INNOVATIVE

METHODS

FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION

by
Richard Jeans. BA

A thesis submitted

for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy London for the of and

University the of

Diploma of Membership of Imperial College

Department Imperial

Aeronautics of

College of Science, Technology and Medicine

London, SW7 2BY

1992

BIEL LONDIN.

UNIV.

1

Abstract
This study is concerned with innovative structure interaction problems. for dimensional the three methods solution of fluid-

Solution methodologies are presented to evaluate the interaction geometry, and acoustic radiation

between submerged three dimensional thin shells, of arbitrary in the unbounded surrounding A variational and Hamdi, fluid medium.

boundary element formulation [J. B. Mariem

based the acoustic problem of on the work of Mariem J. Num. Methods. Eng. 24,1251-1267 elements.

M. A. Hamdi, Int. and

(1987)], is presented. The formulation

is implemented using high order isopararnetric formulation

The advantages in using this variational

first, highly in the are, manner which a second, its application of a

singular integral operator is made amenable to numerical approximation, to non closed thin shells, and, third, its numerical implementation symmetrical fluid matrix. boundary formulation element

leads to the formulation

A collocational

of the acoustic problem is also presented along the highly singular integral operator. The

with a novel solution to numerically collocation method is implemented

approximate

using high order isoparametric elements and a Burton and

Miller approach is used to overcome the problem of non uniqueness for closed shells at interior formulation frequencies. This resonant allows implementation of the full set of surface Helmholtz'

integral equations for the closed shell problems. A method of formulating examined. the acoustic problem based on the principle of wave superposition is

It has been suggested that this method offers significant advantages over boundary This study implements such a method to test this supposition, it is and

element methods.

implemented to the compared

boundary element methods.

Methods of accelerating the boundary element methods are tested including the use of structural symmetry to reduce the problem size, and the use of frequency interpolation when the acoustic

frequencies. is required over a range of solution The elastic problem is formulated formulations ary element is both finite boundto coupled using a element approach and The structural equation set is reduced in prob-

of the acoustic problem.

Lanczos terms of eigenvectors and vectors in order to reduce the size of the structural lem. These two methods of reduction elasto-acoustic are compared and the application

of Lanczos vectors to

discussed is in detail. problems

2 page

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Ian Mathews for his support, guidance and enthusiasm
throughout the project.

The financial

support

Science Engineering the and of is greatfully acknowledged.

Research Council and The Admiralty

Research Establishment

Finally I would like to express my sincere appreciation for the support of my parents and family.

3 page

For Nick

Page 4

Notation
Matrix
Q

Vector and
a square or rectangular matrix
matrix inverse transpose

OT

matrix

I {}
{}T

identity matrix a column vector
vector transpose

Structural
S E D +

Acoustic and

Geometry

surface of acoustic radiator exterior acoustic domain interior acoustic domain denotes acoustic variable in the limit approaching S from E denotes acoustic variable in the limit approaching S from D

A P, Q p, q r h t b a, (ii, v, (x, y, z) (X, Y, Z) (77,, v3) e Iii ýJ31 E Note:

normal to the surface S field points in E or D field points on S Euclidean distance between two field points thin shell thickness plate thickness spheroidal shell radii and cantilever plate dimen-c,ons curvilinear coordinate system local coordinate system global coordinate system subelement coordinate system coordinate system axis vector Jacobian subelement Jacobian small radius To avoid conflict between pressure and field point in Chapter 5, the notation

ra etc is

denote field to points. used
page 5

Scalars
c p p, E v cp k w acoustic speed of sound fluid density structural density

Young's modulus Poison's ratio structural speed of sound

wavenumber circular frequency

Functions
p pressure

v v u

velocity surface normal velocity displacement surface normal velocity potential function velocity potential difference across thin shell

off Gk b Is II C u U T R f
E

far field scattered velocity potential function three dimensional Green's free space function delta Dirac function surface integral variational functional

elasticity operator displacement in local surface vector coordinate system displacement in global coordinate system surface vector transformation structural structural
strain

from global to local coordinate systems

inertial forces forces surface

vector

Q D 4irc(p) P10,10

stress vector or spectral shift frequency local strain to stress transformation external solid angle at surface point surface source distributions
page 6

P(cosO) j,,, h 2

Legendre polynomials spherical Bessel's functions analytical structural impedance acoustic acoustic impedance

f A, B

acoustic form function linear integral operators general

Numerical
m n ne {Ne} {i' } {q5} {U} 1U, } [A] [Lk] [Mo] [Mk] [Mk ] [Nk] [No] [Nk ] [Cr] [H], [G] [N] [K]

Methods
number of nodes per element number of global nodes number of elements vector of element shape functions vector of the nodal velocity potentials for element j vector of the nodal velocity potentials vector of the nodal structural displacements vector of the nodal normal displacements area matrix usually approximated by diagonal form collocation matrix approximation collocation matrix approximation collocation matrix approximation collocation matrix approximation collocation matrix approximation collocation matrix approximation variational matrix approximation of the Ck operator MO the of operator of the Mk operator of the Mk operator

Nk the of operator of the JVo operator A/operator the of ,

diagonal matrix of cp evaluated at the collocation points general acoustic matrix function for matrix structural shape stiffness matrix interpolation

[M]
[Z] [Mf] [$(w)] [Z, ] [E]

massmatrix
structural impedance matrix fluid added mass matrix dynamic stiffness matrix structural impedance

matrix of eigenvectors {ej}
7 page

IQ] [Q] [Tm] 0k ak, RM rk [D], [M] K a

diagonal matrix of eigenvalues matrix of Lanczos vectors tri-diagonal Lanczos projection matrix

coeficients of Lanczos projection matrix Krylov subspace component of Krylov subspace superposition matrices number

matrix conditioning

velocity reconstruction error norm

a, v Integral

imaginary and real coupling constants Operators

f- k[0l(P) =

is
S

Gk(P, Q)O(Q)dSq Q) aGäP,

Mk[0l(P) =i
Mk [o](P) _I
Mo[ýl (P) =i Nk [01(P) = No[O](P) = i

s Sq

q(Q)dsq 4j(Q)dsq

aGý P, Q)
Sp

aGO P, `w) O(Q)dsq
s Sq

a2 Gk (P) Q)
s Sqp an ön

O(Q)dsq O(Q)dsq

i

a2Go(P, Q) 8n 9P ön

8 page

Contents
page TITLE ..................................................................................... ............................................................................... 1 2

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTATION CONTENTS

.................................................................

3
5 9

............................................................................... ..............................................................................

FIGURES TABLES

.................................................................................

13 17
18 18 23

..................................................................................
1. Introduction ...............................................................

CHAPTER

1.1 Background 1.2 Motivation

...................................................................... of Present Thesis .....................................................

CHAPTER 2. Acoustic Problem
2.1 Fundamental Equations

..........................................................
.......................................................... ......................................................

25
25 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 32 32 35 35 36

2.1.1 Linear Approximation 2.1.2 Wave Equation

............................................................. .............................................. ...........................................

2.1.3 Neumann boundary condition 2.1.4 Sommerfeld's radiation 2.2 Integral Operators

condition

................................................................ ........................................................... ............................................................. .................................................... ........................................ .........................

2.2.1 Greens Function 2.2.2 Discontinuities 2.3 Helmholtz'

Integral Equations

2.3.1 Surface Helmholtz Integral Equation 2.3.2 Differentiated Surface Helmholtz'

Integral Equation

2.3.3 Boundary Layer Formulations

.............................................. ....................................

2.4 Uniqueness of Boundary Integral Formulations

2.4.1 SHIE and DSHIE formulations .............................................
2.4.2 The CHIEF method 2.4.3 Burton and Miller's ........................................................ Formulation ...........................................

36
37 38 38 39

2.4.4 Boundary layer formulations

............................................... .........................................

2.4.5 Hybrid boundary layer formulation
page 9

2.5 Thin shell formulation

............................................................ ..............................................

39 40 43

2.5.1 Boundary integral formulation 2.5.2 Edge conditions

............................................................

CHAPTER 3. Collocation Method
3.1 Introduction 3.2 Discretization

........................................................

45
45 45 45 46 47 49 49 51 53 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 60

...................................................................... .................................................................... ............................................................... Axes .................................................

3.2.1 Interpolation

3.2.2 Local and Curvilinear 3.3 Integration

Singularity Weak of

...................................................

3.4 Integral Operators 3.4.1 Ck Operator 3.4.2 Mk Operator 3.4.3 lVk Operator 3.4.4 Matrix 3.4.5 Exterior

................................................................ ............................................................... .............................................................. ............................................................... ......................................................... ..............................................

formulation

distribution pressure

3.5 The computer code ............................................................... 3.6 Numerical results .................................................................

3.6.1 Radiation from submerged spheres ......................................... 3.6.2 Acoustic scattering from a submerged sphere ............................... 3.6.3 Acoustic scattering from a submerged spheroid ............................. ........................

3.6.4 Acoustic scattering from a submerged finite cylinder

CHAPTER 4. Variational Method
4.1 Introduction

........................................................

78
78

...................................................................... Method ........................

4.2 Weighted Residue Techniques and the Variational 4.2.1 Weighted Residual-Galerkin 4.2.2 Variational 4.3 Variational 4.4 Numerical Method Method

78 78 79 80 81 83 84 85

........................................

........................................................ .......................................

Boundary Integral Formulation Implementation

........................................................ .........................................

4.5 Uniqueness of the Numerical Formulation 4.6 Edge Boundary Conditions 4.7 Computer Code

.......................................................

..................................................................
10 page

4.8 Numerical

Results

................................................................

86

4.8.1 Spheroids
4.8.2 Flat Disk

..................................................................
..................................................................

86
87

4.8.3 Flat Square Plate
4.8.4 Terai's Problem

..........................................................

91
91

............................................................

CHAPTER

5. The Superposition

Method

................................................

110 110 111 113 115 118 119 120 122

5.1 Introduction

.................................................................... Integral ......................................................

5.2 The Superposition 5.3 Uniqueness

...................................................................... .......................................................... Number ................................................. .......................................

5.4 Numerical Formulation 5.4.1 Matrix Condition

5.4.2 Velocity Reconstruction 5.5 Numerical 5.6 Conclusion Results

Error Norm

...............................................................

......................................................................

CHAPTER 6. Elasto- Acoustic Problem
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Structural

..................................................

131
131 131 135 136

.................................................................... Problem .............................................................. Force ................................................

6.3 Fluid-Structure

Interaction

6.4 Coupled Equation Set

...........................................................

6.4.1 Fluid Filled and Non Closed Shell Problems ............................... 6.4.2 Evacuated Closed Shell Problems ..........................................

136 137
138 138

6.5 Solution of Coupled Equation Set ................................................ 6.5.1 Structure Variable Methodology ...........................................

6.5.2 Fluid Variable Methodology

...............................................
................................

139
140 142 143 147 149 149

6.6 Eigenvector Reduction of the Elastic Formulation 6.7 Interpolation

....................................................................

6.8 Uniqueness and the Coupled Problem ............................................ 6.9 Elastic Thin Plate Problems 6.10 Numerical Results .....................................................

.............................................................. .........................................................

6.10.1 Cantilever

Plate

6.10.2 Spherical Shell

...........................................................
11 page

150

CHAPTER

7. Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis ................................. .................................................................... .................................................................

167 167 168

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Lanczos Vectors

7.3 Fluid Variable Methodology

..................................................... .................................................

171 172
173 191 191 193

7.4 Added Fluid Mass Methodology
7.5 Results CHAPTER

.......................................................................... .........................................

8. Conclusions and Recomendations

8.1 Conclusions

.....................................................................

8.2 Recomen d ations .................................................................

REFERENCES
APPENDIX

..........................................................................
and Half Space Problems ....................................... .................................................................. .........................................................

195
200 200 201

1 Symmetry

A1.1 Image Sources

A1.2 Geometric Symmetries

APPENDIX

2 Analytical Solutions

......................................................

205 205
210 213

A2.1 Rigid Sphere
A2.2 Asymptotic

...................................................................
...........................................................

Solutions

A2.3 Elastic Sphere

..................................................................

page 12

Figures
Page

CHAPTER2
2.1 Geometry for evaluating the discontinuity of the integral operator .................. integral equations ................. 31 33 40 41 42

2.2 Geometry for evaluating the surface Helmholtz' 2.3 Non-uniqueness of single layer distribution 2.4 Non-uniqueness of double layer distribution

......................................... ........................................

2.5 The thin shell geometry ...........................................................

CHAPTER 3
3.1 Geometry of the 9-noded isoparametric element .................................... 3.2 Element sub-division for singular integration ....................................... ......................... 47 49 58 62 63-64 65-66 67-68 69 70-71 72 73 74 75 76 77

3.3 Geometry for evaluating the far field pressure distribution

3.4 The different mesh geometries for the spherical problem ........................... 3.5-6 Normalized 3.7-8 Normalized 3.9-10 Normalized for 6 impedance the rigid sphere, elements ................... modal for 24 impedance the sphere, elements .................. rigid modal impedance of modal error ..........................................

