)
After conversion to tangential larity.
singu
In order to implement a collocation form of the hypersingular integral operator, Chapter It was shown that of
3 gave an argument for essentially ignoring the degree of this singularity. for a collocation Cl the on surface with strict continuity, point equation.
there will be cancellation
in the assembled matrix errors still sufficient continuity collocation approximation formulations.
It is assumed that with just Co continuity,
there is
of first order derivatives to ensure numerical accuracy. The resulting both is in Ak the thin shell and Burton and Miller operator used of
The thin shell formulation,
Chapter in 4, uses the variational procedure of Mariem presented A comparison of computational and collocational effort needed
[1987] JVk Hamdi the to operator. evaluate and to form this operator by using the variational
methods shows the increased
burden imposed by the extra integration for the variational method. However in terms of matrix factorization the advantages of a symmetric formulation are shown. The timing data indicates will
that with a n3 computational become the computational The Burton
time dependency, for large problems the matrix factorization
bottle neck. formulation is implemented using the collocational
and Miller
method and at re
tested with rigid sphere, spheroids and cylinders.
The effectiveness of the formulation
is the of uniqueness shown, and numerical results show good accuracy and problems moving
page 190
Conclusions and Recommendations. for The the the cylinder are encouraging since they show the results accuracy of convergence. validity formulation the of applied to structures with surface discontinuities. for tested a range are
In Chapter 4 the variational
and collocation thin shell formulations
of closed and open thin shells. Both formulations
again show good accuracy and convergence
and there seems to be little to separate the accuracy of either method for the rigid problems. It be however that the formulations must noted boundary and gentle conditions. An extensive analysis of the superposition were compared using relatively simple geometries
method is given in Chapter
5.
It is shown
that although accuracy is possible using retracted surface boundary element methods, there are severe problems of conditioning are coincident. and stability unless the source surface and boundary surfaces
The main objective of this work was to disprove the belief that superposition
methods offer advantages over boundary element methods for arbitrary acoustic problems. The problem of numerical singularities have to be dealt with rather than avoided.
The finite element method for thin shells is introduced in Chapter 6 and the various coupling for elastoacoustic analysis are presented. The collocation and variational acoustic methodologies formulations are coupled to the FEM using the structural variable method. The modal reduction frequency is described interpolation along with equation set of the fluid matrices.
of the structural
The problem of uniqueness at critical frequencies for the closed elastic acoustic sell is clarified, formulation is it that the thin shell elastic shown and couples the exterior and interior acoustic
is is In the the the case of the evacuated rigid or shell evacuated. shell when problems except thin shell uniqueness problems are shown to occur in theory and results are presented that disprove Huang's conjecture, that these problems occur for numerical test cases. Results are also for fluid filled is ill thin that to the problem shell not elastoacoustic conditioned show presented fluid interpolation The frequencies. of advantages at critical are also clearly shown.
The comparison of the collocation method and variational
method coupled with the struc
tural equation set, is more revealing than the similar comparison for the rigid body case in Chapter 4. For the far field results for scattering from an elastic sphere show there is little difference in accuracy. The results for the point loaded sphere however show that fluid modification of higher eigenmodes is significantly acoustic problem. more accurate with the variational formulation, formulation of the
For the collocation coupled BEM/FEM
the point loading results and variational
inaccurate the excitation show
higher in the analytical of eigenmodes, which page 191
Conclusions and Recommendations. impedance. high have modal cases very FEM and BEM formulation. Chapter 7 examines the use of Lanczos vectors in the coupled boundary element and finite element structural acoustics problems in an infinite domain. Two methodologies were described This indicates the advantages of having a consistent
along with a review of the principles of Lanczos vectors. The results of the numerical implementation of these two methods together with a comparison of the more traditional eigenvector
approach were presented. The results from the fluid variable methodology show that even with Lanczos large dynamic in therefore, the the number a small of vectors and a reduction size of structural matrix, high accuracy is still possible. The results obtained using the added mass
methodology and simplicity
reveal a loss in accuracy at the higher frequencies. however, the method's speed allows the character of the dynamic frequency response to a particular excitation
force to be very quickly ascertained. The numerical results presented Chapter 7 show that using Lanczos vectors instead of eigendynamic form basis for the to structural matrix offers significant improvements a reduced vectors in accuracy and computational The efficiency. examples presented also show that far fewer Lancresponse.
zos vectors are needed than eigenvectors to accurately calculate the elastic structural The use of Lanczos vectors for the solution of structural
acoustics problems in infinite domains, efficiency with increased solution
increase in the computational advantage of a considerable offer in the to eigenvector modal methods. comparison accuracy
The numerical methods presented in this thesis have been validated and their accuracy shown. It is felt that they represent the state of the art in acoustic BEM formulations. The
variational
be but felt is from the to the most robust and accurate method suffers method burden of the extra integration. The collocation method shows commethod.
increased computational
is in the than the more efficient and results variational presented parable accuracy
However the results for the point loaded elastic sphere show that it may not be as accurate as the variational for coupled problems. method
8.2 Recommendations
Comparison of the variational both that have complithey shows methods and collocation
be implemented Galerkin by A could method collocating at mentary strengths and weaknesses. distributing Gauss then points and element the resulting non square matrix to the nodal points
by using the Gauss weighting factors. Such a procedure for the thin shell acoustic formulation
page 192
Conclusions and Recommendations. be would equivalent to the variational integration formulation but would be more efficient since the second Further more, by definition, there
would be more efficient as a matrix multiplication.
Cl be continuity would
at the collocation points since they are interior to the element. and implementation of the
The work presented in this thesis represents an investigation basic building blocks of a coupled FEM/BEM
elastoacoustic analysis. Within
the next three
in College Imperial hopes the to the techniques order group research at years refine and expand to produce a totally integrated structural be This package will acoustics software package.
heart in from highly The of the scratch a modular and object orientated way. numerical written based be in this thesis, along with other state of the methods around presented will program the art procedures necessary for a robust and practical software package. The proposed project distinct divided into be subtasks: several can (a) Development and refinement of analytical solutions (b) Wetted surface mesh generation (c) Generation of the fluid matrices using BIE Ensure that the program can handle mixed boundary conditions Development of outofcore matrix utilities (d) implementation interpolation fluid the matrix of FEM matrices using technique
(e) generation of the structural (f) Implementation (g) Implementation (h) Implement
Lanczos the vector generation algorithm of of the coupling algorithm gradient semiiterative solution method and compare
the biconjugate
factorization LU the type normal with (i) Post processing graphics incorporating XY including plotting results
solution method for tools the necessary all presentation of
hard copy postscript output. and
display field the 3D interactive Full of scattered pressure colour contoured r At this point a complete working threedimensional on: 193 page code will exist and research can begin
Conclusions and Recommendations. (j) Dynamic substructuring techniques
in order to model interior ballast tanks and structure (k) Adaptivity
mance
using error indicators and mesh refinement to optimize solution perfor
(1) Enhance the computational code (m) Enhancement
performance through optimization
of key portions of the
biconjugate the of gradient semiiterative
solution method through
is fluid from the trial the a system where solution vectors solution obtained using as treated as incompressible. The code will be developed using the C and C++ languages within a UNIX environment, facilities the graphics and XWindows. be implemented using will
page 194
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page 199
Symmetry and Half Space Problems.
APPENDIX
Symmetry and Half
1.
Space Problems
A 1.1 Image
Sources
A important surrounding
result in potential
theory is the uniqueness of the exterior
field, pressure
a radiator.
The implication
be field is that this the can of result exterior pressure One important (Wiener
by boundary the uniquely specified conditions on the surface of the radiator.
consequence of this theory is that scattering and radiation problems are interchangeable [1951]). This theory has another important semiinfinite
in for the modeling of acoustic problems consequence
bounded by media, a zero pressure or zero velocity plane. Such half space problems free the acoustics, where effect of rigid or
interest in great are of submarine and environmental
surfaces correspond to the effect of the surface of the ground or water respectively. The conceptual device of image sources is used to simplify the half space problem (Pierce condition
Ch. 5 [1989]). The plane surface is replaced by an image source so that the boundary
(A1.1). for is in figure is This the the rigid surface shown concept preserved. on plane surface
un=0
r oý
un =0 _/ 1
r
S
Image Source
Imaginary Boundary T
Rigid Boundary T
Figure (A1.1).
Image source construction
to model infinite
rigid plane.
Consider the exterior acoustic pressure for the source and image source. The pressure and distributions layer double be fields source written as single and can velocity image of S the combined effects of the source distributions and since S' is the
be gathered under one integral, can
page 200
Symmetry and Half Space Problems.
p_
Jrr, 4r s
1j
eikr ((ikr
esk"
µ(ro)dS,
(A1.1.1)
u" =1 47r
s
ör 1) ikr' 1 (9r' ik,." =k,,+ e an öne I2 r2
01.1.2)
where µ and a are the single and double layer source distributions Consider points r0. next the limit of these source distributions
defined at the surface source
on the rigid plane. If the normal
is defined as the normal to the plane, then from the symmetry of S and S', n
r=T
or an
ÖTV an
on r.
(A1.1.3)
Consequently the normal velocity on the surface of the imaginary plane is zero and the pressure is twice the pressure than if the image surface were absent. A semiinfinite domain bounded by be by acoustic a rigid plane, can modeled modifying according to the reflective symmetry in the plane. A pressure image surface, so that the exterior pressure
the Greens free space function
be by modeled an antisymmetric release plane can by, fields are given and velocity
eikr eikr'
p
4r
r
r'
p(ro)ds,
(A1.1.4)
Is ((ikr u" =1 4r
ör 1) an 2 r
eikr

ikr' 1
r/2
ör'
an eikr
ý(ro)dS.
(A1.1.5)
In general the appropriate modifying modification formulations
boundary
condition
can be imposed upon a ficticious
surface by This
the Green's free space function according to Eq. (A1.1.12) or Eq. (A1.1.45).
for both is function indirect free Green's direct the the appropriate space and of boundary the element method. of
A1.2
Geometric
Symmetries
defined by a repeating surface So, with surface
Consider a symmetric
acoustic radiator
A transformation geometric ro. points
describes the whole surface from So,
r; =Ti ro,
i=1... 201 page
n, 1,
(A1.2.1)
Symmetry and Half Space Problems. is the order of symmetry where n, Jacobian in the integral formulation transformation and T is the geometric transformation operator. The area
of the acoustic problem is invariant under the symmetry by, is the of given acoustic problem
and so the boundary layer formulation
n"1
eikr,
p= 47r S. ýn = 47r
i0 n, 1
r
)dS, p(r,, 1) ýn eikr, ý(ro)dS.
s
(A1.2.2)
(ikrr2
JS,
(A1.2.3)
i0
Again the geometric formulation
is accounted for by modifying the Green's free space func
tion and the same procedure can be applied to the SHIE and DSHIE formulations of the acoustic problem. The appropriate modifications of the Green's functions are summarized in figure
(A1.2).
In this study two symmetry lems analyzed were asymmetric axisymmetric transformations and so rotational were implemented. symmetry The majority of prob
for implemented to account was matrix is given by,
geometric symmetries. The appropriate
transformation
7rotro
f