3.11 Plane wave backscattered form function for the rigid sphere vs frequency ........... 3.12-13 Far field form function distribution for scattering by a rigid sphere ..............

3.14 Surface pressure distribution 3.15 Far field pressure distribution 3.16 Far field pressure distribution

for scattering by a rigid sphere ....................... for scattering by a rigid prolate spheroid ............. for scattering by a rigid oblate spheroid .............. problem ..........................

3.17 The different mesh geometries for the cylindrical 3.18 Far field pressure distribution

for scattering by a rigid cylinder ..................... for a rigid cylinder ..............

3.19 Convergence of the far field scattering distribution

CHAPTER4
4.1 Subelement division 4.2 Graph of matrix ............................................................... times ................................. 82 88

factorization assembly and page 13

4.3 Convergence of backscattered form function for the rigid sphere .................... 4.4 Convergence of backscattered form function for the rigid prolate spheroid .......... 4.5 Convergence of backscattered form function for the rigid oblate spheroid ........... 4.6 Open plate mesh geometries ....................................................... 4.7-8 Radial pressure amplitude on a circular disk using the variational 4.9-10 Radial pressure amplitude method .......

92 93 94 95 96-97 98-99 100-101 102-103 104-105 106 107-108

on a circular disk using the collocation method .......

4.11-12 Radial pressure phase on a circular disk using the variational method ......... 4.13-14 Radial pressure phase on a circular disk using the collocation method ......... 4.15-16 Radiation impedance of a circular disk vs frequency ..........................

4.17 Convergence of radial pressure amplitude on a circular disk ....................... 4.18-19 Radiation impedance of a square plate vs frequency ..........................

109 4.20 Near field pressure gain for a point source wave scattered by a rectangular plate. ..

CHAPTER

5
the superposition integral .......................... 112

5.1 The geometry for formulating

5.2 The effect of the hybrid formulation 5.3 Far field backscattering 5.4 Far field backscattering 5.5 The variation

double layer formulations 124 the on single and ... 125 126 127 128 129

for a sphere using the superposition method .............. for a spheroid using the superposition method ............

for the sphere of error vs retraction of source surface ................ of source surface ...................

5.6 The variation of condition nuber vs retraction

5.7 The far field error vs retraction of source surface for the spheroid .................

5.8 The velocity error norm vs retraction of source surface surface for the spheroid .... 130

CHAPTER

6
of plate problem .................................................. 148 153

6.1 Representation 6.2 Cantilever

plate geometry ........................................................

6.3 Far field radiated pressure from point excited fluid filled elastic sphere using the variational method .................................................................... 155

6.4 Far field radiated pressure from point excited fluid filled elastic sphere using the collocation method ...................................................................
page 14

156

6.5 Far field backscattered form function for a fluid filled elastic sphere using the variational method 1.57

6.6 Far field backscattered form function for a fluid filled elastic sphere using the collocation

method ..........................................................................

158

6.7 Far field backscattered form function for a fluid filled elastic sphere using the collocation Burton and Miller formulation ................................................... 159

6.8 The surface pressure and velocity distributions

frequency for first Dirichlet the the at 160

evacuated sphere ................................................................. 6.9 The surface pressure and velocity distributions

frequency for first Neumann the the at 161

evacuated sphere ................................................................. 6.10 The surface pressure and velocity distributions

at the first Neumann frequency for the

fluid filled sphere .................................................................

162

6.11-12 Far field radiated pressure from point excited fluid filled elastic sphere using the collofrequency interpolation cation method and ................................... 163-164

6.13-14 Far field radiated pressure from point excited fluid filled elastic sphere using the variational method and frequency interpolation .................................... CHAPTER 7 and 3 excitation of a submerged spherical shell using response, and the collocation Burton 180-183 165-166

7.1-4 Velocity response for n=0,1,2 Lanczos vector reduction formulation Miller and

of the `dry' structural

.......................................................

7.5-8 Velocity response for n=0,1,2 eigenvector reduction Miller formulation

and 3 excitation of a submerged spherical shell using response, and the collocation Burton and 184-187

of the `dry' structural

...........................................................

7.9 Fluid added mass methodology with Lanczos reduction applied to the far field radiated fluid filled spherical shell ............................... pressure of a point excited 188

7.10 Far filed backscat. tered form function for an evacuated spherical shell with different hysteretic damping ............................................................... 189

APPENDIX

1
to model infinite rigid plane ........................... 200 204

A1.1 Image source construction

A1.2 Summary of image source for the acoustic problem ...............................
page 15

APPENDIX

2
208 212

A2.1 Plot of the first four spherical Bessel's functions and their derivatives ............. A2.2 Geometry for the spheroidal Kirchoff problem ....................................

page 16

Tables
Page

CHAPTER 4
4.1 Order of Gauss integration ........................................................ 4.2 Comparison of accuracy with different orders of integration ........................ times ............................ 83 87 88

4.3 Comparison of matrix assembly and factorization

CHAPTER 6
6.1 Comparison of submerged and in vacuo quantities for the cantilever plate ......... 153

6.2 Comparison of submerged and in vacuo quantities for the evacuated spherical shell 154

CHAPTER 7
7.1 The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid variable methodology dynamic 6 Lanczos the with elements and reduction of structural matrix .......... 176

7.2 The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid variable methodology dynamic 24 Lanczos the with elements and reduction of structural matrix ......... 177

7.3 The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid variable methodology dynamic 6 the structural with elements and eigenvector reduction of matrix ....... 178

7.4 The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid variable methodology dynamic 24 the of reduction structural and eigenvector elements with APPENDIX 2 and Neumann acoustic 209 matrix ...... 179

A2.1 The resonant frequencies for the interior spherical Dirichlet problems .........................................................................

page 17

Introduction.

CHAPTER Introduction

1.

1.1 Background

The acoustic analysis of submerged three dimensional structures is of great interest to engineers. Such an elasto-acoustic analysis can be applied to a variety of engineering problems; for example the determination fields the of sound generated by aircraft or underwater vehicles

and the design of transducers and acoustic shielding. The potential theory behind the acoustic problem is also directly applicable to elasto-statics, electromagnetism, hydrodynamics, inviscid

flow and so on. In general the analysis involves solving the dynamic structural

response simul-

taneously with the acoustic response, where the two are coupled by a fluid structure interaction. Standard texts in acoustics (e. g. Junger and Feit [1986], Pierce [1989]) present well established analytical solutions for simple structures. Morse and Feshbach [1953] list eleven coordinate

[1929] Kellog treatment and systems which allow analytical presents the classical theory behind such analysis. Early work in acoustics concentrated on such analytical results. As an example Wiener [1951] published results for thin plate problems and Spence and Granger [1951] presented analytical for rigid spheroids. results results are restricted to a narrow range of geometries. For the vast

However analytical majority

does form Before the advent analytical not exist. solution of realistic problems, a closed

digital computers, experimental testing and asymptotic approximations were the only analysis of tools available for arbitrary structures. The availability high of speed computers meant that

be solved efficiently and accurately using numerical methods. complex acoustic problems could The finite element method (FEM) is recognized as a extremely powerful analytical tool

is It defined be to that can strongly associated with continuum problems. solve most well used structural natural analysis, but its application to other areas is wide spread. Consequently it was only

that it should be applied to the full elasto-acoustic problem and indeed much work has is in by FEM Pinsky the given acoustics of and

been done in that area. A modern application Abboud

[1990], who consider the transient analysis of the exterior acoustics problem. The acous-

A FEM analysis of the acoustic problem is hampered by a number of difficulties.

tic problems of greatest interest are often those involving a fluid of infinite extent. Discretization
18 page

Introduction. fluid FEI domain for the of such a infinite the with use of is obviously difficult and almost always unsatisfactory. Even Such a

elements, the resulting equation set is large and cumbersome.

inefficient is method since the variables of most interest are those on the interface between the fluid and structural domains.

Boundary integral formulations of potential problems have been recognized for a long time. By using the power of the new digital computers it was quickly recognized that a boundary (BEM) element method analysis of potential promised an elegant and efficient solution technique for the numerical Regarding the acoustic analysis of rigid structures, Chen and

problems.

Scheikert [1963] published a numerical method based on the boundary layer integral formulation [1964] later Chertock and a year published a method based on the Helmholtz' integral equation.

Over the last two decades, the BEM has emerged as the preferred solution technique for acoustic in domain. the exterior problems The strength mensionality; formulation integral of an of the acoustic problem is the reduction of di-

the three dimensional exterior pressure field is represented by a two dimensional on the surface of the structure. The elegance of the method is the math-

integral relationship ematical simplicity

of the resulting integral expressions. However, it was recognized by Lamb integral formulations. the with classical At the standing wave

[1945] that there is a difficulty frequencies of the interior

domain defined by the structural

surface, the integral equations for

the exterior problem fail to provide a unique solution. The numerical consequences of this non[1967] by Copley first improved for the was examined and problems acoustic uniqueness rigid formulation numerical Miller to circumvent the problem was presented by Schenck [1968]. Burton and that was valid at all wavenumbers. rigorous analy-

[1971] presented a composite integral formulation

Kleinman and Roach [1974] as well as Filippi [1977] presented a mathematically

formulations, between the the the the showing equivalence various uniqueness properties of sis of boundary layer and Helmholtz' integral formulations. The behaviour of BEM's at critical wave

[1990] discussed Dokumaci be interest the to exact nature of recently and of numbers continues frequencies. failure BEM these the of at numerical
The Burton Formulation Miller and formulation Combined Schenck's and Helmholtz Integral Equation prob-

(CHIEF)

still remain having each

today as the main numerical it's own strengths

strategies

for overcoming Burton

lems of uniqueness, formulation The CHIEF the solution is robust

and weaknesses.

The

and Miller integral.

and well tested but necessitates the evaluation

of a hypersingular

formulation

on the other hand is simpler but fails at higher frequencies system of equations.

and involves

determined of an over

page 19

Introduction. The first boundary element analyses were concerned with either a prescribed surface velocity distribution or rigid body scattering. Zienkiewtiicz, Kelly and Bettess [1977] presented an analysis

between FE-N1 derived BENZ, from It FEM the the was general a and coupling view. of point of Wilton [1978] who first showed the feasibility of coupling a structural finite element formulation

and an acoustic boundary element formulation. Boundary integral and finite element formulations be can often applied to the same set of

problems, and are often perceived as competing solution techniques. However the two methodhave complementary ologies strengths and weaknesses and their combination in often results

a very powerful solution technique. the accurate determination the fluid problem of infinite

In the elasto-acoustic problem the FEM is best suited to best is BEM the problem, and suited to interaction problems suit this

localized the of structural extent.

Not only do fluid-structure

do large but so a number of other engineering problems; e.g. structure-soil category of analysis, interaction, structural non-linearities within homogeneous structures and so on.

A large proportion

formulations boundary integral use constant interpolation of published technique uses the concept of a superparametric by Ingber and is higher interpolaby

A interpolation fluid the popular variables. of by Wilton as used element Ott [1991]. Within

[1978] and recently in the field of electro-magnetism

the superparametric

level interpolation the geometric element of

than the level of fluid interpolation.

Mathews [1979][1986] introduced isoparametric

tion, common in the FEM, where both the fluid and geometric variables are interpolated quadratic Lagrange shape functions.

Amini and Wilton [1986] implement a number of different

interpolation with quadratic

in the to convergence, efficiency and accuracy possible advantages show schemes interpolation fluid the variables. of

Mariem and Hamdi [1987] presented a new variational formulation of the BEM for the thin shell problem. In this formulation based on the work of Maue [1949] and Stallybrass is transformed operator using tangential [1967],

the kernel of the hypersingular integrated then and resulting symmetric integration. with

integral

derivatives The

field to the point over the surface of the structure. respect

is which amenable to numerical expression contains only a weak singularity time needed for

The disadvantages of the method is the increase in computational

the second numerical integration. Despite the advantages there seem to be very few researchers using isoparametric elements. The variational is idealy method suited to high order fluid interpolation, page 20 since the reduction

Introduction. of the singularity is independent discretization. of numerical Of the few published papers us-

ing such interpolation a variational

techniques, Coyette and Fyfe [1989] and Jeans and Mathews [1990] used Isoparametric implementations Collocation the of Burton and Miller

approach.

have been by Chien, Rajiyah and Atluri method published

[1990] and W'a'u, Seybert and Wan inte-

[1991]. The work by Chien et al, employed a complicated treatment of the hypersingular dependent form interpolation, the gral operator, on exact of formulation by Maue and then used additional given

\Vu et al employed the tangential to integrate the remaining

regularization

Cauchy type singularity. implementations

Seybert and his co-workers have published a number isoparametric [1985]. Seybert, Shippy Soenarko, Rizzo methodology; e.g. and

of the CHIEF

Such an implementation

is aided by the absence of a hypersingular integral operator, but suffers

from the inherent problems of the CHIEF methodologies. It has already been mentioned that a large amount of research effort has been involved in the question of the uniqueness of the integral formulation primarily Burton is frequencies. This work at critical The CHIEF and without

formulation. from in isolation BEM the the coupled elasto-acoustic on

been included formulations have in Miller the to techniques coupled seem and fact that the structural the although formulation

qualification,

does not remove the ill condi-

tioning of the numerical formulation obvious. Huang [1984] attempted

frequencies immediately is in the general, critical not, at by explicitly showing the theoretical However

to clarify the situation

internal frequencies the the unrelated acoustic problem. of critical non-uniqueness at

he also stated that in reality this non-uniqueness will not be present. Although this was true for the constant fluid basis functions for isoparametric implementations he was using, Mathews [1986] disproved Huang's conjecture BEM. the elasto-acoustic of

Like the Burton and Miller formulation, been hampered by the need to numerically A large amount of successful numerical

the acoustic problem of thin plates and shells has approximate the hypersingular integral operator.

has been by in Pierce and this published area work

[1987] Ginsberg, Chen Ginsberg Pierce [1987], Pierce Wu, Pierce and and and colleagues; e.g. [1990]. This work used the Helmholtz' used axisymmetric basis functions intergal equation and variational procedures, but also of the problem. Terai

based on an a priori understanding

[1980] applied his BEM to thin plate problems as did Coyette and Fyfe [1989], however the Coyette Fyfe and ultimately approach of facilitate an eigenmode analysis. lead to the assumption of incompressible fluid to

Recently Kirkup

[1991] has modeled the effects of acoustic

FEM/BEM, coupled shields using a

but in general there seems to be little published work into 21 page

Introduction.
the application of BEM's to unbaffled thin plate problems of arbitrary geometry less and even

using isoparametric

interpolation.

Without

any simplifying

approximations

fluid BEM the the to on using a effect of model The simplest approach to a

a submerged structure

leads to a non-linear eigenvalue problem.

dynamic analysis of such a structure, involves an analysis at a large number of frequency points. The computational trix relationship bottle-necks for this approach are the evaluation of the fluid impedance ma-

frequency, at each and the large number of degrees of freedom in the structural [1978] recognized the second of these problems and reduced the dynamic

Wilton equation set. structural matrix matrix

using the `dry' eigenmodes. The problem of calculating the fluid impedance Kirkup

frequency large at a number of points is alleviated by frequency interpolation.

[1989], [1989] [1989] Schenck Henwood Benthien Benthien and and and all presented and evaluinterpolation ated techniques and Schenck and Benthien [1989] discussed in general the problems techniques to large scale elasto-acoustic problems. The use of

of applying coupled BEM/FEM interpolation such (Kirkup problem

schemes can also facilitate a modal analysis of the fluid structure interaction and Amini [1990]). Recently Lanczos and Ritz vector techniques have been interaction problem (Moini, Nour-Omid and Carlsson

internal the to applied

fluid structure

[1990], Coyette [1990]), and their use in the coupled BEM/FEM

formulations

promises signifi-

[1991]). (Jeans Mathews and cant advantages over modal reduction Overcoming and Miller the problem of the hypersingular integral operator present in both Burton

formulations, thin shell acoustic and

represents a large amount of research effort.

Over the years many solutions to the problem have been suggested along with an unavoidable increase in the computational presented a methodology is circumvented implementation. the complexity of Cunefare and Koopmann [1989]

they called CHI (Combined Helmoltz' Integrals), where the problem be interior Koopmann, field to to the the surface. points all method, where the surface pressure interior to the surface of the radiator. Moyer, Huang

by constraining

Song and Fahline [1989] proposed a wave superposition distribution was reconstructed from a source distribution

Recently there has been some favorable interest in this method, with Miller, Superposition FEM [1991] looking the the tTberall and at coupling of and Koopmann Falinline and [1991] investigating

method, and Song,

the associated numerical errors.

All researchers to date recognize the problems with the retraction of the source surface in high difficulties inherent discretizing i. the to order numerical singularities; of e. circumvent order Fredholm integral equations of the first kind (Miller be to chosen carefully need [1974]). The interior source or field points well conditioned numerical systems.

in order to obtain sufficiently page 22

Introduction. Many researchers, including ill-conditioned the author, believe that the superposition method is simply an

form of the BEM, and singularities

in the integral equations are an unavoidable of the problem. This is

consequence of optimizing the motivation

the numerical robustness and conditioning

behind a recently submitted

[1991]). (Jeans 'Mathews paper and

1.2 Motivation

Present of

Thesis

The original art computational

motivation

for this thesis was to develop and refine the current state of the After three years of of radiated sound.

approaches used for the prediction

have been following documented in this thesis: the areas research (a) Development efficient implementation of the Helmholtz' in-

of a computationally

tegral equations for three dimensional structures of arbitrary geometry, including thin plate problems. i) Comparison and development of variational and collocation formulations. ii) The use of quadratic isopararnetric elements. iii) (b) Coupling Frequency interpolation fluid matrices. of of the thin shell and plate structural

formulation FEM of a consistent

formulations. boundary to the element problem i) Comparison of modal and Lanczos reduction of the structural tions to improve solution efficiency. formula-

A general review of the acoustic problem, along with the development of the various integral formulations, is given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3a collocation approach is presented for the of the exterior acoustic problem. This

formulation Miller Burton the and numerical solution of hypersingular the describes to a novel approach work by 'laue integral the operator given of

integral operator, based on the expression

[1949]. This approach is very similar to the work of Wu, regularization procedures. The resulting rigid radiation and

Seybert and Wan [1991], but without their additional numerical scattering implementation problems. 4 the variational

is applied to spherical, spheroidal and cylindrical

In Chapter the hypersingular isoparametric

[1987] for Hamdi Mariem approximation and method of

of

integral operator is described and numerically elements. The resulting

implemented using quadratic is applied to

boundary

thin shell acoustic formulation

page 23

Introduction. different closed and open thin shell problems and compared to the collocation formulation of

the thin shell acoustic problem. With interest in superposition renewed formulation is 5 Chapter the of acoustic problem,

devoted to an examination

of these methods. It was felt that these methods were not suitable due to the inherent instabilities structures, to support this view point, a quantitative amount of research effort. of the analysis However topics

for the general acoustic analysis of arbitrary integral Unfortunately expressions. resulting involved the a substantial of method the examination of matrix of the superposition

disproportionate and

in introducing this method chapter necessitated

conditioning

been have the that and accuracy of general matrix routines might not

included otherwise. The FEM is introduced in Chapter 6, and the theory behind the thin shell structural lem used in this study is outlined. The coupling procedure between the structural prob-

and acoustic

for is described, the various methodologies solving the combined problem. along with problems In this chapter eigenmode reduction of the structural the fluid matrices are described. problem and frequency interpolation of

The resulting implementations are tested with the spherical

for for is there a submerged an easily accessible analytical result, and results which shell problem detailing behaviour Significant is the of also presented, work cantilever plate are also presented. the general elasto-acoustic problem at critical frequencies. Chapter 7 introduces the theory Lanczos vectors and describes their usefulness in coupled elasto-acoustic formulations. The resulting implementations are again applied to the spherical

fluid A techniques. to added mass test case and compared corresponding eigenvector reduction formulation is described using the variational formulation of the thin shell acoustic problem,

and the resulting symmetric structural

Lanczos is vectors. reduced using equation

The final chapter is a summary of the thesis. Conclusions are made about the consequences for future finally the work are presented. proposals and results presented of effectiveness and In Appendix boundary I the application to the acoustic applied geometric symmetry, of acoustic and Such use of symmetry is of considerable interest not

is reviewed. element problem

Summarized half but for the treatment for space problems. the of size of problem reduction only in Appendix II are the analytical techniques applied to the spherical elasto-acoustic problem.

page 24

Problem. -acoustic .

CHAPTER Acoustic

2.

Problem

2.1 Fundamental

Equations

The analysis of any acoustic problem involves the solution of a differential equation relating fluid variables in the medium of interest, subject to certain boundary conditions. primarily interaction the with concerned differential This work is

of acoustic radiation with submerged structures and

the appropriate

equation is the linear wave equation subject to a velocity boundary

condition on the submerged structure.
2.1.1 Linear Approximation

In a fundamental equation

[1989]) (Pierce field, linear the the wave analysis of acoustic pressure This analysis

is developed from a consideration of mass and energy conservation.

field is that the a small amplitude perturbation acoustic pressure assumes

to the ambient state,

density fluid have by that those pressure, and when the perturbation velocity values characterized is absent. The fluid or acoustic medium is assumed to be homogeneous and quiescent; ie the ambient quantities fluid be independent to time the of position and with ambient are assumed

velocity equal to zero. Consider a body of fluid in a volume V, with density p, surrounded by a surface S. The fluid velocity at a point P is given by v(P) and the outward normal to the surface S is defined by n. Conservation of mass requires that the net mass leaving V per unit time is equal to the by is in V. This decreases the relationship, expressed mass rate at which

dt vs J pdV =J pv " ndS.

(2.1.1)

The right hand side of this equation can be transformed to a volume integral by means of Gauss' theorem and Euler's differential is for conservation of mass obtained, equation

a 17 -(Pvv)=o. alp
The pressure field at a point P is given by p(P).

(2.1.2)

By considering the forces acting on the

fluid, and neglecting body forces and viscosity, the fluid velocity and pressure are related by,
page -95

Acoustic Problem.

(av p

+ (v " V)v

This equation represents an example of Reynolds' transport The relationship assumption

theorem.

between the pressure field and density in the fluid is obtained by making the Consequently

that the acoustic radiation is adiabatic in the linear approximation.

it is possible to write,

aP 2aP2_
(9t (9t
The real constant the subscript Writing

(ap),

ap

(2.1.4)

c is refered to as the speed of sound in the particular

fluid medium and

(2.1.4) in indicates differential Eq. that the s ,

is evaluated at constant entropy. of the ambient state,

the pressure, density and velocity as small perturbations

P=Po+p,

P=Po+Pý,

v=v'.

(2.1.5)

the linear differential

equations governing these perturbations

defined are as,

op i+

0, c2po0 - v' =

(2.1.6)

öv'

VP'+po

0. =

2.1.2

Wave

Equation

(2.1.7) (2.1.6) Eq. from Eq. From is The wave equation results when v' and eliminated . indicating be the neglected when prime notation will now on by, is given wave equation ambient state perturbations. The

a2P öt2 v2 C2 pl--o. _
page 26

(2.1.8)

Acoustic Problem. Since the fluid velocity and pressure are given by a linear differential equation, it is possible to assume an harmonic time dependency of the form e-'"t, is the circular frequency of where ,;

the pressure field. The time independent fluid variables are,

p=

Pe-iwt

v=

ive- cwt.

(2.1.9)

Substituting

Eq. (2.1.9) into Eq. (2.1.8) results in the expression,

V2p+k2p=

0.

(2.1.10)

where the wave number k is w/c. Helmholtz'
2.1.3

This equation is known as the reduced wave equation or

equation.
boundary condition

Neumann

The reduced wave equation is solved in terms of the Neumann boundary condition

which is

S. fluid boundary This the to the velocity normal velocity prescribed on relates condition

defined by,

Op On -

iwpvr,,

(2.1.11)

dropped density, is for the the and, p, ambient subscript notation where

ap an _n"V _

,

vn =nýv.

(2.1.12)

This boundary body of fluid.

condition

is sufficient for the solution of Helmholtz'

equation for a finite

For unbounded fluid problems another boundary condition is needed to uniquely equation. condition condition This is

Helmholtz' to the solution specify 2.1.4 Sommerfeld's radiation

For unbounded acoustic problems the pressure field must obey some boundary in the far field. This boundary condition is given by Sommerfeld's radiation condition.

defined by,
page 27

4coustic Problem.

lien
r--co

J
S

kp

dS=0

(2.1.13)

The consequence of this condition is that it, allows outward travelling waves to be the only valid for physical solution a radiated or scattered wave from a surface. Eq. (2.1.10), Eq. (2.1.11) and Eq (2.1.13) uniquely define the acoustic problem. For

it is geometries some simple possible to solve the acoustic problem analytically, majority

however for the for solutions

is technique of realistic problems a numerical solution needed. Analytical

certain problems are useful in establishing the accuracy of various numerical strategies used to solve the acoustic problem. At this stage the concept of a velocity potential function be defined. will This function function. The

from fluid fields be to the one potential velocity evaluated and pressure enables function is defined by,

020 + 120 = 0,

(2.1.14)

with,

ü=

VO,

p= iwpq.