cosO; sing; cos0i _sin9; 001Z
0X 0Y,
(A1.2.4)
where,
ei=
2iri , n,
(A1.2.5)
Reflectional Chapter
implemented in the cantilever plate problem of and used geometry was also
6, to model the halfspace problem defined by the rigid wall holding the cantilever for a reflection in an arbitrary r, plane, with normal vector (1, in, n)
The transformation plate. is given by,
1 212 Tr ef_ T°2m1 2n1
0
21m 1 2m2 2nm
0
21n 2mn 1 2n2
0
dz dy dZ
1
X Y Z
1
(A1.2.6)
direction in from dZ) is the dy, the the the (dt, to the of origin plane vector normal to the where is fourth the transformation A that reflection added so coordinate plane. can be written in terms
202 page
Symmetry and Half Space Problems. of a matrix multiplication. Up to three reflection planes with orthogonal normals can be used
to generate image sources. For reflection planes that are not orthogonal, an infinite number of image sources are generated. The set of symmetric by, b a, and c, are given transformations for three reflection planes,
(yreJ)b (7ä ,f )a ra, b,e =
(TTref
)C
roe
b, 0,1. a, c =
(A1.2.7)
The order of the symmetry
is given by 23 = 8.
page 203
Symmetry and Half Space Problems.
U =o
Rigid Boundary
Pressure Release Boundary
un =o
Gk*
_GkI+
Gk2
Geometric Symmetry
Figure
(A1.2).
Summary
for image the sources acoustic problem. of
The modi
fied Green's function
is denoted by G*.
204 page
Analytical
Series Solution for the Sphere.
APPENDIX
Analytical Series Solution
2.
for the Sphere
A2.1
Rigid
sphere
this study the spherical radiator is used to validate the acoustic numerical solution for the spherical problem is easily available. These results
Throughout
methods since an analytical
are covered in great depth by Junger and Feit [1986], and they are summarized in this appendix. The SHIE for the exterior problem is given by,
p(r)
=
jo
(p(ro)Or0)
T_w2pwGk(r,
ra)
dSro,
rEE,
(A2.1.1)
displacement. is the radial where w
If the coordinate system of the problem allows variable
Greens free function, then an analytical solution is available. In spherical the space separation of polar coordinates the Greens free space function can be written in terms of spherical Besse]
functions and Legendre polynomials,
Gk(r, O,01r, Bo Oo) =_
00 ik Z
47r
n
n=o m=n
(n  m)1 ! (2n + 1)cos m(0 00) (n +
m)! Pn (cose)PP (coseo)jn(kro)hn(kr), r> ro
(A2.1.2)
The coordinate system (r, 6, ¢) describes the exterior domain and (ro, Bo,0o) describes the Green's For the the where an analytical solution systems exists, coordinate sphere. surface of function in Eq. (A2.1.1) can be written as,
(r, r(r, Gk + ro), ro) 9(rß ro) =
(A2.1.3)
Helmholtz' derivative homogeneous the is r the F to equation and normal of a solution where (A2.1.1) Eq. be S. Consequently Gk derivative the can rewritten on of normal cancels as,
P(r) = ,. )
2p
is Js , wg(r, ro)dSra,
r> r0.
(A2.1.4)
page 205
Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere. Taking the general case of ro =a the correct expression for g(r, r0), satisfying the homogeboundary Neumann condition and the radiation condition, is given by, neous
e, 0,0o) 0ja, 9(r,
=1 47rka2
ZZ
00
n
no m. n
(n  m)! (2n + 1)cos m(¢  40) (n + m).
h'ý(ka)
n(
(. X2.1.5)
Pn (cosO)PP (cosOo)
r>a.
The exterior pressure field given in Eq. (A2.1.4) can now be written in terms of this modified
Green's function,
oo p(r ý) B, =2
n
(nrn)! (
hn(kr)
47rk j
n=0m=n
(n + m)! cos m(0 
2n + 1)
hn (ka) r a..
2x
rJ 0 0)P(cosB)P(cosG0)sinBodBod0o,
(A2.1.6)
The radial displacement in Eq. (A2.1.6) can also be written as a summation displacements,
of modal
00
ný
W=1:
nl=0
1:
m'=nl
WmmnuPP
'(CO89o)COS m'0.
(A2.1.7)
When the modal expansion of w is substituted into Eq (A2.1.7), the orthogonality field, for the exterior pressure tions simplifies the expression
functhe of
B, q) =p(r,
wkP EE
n0
2
°O
n
mn
ftn kr
WmnPn (cos9)cos mO ,r>a., h, (ka) n
(A2.1.8)
where,
2r j0 Z (n  m)i Pn (cos90)cos m (2n + 1) wmn =1 4ir ()o n+m . ,0
90, ýo) sin90dO0dýo. w(a,
(A2.1.9)
in be terms the impedance, the of The pressure on the surface of expressed modal can sphere
206 page
Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.
00
B, ¢) P+(a, =
ZZ
n0
n
Z+,W,,,,, Pn (cosB)cos MO,
mn
(. 12.1.10)
with,
zn = iPCh, n(
(kQ) )
(A2.1.11)
The acoustic problem interior The modified Green's function
to the spherical shell can be analyzed in a similar
way.
in Eq.
(A2.1.5) must be constructed so that it satisfies the The corresponding surface
homogeneous Neumann boundary condition and be finite as r0. interior the pressure on surface is,
00
n
(a, 8,0) =
n0 m=n
Zn Wmn P,'," (cos9)cos MO,
(A2.1.12)
with,
?pCý;+(ka) .
n
(A2.1.13)
A comparison of Eq. (A2.1.11) and Eq. (A2.1.13) shows that whilst the exterior pressure distribution is composed of a superposition of traveling waves, the interior pressure distribution is
a superposition
The eigenvalues of the interior spherical problem correspond of standing waves.
to the solutions to,
zn (kD) = 0, 1 (A2.1.14)
=0 . (kN) Ln
The interior
eigenvalues for the spherical problem are tabulated in Table (A1.1) and the figure in ( is j;, 2.1). and shown
frequency dependence of j
page 207
Analytical
Series Solution for the Sphere.
1.0
0.5 
1

0.0
0.5 0.000
0.4
3.142
6.284
ka
9.426
0.2
,"
:.rte
"ý
ý
1 ," " ý' ý.
0.0





0.2
Jý
0.4
0.6`0.0000
3.1416
6.2832
ka
9.4248
Figure tives.
(2.1).
Plot
first the of
four
spherical
Bessel's functions
derivathe and
208 page
Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.
Dirichlet 1
eigenvalues kD where j((kD), n=1 n=2
) = 0. n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6
n=0
1 2 3
4
3.141593 6.283185 9.424778
12.566371
4.493409 7.725252 10.904122
14.066194
5.763459 9.095011
6.987932 10.417119
8.182561 11.704907 15.039665
18.301256
9.355812 12.966530 16.354710
19.653152
10.512835 14.207392 17.647975
20.983463
12.322941 13.698023
15.514603 16.923621
Neumann eigenvalues kN where jn((kN)I) 1 1 n=0 4.493409 n=1 2.081576 n=2 3.342094
0. = n=3 4.514100 n=4 5.646704 n=5 6.756456 n=6 7.851078
2 3
4
7.725252 10.904122
14.066194
5.940370 9.205840
12.404445
7.289932 10.613855
13.846112
8.583755 11.972730
15.244514
9.840446 13.295564
16.609346
11.070207 14.590552
17.947179
12.279334 15.863222
19.262710
Table (A2.1).
The resonant frequencies for the interior
Dirichlet spherical
and
Neumann acoustic problems.
For any prescribed velocity distribution distribution
on the surface of the sphere the surface pressure
(A2.1.10). from Eq. For be scattering rigid spheres the surface may calculated using
fluid Therefore incident be the the to particle zero. velocity of wave must equal velocity must From the uniqueness of the external acoustic problem, the the that wave. scattered of cancel by Helmholtz' field is the solving obtained scattered pressure virtual boundary condition, acceleration reduced wave equation with the
iv, = fi i=I
api
on S.
(A2.1.15)
An incident plane wave can be expanded in terms of spherical harmonics by using an addition theorem,
E(2n (r, O) P; p =
n0
00
+ 1)i P(cosO)jn(kr).
(A2.1.16)
Substituting
Eq (A2.1.16) into Eq. (A2.1.15), Eq. (A2.1.8) gives an expression for the axisym
field, metric scattered pressure
page 209
Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.
p5(r, O) = Pi
00 E(2n
n. 0
+ 1)i"Pn(cos9)
h jn(kr)" hn(ka)
(. 2.1.17)
The external pressure distribution
is given by,
E(2n O) Ps + P(r, p, pi = =
n0
00
+ 1)inPn(cos8)
li [n(kr)_
hn(kr)
7(kr) h, n( ka
)
.
(A2.1.18)
A2.2
Asymptotic
solutions
The frequency dependence of the far field scattered pressure for an arbitrary be approximated by asymptotic solutions. Consider Eq. (A2.1.17) in the far field,
geometry can
(R, B) psf 
Rj ZPkR
00
: (2n + 1)Pn(cos8)
n0
1
, hn(kr n(
)
kR»
n2 + 1.
(A2.2.1)
At low frequencies the first two terms of this series expansion are O((ka)2) and the n=2 is only O((ka)5). Taking the first two terms gives the far field pressure at low frequencies,
term
f (R, 8) p; =
ikR (cosO P3R e k2a3 3
1
k3a3 9 1,
kR » 1.
(A2.2.2)
The commensurate influence of monopole and dipole radiation k2 dependence the radiation amplitude of consequent general consideration
in the far field, and the
is typical of Rayleigh Scatterers. A more
low frequencies far field that the shows at scatterers of such pressure
form, has the amplitude
ff
k 2V aR
k3L3«1,
kR » 1.
(. 2.2.3)
is L is V the the characteristic volume and where In the high frequency regime an approximation wave approximation
dimension of the scatterer. due to Kirchoff is appropriate. In this plane
it is assumed that each surface element radiates as if it were in an plane
baffle,
page 210
Analytical
Series Solution for the Sphere.
dpP (R) 
pw(ro)exp(ikIR  roI )dS,
kra » 1.
(A2.2.4)
The far field back scattered pressure is given by integrating surface of the scatterer,
Eq. (A2.2.4) over the illuminated
jf
(R) _
iP, k Is.
2irR
n" elexp(2ikIR
 r0I)dS,
kro » 1.
(A2.2.5)
In Eq. (A2.2.5) the plane wave is incident along the direction of Z,. Consider now the case of (A2.1). in figure a spheroid shown the cylindrical For end on incidence the problem is axysymmetric and so In this
(q, 0, Z) is appropriate to form the Kirchoff integral. coordinate system,
(A2.2.5) becomes, Eq. coordinate system,
is" (R)R ptf hi k nze6T1(Z)dF Pi ,
kL»
1,
(A2.2.6)
where ,
2
dI' =1+
az 2
dZ,
(A2.2.7)
nz
öZ
+
az
(A2.2.8)
b(Z) = 2ikZ.
(A2.2.9)
Eq. (A2.2.6) now becomes,
(R)R pof
k
J,
ýZ eaikZdZ
kL » 1,
(A2.2.10)
for the spheroid, where
(R) R_ p'f pi
0 ka2 fb(. ZezikzdZ , b2
kb » 1,
2.2.11)
211 page
Analytical
Series Solution for the Sphere.
Inctuerli
rruve
Figure
(A0. L).
Geometry
for
the spheroidal
Kirchof
problem.
The integral in Eq. (A2.2.11) can be done in parts, and neglecting the terms of O((kb)1 far field back frequency high higher the scattering amplitude or is given by,
I= (R)R pof Pi
I2l, a2
kb » 1.
(A2.2.12)
This is the result used in Chapter 4, and for the special case of the sphere, with b=a,
it
higher frequency included Chapter 3. If in terms to the are an spherical result used reduces interference pattern is introduced into the farfield result. This interference corresponds to a b and one at
between Z= difference ie 2b; the difference a specular wave at path of path Z=0.
The numerical results contained in this thesis show such an interfence pattern, however by Kirchoff less the those than predicted approximation. are much
the period of the fluctuations
[1982]) (eg Varadan is interference for that they are the et al pattern The accepted explanation Z= between the interference at reflection specular the of result a wave originating is given by, b=0. at the circular cross section at Franz and a or creeping b
The predicted period of the interference
27 A(kb) =D +2 , half is the D perimeter one where in X=0 the the spheroid of
(A2.2.13)
plane. For the various aspect
is, this in this period study used ratios 212 page
Analytical
Series Solution for the Sphere.
alb = 0.5,
z(kb)  1.42, 1.22, = 2.84, =
J(ka) = 0.71, J(ka) = 1.22, 0(ka) = 1.42. (A2.2.14)
1,0(kb) alb = alb = 2,0(kb)
A2.3
Elastic
sphere
boundary conditions, there is a readily accessible analytical solution for
For axisymmetric
the dynamic elastic response of the spherical elastic shell. This solution is described in greater depth in many standard texts, and is summarized in this appendix. Membrane and flexural variational are
in included the analytical effects are principle.
model which can be derived from Hamilton's
Many of the thin shell approximations ie deformation the result;
for finite the element derivation used
for the analytical used
be described in terms of the midshell can
displacements and the midshell normal is remains straight after deformation. Axisymmetric, nontortional displacements the shell motions are considered and can be
described in terms of the tangential and radial components; ur and ue. A free dynamic analysis (5l for frequencies, dimensionless in the the natural an expression shell results of Q2, in which are roots of a quadratic 2')2, )2 and (52,,
524 [1+3v+A
/32(1vAnvAn)] ß2 [An4,
52+(AT
2)(1v2)+ =0,
(A2.3.1)
n+An(5v2)2(1v2)]
where,
=
ca,
P
h2 Q' = 1222
An = n(n + 1).
(A2.3.2)
The radial or normal and the tangential displacements can be expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials,
ur
=
00 1: WWPn(µ), n=O
°°
P2)1/2
n=0 p=COSO.
dPn(p) dp
(A2.3.3)
213 page
Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere. For forced vibration modal force amplitude by, of the spherical shell, the modal radial amplitude is related to the
fn ýn =_ __
IP, cp h [c2

(c(1))2]
[92

(9(2»2,
(A2.3.4)
2wwn where the modal excitation
9
a[92
(1  QZ)(v + An  1)]
force is given by,
(2n + l) fn =2f
1 f(µ)P i (µ)dp.
(A2.3.5)
Finally the modal radial and tangential
amplitudes are related by,
V _
[32(v+A
1)+(i+ 
v)]
(A2.3.6)
For a spherical shell vibrating force, f', the apllied consists of
in an acoustic fluid, the excitation
force in Eq.
(A2.3.5)
modified by the fluidstructure
interaction force, f'.
The modal
is by, the submerged spherical shell given of velocity normal
Z,
n=fn
n, f .
(A2.3.7)
where,
fn=
Pn  Pn =
ýz
] Wn. zn 
(A2.3.8)
Therefore by combining Eq. (A2.3.7) and Eq. (A2.3.8) the surface pressure and velocity fields for the excited spherical shell are given by,
°O (a, e) =Zn_ un
i=0 0o P(a, 0) =Z
fa [Zn PP (cose), + Zn Zn
Zn+ fn a
(A2.3.9)
P1 (COSB). zn_
i0
`Zn
+ Zn

For the point excited spherical shell the modal excitation force is defined by, page 214
Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.
(2n + 1)F f" a_47ra2 field field far is, the pressure and resulting
(. 2.3.10)
f(R, B) pf
Fpce'kR 
(i)n(2n+ (2n + Z+ n =o
47razkR J
1)Pn(cos8) n) h' (ka)'
kR»
1.
(A2.3.11)
The case of scattering from an elastic spherical shell is more complicated.
It is necessary The
to consider both the rigid body scattering component and the elastic radiated component.
(A2.1.18) body due incident is in Eq. the to with an plane wave given rigid surface pressure on r=a. This expression may be transformed by means of a Wronskian relationship to give,
in(2n + 1)Pi P(a, 8) _ (ka)2hn(ka) Taking this to be the excitation force, the corresponding surface velocity distribution impedances, by the modal means of at
(A2.3.12)
is arrived
Pi
nr
_j2a2
Z
i"+l(2n
+ 1)Pn(cos9)
Z
(Z
+Zri
)hn(ka).
(A2.3.13)
The radiated far field pressure can be obtained from Eq. (A2.1.8),
ipceikRPi
i"+1(2n
(R, B) p*f =
0) 1)Pn(cos +
Z
kR n=O
(Zn
+
Zn
)[kah' (ka)]2
kR » n° + 1.
2
(A2.3.14)
The far field scattered pressure is obtained when this result is combined with the rigidbody distribution, scattered pressure Eq. (A2.2.1). This can be expressed as a form function,
if (O)l=
2p1f (R, B)R aPi
(A2.3.15) 2Z
ka n_0
(2n + 1)P(cos0)
hn(ka)
[.
1(k) ln
PC  (ka)2hn(ka)n
+, Z+ , Zn )
The analytical results presented in this study were calculated using FORTRAN [1986] James Geers J. T. L. by the author, and and C. A. Felippa [1983]. page 215
code written
1ßs)(1+7)s),
N3 = 4(1  ßs)(1  ýIs)>
4(1 +ý3)(1 = CJs)
The Jacobian is defined by,
IJ(ýs, ýs)I=
where,
äý äý'
ýs qs
o3
ai18
'
(3.3.1)
as ii=11
aSs
(3.3.2)
The superscript
indicates the subelement nodal coordinate with respect to the 77axes. The 4,
(3.3.1) defined in a similar way. in Eq. terms are other Noting evaluated, that ý3 = ý4 and r73 = q4, an expression for the subelement Jacobian can be
ýJ3(i
3,0
I=
(,q, + 1)4 1 ,
(3.3.3)
in Ai is the the that is i the the curvilinear space area of subeleand subelement of number where ment. The integration into be transformed an expression, removing of a singular element can
the singularity,
1
subel
1,
r(ý i1
integration In the modified space. shape functions
Idýsdiis Js
(3.3.4)
integration between the distance the Here r represents the singular node and curvilinear scheme, the curvilinear
point in the
interpolated points are allows numerical
using the subelement implementation
defined above
This transformation
Gauss integration. using a simple
3.. 4 Integral
Operators
The object of any numerical method is to transform the governing equations into a system of equations that is amenable to numerical solution. page 50 For a boundary element method this
Collocation Method. involves approximating equations. the integral Chapter in by 2, discretized matrix equations, presented
This has to be done so that high order singularities and problems of nonuniqueness are removed or circumvented. The integral operators that form
formulation the of numerical
the components of the integral equations will be discussed individually. 3.4.1 £k Operator This operator is defined by.
fGk(PQ)(Q)dSq. Gk [01(P) _
(2.2.3)
The kernel of this integral operator contains singularities O(r1) form this operator for numerical discretization.
is there no need to transand the Ck ,
Using the element shape functions
operator may be approximated
by the following numerical expression,
ne
Gk[OI (P) _f
j =l
S'
Gk (P, q){Ne}T dS;
{ý }.
(3.4.1)
In this equation, ne is the number of elements. The integration is performed numerically in the curvilinear described field The Lachat Watson the above. of and surface method system using dSj functions is by, the the given area element and element shape using
is interpolated point
dS,  IJ I<dq.
(3.4.1) is evaluated at each of the set of collocation points {Pt},
(3.4.2)
When Eq.
a system of
be These be written can equations assembled. equations can
way,
in matrix form in the following
{, Ck[OI (Pi)l
=
[Lk]{
}.
(3.4.3)
3.4.2
Mk
Operator
This operator is defined by.
Mk[q5](P) =J
aGäPýQ)q(Q)dsq.
Sq
(2.2.4)
page 51
Collocation alethod. For this integral operator, the kernel contains singularities O(r`') is and so a way needed to in the following
avoid the integration
way,
of high order singularities.
The operator can be rewritten
[Mk
c(P)1]0=
[MkMol0+
[Moc(P)ll0.
(3.4.4)
Eq. (3.4.4) can be approximated
in terms of the element shape functions,
Mk ýýý(P)
E
n°
j=1
:
Is, ( aGk(P, q) 3G0(ß 4) . _ ön 9 an, an
iaý
{Ne}T dS;
10i }+ (3.4.5)
is i
ÖG0(P,
q)
an
IN
eT e
dS;
{0i }
c(p)O(P).
The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.5) contains singularities of O(r2). singularity integration is ignored and Eq. (3.4.5) is integrated numerically technique.
This
using the modified numerical
By taking the field point P to each of the collocation points a system of
in by, be form be These matrix expressed assembled. can equations can
{[Mk

C(P)1]I
=
[Mk

Cp]l01

[Alk
_
lo]Lq}
+ [M0

Cp]101.
(3.4.6)
The diagonal matrix the following
[Cp] is the value of c(P) evaluated at the collocation node points. Consider (3.4.6), in last Eq. the term of
definition
mil
 cl
m21
M12 m22 c2
... ...
mli m2i
min
M2n
Oi
02
[MoCp]{O}=
Mil
mat
772t;
c;
ln2n
Oi
(3.4.7)
Mni
mn2
mni
mnn

Cn
0n
The O(r2)
singularities
are distributed
by the element shape functions to the diagonal elements
of this matrix. The definition
These matrix elements can be accurately defined by using a row sum procedure. in Chapter by, 2 given c(P) was of
is
(P, j 0Go g) ds .
(3.2.13)
page 52
Collocation By using this relationship
Method.
the diagonal elements of the matrix defined in Eq (3.1.7) are given
by,
mii

ci 
1
j#i
mij.
(3.4.8)
Therefore not only are the singular elements evaluated but c(p) is also implicitly The A4
evaluated.
it be in By as, operator may numerically evaluated redefining a similar way.
[Mk
+ c(P)Z]
[Mk
+ Mo]

[Mo
ß, c(P)Zj 
(3.4.9)
the operators
in the numerical
approximation
by, are given
T
n,
k
[0] (P)
aGk (P, q)
aGoýP,
E
? =1
ifp
n` r
On
aGGO(P,
+
Q)
qý
an 9
{N
eT }
IN
e } 7' dSj
{
}(3.4.10)
j=1
JS
an q
dSj
{0j }
c(p)O(P).
This leads to the following matrix expression;
{ [MT
+ C(P)Z]
01 =
[1ý1k + Cp]{0}
[Mk M0]{0} + =

[silo

Cp]{q}
(3.4.11)
The first matrix on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.11) contains singularities O(r1) O(r2) above.
3.4.3 )/k Operator
and the
singularities
in the second matrix are evaluated using the row sum procedure described
This operator is defined by,
s a2Gk(P, Q)O(Q)dSq. tiý[¢](P) = , ön ön s9P It is this operator numerical
(2.2.6)
that, need the greatest amount of consideration when implementing that need integrating.
a
high there are order singularities method since page 53
Based on a
Collocation 11(thod. [1949], (2.2.6) in by it is Eq. into tangential Maue to the possible convert expression proof shown derivatives using the basic vector identity,
(np  Vq)(n9  Vq) = (nn nq)(Vq 0) (nq (np Vq) Vq). x x " "
(3.4.12)
By integrating
by parts, the transformed
Nk for is by, the expression given operator
Nk [01(P) J S
{(nP is
. nq)k2Gk(P,
q)O(q)

(nq
xV
q0(q))
" (nP
x
C9)Gk(P,
q)]
dSq+
(3.4.13)
n9 O9 x (q)(np x VgGk(P,
q))] dSq.
The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.16) can be transformed by Stoke's theorem into an integral around the edge of S. Therefore for closed surfaces it is equal to zero and can finally be neglected. The transformed expression for the 111, is by, given E operator
Nk[01(P)
=f
[(np s
(n9 (9)) (np dSq. Vq Vq)Gk(P, X x q)] ' n9)k2Gk(P, 4)o(q) .
(3.4.14)
The validity of this expression has been shown in greater detail by Stallybrass [1967] and Mitzner [1966]. Eq. (2.2.6) can be rewritten in the following way,
Nk0
=
[.Nk

Vol 0+
%Voc"
(3.4.15)
The first operator on the right hand side contains terms of order O(r1) of order O(r2). following
and the second terms by the
Using the element shape functions Eq. (3.4.15) can be approximated
expression,
Nk [01 (P)
J
j=1
l(nP
nq)k2Gk(P,
q){Ne}T
_
(nq X Vq{Ne}T)
ný
"
(np
x V9)(Gk(P,
q) Go(P,
q))dS9
10i }
(3.4.16)
/J
(nq x Vq{Ne}T)
(np x V)Go(P.
q)dSj
{ 0i }.
1=1
J)
page 54
Collocation The O(2) singularity
11ethod. .
in the second term of this expression is ignored for the time being and
Eq. (3.4.16) is evaluated at each collocation point to assemble the following matrix equation;
{Nk[OJ(PP)} _ [,''k]M
[_1'o]{yh}. [: Vo){¢} Vk + _  .
(3.4.1 7)
This represents the matrix made to integrate the singularity
Nz for the equation operator, [N0] in the term. occurring
and no further modification
is
It will be shown that there is of these terms. The singularity
inaccuracies due integration the to the of cancellation numerical Consider the singular integration
for A'ö the over one element operator.
is separated from the rest of the element by a disk segment of small radius e. The singular integration integration be into the over element can over the element separated a non singular
disk integration disk Iý Iý the the segment, over segment, ; and and a singular minus ,
Ij s,
The integration
(nq XVq (4))  (np x V, GO(P,q))dS9 = I,j,
Ij,
.
(3.4.18)
Iý is assumed to be accurate within
the limits of the numerical integration the
be integration for to inaccuracies The the contained within are assumed element scheme. integration
Ij2. The small disk segment is assumed to be flat and the vector T is assumed to be to the normal. The gradients within Eq. (3.4.18) can be
in the plane of the disk, perpendicular expressed as,
(nq x Oq4(r, e)) =
B)) = (np xV gGo(r,
ö«r, B)
(n9 X ''),
(np x T),
3G0(r, B)
Or
(3.4.19)
The integration
in Eq (3.4.18) can be rewritten as,
In e' In E ä0(r, 6)2oGo(r, 0) drd9. JI Ij rI ar 8r
(3.4.20)
IJI be Within taken Jacobian can as constant. where the
the disk segment it is assumed that 0
(3.4.20) is in Eq 0 the dependency the linear variation global of on position has a vector and so by, from r and given independent page 55
Collocation
1lfthod. .
00)
Or r0
= pose
(OX 0
r=0
sine
y
(3.4.21)
r_0
Using this relationship
Ij can be represented by,
Ii =Ii,
+IB1jr
.
(3.4.22)
For all elements j that contain the singularity inadequate singular integration.
there will be similar errors in Ir due to the
However since the summation of the Ie terms is equal to zero
these errors cancel each other out. Therefore it is safe to evaluate the singular terms in the [N. ] matrix using the Lachat and Watson inverse distance singularity scheme. method has
In a recent paper by Wu, Seybert and Wan [1991] a very similar collocation
been described. This shows that Maue's equation needs C' continuity at the collocation points and to achieve this on CO continuous elements the collocation points are put inside the elements to form an over determined set of equations. To achieve the integration of the Cauchy principal (3.4.18) in integral Eq. they use additional shown value This study uses a much more simple method. directly elements X, operator. regularization. Eq. (3.4.18) for singular of the
By integrating
it is recognized that there will be errors in the matrix approximation
However this work has shown that there will be cancellation of these errors when
the acoustic problem is solved and so the sophisticated treatment of Eq (3.4.18) in the work by Wu et al is unnecessary. 3.4.4 Matrix formulation for the Burton and Miller boundary
It is now possible to write the matrix approximation integral equation, Eq. (2.4.4);
([Mk