(2.1.15)

2.2 Integral

Operators

This work is concerned with various methods of numerical solution by means of boundary element methods. Later in this chapter the appropriate integral equations will be derived that

form the basis of any BEM. The integral operators that will combine to give an integral formulation introduced the acoustic problem are of in this section and a brief discussion of their

from isolation the in is physical problem. presented numerical properties 2.2.1 Green's Function

form integral into differential is the transformed equation, In general when a an of equation but boundary differential depends the the integral equation, governing on the equation not only conditions specific to the problem. An integral equation not only relates an unknown function

page 28

Acoustic Problem. . to its derivatives; ie values at neighbouring points, but also to its values at the boundary. The

boundary conditions are built into an integral equation through the form of its kernel, but for differential a boundary the equation conditions are imposed at the final stage of solution. for the problem. solution of the inhomoThis

kernel is the Green's function

For the acoustic problem, the Green's function is the fundamental geneous Helmholtz' equation,

(02+ k2) (P,Q)= -6(P,Q), Gk
Q) 6(P, is delta-dirac the where radiation condition, function.

(2.2.1)

Also the Green's function must satisfy Sommerfeld*s

Eq. (1.1.13). The appropriate solution in three dimensions is given by,

ikr

Gk(P) Q) 4 r'

r=

JP- Qj.

(2.2.2)

In this equation r is the Euclidean distance between the field points P and Q.
2.2.2 Discontinuities

The integral operators that are of interest are defined by,

[01(P) = ,Ck Mk[c](P) _

is s

Gk (1')Q)O(Q)dSq, öG9 P, Q) q(Q)dSq,

(2.2.3) (2.2.4)

S4

Ar [0)(ý') =
The function the identity

is [0](P) Mk = IS
Sp

äGä P,
9p anan

Q)

O(Q)dSq,

(2.2.5)

a2Gk(P, Q)

0(Q)dSq.

(2.2.6)

0 is assumed to be a continuous function over S. For completeness there is also operator,

1[01(p) = «(P).

(2.2.7)

An important

is (2.2.3-6) in Eq. defined that they are all solutions of these operators property of equation. Each can be thought of as the result of a continuous O(Q), over the surface of S. 29 page

differential the original acoustic distribution

of sources, magnitude

Acoustic Problem. It is useful to establish the behaviour of these integral operators as the field point P is brought to the surface S. The limit of a field point brought to the surface in the direction

opposite to the direction of the surface normal will be denoted by p+, the limit of the field point brought to the surface in the same direction as the surface normal will be denoted by p- In . Firstly construct a small is

general points on a surface will be denoted by lower case symbols. sphere of small radius e centered around the surface limit point.

The domain of integration

taken to be the surface S, excluding the small sphere, and that part of the small sphere, S£ , that completes the surface. The radius e is then taken to zero to evaluate the limiting the integral operator. value of

Figure (2.1) illustrates the geometry for evaluating the limit of P -- p+.

Consider the integral operator Ck .

[IS-S,

lm Ck[O)(P) =1ö , P+ P

Gk(p, 4)4(4)dSq +J

rz
S.

sin(B)dOdyh . 4ýe

(2.2.8)

The polar angles 0 and 0 define the surface S.

For Eq. (2.2.8) the second term on the right

hand side goes to zero in the limit and so the operator Gk is continuous across the surface S. Consider the same limiting process for the .Mk operator,

Pm P+

Mk[01(P)

li = ö

I
_Sc

aGk(n, q) anO(4)dsq
4

+

Is t

ýsin(8)d6d¢ 4ýý2 2

(2.2.9)

In Eq. (2.2.9) the vector r is the unit vector pointing from P to p+. This time the second term limiting hand towards tends the a side right on value and so,

lim A4k[O](P) _ Mk[Q](P) + (l - c(P))O(P)" P-4p+

(2.2.10)

The quantity

4irc(p) is the external solid angle at the point p. For a smooth surface; ie one that

has a unique tangent plane, then

1 c(P) =2

(2.2.11)

A definition

be gained by considering the limit, of c(p) can page 30

Acoustic Problem.

n P
048440 ...

Sc

P

p+ p-

q

SE
Figure (2.1). Geometry for evaluating the discontinuity integral the of operators.

page 31

Acoustic Problem.

Jim P-P+

aGo(P'q)dS -PPI ,

(2.2.12)

This equation is continuous as P passes through the surface S. Noting the discontinuity Mk operator, indicates a mathematical definition for the quantity c(p),

in the

C(P) =1+f

aco(p, g) ds q an Sq

(2.2.13)

Using the arguments described above, it is possible to evaluate the discontinuity integral below, the these of all equations and are summarized

properties

4 [OI(P+) _ ck [OI(P) 4[0](P -)i Mk [c](P+) - (1 - c(P))q(P) _ Mk [01(P) = Mk [Q](P )+ c(P)O(P), [o](p+) + (1 - C(P))O(p) _k k Nk[0l [o](P) = Mk [©](p-) - C(P)4(P), ),

(2.2.14) (2.2.15) (2.2.16) (2.2.17)

(P+) = Nk[¢](P) = Nk[q](p

It is important

to realize that Mk[q](p+)

limiting the represents

value of Mk[O](P)

as P

tends to p+, whilst Mk [O](p) represents the principal value of the integral operation; that is the limit integration value of an S-S, over a surface to zero. 6 goes as ,

2.3 Helmholtz'

Integral

Equations

2.3.1

Surface

Helmholtz

Integral

Equation

The Surface Helmholtz' methods (BEM).

Integral equation (SHIE) forms the basis of most boundary element by derived be the general acoustic geometry considering can

This equation

Si S. The Sr, (2.2). A two figure in and closed surface surface contains spherical surface, shown S represents the acoustic surface of interest and the surface Si represents the surface of some SE by domain is the The E the volume contained excluding volume contained acoustic source. by Si and S. The domain D represents the volume contained by the surface S. A small spherical field P. SE the point surrounds surface With the surface SE excluding the singular point P from the domain E, both the Green's and the velocity potential in E satisfy the reduced wave equation and so, page 32

free space function

Acoustic Problem.

Figure (2.2).

Geometry for deriving the surface Helmholtz'

integral equations.

page 33

Problem. Acoustic ,

J
E

(4(Q)V2Gk(P,

Q) - Gk(P, Q)V2o(Q))

dl Q=0.

(2.3.1)

By using Green's formula this volume integral may by converted to a combination integrals over the surfaces bounding E,

of surface

Is(P)+Is.

(P)+Is,

(P)+Is,

(P)_0,

(2.3.2)

integrals I(P) the where

form, the are of

Is(P)

_

oGk(P, q) O(q)
Sqqq

90(q) _

Gk (P, q)

dSq.

(2.3.3)

The negative sign reflects the fact that the normals are defined to point into the domain E. The SHIE for an infinite exterior domain is obtained when the radius of the surface Sr, is taken to infinity SE Sommerfeld is By taken the the to radiation condition zero. and radius of

IS. will tend to zero. The integral Is has different values depending on the position of the field be is longer bounding E. For IS,, its P in D For P. zero since no a surface of value must point P on S or in E its value can be evaluated in a similar way to the limiting procedures of section (1.2.2). The value of this integral as in the limit is given by,

O(P) Is, (P) c(P)¢(P) 0

PEE PES PED . (2.3.4)

The integral IS, may now be seen to be equivalent to the velocity potential that would exist in the absence of the surface S,

Is, (P) = Oi(P).
The SHIE for the infinite exterior domain can now be written as,

(2.3.5)

O(P) 0Gk(P, q) ao(q) Gk(p, dS9 Oi(P) o(q) + q) _ _ Önq an, c(P)O(P) t0

PEE

PES PED

(2.3.6)

Page "94

1 cousltc Problfm. Using a similar argument the SHIE for the interior problem can be derived:

0 f ((q)aGk(P) Sqq _ aý (4') Gk (P, q) dSq =(1 - c(P))O(P)

PEE PES (2.3.7)

O(P)

PED

In terms of integral operator notation the boundary integral equations on the surface S, by, are given

Exterior:

[-c(P)Z Os Mk] 0, + = lCkon Interior:
Ck (go , On [(1 c(P))Z+Mk]

(2.3.8)

v.

(2.3.9)

2.3.2

Differentiated

Surface

Helmholtz'

Integral

Equation

The SHIE taken on the boundary surface may be differentiated with respect to the normal at P to obtain the Differentiated (DSHIE), integral Helmholtz' surface equation

i

a2Gk(P, q) O(q)
OnPön4

_

(q) 0Gk(P, 4) (90
önq önp

dSq +=

ac(P)
önp

c(P)

anp

,

PES.

(2.3.10)

There is also a DSHIE for the interior problem and the differentiated integral equations can be written in terms of integral operators,

Exterior:
Nko_ [c(P)Z + "k)

a0
an an ,(2.3.11) -a0i

Interior: NkO = [-(1 M c(P))Z+ k'1 (9n. page 35 (2.3.12)

Acoustic Problem. 2.3.3 Boundary Layer Formulations

It was stated in Section 2.2 that the result of the integral operators on a continuous function defined on the surface S, was a solution of the acoustic wave equation. correct definition quently Further more with the Conse-

of the Green's function the solution satisfies the radiation condition.

it is possible to define the velocity potential in the exterior domain, E. in terms of a p,

distribution, layer single

ö(P) = Ck [{c)(P),

PEE.

(2.3.13)

By differentiating

domain, defined in to the an exexterior with respect some normal vector,

for dimensionless field is the obtained. velocity pression

aý(P)
önp

-.

4[, c](P),

PEE.

(2.3.14)

When the field point,

P, is taken to the surface S, the boundary layer formulation

for the

defined by, is acoustic problem

[Mk on

-

(1

- c(P))] P,

pcS.

(2.3.15)

Eq. (2.3.15) can be solved to obtain the single layer density p, and then Eq. (2.3.13) can be the to exterior and surface velocity potentials. evaluate used double in layer be defined terms In a similar way the exterior velocity potential can of a distribution, a,

0 (P) _ k[O](P)7 ." form is given by,

PEE.

(2.3.16)

The differentiated

a¢(P)
önp

- JVk[0](P),

PEE.

(2.3.17)

be (2.3.17) is Eq. Vk for S, then the can Since the solved continuous across surface operator PES is defined by, the -velocity potential surface and 36 page

Acoustic Problem.

0=

[Mk

+(1-C(P))]o.

(2.3.18)

The exterior velocity potential is given by Eq. (2.3.16) .

2.4

Uniqueness

Boundary of

Integral

Formulations

2.4.1

SHIE

and DSHIE

formulations

For given boundary

conditions the velocity potential for the exterior problem is unique. integral

However it has long been recognized that when expressed in terms of a boundary formulation the solution to the exterior problem may not be unique. wavenumbers k,

Non-uniqueness of the

solution occurs at critical interior to correspond

for the acoustic problem these wavenumbers and It needs to be emphasized that this problem of

frequencies. resonant

does imply non-uniqueness not non-uniqueness of a physical solution, but a breakdown of the theoretical formulation at critical frequencies. A numerical implementation will result in ill-conditioning of an unmodified

exterior boundary

integral formulation

of the matrices at a range

frequency. frequencies, the centered around critical of The problem of non-uniqueness can be illustrated by considering the exterior Neumann

be long (2.3.11), for There `smooth Eq. will a unique solution as as there surface'. a problem, are no non-trivial homogeneous to the equation, solutions

(I+M)v=

0.

(2.4.1)

The non-trivial

k,. By Fredholm Alterthe the to this eigenvalues at occur equation solutions

is that the transpose the this the same as theorems, of equation of spectrum eigenvalue native Of ,

2Z-}-Mk

0. v' =

(2.4.2)

The eigenvalues of this equation correspond to the eigenvalues for the unrelated interior (2.3.9). Simiarly Dirichlet Eq for the the critical wavenumbers exterior mann problem, interior Dirichlet problem. the the to eigenvalues of correspond
page 37

Neu-

problem

Acoustic Problem. For all but simple boundary geometries it is impossible to predict the values of kn. Therefore it is highly desirable to implement conditioning of the numerical formulation a strategy that will eliminate the problem of the ill-

in the region of critical wavenumbers. Several strateincrease the computational burden of the

gies have been proposed all of which unfortunately problem. 2.4.2 The CHIEF method

One of the first methods proposed to remove the problem of non-uniqueness was that of Schenck [1968]. In this method the algebraic equations generated from the SHIE are combined with additional from interior Helmholtz' the generated equations relationship,

Mk [01 (P) _ Ck (P) OA(P), , On

001

PED,

(2.4.3)

evaluated at a number of interior points. The resulting overdetermined set of equations can be least by squares method. solved a There are several problems with this method. When some of the interior points lie on

has been it shown that this method may not remove the problem of uniqueness. nodal surfaces Consequently, at high frequencies when the density of interior nodal surfaces is high, the choice difficult. is interior nodal posit-ion of Several methods for choosing these nodal points have been For an arbitrary selection of interior

but the to the this of solution. complexity adds proposed

be this relied on to remove the problem of non-uniqueness. method cannot points 2.4.3 Burton Burton Miller's and Formulation

[1971] be by Miller that the could of uniqueness overcome problem proposed and linear DSHIE. This SHIE the combination and of is given by,

forming a linear combination

{ [-c(P)Z

Mk]

+ OA k-}_{

rk

+a

[c(P)Z +M]}ý-

I]
On

(Oi +a

örti

.