Cp]
+
a[Nk])
f01
=
QLk}
+
a[Mk
+
cr])
{o}
an
(90i foil a
ön
(3.4.23)
Eq. (3.4.23) represents a matrix equation of the form,
[H]x =
page 56
(3.4.24)
Collocation where the matrix [H], is full, complex and nonsymnmetric.
Method.
In the past considerable effort
has been made to symmetrize symmetric
this matrix equation (Mathews [1986]). For this study this non technique followed
directly equation set was solved using a standard LUfactorization
by forward and backward substitution.
The imaginary coupling constant a takes the value i/k,
since this has been shown by previous researchers (Burton and Miller [1971]) to be the optimum value. For the numerical integration 3x3 Gauss integration was used for both the non singular
for Lachat the elements and and Watson subelements. 3.4.5 Exterior pressure distribution is given by,
The exterior pressure distribution
Os(P) _ Mk[0](P)
£k[01(P). 
PEE.
(3.4.25)
This expression can be approximated
numerically by using the element shape functions,
(P)
_
j=1
öGk(P, q) fSa9 {Ne}dS
(is
{(' )i=1 I
Gk (P, q){Ne}dS
ai
=1
a
(3.4.26)
Since the field point P is exterior
to the boundary surface there is no singular kernel in this
expression that needs special consideration. For the far field pressure distribution this numerical expression can be further simplified.
By considering the geometry shown in figure (3.3) it is possible to write,
Off (P) _
eikR ný
4ýR
Js
iknq  ReikR. 9{Ne}dS
{¢ý }J
/ý ei
kiý
)f
q{: ý'e}dS
a
S
an (3.4.27)
boundary farfield field the the R surface point. point vector and q represents represents where In vector form this expression can be written as
o3

lMkf
J
{0}
{L'k'} an
(3.4.28)
page 57
Collocation Method.
Figure (3.3) Geometry for evaluating the far field pressure distribution.
3.5
The computer
code
of the collocation method was coded in FORTRAN
The numerical implementation
predom
inantly on an IBM RS6000 machine in a UNIX environment.
The code was written to primarily
evaluate the numerical method presented above and it was found that in core memory space was large enough to run problems of a large enough size to demonstrate of simple geometries. Use was made of structural geometry in order to reduce the problem size considerably. This symmetry Z the global axis and in most about for accuracy a number
done by degree a was specifying of rotational cases only one axisyinmetric
discretized. is the actually quarter of acoustic structure
3.6 Numerical
results
fron
3.6.1
Radiation
submerged
spheres
One axisymmetric
discretized into is a number of elements quarter of a sphere with radius a
for A different (3.4) the Figure the spherical problem, geometries mesh shows of equal area. Legendre distribution a with velocity surface is specified on the sphere,
an
ao aoo P(cos9).
an
(3.6.1)
The resulting normalized acoustic impedance, Z, is calculated,
page 58
Collocation %fcihod.
Zko/0'0.
(3.6.2)
and further
normalized
with respect to P,
to form the normalized modal acoustic impedance. and modes are plotted with respect to wavenuinber
The results for various discretizations
in figures (3.58). These results are compared to the analytical solution (Junger and Feit [1986]) and show high accuracy and good convergence. The effectiveness of the of the Burton and 1filler formulation nonuniqueness at critical in removing the problem of
frequencies is shown in figures (3.910). The error in the normalized
is impedance plotted at the internal acoustic eigenvalues for the interior spherical problem, modal for ka less than 10. These eigenfrequencies can be calculated analytically. high formulations for SHIE DSHIE the the quite clearly errors and critical frequencies of the interior problem. The error plots show
around the appropriate
These plots also show that with the Burton and
Miller formulation,
the error in modal impedance for these modes is less than 0.1% for n=0, and n=2 from and less than 5% for n=3. a submerged sphere
less than 1% for n=1 3.6.2 Acoustic
scattering
Figure (3.11) shows the convergence of the backscattered farfield form function for scattering of a plane wave by a rigid sphere compared to an analytical solution. The incident wave is defined by,
Oi
=
eikz
(3.6.3)
backscattered the and
farfield form function is given by,
2R 10, = aa
(36.4)
low high frequency the to This plot shows good convergence the analytical solution and and characteristics of plane wave scattering. is predominant. At low frequency the formfunction depends on k2 as
Raleigh scattering
In this frequency regime the acoustic wavelength is large depends only on the volume of the sphere. At limit. In this frequency regime
formfunction the the to and scatterer compared higher frequencies the formfunction
converges to the Kirchoff
from the illuminated is it the specular reflections
for dominate the sphere the that and surfaces
page 59
Collocation Kirchoff approximation of the illuminated frequency independent formfunction, predicts a
Ifcthod.
dependent on the area
frequency This plot also shows the characteristic oscillations due to surface.
the interference of Franz' waves. Figures (3.1213) show the scattering distribution The axis magnitudes for these plots is the YZ with unit magnitude solution. YZ in the the of surface pressure for the plane The incident in the YZ for frequencies. various plane
farfield the pressure amplitude components of
plane wave. Again the numerical results are compared to an
analytical
Figure (3.14) shows the amplitude same unit amplitude
incident plane wave, at two frequencies for different discretizations.
plotted points in this figure correspond to the nodal points on the surface mesh. These points are farfield It is for 24 the to the that solution. analytical compared worth noting elements accuracy be to greater than the surface accuracy. This indicates a degree of error `smoothing' when seems calculating 3.6.3 the farfield quantities. scattering from a submerged spheroid distributions for oblate and prolate
Acoustic
The figures (3.1516) show the farfield scattering One axisymmetric spheroids.
quarter of the spheroid is discretized and the planewave is taken of the problem. the mesh for the spheroids was The comparison to
to be incident end on to preserve the axisyinmetry
In the absence of any sophisticated meshing algorithm,
directions. in Y, Z X, by the the spherical mesh simply scaling calculated
S. for his by W. Wu, PhD project by the the numerical results was provided program written [1990]. This program was written to solve for purely axisymmetric acoustic problems using high order lineelements. The program was run using 20 such elements and the assumption made that There seems to be a high degree of accordance between
this represented a converged solution. the results.
These test cases show the efficiency of the model for geometries other than the
described above. simple spherical problem 3.6.4 Acoustic scattering from a submerged finite cylinder from a finite
The last set of numerical results concerns the farfield scattering distribution
in for Figure The L length this are shown problem mesh geometries and radius a. cylinder of (3.17). Again only one axisynunetric discretized is is the the and plane wave quarter of cylinder
incident. along the Z axis. The numerical results are compared to the results of S.W. Wu using 44 axisyrrunetric line elements.
page 60
Collocation .lfethod. Figure (3.18) shows the far field scattering results for a cylinder with length 4a and 8a. Both plots in the figure show good agreement with the results of S.W. \Vu. Figure (3.19) shows the convergence of the scattering distribution importance from the L=8.0 figure This cylinder. shows the for is the case as
discontinuities, high density the around surface of elements of a
the 104 element mesh.
page 61
Collocation
Method.
(a) 6 Elements
(b) 24 Elements
(c) 96 Elements
Figure (3.4).
The different
for the spherical problem mesh geometries
page 62
Collocation Method.
1.5 Z 1.0 n=O
0.5
0.0
0.5
` 1.0 0
246g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1 .V 1n
02468 Analytical Figure (3.5). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary
ka A.
10
modal impedance for the rigid sphere, modes 0 and 1.
quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 elements.
page 63
Collocation
Method.
1.5 Z 1.0 n=2
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
02
4
6
g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0 n=3
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5 02468
Analytical Figure (3.6). Normalized One axisymmetric Real .
ka Imaginary
10
2 3. for impedance the and modal rigid sphere, modes
discretized into 6 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 64
Collocation
Method.
1.5 Z 1.0 n0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0
2
4
6
g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0 n=1
0.5 0.0
0.5
1"
02468 Analytical Figure (3.7). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary
ka &.
10
0 for impedance 1. the modes and modal rigid sphere,
discretized into 24 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 65
Collocation
Method.
1.5 Z 1.0
n=2
0.5
0.0
0.5
V I.1A
0246
g
ka
10
1.5 Z 1.0 n=3
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0 1.5 
02468 Analytical Real . Imaginary
ka A.
10
Figure (3.8). Normalized One axisymmetric
2 3. for impedance the and rigid sphere, modes modal
into 24 discretized is the elements. quarter of sphere, radius a,
page 66
Collocation Method.
104
0
0
3 10
L L
n=0
e
0
O
102
e 101
100 000ee
eo e0
dý
101 sse0 o 0a 0 epe ®e e ®e
ao G
0
A A
10 2 0
0
10 3 104 02468 104 103
L
ka
10
00
n=1
eeA 0
A o AA
O
L 102 101 100 10 1 0 A, 00

eeA00 &
oQs: O am O ta
A
$8
es0
NW MI 'Do
102
103
104 02468 Coupled . SHIE o. DHSIE ka '& . 10
Figure (3.9). Normalized
for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal quarter discretized is into the sphere, radius a, of
0 and 1. One axisymmetric 24 elements.
page 67
Collocation Method.
104 103
O V
n=2
A
A
0 A
L 102
101 10° 10 1 10 2
0
e0°°00
0 Ao
g
00
0°
®
®o
°o °
oo 000
10 3
, n4 IV
s
02468 104 3 10
LA
ka
10
n=3
00 `
2es 10
101
Ls
10
000
AS
00
e
ae
10 1
0o0 00 "
0
CPA
°0
Le 00 MEN
o49
A
o
10 2 103
00
"
104 02468 Coupled
Figure (8.10).
ka . SHIE o. DHSIE .
10
Normalized
for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal discretized is into the quarter of sphere, radius a,
2 and 3. One axisymmetric 24 elements.
page 68
Collocation
Method.
kn
o
0 0
0 0
0 0
Itt
M
0 0 0
N
0
. 4
O ri
00 
ýO r+
ýt
NO .OOOOO
00
N
uo! Jz)un, 4 uuao3
6 elements Figure (4.11). 0.24 .
elements
Plane wave backscattered form function
for the rigid sphere.
One axisymmetric elements.
quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 and 24
page 69
Collocation Method.
ka=0.1 0.015 0.010 0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010 40.015 0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
ka=1
0.8
0.6
0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2
0.4
0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Analytical Figure (S. 12). Far field form function
Numerical distribution for scattering incident of an
from left One by The is incident to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and quarter of sphere, radius a, axisyinmetric the distribution is calculated at ka = 0.1 and 1.0
page 70
Collocation
Method.
ka=3 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
ka=5
1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
0.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 0.5
Analytical Figure (3.13). Far field form function
X
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Numerical distribution
O.
for scattering of an incident
left from One by incident The is to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and sphere, radius a, axisymmetric quarter of the distribution is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 71
Collocation Method.
ka=3 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5
1 1.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
ka=5
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Analytical Figure (3.14). Amplitude
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
24 Elements
13 .
96 Elements
by for a rigid plane wave scattering of surface pressure
One is from left incident The to axisymmetric quarter plane wave right. sphere. distribution discretized is into the 6 24 the elements and and sphere, radius a, of is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 72
Collocation
Method.
k=1.0 b=0.2 a=1.0
0.20
0.10
0.00
0.10
ý0.20 . 0.40
.1
0.20
0.00
0.20
0.40
a=1.0 b=0.2 k=3.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8_ 1.8 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4
O.
1.4
1.0
0.6
0.2
1.8
S. W. Wu Figure (8.15. Farfield pressure distribution
Numerical
for scattering of an incident plane left from to incident is The by right. plane wave a rigid oblate spheroid. wave 96 into discretized is the One axisymmetric elements and quarter of spheroid the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 axisymmetric calculated using line elements.
page 73
Collocation
Method.
a=0.2 b=1.0 k=1.0 0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02 0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
a=0.2 b=1.0 k=3.0
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.03
+0.05
0.05 0.03 0.01
0.01
0.03
0.05
S. W. Wu Figure (3.16). Farfield pressure distribution
Numerical for scattering of an incident plane The plane wave is incident from left to right.
by a rigid prolate spheroid. wave
One axisymmetric quarter of the spheroid is discretized into 96 elements and the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 line axisymmetric elements. calculated using
Page 74
Collocation
Method.
(a) 72 Elements
(b) 88 Elements
(c) 104 Elements
Figure (3.17.
The different
for the cylinder problem mesh geometries
page 75
Collocation
Method.
a=1.0 L=4.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3
0.5
a=1.0 L=8.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
S. W. Wu
Figure wave (3.18). by a rigid Farfield pressure distribution for
Numerical
scattering
O.
incident of an left to right. plane The
cylinder.
The plane at k=1.0 for
is incident wave L=4.0
from
distribution quarter for
is calculated
and L=8.0.
One axisymmetric and 104 elements line
the cylinder of
is discretized
into 72 elements for L=4.0
L=8.0.
The results of S. W. Wu were calculated
44 axisymmetric using
elements.
page 76
Collocation
Method.
\o ö
Ö
4 1N
0 0 II 0
ea
yý
N O
.w.
0
N 9
i
.`
ýi
1
9
Ö
ÖCCÖÖÖ ýt NO C14 lqt ýc
S. W. Wu
.
72 Elements
f
.
88 Elements
13.104 Elements
.
Figure
(8.19).
Convergence a=1.0,
farfield the of
scattering
distribution
from
the cylin
der, L=8.0,
at a wave number
of k=1.0.
page 77
I ariaftonal
110hod. .
CHAPTER
Variational Method
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter a variational proximation of the hypersingular method is described that enables the accurate numerical apYk operator. This method is based on the work of Mariem is important operator .A for two
[1987]. Hamdi Previous chapters have indicated that the and reasons. First it is a main constituent
of the DSHIE for closed body acoustic problems, which circumventing the probdescribed in
SHIE, forms the the Burton and Miller formulation when coupled with
lem of uniqueness. Second it forms the basis of the thin shell acoustic formulation Chapter 2.
The variational integrating of resulting
is method considered since it provides an elegant solution to the problem kernel as well as resulting in a symmetric matrix equation. The is also independent of the type of numerical interpolation used.
the hypersingular
numerical formulation
Subsequent chapters will show that the variational formulation couples to the elastic formulation in the thin shell an efficient and symmetric way. of The disadvantage with the method is that it involves an extra integration which increases the computational radiation size of the problem. Results are presented for thin shell scattering and accuracy of the method. and
problems that show the validity
Both closed and non
between the thin variational method and made are comparisons and considered are shells closed the collocation in Chapter 3. described method
4.2
Weighted
Residue
Techniques
Variational the and
Method
The purpose of this section is to outline the principles behind the collocation and variational methods. highlight 4.2.1 The arguments that follow are taken from Zeinkiewicz [1989] and are presented to the relationship between the two methods. Method
Weighted
ResidualGalerkin
The general acoustic problem may be expressed by the linear equation,
A[O] (p) =8ý
(P)
(4.2.1)
page 78
Variational .11cthod.
Eq. (4.2.1) niust be satisfied at every point, domain, p, on some surface S. It follows therefore
that;
is
(p)A[¢](P)dSp =J u.,
is u'(P)B ön
(P)dSp,
(4.2.2)
where w is a weighting be approximated may
function
and Eq. (4.2.2) must be satisfied for all w. The fluid variables
in terms of the global shape functions,
{N9}T
{0},
a0
:
1, %g IT
fan
(4.2.3)
If the approximated
fluid the values of variables are inserted into Eq. (4.2.2) then it is clearly is made and u'
impossible for this expression to be satisfied for all uw. Instead an approximation is replaced by a finite set of weighting functions so that,
w=
wj,
j=1
to n.
(4.2.4)
Eq. (4.2.2) will now yield a set of n simultaneous equations given by,
f
w(P)A[{'ßr9}T
{}](p)dS=
is
J
w(P)13
{N}T
'91]
(P)dS.
(4.2.5)
This equation represents an integral of error residuals and clearly the equation set generated depends on the set of weighting functions that are chosen. If the weighting functions are chosen so that,
b(P wi =  Pj),
(4.2.6)
(4.2.5) Eq. to the is then the collocation method will correspond of nodal points set pj where described in Chapter 3. If however the weighting functions are chosen so that,
Wj
_
ý'J : ,
(4.2.7)
Galerkin is the (4.2.5) then Eq.
weighted residual method. page 79
Variational 4.2.2 Variational Method
some scalar functional
If0hod. .
For the variational
method
is generated
using some a priori
guess
as to the physical nature of the problem. may correspond to the potential
For some physical problems this scalar functional
energy or the energy dissipation of the system. The solution this functional with respect to the unknown variable.
of the problem is achieved by minimizing Consider the BEM formulation
for the thin shell acoustic problem defined in Chapter 2,
a4(P) an
[ýDl(P)Alk _
(4.2.8)
The appropriate
functional
is defined by,
n=I
The minimization the symmetry functional this of
(
Oý3 9n
2ýA1 [<D] (p) dSp.
formulation of the problem.
(4.2.9)
Due to
gives the variational
of the J1/k operator, the stationary value problem can be evaluated in a straight
forward manner,
bII =I
b(a(P)
b(DAk[(DI (P) 
dSp = 0.
(4.2.10)
It can be seen that this expression is identical to the Galerkin formulation problem. Galerkin
of the thin shell and
In general if the governing integral operator is self adjoint then the variational formulations be identical. will The whole subject of variational
methods is discussed
in great detail in the book by Morse and Feshbach [1953].
4.3
Variational
Boundary
Integral
Formulation
The full boundary integral equation for the thin shell problem is defined by,
ao(p) as (P) A, + P _ k[ýJ(P)
(2.5.6)
difference is in Chapter 1 Following the the the 3 pressure across shell. method shown where be Nk transformed can the operator into tangential derivatives; page 80
Variational If0hod.
[(
tp
*f9)k2Gk(P,
q)4(q)

(n9
X Vq
(q))

(nP
x
Vq)C'k(P,
dSq. q)]
(4.3.1)
For the variational
formulation,
Eq.
(2.5.6) is multiplied
by 6D(p) and integrated
with
respect to p over the shell surface S,
I s
bý(P)
aanP)
dsp =
Ibý(p)i1
is
[<D](p)dSp + k
&D(p)
aý (P)
p
dSp.
(43.2)
The expression for the Alk operator given in Eq. integrating by parts to obtain the expression,
(4.2.1) can be further
transformed
by
All [6
ý] =ff ,
[(np ss
(np (nq GPb(D(P)) Vq(D(q))] Gk(p, nv)k26D(P)(D(4') x x q)dSgdSp. ' '
(4.3.3)
Eq. (4.3.3) contains singularities of O(r1) it is and consequently possible to integrate [1976]. Lachat Watson scheme of and this
equation accurately using the modified integration In arriving justification
at Eq. (4.3.3) integrations around the edge of the thin shell are discarded. The
for this in Chapter 3 was that for closed thin shells there is no edge and consequently must be equal to zero. For nonclosed thin shells this is not the case. However
these integrations in Chapter
2 it was shown that the pressure difference around the edge of the shell must be must also be equal to zero.
integration for Therefore the these to shells edge zero. equal
4.4 Numerical
Implementation
The discretization interpolation by, mated
of the variational
formulation
is implemented using the same order of approxi
Vk. be for The that the numerically as operator can collocation method.
ýe
ne
i=1
j1
E {bitIT I> l [(np
(nP
" nq)k`2{N
}{Ng
}T
_
X OPlApj)(n9
X Vq{NgIT)]Gk(P,
W}. 9)dSqdSp
(4.4.1)
page 81
Variational Alethod. In Eq. (4.4.1) the gradient of the shape function axis system. is expressed in terms of the local coordinate shown
In order to evaluate these gradients it is necessary to use the relationship The Jacobian matrix
in Eq (3.2.11).
for the system, defined in Eq. (3.2.7), then enables the system.
gradient to be expressed in derivatives of the curvilinear For the integration The integration
in Eq. (4.4.1), the point p ranges over Si and the point q ranges over Sj . The singularities i=j. points when
with respect to p is performed using simple Gauss integration. will occur at these Gauss integration
in the above numerical approximation It is these autoinfluence singular integration
elements that need to be integrated
Watson Lachat the and using
scheme. For the integration
divided be to the with respect q, element, will
in figure (4.1) as shown
Singularity at Gauss point
Figure (4.1).
Subelement division.
The expression in Eq. (4.4.1) can be assembled into a matrix formulation problem,
of the variational
[N{} A
a0 
190`
älß an
0. =
(4.4.2).
where the matrix
[A] represents the numerical approximation,
ne
{b4ti}T {o}T [A]{O} =E j=1
(Isir
{Ne}{Ne}TdS
(4.4.3)
In practice this banded symmetric matrix may be further approximated page 82
by the diagonal matrix,
Variational
Method.
aii
=i' S
(4) dSq. ý! ,
(4.4.4)
The matrix the standard
(4.4.2) in Eq. is symmetric equation
and is factorized into a LLT form using
Choleski factorization
technique (Jennings [1977)). The pressure differences are The order of Gauss integration
then evaluated by means of forward and backward substitution.
used to calculate the numerical results in this chapter are summarized in Table (4.1). Chapter 2 showed that the pressure distribution exterior to the thin shell is given by,
0 (P) _
(4.4.5)
following and approximated
similar
arguments presented in Chapter 3 the far field pressure distribution
is
by the vector expression,
Osf (R) _
{111kf}
ý,
PEE.
(4.4.6)
Element
p Integration
Integration q
Singular Non  singular
j Integration within subelement
3x3 2x2
4x4x4t 2x2
Table (4.1) Order of Gauss integration
4.5
Uniqueness
Numerical the of
method was introduced
Formulation
The variational thin shells.
formulating as a way of
the acoustic problem for
In general there is no problem of uniqueness of the numerical solution for thin
domain Since density interior interior for the the tends to the of resonant zero. shell shells since frequencies is proportional to this volume, the numerical formulation for non closed thin shells
is unique for all frequencies. For rigid thin shells that enclose a finite interior domain there will be problems of uniqueness interior frequencies this of at the resonant domain. page 83 Since the variational formulation of the
Variational problem is equivalent to the double boundary layer formulation detailed in Chapter
Method. 2, the
numerical solution will become illconditioned Although resulting a hybrid boundary boundary layer formulation
interior the at eigenvalues of
Neumann problem.
overcomes these problems of uniqueness, the
layer potential
is no longer equivalent to the pressure difference across the formulation hybrid does the of problem
shell. The reason for this is that a natural variational not exist, and the corresponding Galerkin formulation
is nonsymmetric.
In this chapter no effort is made to circumvent the problems of uniqueness that arise for rigid closed thin shells. formulation the shells, However Chapter 6 will demonstrate that for the elastic, closed thin is unique at all frequencies.
4.6 Edge Boundary
Conditions
In Chapter boundary edge
2 it was shown that for non closed thin shells it is necessary to enforce an condition. The physical reality of this is that the pressure difference across the in the collocation
Since is implicit boundary be the this edges. condition not zero at shell must or variational numerical approximation .k the of
be it imposed then must operator, on the
resulting matrix
be by, This matrix equation set can represented equation set.
[H]{ýD} = {y},
(4.6.1)
[H] is the matrix where the appropriate
approximation
of the collocation or variational
formulation
{y} is and
hand side of this matrix equation; right
{ [A] {y} =
{
an _
an
} 0'
}
Variational, (4.6.2) Collocation.
a0
an
Defining
{'EJ
interior {(DI} to the that those correspond edge or vector elements of as and as,
be (4.6.1) Eq. can rewritten nodes,
HII HEI
HIE HEE
(b I 41>E
yI YE
(4.6.3)
The interior
known differences be in terms the edge pressure of pressure can now written
{yl}, known the vector differences and
page 84
Variational
lfethod. .
[HIf]Oýj}