(2.4.4

Burton

and Miller

demonstrated

that for an imaginary

formulation this coupling constant a,

for all wavenumbers. should yield a unique solution The disadvantage of this formulation is that the kernel of the AVkoperator is highly singular

be in integrate to to this used order operator numerically. needs and a method page 38

acoustic Problfnz. 2.4.4 Boundary layer formulations layer formulations for the exterior acoustic problem also exhibit similar non-

The boundary

described A the at critical wavenumbers similar argument to show above. uniqueness properties this non-uniqueness to that for the SHIE and DSHIE can be used. However another argument is illustrated in figures (2.3) and (2.4). These arguments use the jump properties of the integral

(1.2.2), derived in section operators Single layer: 4+ _ Ckµ = 4-, , (2.4.5)

as
Double layer:

+ (i - ß(p))µ =TP=

- c(P)u.
c(P)O',

(2.4.6)

0+ - (1 - c(P))c _ MkO' _+ = JVk0' =ahn

(2.4.7) (2.4.8)

The single layer formulation

interior be the to of proves non-unique at eigenvalues

Dirichlet

layer formulation double the problem and Neumann problem.
2.4.5 Hybrid boundary layer

be interior to the at eigenvalues non-unique of proves

formulation

The established formulation

technique for overcoming the problem of uniqueness in a boundary layer in terms of a hybrid combination of a

is to express the surface velocity potential

distribution. layer double surface single and

The exterior velocity potential is defined by,

O(P)

=

[Lk

+ aMk]

[t

](P),

PEE.

(2.4.9)

Consequently

the boundary integral equations defining the acoustic problem are,

4'ý _

{, Ck +0

[Mk

+ (1 -

C(p))]}

v,

(2.4.10) (2.4.11)

00 = an

{ [A4k

-1-

k}v. )] ý + a. c(P)

be is imaginary, to If the coupling constant, a constrained formulation hybrid this

then the numerical solution of

is unique at all frequencies. Again the disadvantage of this formulation operator.

hypersingular integration kernel in A' the the the it of is that requires page 39

Acoustic Problem.

Single

layer

distribution

Jump relationships:

0+-O-=0,

(1) (2)

ao+ a0an an

Boundary

condition:

ao+=0.
On ,
Uniqueness of exterior problem

(3)

(4) (5)

From (1) and (4)

At eigenvalues of interior

Dirichlet

problem:

0- = = µ54o,

as ýo.
From (2), (3) and (6)

(6)
(7)

Not unique solution

Not at eigenvalues of interior

Dirichlet

problem:

ýý

ý'

a0
On

=0.
From (2), (3) and (8)

(8) (9)

Unique solution

Figure (2.3). Mathematical distribution

illustration

of the non-uniqueness Dirichlet problem

layer the of single

interior the at eigenvalues of

page 40

Acoustic Problem.

Double

layer

distribution

Jump relationships:

0+-0-=0-, ao+ 00an an

(1) (2)

Boundary

condition:

ao+=0
an Z* And 0+ = 0, ao0, =
Uniqueness of exterior problem. From (2) and (3).

(3)

(4) (5)

At eigenvalues of interior

Neumann problem:

as

o, =

0-00.
From (1), (4) and (6).

(6)
(7)

0' o,
= Not unique solution

Not at eigenvalues of interior

Neumann problem:

00
On v=0,

,_=0.

ý From (1), (4) and (8).

(8) (9)

Unique solution

Figure (2.4). Mathematical distribution

illustration

double layer the the of non-uniqueness of Neumann problem

interior the at eigenvalues of

Page 41

Acoustic Problem. As the boundary formulation layer formulation SHIE hybrid DSHIE, the to the this and are related described above.

is analogous to the Burton and Miller formulation

2.5

Thin

shell

formulation

A prime motivation

for this project was the analysis of thin shell acoustic problems. In this

work a thin shell is defined as a shell for which the through shell displacement field is assumed to be constant. Acoustically this means that the normal derivative of pressure is the same on

both sides of the shell.
2.5.1 Boundary integral formulation

The geometry of the thin shell is illustrated associated points may be defined. midway through

in figure (2.5). On such a shell three closely

The points are p, p-, and p+, where p represents a point

the thickness of the shell, p+ is a point on one surface, and p- is the corre-

sponding point on the other surface. The normal np is defined to be in the direction from pto p+. The Green's function and the normal derivative of Green's function at these points will have the following simple relationships:

agS(g+ )
anq

önq (2.5.1)

Gk (P, q4", = Gk (P, 4),

aGk(P, gl) = anq±

OGk(P,
anq

E n p+

n

S+ Pn'

S-

D
Figure (2.5). The thin shell geometry.

Page 42

4couslic Problfm. Using these relationships, the SHIE formulation for the thin shell problem may be written as

O(P) = Oi(P) +

SI

I

+
By using the relationships

aTZq+ + ) (q)aGk(P, an9-

g+) o(q+)aGk(P,

o(q)Gk(P, _ 9+
C)6(q)Gk(P, 9gy(p) -- q(p+) q+)

q+)

dSq+

(2.5.2)
dSq .

in Eq. (2.5.1) and by setting

0(p-), -

the SHIE

and DSHIE formulations

for the thin shell become,

0(P) = Mk{41ý](P) + Q1(P), a a¢a(P) Nk[ý)(P) + = n)

PEE, PEE.

(2.5.3) (2.5.4)

The surface domain S is now the surface of one side of the thin shell. Since S has been domains D and E need also to be redefined. The domain D becomes the domain the redefined whose interface with S contains the points p-, and E becomes the domain whose interface with S contains the points p+. Both D and E are sub-domains of the exterior domain surrounding

S. Taking the limit of P to p in Eq. (2.5.3) and Eq. (2.5.4);

(1 Mk[ + c(P))O-(P) C(P)O+(P) _ -

](P) + ci(P), ao'(P) +
anp

PES,
PES.

(2.5.5)
(2.5.6)

ao(P) pl(P) an Nk[, =
2.5.2 Edge conditions

When considering thin shells which do not enclose an interior volume it is important

to

has It been integral this behaviour the the the shell. edge of proposed equations at of consider in previous work (WVarham [1988) that by taking the limit of P to p in from D and E, results in two equations that give a condition on I. However if the limits are taken correctly then,

lim Mk['ýD](P) _ P+
HM vfk[I](P) . p-

=Mý[ý](P) -(P)
=Mk[ i](P)

+ (1 - c+(P))(O+(P) (1 - c_(P))(O+(P) -

-(P))p-.

(2.5.7) (2.5.8)

0-(P) _

page 43

Acoustic Problem. which leads to the identity,

ýý+(P) + c-(p) 1)ß(P) 0. = -

(2.5.9)

This equation simply states the fact that c_ (p) =1-

c+(p) and gives no condition

A (D. on

more sophisticated argument is needed to define the edge conditions for the open plate problem. When the thickness of the plate is taken to zero the edge around the plate becomes an additional boundary. Consequently there needs to be a supplementary boundary condition

specified on this boundary. dimensional hypersingular

In his recent paper Martin

[1991] discusses the behaviour of one-

integral equations over finite intervals and this idea is discussed in in the mathematical but for this sense,

more detail. This edge boundary condition is arbitrary

is governed by the original physical problem. Continuity case the plate means that (D must be zero at the edge of the shell;

difference the of pressure across

(p) = 0, (D

p on the edge.

(2.5.10)

In past work (eg. Pierce [1987]), this edge boundary condition has been satisfied by the fluid basis functions. In most numerical work for arbitrary choice of appropriate thin plates (e. g.

Terai [1981] and Warham [1988]) the edge boundary condition is essentially ignored since there described In in later the the the numerical work nodes on edge of plate. are no chapters, the boundary the that this the edge of plate means condition must be imposed presence of nodes on formulation. the upon numerical

Page44

Collocation Mc fhod.

CHAPTER
Collocation

3.
Method

3.1 Introduction
In this chapter a collocation method is described for the solution of radiation and scattering body for of arbitrary a submerged problems the hyper-singular geometry. A new way of numerically integrating

kernels that occur in the boundary integral formulation

is presented, and

the method is shown to be independent of the interpolation variables. Results for a selection of scattering and radiation

fluid for the and geometrical used problems show the validity and

accuracy of the method. The problem of uniqueness at critical wavenumbers is circumvented by implementing method of Burton and Miller, described in the previous chapter. the

High order quadrilateral

for interpolate the acoustic and geometric variables. to elements are used

3.2 Discretization
3.2.1 Interpolation

A number of connecting elements are defined on the surface domain. defined by these elements form the set of collocation Within equations are satisfied.

The nodal points integral

boundary the points at which

the elements, the approximate fluid and geometric variables are The nodal positions

functions. in terms of element shape related to the element nodal values

Cartesian (X, local Z), Y, Cartesian the in defined the terms axes global the of are element of Gauss integration the tangential (x, define the at planes normal and y, z), axes, curvilinear define (ý, () the element. rl, axes, in the fluid terms of elemental given are variables and of global position points and the

The approximations

by, functions and element nodal values shape

mmm

X
1=1

N1(ß, ý1)Xi,

Y(ý, ýI) =
, =1

N1(ß,ýl)Yi,
(90(ß, 77)
an

2(e,

ý1)_
1=1

Ný(ý, ý1)z,.

X3.2.1)

Nj(ý, 77)01,
=1

_
1=1

and 11)

(3.2.2)

In the definitions

above, m. represents the number of nodes per element.
Page 45

Collocation For this study 9-noded quadrilateral by, given are Ni = 4ýý - 1)ý1ýý] 1), 2), N4 = 2ýý - 1)(1 - 7? N7 = 4ýýý - 1)i](7l + 1), Na = zý1 -ý2)77(ýl 1), 0)(1 (1 1'ß'5 = N8= - q'), elements were used and the appropriate

Method. .

shape functions

X3 = 4ý(e + 1)i1(i7 - 1), N6=
N9

2ý(ý+1)(1-112
1)71(71+ 1),

2(1_ý2)7J(1l+1),

=4b+

Figure (3.1) shows the geometry for the 9-noded element. within be an element can written

The approximation

of a variable

in terms of the vector product,

0(ý, 77)= {Ne

IT

loj

},

(3.2.3)

{Ne} where

is the vector of the element nodal shape functions defined at. (ý, i) and {QJ } is the

vector of nodal values of the variable 0 for element j. 3.2.2 Local and Curvilinear Axes

The curvilinear

axes within the element are defined by,

ee

=ý -ex

(gÄ(
oÄ(
a, 7 eX+-

+a

aYeY
aY
ä-eY,

+

a-

ZeZ,
(3.2.4)

aZ
- (9ýeZ,

e=

e( = ee x e,

W=X taking where

Y, and 2, ,

aw

_

y, 71) yV1.

(3.2.5)

The local axes vectors are derived from these curvilinear ones with the relationships,

ex = eý , eZ = eý,

(3.2.6)

ey = e, x e, for indicates hat the the vectors notation normalization where By the orthogonality noting system. for the transformation with respect to the global axes

of the local axes, it is possible to write the Jacobian matrix

between the local and curvilinear coordinate systems as,
46 Page

Collocation

Method.

7
A 5

8 ýy 9
x

12 3
Z

6

Y X

7

4

1

23
element.

Figure (3.1). Geometry of the 9-noded isoparametric

Page 47

Collocation Method.

äý

8

__

iii
J21

0 J--

a or dy

(3.2.7)

With,

Jii=

ax =ex"ee,

ax Jai=ý=et"e,,.

J22== Oy _ey

eý.

(3.2.8)

From these relationships

the following Jacobian may be formed:

IJI=

J11J22.

(3.2.9)

A vector that appears later in this chapter is defined by,

nq

x Vqq

.

(3.2.10)

this can be expanded in the local coordinate system as,

nq

x

7y

0= ax

ex

-y

aoey

.