{y'}

[HIE]{(ýE}.
(4.6.4)
If (D is equal to zero on the edge of the plate, this equation reduces to,
[HII]{(DI}
=
{yI}.
(4.6.5)
Imposing the edge boundary condition in this way is equivalent to making the shape function for an edge node equal to zero so that there is no contribution difference within to the interpolated pressure
the element from this node. Consequently the way the pressure difference goes
to zero, depends on the other shape functions within the edge element. This problem has not been delt extensively before in previous work. (Mariem and Hamdi [1987], Terai [1980], Warham [1988]). These studies have used constant value elements and condition is satisfied when
for these cases there are no edge nodes and the edge boundary distributing
differences from the element constant value to the nodal values. the out pressure described in this the that method above satisfies the chapter show results larger found it is However there that are numerical errors adequately. boundary the condition. edge of One possible im
The numerical edge boundary
condition
due imposition to the these edge points at provement implemented not
in this study would be the modification
of the shape functions in
the edge elements, so that the edge boundary condition is included in the numerical formulation implicitly and thus more efficiently.
4.7
Computer
Code
The variational environment
FORTRAN like the using method collocation method was coded
in a UNIX
in the collocation method program were used the same routines used and many of Again all matrix routines are performed in core, however the symmetry be in that they more efficiently stored can a method means
little modification. with
in the the variational matrices of triangular
form, reducing the strain on memory requirements. feature of the variational in increase is the computational method time
The most striking
the to matrix assemble needed due to the extra integration.
equation set. This increase in computational
time is clearly method the
For both methods, but especially the variational page 85
Variational computational
order
Method.
effort needed to generate the numerical matrices will depend heavily on the
used.
of Gauss integration
Table (4.2) shows a comparison of accuracy for different orders of integration for the 6 element test case using the variational boundary condition and collocational method with a constant normal velocity
at ka = 1.0. The singular integrations represent the integrations within the
Lachat and Watson subelements and the non singular integrations represent all other numeriintegrations. cal computational integration contribution This data allows the selection of the optimum integration balancing scheme, non singular
speed with accuracy. Such an integration scheme seems to be 2x2 singular integration.
and 3x3
However for this relatively small problem the timing from
due to the singular integration is high. For large problems the ne contribution integrations
the nonsingular
will dominate the timing however accuracy will depend strongly
on the order of singular integration. Some timing data is shown in table (4.3), for both the collocational and variational methods, applied to the thin shell formulation. is used within erwise. matrix For this direct comparison of timings, 3x3 and 2x2 integration integration is used oth
the subelements of the singular integration
This data is shown graphically
in figure (4.2). The assembly time for the variational
is clearly greater than that of the collocation matrix and both assembly times show the ne . There is a significant difference in the times of matrix times are significantly less than the re
dependency of approximately same factorization.
Whilst for both methods the factorization
factorization time, the spective assembly
timings show a n3 dependency. For large problems for
become dominant factor, favouring factor 100, thus the this time the variational » will which n.e Choleski factorization. the quicker symmetric method with
4.8 Numerical
Results
4.8.1
Spheroids The thin shell formulation is used to calculate the backscattered form function for different
spheroidal
function form in by, The incident given geometries with an end on plane wave.
f
2Rb Off _
a2 0t
(4.8.1)
for the case of a=b spherical where spheroidal
this equation reduces to Eq (3.6.4).
The spherical and
in Chapter the 3. those geometries are same as mesh page 86
Variational
3ffthod.
Method
Non Singular
Singular
Timing sx 102
Accuracy (%)
Collocation
2x2
2x2 3x3
4x4
219 376
579
1.55 0.74
1.05
3x3
2x2 3x3 4x4
365 509 723
589
0.68 0.08 0.23
1.04
4x4
2x2
3x3 4x4 Variational 2x2 2x2 3x3
4x4
730 937 333 509
732
0.30 0.60 1.38 0.65
0.23
3x3
2x2 3x3 4x4
1157 1550 2204
3111
0.65 0.81 0.43
0.32
4x4
2x2
3x3 4x4
3847 4942
0.43 0.56
Table (4.2) Comparison
integration different orders of of accuracy with
page 87
Variational
Method.
Method
Elements
Nodes
CPU Timing in seconds x 1O' Assembly Factorisation Total
Collocation
3
6
19
33
172
367
1
3
173
370
12 24 48 96 Variational 3 6 12 24
48
61 113 217 417 19 33 61 113
217
1039 3071 9680 36708 205 518 1437 4348
15258
7 49 457 5598 0 1 10 24
179
1046 3120 10137 42306 205 519 1447 4372
15437
96
417
58364
1205
59569
Table (4.3) Comparison
1UUU(o
factorization of matrix assembly and matrix
times
Assembly
10000
CPU Seconds
x10'2
1000
v
c c
V
100
Factorisation
1n
IV
10
100
Number of Elements
times for the variational,
Figure (4.2).
Matrix
factorization assembly and matrix (c), methods
(v), and collocation,
page 88
l'ariulion(il. For those closed geometries there will be problems of uniqueness at interior
1lcthod.
resonant fre
quencies and 110method is ii pleiuented to reinme these problems. This is likely to account. for the breakdown of the numerical results with respect to frequency since the range of wavenuinbers over which the numerical problem is illconditioned at a critical wavenumber increases wit Ii
frequency until there is an overlap. Loss of accuracy at low frequencies is unlikely to be evident unless the vavenuiuber is very close to the critical wavenuniber. Figure (4.3) shows the results calculated using both the variational compared to the analytical and collocation method
solution for a sphere. The 6 element results show high accuracy at at ka = 2.5. There is
low frequencies with a breakdown of both numerical solutions starting no significant no breakdown variational difference in accuracy between the two methods. of the solutions below ka =5
The 24 element results show better accuracy for the
but the there is slightly
results at the higher frequencies.
Figures (4.45) show the two methods compared to the results generated by S. W. Wu's axisymmet ric method respectively. using 20 high order elements applied to prolate and oblate spheroids
In the case of the prolate spheroid, the breakdown of both numerical results occurs difference in accuracy between them.
at the same order of frequencies, and there is no significant
Since the mesh geometries for the spheroids are simply a scaled spherical mesh, higher accuracy would be obtained if a more intelligent mesh were used that reflected the geometry and boundary conditions of the specific spheroid. breakdown of the numerical methods for both mesh
For oblate spheroid there is no distinct
densities. The 24 element case shows high accuracy for all frequencies. For the 6 element case the accuracy of both methods degenerates at about ka = 3.0 with the variational slightly 4.8.2 higher accuracy. Flat Disk of the dimensionless radial surface presa baffle. The results and method showing
Figures (4.714) show the numerical sure on a circular are calculated collocation Chapter disk radiating
calculation
with constant normal velocity without
using the mesh geometries shown in figure (4.6) using both the variational
methods.
The equation for the surface pressure field for a thin shell was presented in
2. For a flat continuous surface with no incident wave Eq. (2.5.5) gives a relationship
for the surface pressure,
2ýdý+(P)+0(P))
_ .Mk[ý](P)
= 0.
(4.8.2)
page 89
I
Variational Therefore the dimensionless surface pressure is given by,
Mcihod.
2k (D
(4.8.3)
an /o (11..) 0 represents the constant normal surface velocity. Figure (4.710) show the amplitude (4.1114) figure show the phase. and
where
of this quantity
The numerical results are compared to results extracted from work by Weiner [1951], which from diffraction were calculated data published by Leitner [1949]. Similar results have also been variational procedure.
[1987] by Ginsberg 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Vu, Pierce and who use an axisymmetric publishedAll results show convergence between 20 and 80 elements and there is little that separates the accuracy between the collocation and variational degree high Overall is there a methods. at the
decreases however, is from It that these significantly accuracy graphs clear of accuracy.
density improve does disk. the The to the the of elements as not seem edge accuracy at edges of is increased. Figures (4.1516) show the radiation reactance and resistance of the disk calculated using both the variational and collocation methods. The radiated power and rate of radiation of
kinetic energy for the disk are given by,
11_
K=1
1
Is on
2iwP JS 2k;,ßpsn
dS a dS (4.8.4)
aý
(9
The radiation
impedance is defined using Eq. (4.8.4) by,
or = or,
11 Ui = *
damping,
(4.8.5)
is the positive radiation 0r where radiation damping.
resistance, representing radiation
is the and oi
is that usually positive; reactance
fluid fluid than rather mass representing added
[1951] Weiner the and results of In both figures the numerical results compare well to Bouwkanip [1941], with a slightly higher degree of accuracy with the variational page 90 method. The
Variational resistance results from the work by Bouwkarnp were calculated for the complementary The results are plotted on logarithmic dependency quency of the radiation radiation resistance.
lfethod. . aperture.
scales in figure (4.15) to show the linear low order fre
reactance and the higher order frequency dependency of the
The final result for the flat disk, figure (4.17), shows the convergence of the radial pressure for the three mesh discretizations. amplitude The 28 element mesh is distinguished by the high
density of elements near the edge, however all the mesh geometries show similar inaccuracies at the edge of the plate. To improve the accuracy at the edge of the disk it seams that a more sophisticated
4.8.3 Flat
imposing boundary the way of edge condition needs to be developed.
Square Plate
Figure (4.1819) show the radiation
for the square plate resistance and reactance calculated and collocation
length L. The both the variational calculated of side numerical results are using from by «'arham to the and results extracted methods are compared work There is good agreement using all methods but the non logarithmic is higher accuracy with the variational method.
[1988].
plot shows that there
The results from \Varham correspond to his mesh show
for his fine Comparison for `practical' the with results mesh. an asymptotic results that there is a significantly collocation and variational
higher degree of accuracy and rate of convergence for both the methods. This would be expected since Warham's method uses a
discretization. piecewise constant element 4.8.4 Terai's Problem
Terai's paper [1980] provides a comparison between his numerical results and an experibetween (4.20) the Figure the collocation and variation results comparison shows mental result. and the measured result extracted from Terai's work. The results are the pressure gain in dB
The 0.31 due to are calculated at a radius of results point source. a around a rectangular plate from the origin, in the XZ from distance 0.5 is the origin along the of at a source plane, and 0.3 0.2. dimensions has x plane
the Z axis. The rectangular plate in the XY
Both the collocation results and the variational results agree well with the measured values, and show a significantly higher degree of accuracy than Terai's results.
91 page
Variational 1.2
Method.
1.0
0.8 f 0.6
0.4
Elements a/b=16
0.2
nnv v.
0 1.2
1
2
3
ka
4
1.0
0.8
f
0.6
0.4
a/b=124 Elements
0.2
0.0 01234
Analytical Figure (4.3). Variational "" . Collocation
ka 
5
The far field backscattered form function
for a sphere discretized
into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational and collocation thin shell formulations.
page 92
1.2
Variational
Method.
1.0
i
"i
0.8
f
0.6
t" 5
0.4
alb=0.5 6 Elements
0.2
nn
v. v
U 1.2
1
2
3
ka
4
1.0
0.8 f
0.6
., , ,
,
0.4
0.2
a/b=0.5 24 Elements
0.0 , 0123 S. W. Wu Figure (4.4). variational . Collocation
ka 
4
The far field backscattered form
function
for a prolate spheroid
discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. using the variational incident plane wave.
page 93
The numerical results are calculated formulations shell with an end on
and collocation
thin
Variational
bfethod.
1.5
w
" ."` "
1.0
"ý i
f
0.5
Elements 6 a/b=2
0.0L 0
1.5 r
1
2
3
4
ka
5
.
,
1.0
f
0.5
Elements 24 alb=2
0.0 01234
S. W. Wu Figure (4.5). Variational ......... . Collocation
ka 
5
The far field backscattered form function
for an oblate spheroid
discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational plane wave.
Page 94
and collocation
thin shell formulations
with an end on
incident
Variational
Method.
(a) 20 element disk
(b) 28 element disk
(c) 80 element disk
(d) 36 element plate
(e) 24 element Terai problem plate
Figure (4.6). The thin plate mesh geometries
page 95
Variational
%ffihod. .
2.0
2 3
IPI
4
.... i
1.0
ka=1
0.0 " 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Variational
Figure radiating
The dimensionless
radial pressure amplitude
on a circular
disk
with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational
results
disk discretized into 20 the with one quarter of elements. were calculated
page 96
Variational
Method.
2.0
IPI
1.0
0.0L0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Variational
Figure radiating
(4.8).
The dimensionless
radial pressure amplitude
on a circular
disk results
The baffle. variational with constant normal velocity without a
80 into disk discretized the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
97 page
Variational
Method.
::::: '....:...
2.0
2 3
IPI
5
4
1.0
ka=1
0.010.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Collocation

Figure radiating
(4.9).
The dimensionless
radial pressure amplitude
on a circular
disk
The baffle. collocation with constant normal velocity without a
results
20 into discretized disk the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
page 98
Variational
lfffhod. .
2.0
IPI
1.0
0.01'0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
Collocation
radial pressure amplitude on a circular The baffle. collocation results a without velocity radiating with constant normal 80 into discretized disk the elements. of were calculated with one quarter Figure (4.10).
99 page
The dimensionless
disk
Variational
lfethod. .
90
S
60
4
30
3
0
30
2
60
ka=1
90 0.0
I
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
.
Variational
 .
The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational results were discretized into disk 20 the elements. calculated with one quarter of
Figure (4.11).
page 100
Variational
Mdhod.
90
5
60
4
30
0
 ................................................................ ............. .9 ...............
30
a
60
ka=l
90 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
Variational

.
disk radiatcircular a on phase dimensionless The pressure radial Figure (4.12). The baffle. were results variational a ing with constant normal velocity without 80 into diýcretized disk elements. the of quarter one with calculated
page 101
Gariational
Method.
90
5
60 4)
4
30
.....
3
0
1""" 1111*1 .................::: ;.
..
30
........................................................................................ I ........... ..........
60
ka=1
90 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
Wiener
Collocation

. disk radiat
Figure (4.18).
The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular
The baffle. collocation results were ing with constant normal velocity without a into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter calculated with one
page 102
Variational
Method.
S
ý" ....
40
a
4
10
3
'4.
z
\
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
1
r/a 1.0
ka=1
`90 0.0
Wiener
Collocation
.
Figure (4.14). The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The collocation into 80 disk discretized the elements. calculated with one quarter of results were
page 103
l ariational
Method.
10
1
.1
01
001
0001
0
0 11
Variational Bouwkamp Figure (4.15). normal The radiation 
ka
10
Collocation
O. Wiener
.
impedence of a circular disk radiating The variational and collocation
with constant results were The results
velocity without
baffle. a
into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter one with calculated
frequency dependence. low highlight logarithmic the to scale are plotted on a
page 104
Variational
affthod.
1.5
resistance
1.0
ý,,,.
J~ýý"
ýd.
v,. ir.. "
i
0.5
reactance
I
0.0 ` 0
246
ka
8
10
Variational
Collocation

.
Bouwkamp
Wiener
O.
Figure (4.16).
The radiation
impedance of a circular disk radiating with constant
baffle. These figure the the without a velocity are same results as normal previous but plotted on a linear scale.
page 105
Variational
Method.
1.0
ka= 1
0.8
IPI
0.6
0.4
3k
0.2
Di
0.0 0.0
L
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
r/a
1.0
ka=4
2.0
IPI
1.0
a
0.0 0.0 Wiener Figure
0.2 .
0.4 o.
0.6
0.8 o.
1.0
ka
1.2 . mesh
20 Elements
28 Elements
80 Elements
(/x. 17). The dimensionless at ka =1
for different radial pressure amplitude
densities Method.
The the ka 4. and using results are calculated variational =
page 106
Variational
Method.
1 10
100
reactance
101
;ý
resistance
10 2
10
.1
1L
/ý
10
Variational
Collocation
 .
Warham

Figure (4.18). normal
The radiation
impedence of a square plate radiating with constant The variational and collocation results were
velocity without
baffle. a
discretized into 36 The the one quarter with of elements. plate calculated results logarithmic frequency highlight low dependence. to the scale are plotted on a
page 107
Variational
Method.
1.5
r
"".
1.0
reactance
i"
0.5
resistance f. "
ýrý"
An
U.V0
L/%,
3
Variational
Collocation

.
Warham

Figure (1.19).
impedance of a square plate radiating with constant figure baffle. These the the previous same results as are normal velocity without a but plotted on a linear scale. The radiation
page 108
Variational
Method.
4
dB
I.; '
0
I
` 4 0
90
180
270
0 360
iv
Microphone Source
Measured Figure (4.20).
Variational
 .
Collocation

Nearfield pressure gain for a point source wave scattered by a 18.44. The numerical results are calculated using 24
rectangular
plate at k=
by from Terai. is the the measured result extracted work elements and
page 109
The Superposition Method.
CHAPTER
The Superposition
5.
Method
5.1 Introduction
Superposition
methods have long been used as a bench test for other numerical analyses of Song and Fahnline [1989] suggested that a superposition
fields. Recently Koopmann, acoustic
method could be extended into a general solution technique for calculating acoustic fields. In the work of Koopmann et a1 [1989], Song et al [1991] and Miller et aI [1991], a complex radiator is replaced by an array of simple monopole sources of unknown magnitude constrained to lie on a surface interior to the body of the radiator. The magnitude of the simple sources is calculated
by equating the normal velocity prescribed on the surface of the radiator to that generated by the array of simple sources. This is performed at the same number of points as there are simple is generated. The solution of this equation set sources and consequently a system of equations gives the magnitude of the simple sources and from these values an exterior pressure field can be calculated. Since the superposition for integration the need singular method removes techniques is
has been suggested that the method improves on the traditional supports
BEM. The author however methods spoil the
the view of Katz [1987], who suggests that some [superposition]
but they they general are not some cases, and work with will produce will whole approach ... ill conditioned systems in some cases. It was decided that the superposition method was worth investigating in order to establish that in a hierarchy of integral methods, the BEM represents of the superposition method.
the limit in terms of accuracy and conditioning Although,
the superposition method described above circumvents the problem of uniqueness interior the point sources to be on which constrains at another set of critical wavenutnbers. These to the
in formulation found BEMs, a of solution interior an
does become illconditioned surface
Dirichlet interior to the the problem unrelated eigenvalues of wavenumbers correspond
layer distribution integral The is to a single source superposition now equivalent source surface. be Although, have to these eigenvalues. shown a nonunique solution at and as such can it is
interior lie the to that source surface so outside the any critical wavenumbers reduce possible frequency range of interest, there is also a potential loss in numerical stability. In this chapter,
be that this will presented strategy circumvents uniqueness problem, allowing the a numerical
page 110
The Superposition Method. optimum choice of interior be to surface made, in order to obtain the maximum improvement
in numerical stability
of the solution.
The problem of uniqueness has been overcome in this study by considering the superposition integral in terms of a hybrid combination of single and double layer potentials. to the problem of uniqueness in B. E..N1's is discussed by Filippi [1983]. A similar solution
[1977], and Colton and Kress
As noted by Koopmann et al [1989] it is possible to use derive a superposition integral either by assuming that the source distribution interior Green's function each and are constant over in Green's function to the some manner vary and In this paper the first
by distribution the allowing or source element and the kernel function
to be evaluated using Gaussian quadrature.
denoted (PSNI). Superposition is Point Results are also presented Method the as source method for the second method which is denoted as the Integrated source Superposition Method (ISM); the source distribution and geometry are approximated by the use of quadratic interpolation
functions defined using 9 noded surface elements.
5.2 The Superposition
Integral
For a body radiating with a prescribed surface velocity it is desirable to calculate the exterior field. The principle pressure for that the acoustic solution shows some of wave superposition interior to the
distribution is body to the acoustic solution of some source equivalent radiating
body. If both systems satisfy the same Neumann boundary condition on the surface of the body then the pressure distributions field by both since an exterior pressure equivalent are generated Koopmann et al proposed that the solution of
is unique for a prescribed boundary condition. the equivalent superposition formulation
of a problem offers many significant advantages over a
B. E. M solution of the same problem. The validity of the superposition method can be shown in the following way. Q. in This distria volume source of sources contained is S there a prescribed normal velocity on which surface
Consider a continuous distribution bution is interior to a closed fictitious distribution
S is denoted by S denoted D is to the The exterior volume and enclosed volume u,,.
(5.1). figure in is This E. shown geometry
page 111
The Superposition Method.
E
S
Figure (5.1).
The geometry for formulating .
the superposition
integral.
Applying
the principle of mass conservation (Pierce [1989] Chapter 4 p162) to the volume
leads by S defined by, to a modified reduced wave enclosed equation
v2 p(r) + k2P(r) = iwpgo(r),
rED.
(5.2.1)
A time dependence of e'wt is assumed and qo(r) is the interior source strength defined by,
q(r) qo(r) = 0
rES2, (5.2.2) rEDexcluding ft
Using Eq. (5.2.1) the modified interior Helmholtz integral equation can be developed in a similar by, is Helmholtz interior the to given equation and standard way
ý Js
iwpu(ro)Gk(r,
öGk (nr,ro) ro)  p(ro) ö ra
d'Sr, +
fniwp4(ro)Gk(r,
(1
T= IT vol
ro)dVra (5.2.3)
 c(r))(r)p(r),
ikr Gk (r, ro) =1e 47rr
The unrelated exterior Helmholtz equation is independent of the interior source distribution
and
identical to the exterior Helmholtz equation for a real surface S with prescribed normal velocity distribution is defined by, This equation u,,. page 112
The cuperpositaon ,
Method.
Pro) S
ÖGk(r, ro)
a n*o
1.ý pun(ro)Gk
dS'ro
= C(r')P(r').
(5.2.4)
In the source distribution indicating
model of the vibrating
body, the surface S is a construction
where the normal velocity distribution
is prescribed. Consequently the pressure and When r is taken to be on S, Eq.
distributions velocity
across the surface must, be continuous.
(5.2.3) and Eq. (5.2.4) combine to give,
fipq(ro)Gk(r, P(r) = ro)dVro.
(5.2.5)
Eq. (5.2.5) is the superposition integral. Associated with this equation is its differentiated
form,
defined by,
In 2dn(r) = q(ro)ÖG3(ro 0 d###BOT_TEXT###.
(5.2.6)
5.3
Uniqueness
In the derivation of Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) the Helmholtz integral equations are cirdomain for interior that a source contains no volume, numerical implementations cumvented and frequencies. However S2 is the these all are unique at choice of equations of volume arbitrary implementation for ease of numerical and over an interior it is best to locate the interior source distribution integral will now in
S' 6r. However the superposition thickness of small surface
This be demonstrated wave numbers. nonuniqueness can exhibit nonuniqueness at critical the following manner. For the case where Sl is chosen to be a thin shell, Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) become,
IS/ P(r) =I
iwpq(ro)Gk(r,
ro)brrdSfo.
(5.3.1)
is,
un(r) =J
8GO(r'ro) 4(ro) o page 113
brdS;.
o.
(5.3.2)
The Superposition Method. In the limit as the thickness of the surface S' becomes zero, these equations show the pressure distribution notation, being defined in terms of a single layer potential. Using the integral operator
it is possible to write Eq. (5.3.1) and Eq. (5.3.2) in terms of a single layer potential in terms of a double layer
along with an associated expression for the pressure distribution potential. These expressions are defined by,
iwpCk[ P(r) 's](r),
(5.3.3)
u(r)
P(r)
[t3](r), Mk =
= 2Wp ik [11d](r),
(5.3.4)
(5.3.5)
Yk[0d](r), um(r) _
(5.3.6)
Consider the case of the single layer potential
formulation
for u
=0
Since S. the on
pressure field exterior to S' is unique for all wavenumbers then u, =0 and p+ =0 on S. The () (+) interior indicates the the surface pressure or velocity evaluated on exterior or superscript discontinuities S'. By the surface consideration of of in the integral operators Gk and Mk, it is
(5.3.4) limit in (5.3.3) S' from Eq. Eq. the to the exterior tends to as r r0 on and write possible domains. These interior equations are, and
p+(ro) = P(r0)
iwprk[0, = (Mr
](ro), 2{
(5.3.7) s](ro). (5.3.8)
(ro) (ro) 0s(ro) un = = um Eq. (5.3.7) shows that the pressure distribution if p+ =0 and consequently
is continuous across the single layer surface
then p = 0. From Eq. (5.3.8) with u,+, = 0, v, is nonzero when
Dirichlet interior S. At # the Since 0. to this of problem at eigenvalues occurs only p =0 un these frequencies, 0, will have a nontrivial is these that critical unique at not t,,, means become illconditioned. (5.3.4) Eq. will of for distribution zero a velocity solution S. This on
wavenumbers and the numerical implementation
A similar treatment for the double layer potential
(5.3.6), interior Neumann is in Eq. 1d the the that eigenvalues of nonunique at problem shows interior to S. To eliminate the problem of uniqueness at critical wavenumbers, a hybrid combination for the superposition problem
layer double potentials of single and becomes,
is used. The formulation
page 114
The Superposition
Method. .1
[v, Ck iwp(. iTlMk) + 7(r), P(? ') = (Mk utz(r) = + ii \
(5.3.9)
(5.3.10)
The value of the real constant 77 in Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) is chosen to be 1/k to compensate for the order of frequency terms in the integral operators. The advantage of the superposition method using this hybrid formulation is that there is no high order singularity in the operator .A
since the source surface S' is not coincident with the boundary surface S. It should be noted however that in regions where there is a high density of critical wavenumbers, a high degree of is accuracy needed to reduce the range of wavenumbers over which the nonhybrid operators are illconditioned, hybrid formulation that the so is efficient.
5.4 Numerical
A numerical
Formulation
implementation of the superposition integral has several advantages over a
BEM. A major factor in any BEM is the numerical treatment of the singularities that inevitably formulation. in the occur In the superposition method the source distribution Consequently there is no singularity is interior to the
body and therefore not coincident. (5.3.10). (5.3.9) Eq. Eq. and of
in the Green's function
In Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) the surface S' can be discretized into a number of elements, have Using interior The the a corresponding surface node. source elements must each nodes of n. the definitions interior is the the on node source corresponding surface of previous researchers This definition be extended to refer to the self element which can
known as the self node.
is the source surface element that contains the self node. Eq. (5.3.10) can be approximated numerically by,
n
un(r) =E
1ý,
aGk(r,
am
ro)
02Gk(r.
ro)
ý
Ö12ranr.
7(ro)dSro7=1
For the PSM it is assumed that the kernel of Eq. (5.4.1) and be it written can element and in matrix form by,
is constant within the '(r0)
{un} = DA{ ;'}, page 115
(5.4.2)
The Supfrposition
With,
Method. .
r"n; Dij = Gk(r) r+
rni i77 rr
r=ri
r. nj
(G(r)
Gk(r) Tr
r=Irl.
Ge(r)
nj 7zß.
C x. 4.3)
 rj.
A is diagonal the and area matrix. In Eq. (5.4.2) {u} is the vector containing the n values of u evaluated at the points r;
boundary interior defined the that to the the surface, on surface correspond on n nodal points rj. The source surface nodal points are defined at the centroid of the source surface element. 4j interior ý, the the , source surface and . contains n values of j evaluated on
The vector {0}
interior to the the nodal positions. of point source situated at amplitude radiators corresponds The discretized form of Eq. (5.3.9) is defined in a similar way to Eq. (5.4.2),
{p}