(3.2.11)

The relationship

(3.2.7) in Eq. be this to given allows vector evaluated in terms of the curvilinear

axes thus enabling a numerical approximation.

3.3

Integration

of

Weak Singularity

There exist several numerical

methods that enable a weak singularity

to be integrated

distance inverse For the this singularity study within an element.

scheme of Lachat and Watson

[1976] was used. In the collocation method a singularity will occur at the nodal points within an in Lachat Watson In the the curvilinear the and singular element scheme element. is replaced by two, three, or four triangular corresponding vertex. These triangular elements with the singularity axes system

always at the same

elements are "collapsed" rectangular elements and the is at a corner, mid-side, or center

depends on whether the singularity number of subelements

Jacobian integration is When the the relating and over element sub-element calculated it node. is found that the O(r-1) singularity is removed. Figure (3.2) shows the division of the 9-noded

depending the on singular node. element
page 48

Collocation

Method.

1

1

" 2 3

2

Corner node
0
Singularity

Mid-side node

4c

2 1

42

3

3,4 Sub-element
for singular integration.

Center node
Figure (3.2). Element sub-division

Page 49

B133L LONDIN. UNý/

Collocation Method. The shape functions for the four-noded subelement, defined by the subelement axes ý,, and
r), are, N13= 4(1 +ßs)(1 + als),

. 4 =1

1-ßs)(1+7)s),

N3 = 4(1 - ßs)(1 - ýIs)>

4(1 +ý3)(1 = -CJs)

The Jacobian is defined by,

IJ(ýs, ýs)I=
where,

äý äý'
ýs qs

o3

ai18

'

(3.3.1)

as ii=11

aSs

(3.3.2)

The superscript

indicates the subelement nodal coordinate with respect to the 77axes. The 4,

(3.3.1) defined in a similar way. in Eq. terms are other Noting evaluated, that ý3 = ý4 and r73 = q4, an expression for the subelement Jacobian can be

ýJ3(i

3,0

I=

(,q, + 1)-4 -1 ,

(3.3.3)

in Ai is the the that is i the the curvilinear space area of subeleand subelement of number where ment. The integration into be transformed an expression, removing of a singular element can

the singularity,

1

subel

1,

r(ý i1
integration In the modified space. shape functions

Idýsdiis Js

(3.3.4)

integration between the distance the Here r represents the singular node and curvilinear scheme, the curvilinear

point in the

interpolated points are allows numerical

using the subelement implementation

defined above

This transformation

Gauss integration. using a simple

3.. 4 Integral

Operators

The object of any numerical method is to transform the governing equations into a system of equations that is amenable to numerical solution. page 50 For a boundary element method this

Collocation Method. involves approximating equations. the integral Chapter in by 2, discretized matrix equations, presented

This has to be done so that high order singularities and problems of non-uniqueness are removed or circumvented. The integral operators that form

formulation the of numerical

the components of the integral equations will be discussed individually. 3.4.1 £k Operator This operator is defined by.

fGk(PQ)(Q)dSq. Gk [01(P) _

(2.2.3)

The kernel of this integral operator contains singularities O(r-1) form this operator for numerical discretization.

is there no need to transand the Ck ,

Using the element shape functions

operator may be approximated

by the following numerical expression,

ne

Gk[OI (P) _f
j =l

S'

Gk (P, q){Ne}T dS;

{ý }.

(3.4.1)

In this equation, ne is the number of elements. The integration is performed numerically in the curvilinear described field The Lachat Watson the above. of and surface method system using dSj functions is by, the the given area element and element shape using

is interpolated point

dS, -- IJ I<dq.
(3.4.1) is evaluated at each of the set of collocation points {Pt},

(3.4.2)

When Eq.

a system of

be These be written can equations assembled. equations can
way,

in matrix form in the following

{, Ck[OI (Pi)l

=

[Lk]{

}.

(3.4.3)

3.4.2

Mk

Operator

This operator is defined by.

Mk[q5](P) =J

aGäPýQ)q(Q)dsq.
Sq

(2.2.4)

page 51

Collocation alethod. For this integral operator, the kernel contains singularities O(r-`') is and so a way needed to in the following

avoid the integration
way,

of high order singularities.

The operator can be rewritten

[Mk

-c(P)1]0=

[Mk-Mol0+

[Mo-c(P)ll0.

(3.4.4)

Eq. (3.4.4) can be approximated

in terms of the element shape functions,

Mk ýýý(P)

E

j=1
:

Is, ( aGk(P, q) 3G0(ß 4) . _ ön 9 an, an
iaý

{Ne}T dS;

10i }+ (3.4.5)

is i

ÖG0(P,

q)

an

IN

eT e

dS;

{0i }-

c(p)O(P).

The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.5) contains singularities of O(r-2). singularity integration is ignored and Eq. (3.4.5) is integrated numerically technique.

This

using the modified numerical

By taking the field point P to each of the collocation points a system of

in by, be form be These matrix expressed assembled. can equations can

{[Mk

-

C(P)1]I

=

[Mk

-

Cp]l01

-

[Alk

-_

lo]Lq}

+ [M0

-

Cp]101.

(3.4.6)

The diagonal matrix the following

[Cp] is the value of c(P) evaluated at the collocation node points. Consider (3.4.6), in last Eq. the term of

definition

mil

- cl
m21

M12 m22 c2

... ...

mli m2i

min
M2n

Oi
02

[Mo-Cp]{O}=

Mil

mat

772t;

c;

ln2n

Oi

(3.4.7)

Mni

mn2

mni

mnn

-

Cn

0n

The O(r-2)

singularities

are distributed

by the element shape functions to the diagonal elements

of this matrix. The definition

These matrix elements can be accurately defined by using a row sum procedure. in Chapter by, 2 given c(P) was of

is

(P, j 0Go g) ds .

(3.2.13)

page 52

Collocation By using this relationship

Method.

the diagonal elements of the matrix defined in Eq (3.1.7) are given

by,

mii

-

ci -

-1

j#i

mij.

(3.4.8)

Therefore not only are the singular elements evaluated but c(p) is also implicitly The A4

evaluated.

it be in By as, operator may numerically evaluated redefining a similar way.

[Mk

+ c(P)Z]

[Mk

+ Mo]

-

[Mo

ß, c(P)Zj -

(3.4.9)

the operators

in the numerical

approximation

by, are given

T

n,

k

[0] (P)

aGk (P, q)

aGoýP,

-E
? =1

ifp
n` r

On
aGGO(P,

+
Q)

an 9
{N
eT }

IN

e } 7' dSj

{

}(3.4.10)

j=1

JS

an q

dSj

{0j }-

c(p)O(P).

This leads to the following matrix expression;

{ [MT

+ C(P)Z]

01 =

[1ý1k + Cp]{0}

[Mk M0]{0} + =

-

[silo

-

Cp]{q}

(3.4.11)

The first matrix on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.11) contains singularities O(r-1) O(r-2) above.
3.4.3 )/k Operator

and the

singularities

in the second matrix are evaluated using the row sum procedure described

This operator is defined by,

s a2Gk(P, Q)O(Q)dSq. ti-ý[¢](P) = , ön ön s9P It is this operator numerical

(2.2.6)

that, need the greatest amount of consideration when implementing that need integrating.

a

high there are order singularities method since page 53

Based on a

Collocation 11(thod. [1949], (2.2.6) in by it is Eq. into tangential Maue to the possible convert expression proof shown derivatives using the basic vector identity,

(np - Vq)(n9 - Vq) = (nn nq)(Vq 0) (nq (np Vq) Vq). x x " "

(3.4.12)

By integrating

by parts, the transformed

Nk for is by, the expression given operator

Nk [01(P) -J S

{(nP is

. nq)k2Gk(P,

q)O(q)

-

(nq

xV

q0(q))

" (nP

x

C9)Gk(P,

q)]

dSq+

(3.4.13)
n9 O9 x (q)(np x VgGk(P,

q))] dSq.

The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.16) can be transformed by Stoke's theorem into an integral around the edge of S. Therefore for closed surfaces it is equal to zero and can finally be neglected. The transformed expression for the 111, is by, given E operator

Nk[01(P)

=f

[(np s

(n9 (9)) (np dSq. Vq Vq)Gk(P, X x q)] ' n9)k2Gk(P, 4)o(q) .

(3.4.14)

The validity of this expression has been shown in greater detail by Stallybrass [1967] and Mitzner [1966]. Eq. (2.2.6) can be rewritten in the following way,

Nk0

=

[.Nk

-

Vol 0+

%Voc"

(3.4.15)

The first operator on the right hand side contains terms of order O(r-1) of order O(r-2). following

and the second terms by the

Using the element shape functions Eq. (3.4.15) can be approximated

expression,

Nk [01 (P)

-J
j=1

l(nP

nq)k2Gk(P,

q){Ne}T

_

(nq X Vq{Ne}T)

"

(np

x V9)(Gk(P,

q) -Go(P,

q))dS9

10i }-

(3.4.16)

/J

(nq x Vq{Ne}T)

(np x V)Go(P.

q)dSj

{ 0i }.

1=1

J)

page 54

Collocation The O(-2) singularity

11ethod. .

in the second term of this expression is ignored for the time being and

Eq. (3.4.16) is evaluated at each collocation point to assemble the following matrix equation;

{-Nk[OJ(PP)} _ [,''k]M

[_1'o]{yh}. [: Vo){¢} Vk + _ - .

(3.4.1 7)

This represents the matrix made to integrate the singularity

Nz for the equation operator, [N0] in the term. occurring

and no further modification

is

It will be shown that there is of these terms. The singularity

inaccuracies due integration the to the of cancellation numerical Consider the singular integration

for A'ö the over one element operator.

is separated from the rest of the element by a disk segment of small radius e. The singular integration integration be into the over element can over the element separated a non singular

disk integration disk Iý Iý the the segment, over segment, ; and and a singular minus ,

Ij s,
The integration

(nq XVq (4)) - (np x V, GO(P,q))dS9 = I,j,

Ij,

.

(3.4.18)

Iý is assumed to be accurate within

the limits of the numerical integration the

be integration for to inaccuracies The the contained within are assumed element scheme. integration

Ij2. The small disk segment is assumed to be flat and the vector T is assumed to be to the normal. The gradients within Eq. (3.4.18) can be

in the plane of the disk, perpendicular expressed as,

(nq x Oq4(r, e)) =
B)) = (np xV gGo(r,

ö«r, B)

(n9 X ''),
(np x T),

3G0(r, B)
Or

(3.4.19)

The integration

in Eq (3.4.18) can be rewritten as,

In e' In E ä0(r, 6)2oGo(r, 0) drd9. JI Ij rI ar 8r

(3.4.20)

IJI be Within taken Jacobian can as constant. where the

the disk segment it is assumed that 0

(3.4.20) is in Eq 0 the dependency the linear variation global of on position has a vector and so by, from r and given independent page 55

Collocation

1lfthod. .

00)
Or r-0

= pose

(OX 0
r=0

sine

y

(3.4.21)
r_0

Using this relationship

Ij can be represented by,

Ii =Ii,

+IB1jr

.

(3.4.22)

For all elements j that contain the singularity inadequate singular integration.

there will be similar errors in Ir due to the

However since the summation of the Ie terms is equal to zero

these errors cancel each other out. Therefore it is safe to evaluate the singular terms in the [N. ] matrix using the Lachat and Watson inverse distance singularity scheme. method has

In a recent paper by Wu, Seybert and Wan [1991] a very similar collocation

been described. This shows that Maue's equation needs C' continuity at the collocation points and to achieve this on CO continuous elements the collocation points are put inside the elements to form an over determined set of equations. To achieve the integration of the Cauchy principal (3.4.18) in integral Eq. they use additional shown value This study uses a much more simple method. directly elements X, operator. regularization. Eq. (3.4.18) for singular of the

By integrating

it is recognized that there will be errors in the matrix approximation

However this work has shown that there will be cancellation of these errors when

the acoustic problem is solved and so the sophisticated treatment of Eq (3.4.18) in the work by Wu et al is unnecessary. 3.4.4 Matrix formulation for the Burton and Miller boundary

It is now possible to write the matrix approximation integral equation, Eq. (2.4.4);

([Mk

-

Cp]

+

a[Nk])

f01

=

QLk}

+

a[Mk

+

cr])

{o}
an

(90i -foil -a

ön

(3.4.23)

Eq. (3.4.23) represents a matrix equation of the form,

[H]x =
page 56

(3.4.24)

Collocation where the matrix [H], is full, complex and non-symnmetric.

Method.

In the past considerable effort

has been made to symmetrize symmetric

this matrix equation (Mathews [1986]). For this study this non technique followed

directly equation set was solved using a standard LU-factorization

by forward and backward substitution.