(5.4.4)
with,
M; j = Gk(r)
+ iriG' (r)
r"nj r
(5.4.5)
This is Eq. (5.4.2) and Eq. (5.4.4) can be combined to give an expression for p in terms of ums,.
written as,
{p} = MD1{u}
(5.4.6)
In the PSM the principal assumption is that the interpolation given by,
of the source distribution
is
V= b(ro, rj)Zj,
(5.4. i)
defining V)j is is (ro, the the the 6 zero otherwise, and and element at nodal point one rj) where distribution the source nodal value of Within made. for the element. For the ISM a different assumption is
the element the source distribution
is given by.
page 116
Thf Superposition Method.
{1Ve}T{ VI)=
a},
(5.4.8)
{Ne} where
is the vector of element shape functions and {ýJ}
is the vector of element nodal by Eq. given (5.3.10) now
values of the source distribution. becomes,
The numerical approximation
un(T)

ES J=1 ý°
(ýGk(rro) Onr + . ýa2GkI. (9nrOnr %Te}TdSr°{2J}. (5.4.9)
The numerical
integration
in Eq. (5.4.9) can be performed using simple Gaussian quadrature
be is for A there assembled matrix equation set can no singularity retracted source surfaces. since for the acoustic formulation eliminating 0, the global vector of nodal source strengths,
{p} = MIDI'{un}
(5.4.10)
In this study the interior
in for both PSM ISM the the and were generated points nodal
in is PSM, for Since the the the these nodal points needed element only nodal point same way. for ISM. To the the to the conditioning optimize nodal points can correspond definition the matrices, of the D and DI Following
is boundary the critical. and source surface nodal points of
by, defined interior the source points are previous work
Tj
=
Ti

d1
2,
(5.4.11)
defined is d as the retraction where to ensure optimum conditioning.
distance. The relationship in Eq. (5.4.11) is not sufficient
The boundary nodal points have to be defined so that,
ITi
Tj
Ij,
4i >
ITi
'I=i
.
(5.4.12)
These relationships ensure that there is optimum symmetry and diagonal dominance of the equation set. This requirement is important in reducing the degree of ill conditioning of the
formulation,
however such a restriction
boundary the the surface nodal points on positioning of
boundary the independent be applied of conditions. will page 117
The Super position
Method.
For radiation scattering
problems u
is simply the prescribed surface normal velocity. For plane wave
(Junger be [1986]) Feit to be equal to, u1. can shown and
PI wp

&I r
(5.4.13)
is fluid the where uj particle distribution, source amplitude 5.4.1
velocity on the boundary surface in the absence of any interior
generated by the incident pressure wave. The incident pressure wave has
kI. pl. and wave vector Condition Number
Matrix
A well recognized failing of the superposition method is the ill conditioning of the generated lack This of conditioning matrices. is due to the numerical instability of Fredholm equations of
the first kind (Arfken [1985], Miller [1974]). One loss of conditioning is due to the loss of diagonal dominance as the source surface is retracted from the boundary surface. Computationally loss of conditioning means that small changes in the surface velocity distribution the
can have a
large effect on the source distribution.
Following Golub and VanLoan [1983] a conditioning
be linear The the that gives a measure of sensitivity of a system. matrix calculated number can be for ISM PSM the can stated as, or problem
{un}
D{O}. =
(5.4.14)
If the boundary
system,
velocity
distribution
is perturbed
by an amount {6u } then for this linear
{b}
D1{bu, =
},
(5.4.15)
from the properties of vector and matrix norms, and
11 11 116un11 JID111 < 11011 11011
(5.4.16)
tun III
IIDIIIIVII.
(5.4.1 7)
page 118
The Superposition 11Eihod. . Therefore condition the perturbation in un is related to the perturbation in L by means of the
number n;,
IIa'+'II IIv'II
<K
IIbun II IIti II
(5.4.18)
IIDIIIID111. =
In this study the conditioning number is calculated in terms of Euclidean matrix
(5.4.19)
norms.
The equality in Eq. (5.4.18) states that the conditioning
is the related of matrix equation set
to t;. However, the accuracy of the matrix equation solution need not be directly related to this quantity. This condition number can not reflect the improvement in solution accuracy that is
if the symmetry possible
relationship for nodal point placement is observed. The superposition
(5.4.14) be decomposition, defined in in Eq. terms can written of a singular value problem
{un} = XS2YT {b}"
(5.4.20)
The square matrices X and Y represent orthogonal matrices and the diagonal matrix Q2, repis DT D. The the to the the problem given solution symmetric matrix, eigenvalues of resents
bY,
lo}Y
Qlf, =
un}X,
(5.4.21)
Y the X the the the onto respective orthogof vector projection represents and subscript where onal matrix. If the matrix D is nearly symmetric then the source distribution boundary the and An eigenvalue
distribution velocity (Strang analysis
in be the terms of same orthogonal matrix. expressed will
[1988]) of Eq.
(5.4.21) shows that when D is symmetric the eigenvalues of Therefore increasing the symmetry of the superposition
this equation are perfectly conditioned. matrix, 5.4.2 significantly Velocity
improves the overall conditioning of the numerical formulation. Error Norm
Reconstruction
In order to select the optimum position of interior nodal points a measure of the solution is needed. accuracy distribution This may be done by an a priori knowledge of the boundary pressure Another measure of the accuracy of
however this is clearly not always possible.
the superposition
is the extent to which the prescribed normal boundary velocity is method
page 119
Thf Superpo.'iiion reconstructed by the source distribution. By using the numerical approximations
110hod. .
of either the
PSN1or ISM the reconstructed surface normal velocity is given by,
it,, (r) = {D(r)}T
D1{ u, }.
(5.4.22)
When r corresponds to a boundary surface nodal point, Ti, then clearly,
(5.4.23)
For other points there will however be some difference in the prescribed and calculated surface difference is the velocity reconstruction error norm, this normal velocities and a measure of
Ilun
Ilun
unllo llo
(5.4.24)
where,
j(uun it'll, = (5.4.25)
This error norm will be closely linked to the error in the boundary surface pressure and can be used to select the optimum interior nodal positions without an a priori knowledge of the
boundary surface pressure distribution.
5.5 Numerical
Results
The superposition radiation
formulations
were applied to spherical and spheroidal scattering
and that
due boundary These to the cylindrical symmetry were chosen surfaces problems. boundary conditions. In all cases one quarter of the boundary
for appropriate exists is discretized, optimize distributed
surface
making use of the problem symmetry of the resulting superposition
to reduce the problem size. In order to matrices the surface nodal points are
the symmetry
boundary the as possible surface. as evenly over at critical wavenumbers of the A constant normal
Figure (5.2) contrasts the non uniqueness characteristics formulations layer double single and distribution velocity
with that of the hybrid formulation.
is prescribed for a sphere with radius a and the source surface is retracted
page 120
The Superposition J10hod. by 0.5a. These graphs show the variation of the condition number, n, and velocity reconstruction for ka For the to the spherical geometry the critical spherical problem. error norm, a, compared wavenumbers will occur at,
k(a  d) = kn.
(5.5.1)
For the breathing mode problem, ko is equal to it and 4.493 for the single layer and double layer problems respectively. resulting The loss of conditioning is clearly shown at these points along with the The hybrid
loss in numerical accuracy for the single and double layer formulations. removes the problem of non uniqueness at these frequencies.
formulation
The potential function
for both PSM form ISM back the the calculating accuracy of and scattered
for both spheres and spheroids is shown in figures (5.34). In figure (5.3) the PSNN1 and
ISM applied to the spherical problem is compared to the analytical result and the collocation BEM result. The retraction distance is taken to be 0.5a. The superposition method results show high degree due high to the of symmetry very accuracy between the spherical boundary and
improves The the the resulting matrices significantly conditioning of symmetry surfaces. source is The high that the possible. reduced size of the source surface elements accuracy problem so of boundary the to the surface elements also allows superposition methods corresponding compared to have a more accurate surface representation for this particular example.
Figure (5.4) shows the same comparison for the spheroidal back scattering problem. The b 0.5, has where a and represent the minor and major radii an aspect ratio of alb = spheroid respectively and a retraction distance of 0.4b is used. A converged solution is taken to be the
result of an axisymmetric calculated
BEM solution with a large number of elements and these results are by Wu [1990] using 40 quadratic line elements. The PSM
by a program written
results show satisfactory
high BEM the results show accuracy compared to the accuracy whilst
less accurate results of the ISM. The results of the ISM suggests that the solution accuracy is dependent on the conditioning In order to illustrate retraction of the superposition matrices. is dependent method on the
that the accuracy of the superposition
distance, the far field scattered pressure was calculated for the problem of a plane wave
incident upon a sphere. An error quantity, E, is defined as the error of the far field back scattered form function with respect to the result for a 96 element BEM calculation. The variation of
log the together the log this with of velocity reconstruction error the of page 121
error norm, a has been
The SupErposition Method. function d/a, for ka in figure (5.5) of a plotted as a = 1. Figure (5.5a) shows the results for the point superposition The condition figure (5.5b) for integrated the and method superposition method. number of the solution matrix for both superposition methods is given in
figures (5.6a) and (5.6b). The results for the spherical and spheroidal geometries are presented. Comparsion of the error measures in figure (5.5a) with the condition number of the matrix
P5M1 in figure (5.6a) indicates little correspondence between these the generated with spherical quantities. As the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is less than the far field error, the ma
trices are conditioned such that the accuracy is dependent only on the order of the interpolation distribution. the source of As the source surface is moved closer to the boundary surface, both
error quantities increase until the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is greater than the error in the far field back scattered form function, F. The results for the ISM, shown in figure (5.5b), indicate that between d/a = 0.9 and 0.5 the trend in the conditioning similiar. of the problem, shown in figure (5.6b) and the error indicators a and e is distances the degree of symmetry in the problem increases, to allow very accurate
For this range of retraction
d=0.5 until at about
the problem became sufficiently wellconditioned
be to attained. solutions the internodal
The far field error, a, increases as d tends to zero, while the error in in formulation The the accuracy remains small. could be
velocity reconstruction
increased for these low retraction in the BEM. The velocity reconstruction
ratios by simply using the singular integration techniques used
error, a, and the far field back scattered form function error,
The for the values of a and e were calculated as a problem. spheroidal e, were also calculated function of d/b at kb =1 for both the point superposition and integrated superposition methods. The results are given in figures (5.78). For both methods the variation of a is similar, revealing for a particular a minimum significant. retraction due before d became the to numerical error small ratio,
The value of d/b where this occurs decreases with increasing n. The errors for the
PSM show there is a greater range of retraction distances over which there is low error reflecting the greater symmetry of the corresponding superposition matrices.
5.6 Conclusion
A numerical solution to acoustic problems has been described along with a strategy to The superposition formulation
hybrid formulation. of uniqueness using a overcome problems
breakdown be formulation the to the and valid of numerical was shown page 122
at the eigenvalues of
Thf Superposition Method. the interior demonstrated. source surface was The accuracy of the formulation was measured
through use of a velocity reconstruction
The problems that with solutions accuracy significant numerical results
error norm.
method applied to radiation and scattering results indicate
of the superposition
are presented careful with
for spherical
and spheroidal
surfaces.
The numerical
choice of boundary accuracy
and source surface nodal points that it is possible