The imaginary coupling constant a takes the value i/k,

since this has been shown by previous researchers (Burton and Miller [1971]) to be the optimum value. For the numerical integration 3x3 Gauss integration was used for both the non singular

for Lachat the elements and and Watson subelements. 3.4.5 Exterior pressure distribution is given by,

The exterior pressure distribution

Os(P) _ Mk[0](P)

£k[01(P). -

PEE.

(3.4.25)

This expression can be approximated

numerically by using the element shape functions,

(P)

_
j=1

öGk(P, q) fSa9 {Ne}dS

(is
{(' )i=1 I

Gk (P, q){Ne}dS

ai

=1

a

(3.4.26)

Since the field point P is exterior

to the boundary surface there is no singular kernel in this

expression that needs special consideration. For the far field pressure distribution this numerical expression can be further simplified.

By considering the geometry shown in figure (3.3) it is possible to write,

Off (P) _
eikR ný

4ýR

Js

iknq - ReikR. 9{Ne}dS

{¢ý }-J

/ý ei

kiý

)f
q{: ý'e}dS

a

S

an (3.4.27)

boundary far-field field the the R surface point. point vector and q represents represents where In vector form this expression can be written as

o3

-

lMkf

J

{0}

{L'k'} an

(3.4.28)

page 57

Collocation Method.

Figure (3.3) Geometry for evaluating the far field pressure distribution.

3.5

The computer

code
of the collocation method was coded in FORTRAN

The numerical implementation

predom-

inantly on an IBM RS6000 machine in a UNIX environment.

The code was written to primarily

evaluate the numerical method presented above and it was found that in core memory space was large enough to run problems of a large enough size to demonstrate of simple geometries. Use was made of structural geometry in order to reduce the problem size considerably. This symmetry Z the global axis and in most about for accuracy a number

done by degree a was specifying of rotational cases only one axisyinmetric

discretized. is the actually quarter of acoustic structure

3.6 Numerical

results
fron

3.6.1

Radiation

submerged

spheres

One axisymmetric

discretized into is a number of elements quarter of a sphere with radius a

for A different (3.4) the Figure the spherical problem, geometries mesh shows of equal area. Legendre distribution a with velocity surface is specified on the sphere,

an

ao aoo P(cos9).
an

(3.6.1)

The resulting normalized acoustic impedance, Z, is calculated,
page 58

Collocation %fcihod.

Z-ko/0'0.

(3.6.2)

and further

normalized

with respect to P,

to form the normalized modal acoustic impedance. and modes are plotted with respect to wavenuinber

The results for various discretizations

in figures (3.5-8). These results are compared to the analytical solution (Junger and Feit [1986]) and show high accuracy and good convergence. The effectiveness of the of the Burton and 1-filler formulation non-uniqueness at critical in removing the problem of

frequencies is shown in figures (3.9-10). The error in the normalized

is impedance plotted at the internal acoustic eigenvalues for the interior spherical problem, modal for ka less than 10. These eigen-frequencies can be calculated analytically. high formulations for SHIE DSHIE the the quite clearly errors and critical frequencies of the interior problem. The error plots show

around the appropriate

These plots also show that with the Burton and

Miller formulation,

the error in modal impedance for these modes is less than 0.1% for n=0, and n=2 from and less than 5% for n=3. a submerged sphere

less than 1% for n=1 3.6.2 Acoustic

scattering

Figure (3.11) shows the convergence of the backscattered far-field form function for scattering of a plane wave by a rigid sphere compared to an analytical solution. The incident wave is defined by,

Oi

=

eikz

(3.6.3)

backscattered the and

far-field form function is given by,

2R 10, = aa

(3-6.4)

low high frequency the to This plot shows good convergence the analytical solution and and characteristics of plane wave scattering. is predominant. At low frequency the form-function depends on k2 as

Raleigh scattering

In this frequency regime the acoustic wavelength is large depends only on the volume of the sphere. At limit. In this frequency regime

form-function the the to and scatterer compared higher frequencies the form-function

converges to the Kirchoff

from the illuminated is it the specular reflections

for dominate the sphere the that and surfaces

page 59

Collocation Kirchoff approximation of the illuminated frequency independent form-function, predicts a

Ifcthod.

dependent on the area

frequency This plot also shows the characteristic oscillations due to surface.

the interference of Franz' waves. Figures (3.12-13) show the scattering distribution The axis magnitudes for these plots is the Y-Z with unit magnitude solution. Y-Z in the the of surface pressure for the plane The incident in the Y-Z for frequencies. various plane

far-field the pressure amplitude components of

plane wave. Again the numerical results are compared to an

analytical

Figure (3.14) shows the amplitude same unit amplitude

incident plane wave, at two frequencies for different discretizations.

plotted points in this figure correspond to the nodal points on the surface mesh. These points are far-field It is for 24 the to the that solution. analytical compared worth noting elements accuracy be to greater than the surface accuracy. This indicates a degree of error `smoothing' when seems calculating 3.6.3 the far-field quantities. scattering from a submerged spheroid distributions for oblate and prolate

Acoustic

The figures (3.15-16) show the far-field scattering One axisymmetric spheroids.

quarter of the spheroid is discretized and the plane-wave is taken of the problem. the mesh for the spheroids was The comparison to

to be incident end on to preserve the axisyinmetry

In the absence of any sophisticated meshing algorithm,

directions. in Y, Z X, by the the spherical mesh simply scaling calculated

S. for his by W. Wu, PhD project by the the numerical results was provided program written [1990]. This program was written to solve for purely axisymmetric acoustic problems using high order line-elements. The program was run using 20 such elements and the assumption made that There seems to be a high degree of accordance between

this represented a converged solution. the results.

These test cases show the efficiency of the model for geometries other than the

described above. simple spherical problem 3.6.4 Acoustic scattering from a submerged finite cylinder from a finite

The last set of numerical results concerns the far-field scattering distribution

in for Figure The L length this are shown problem mesh geometries and radius a. cylinder of (3.17). Again only one axisynunetric discretized is is the the and plane wave quarter of cylinder

incident. along the Z axis. The numerical results are compared to the results of S.W. Wu using 44 axi-syrrunetric line elements.
page 60

Collocation .lfethod. Figure (3.18) shows the far field scattering results for a cylinder with length 4a and 8a. Both plots in the figure show good agreement with the results of S.W. \Vu. Figure (3.19) shows the convergence of the scattering distribution importance from the L=8.0 figure This cylinder. shows the for is the case as

discontinuities, high density the around surface of elements of a

the 104 element mesh.

page 61

Collocation

Method.

(a) 6 Elements

(b) 24 Elements

(c) 96 Elements

Figure (3.4).

The different

for the spherical problem mesh geometries
page 62

Collocation Method.

1.5 Z 1.0 n=O

0.5
0.0

-0.5
` -1.0 0

246g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0

0.5

0.0
-0.5

1 .V 1n

02468 Analytical Figure (3.5). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary

ka A.

10

modal impedance for the rigid sphere, modes 0 and 1.

quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 elements.
page 63

Collocation

Method.

1.5 Z 1.0 n=2

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

02

4

6

g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0 n=3

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5 02468
Analytical Figure (3.6). Normalized One axisymmetric Real .

ka Imaginary

10

2 3. for impedance the and modal rigid sphere, modes

discretized into 6 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 64

Collocation

Method.

1.5 Z 1.0 n-0

0.5

0.0
-0.5

-1.0

0

2

4

6

g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0 n=1

0.5 0.0
-0.5
1"

02468 Analytical Figure (3.7). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary

ka &.

10

0 for impedance 1. the modes and modal rigid sphere,

discretized into 24 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 65

Collocation

Method.

1.5 Z 1.0
n=2

0.5

0.0
-0.5

V -I.1A

0246

g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0 n=3

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0 1.5 -

02468 Analytical Real . Imaginary

ka A.

10

Figure (3.8). Normalized One axisymmetric

2 3. for impedance the and rigid sphere, modes modal

into 24 discretized is the elements. quarter of sphere, radius a,
page 66

Collocation Method.

104

0

0

3 10
L L

n=0
e

0

O

102
e 101
100 000ee

eo e0


10-1 sse0 o 0a 0 epe ®e e ®e

ao G

0

A A

10 -2 0

0

10 -3 10-4 02468 104 103
L

ka

10

00

n=1
eeA 0
A o AA

O

L 102 101 100 10 -1 0 A, 00
-

eeA00 &
oQs: O am O ta

A

$8

es0
NW MI 'Do

102

103
10-4 02468 Coupled . SHIE o. DHSIE ka '& . 10

Figure (3.9). Normalized

for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal quarter discretized is into the sphere, radius a, of

0 and 1. One axisymmetric 24 elements.

page 67

Collocation Method.

104 103
O V

n=2
A
A

0 A

L 102
101 10° 10 -1 10 -2
0
e0°°00

0 Ao

g
00

®

®o

°o °

oo 000

10 -3
, n-4 IV

s

02468 104 3 10
LA

ka

10

n=3

00 `

2es 10

101
Ls

10

000

AS

00

e
ae

10 -1

0o0 00 "

0

CPA

°0
Le 00 MEN

o49

A

o

10 -2 103

00

"

10-4 02468 Coupled
Figure (8.10).

ka . SHIE o. DHSIE .

10

Normalized

for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal discretized is into the quarter of sphere, radius a,

2 and 3. One axisymmetric 24 elements.

page 68

Collocation

Method.

kn

o
0 0

0 0
0 0

Itt

M

0 0 0

N

0

. --4

O ri

00 -

ýO r-+

ýt

NO .-OOOOO

00

N

uo! Jz)un, 4 uuao3
6 elements Figure (4.11). 0.24 .

elements

Plane wave backscattered form function

for the rigid sphere.

One axisymmetric elements.

quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 and 24

page 69

Collocation Method.

ka=0.1 0.015 0.010 0.005

0.000

-0.005
-0.010 4--0.015 -0.020

-0.015

-0.010

-0.005

0.000

0.005

ka=1

0.8
0.6
0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2

-0.4
-0.6 -0.8 -1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

Analytical Figure (S. 12). Far field form function

Numerical distribution for scattering incident of an

from left One by The is incident to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and quarter of sphere, radius a, axisyinmetric the distribution is calculated at ka = 0.1 and 1.0
page 70

Collocation

Method.

ka=3 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

ka=5

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
-0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5
Analytical Figure (3.13). Far field form function

X

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Numerical distribution

O.

for scattering of an incident

left from One by incident The is to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and sphere, radius a, axisymmetric quarter of the distribution is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 71

Collocation Method.

ka=3 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5
-1 -1.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

ka=5

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5
Analytical Figure (3.14). Amplitude

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

24 Elements

13 .

96 Elements

by for a rigid plane wave scattering of surface pressure

One is from left incident The to axisymmetric quarter plane wave right. sphere. distribution discretized is into the 6 24 the elements and and sphere, radius a, of is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 72

Collocation

Method.

k=1.0 b=0.2 a=1.0
0.20

0.10

0.00
-0.10

ý-0.20 . -0.40

.1

-0.20

0.00

0.20

0.40

a=1.0 b=0.2 k=3.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8_ 1.8 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4
O.

-1.4

-1.0

-0.6

-0.2

1.8

S. W. Wu Figure (8.15. Farfield pressure distribution

Numerical

for scattering of an incident plane left from to incident is The by right. plane wave a rigid oblate spheroid. wave 96 into discretized is the One axisymmetric elements and quarter of spheroid the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 axisymmetric calculated using line elements.
page 73

Collocation

Method.

a=0.2 b=1.0 k=1.0 0.02

0.01

0.00
-0.01

-0.02 -0.02

-0.01

0.00

0.01

a=0.2 b=1.0 k=3.0
0.05

0.03

0.01

-0.01

-0.03

+-0.05
-0.05 -0.03 -0.01

0.01

0.03

0.05

S. W. Wu Figure (3.16). Farfield pressure distribution

Numerical for scattering of an incident plane The plane wave is incident from left to right.

by a rigid prolate spheroid. wave

One axisymmetric quarter of the spheroid is discretized into 96 elements and the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 line axisymmetric elements. calculated using
Page 74

Collocation

Method.

(a) 72 Elements

(b) 88 Elements

(c) 104 Elements

Figure (3.17.

The different

for the cylinder problem mesh geometries

page 75

Collocation

Method.

a=1.0 L=4.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3

0.5

a=1.0 L=8.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

S. W. Wu
Figure wave (3.18). by a rigid Farfield pressure distribution for

Numerical
scattering

O.
incident of an left to right. plane The

cylinder.

The plane at k=1.0 for

is incident wave L=4.0

from

distribution quarter for

is calculated

and L=8.0.

One axisymmetric and 104 elements line

the cylinder of

is discretized

into 72 elements for L=4.0

L=8.0.

The results of S. W. Wu were calculated

44 axisymmetric using

elements.
page 76

Collocation

Method.

\o ö

Ö

4 1N
0 0 II 0
ea


N O

.w.

0

N 9

i

.`

ýi

1

9

Ö
ÖCCÖÖÖ ýt NO C14 lqt ýc

S. W. Wu

.

72 Elements

f

.

88 Elements

13.104 Elements

.

Figure

(8.19).

Convergence a=1.0,

farfield the of

scattering

distribution

from

the cylin-

der, L=8.0,

at a wave number

of k=1.0.

page 77

I ariaftonal

110hod. .

CHAPTER
Variational Method

4.1 Introduction
In this chapter a variational proximation of the hyper-singular method is described that enables the accurate numerical apYk operator. This method is based on the work of Mariem is important operator .A for two

[1987]. Hamdi Previous chapters have indicated that the and reasons. First it is a main constituent

of the DSHIE for closed body acoustic problems, which circumventing the probdescribed in

SHIE, forms the the Burton and Miller formulation when coupled with

lem of uniqueness. Second it forms the basis of the thin shell acoustic formulation Chapter 2.

The variational integrating of resulting

is method considered since it provides an elegant solution to the problem kernel as well as resulting in a symmetric matrix equation. The is also independent of the type of numerical interpolation used.

the hypersingular

numerical formulation

Subsequent chapters will show that the variational formulation couples to the elastic formulation in the thin shell an efficient and symmetric way. of The disadvantage with the method is that it involves an extra integration which increases the computational radiation size of the problem. Results are presented for thin shell scattering and accuracy of the method. and

problems that show the validity

Both closed and non

between the thin variational method and made are comparisons and considered are shells closed the collocation in Chapter 3. described method

4.2

Weighted

Residue

Techniques

Variational the and

Method

The purpose of this section is to outline the principles behind the collocation and variational methods. highlight 4.2.1 The arguments that follow are taken from Zeinkiewicz [1989] and are presented to the relationship between the two methods. Method

Weighted

Residual-Galerkin

The general acoustic problem may be expressed by the linear equation,

A[O] (p) =8ý

(P)

(4.2.1)

page 78

Variational .11cthod.
Eq. (4.2.1) n-iust be satisfied at every point, domain, p, on some surface S. It follows therefore

that;

is

(p)A[¢](P)dSp =J u.,

is u'(P)B ön

(P)dSp,

(4.2.2)

where w is a weighting be approximated may

function

and Eq. (4.2.2) must be satisfied for all w. The fluid variables

in terms of the global shape functions,

{N9}T

{0},

a0

:

1, %-g IT

fan

(4.2.3)

If the approximated

fluid the values of variables are inserted into Eq. (4.2.2) then it is clearly is made and u'

impossible for this expression to be satisfied for all uw. Instead an approximation is replaced by a finite set of weighting functions so that,

w=

wj,

j=1

to n.

(4.2.4)

Eq. (4.2.2) will now yield a set of n simultaneous equations given by,

f

w(P)A[{'ßr9}T

{}](p)dS=

is
J

w(P)13

{N}T

'91]

(P)dS.

(4.2.5)

This equation represents an integral of error residuals and clearly the equation set generated depends on the set of weighting functions that are chosen. If the weighting functions are chosen so that,

b(P wi = - Pj),

(4.2.6)

(4.2.5) Eq. to the is then the collocation method will correspond of nodal points set pj where described in Chapter 3. If however the weighting functions are chosen so that,

Wj

_

ý'J : ,

(4.2.7)

Galerkin is the (4.2.5) then Eq.

weighted residual method. page 79

Variational 4.2.2 Variational Method
some scalar functional

If0hod. .

For the variational

method

is generated

using some a priori

guess

as to the physical nature of the problem. may correspond to the potential

For some physical problems this scalar functional

energy or the energy dissipation of the system. The solution this functional with respect to the unknown variable.

of the problem is achieved by minimizing Consider the BEM formulation

for the thin shell acoustic problem defined in Chapter 2,

a4(P) an

[ýDl(P)Alk _

(4.2.8)

The appropriate

functional

is defined by,

n=I
The minimization the symmetry functional this of

(

Oý3 9n

2ýA1 [<D] (p) dSp.
formulation of the problem.

(4.2.9)
Due to

gives the variational

of the J1/k operator, the stationary value problem can be evaluated in a straight

forward manner,

bII =I

b(a(P)

b(DA-k[(DI (P) -

dSp = 0.

(4.2.10)

It can be seen that this expression is identical to the Galerkin formulation problem. Galerkin

of the thin shell and

In general if the governing integral operator is self adjoint then the variational formulations be identical. will The whole subject of variational

methods is discussed

in great detail in the book by Morse and Feshbach [1953].

4.3

Variational

Boundary

Integral

Formulation

The full boundary integral equation for the thin shell problem is defined by,

ao(p) as (P) A, + P _ k[ýJ(P)

(2.5.6)

difference is in Chapter 1 Following the the the 3 pressure across shell. method shown where be Nk transformed can the operator into tangential derivatives; page 80

Variational If0hod.

[(

tp

*f9)k2Gk(P,

q)4(q)

-

(n9

X Vq

(q))

-

(nP

x

Vq)C'k(P,

dSq. q)]

(4.3.1)

For the variational

formulation,

Eq.

(2.5.6) is multiplied

by 6D(p) and integrated

with

respect to p over the shell surface S,

I s

bý(P)

aanP)

dsp =

Ibý(p)i1

is

[<D](p)dSp + k

&D(p)

aý (P)
p

dSp.

(4-3.2)

The expression for the Alk operator given in Eq. integrating by parts to obtain the expression,

(4.2.1) can be further

transformed

by

All [6

ý] =ff ,

[(np ss

(np (nq GPb(D(P)) Vq(D(q))] Gk(p, nv)k26D(P)(D(4') x x q)dSgdSp. ' '

(4.3.3)
Eq. (4.3.3) contains singularities of O(r-1) it is and consequently possible to integrate [1976]. Lachat Watson scheme of and this

equation accurately using the modified integration In arriving justification

at Eq. (4.3.3) integrations around the edge of the thin shell are discarded. The

for this in Chapter 3 was that for closed thin shells there is no edge and consequently must be equal to zero. For non-closed thin shells this is not the case. However

these integrations in Chapter

2 it was shown that the pressure difference around the edge of the shell must be must also be equal to zero.

integration for Therefore the these to shells edge zero. equal

4.4 Numerical

Implementation

The discretization interpolation by, mated

of the variational

formulation

is implemented using the same order of approxi-

Vk. be for The that the numerically as operator can collocation method.

ýe

ne

i=1

j-1

E {bitIT I> l [(np
(nP

" nq)k`2{N

}{Ng

}T

_

X OPlApj)-(n9

X Vq{NgIT)]Gk(P,

W}. 9)dSqdSp
(4.4.1)

page 81

Variational Alethod. In Eq. (4.4.1) the gradient of the shape function axis system. is expressed in terms of the local coordinate shown

In order to evaluate these gradients it is necessary to use the relationship The Jacobian matrix

in Eq (3.2.11).

for the system, defined in Eq. (3.2.7), then enables the system.

gradient to be expressed in derivatives of the curvilinear For the integration The integration

in Eq. (4.4.1), the point p ranges over Si and the point q ranges over Sj . The singularities i=j. points when

with respect to p is performed using simple Gauss integration. will occur at these Gauss integration

in the above numerical approximation It is these auto-influence singular integration

elements that need to be integrated

Watson Lachat the and using

scheme. For the integration

divided be to the with respect q, element, will

in figure (4.1) as shown

Singularity at Gauss point

Figure (4.1).

Subelement division.

The expression in Eq. (4.4.1) can be assembled into a matrix formulation problem,

of the variational

[N{} -A

a0 -

190`

älß an

0. =

(4.4.2).

where the matrix

[A] represents the numerical approximation,

ne

{b4ti}T {o}T [A]{O} =E j=1

(Isir

{Ne}{Ne}TdS

(4.4.3)

In practice this banded symmetric matrix may be further approximated page 82

by the diagonal matrix,

Variational

Method.

aii

=i' S

(4) dSq. ý! ,

(4.4.4)

The matrix the standard

(4.4.2) in Eq. is symmetric equation

and is factorized into a LLT form using

Choleski factorization

technique (Jennings [1977)). The pressure differences are The order of Gauss integration

then evaluated by means of forward and backward substitution.

used to calculate the numerical results in this chapter are summarized in Table (4.1). Chapter 2 showed that the pressure distribution exterior to the thin shell is given by,

0 (P) _

(4.4.5)

following and approximated

similar

arguments presented in Chapter 3 the far field pressure distribution

is

by the vector expression,

Osf (R) _

{111kf}

ý,

PEE.

(4.4.6)

Element

p Integration

Integration q

Singular Non - singular
j Integration within subelement

3x3 2x2

4x4x4t 2x2

Table (4.1) Order of Gauss integration

4.5

Uniqueness

Numerical the of
method was introduced

Formulation

The variational thin shells.

formulating as a way of

the acoustic problem for

In general there is no problem of uniqueness of the numerical solution for thin

domain Since density interior interior for the the tends to the of resonant zero. shell shells since frequencies is proportional to this volume, the numerical formulation for non closed thin shells

is unique for all frequencies. For rigid thin shells that enclose a finite interior domain there will be problems of uniqueness interior frequencies this of at the resonant domain. page 83 Since the variational formulation of the

Variational problem is equivalent to the double boundary layer formulation detailed in Chapter

Method. 2, the

numerical solution will become ill-conditioned Although resulting a hybrid boundary boundary layer formulation

interior the at eigenvalues of

Neumann problem.

overcomes these problems of uniqueness, the

layer potential

is no longer equivalent to the pressure difference across the formulation hybrid does the of problem

shell. The reason for this is that a natural variational not exist, and the corresponding Galerkin formulation

is non-symmetric.

In this chapter no effort is made to circumvent the problems of uniqueness that arise for rigid closed thin shells. formulation the shells, However Chapter 6 will demonstrate that for the elastic, closed thin is unique at all frequencies.

4.6 Edge Boundary

Conditions

In Chapter boundary edge

2 it was shown that for non closed thin shells it is necessary to enforce an condition. The physical reality of this is that the pressure difference across the in the collocation

Since is implicit boundary be the this edges. condition not zero at shell must or variational numerical approximation .k the of

be it imposed then must operator, on the

resulting matrix

be by, This matrix equation set can represented equation set.

[H]{ýD} = {y},

(4.6.1)

[H] is the matrix where the appropriate

approximation

of the collocation or variational

formulation

{y} is and

hand side of this matrix equation; right

{ [A] {y} =
{

an _
an

} 0'
}

Variational, (4.6.2) Collocation.

a0
an

Defining

{'EJ

interior {(DI} to the that those correspond edge or vector elements of as and as,

be (4.6.1) Eq. can rewritten nodes,

HII HEI

HIE HEE

(b I 41>E

yI YE

(4.6.3)

The interior

known differences be in terms the edge pressure of pressure can now written

{yl}, known the vector differences and
page 84

Variational

lfethod. .

[HIf]Oýj}

-

{y'}

-

[HIE]{(ýE}.

(4.6.4)

If (D is equal to zero on the edge of the plate, this equation reduces to,

[HII]{(DI}

=

{yI}.

(4.6.5)

Imposing the edge boundary condition in this way is equivalent to making the shape function for an edge node equal to zero so that there is no contribution difference within to the interpolated pressure

the element from this node. Consequently the way the pressure difference goes

to zero, depends on the other shape functions within the edge element. This problem has not been delt extensively before in previous work. (Mariem and Hamdi [1987], Terai [1980], Warham [1988]). These studies have used constant value elements and condition is satisfied when

for these cases there are no edge nodes and the edge boundary distributing

differences from the element constant value to the nodal values. the out pressure described in this the that method above satisfies the chapter show results larger found it is However there that are numerical errors adequately. boundary the condition. edge of One possible im-

The numerical edge boundary

condition

due imposition to the these edge points at provement implemented not

in this study would be the modification

of the shape functions in

the edge elements, so that the edge boundary condition is included in the numerical formulation implicitly and thus more efficiently.

4.7

Computer

Code

The variational environment

FORTRAN like the using method collocation method was coded

in a UNIX

in the collocation method program were used the same routines used and many of Again all matrix routines are performed in core, however the symmetry be in that they more efficiently stored can a method means

little modification. with

in the the variational matrices of triangular

form, reducing the strain on memory requirements. feature of the variational in increase is the computational method time

The most striking

the to matrix assemble needed due to the extra integration.

equation set. This increase in computational

time is clearly method the

For both methods, but especially the variational page 85

Variational computational
order

Method.

effort needed to generate the numerical matrices will depend heavily on the
used.

of Gauss integration

Table (4.2) shows a comparison of accuracy for different orders of integration for the 6 element test case using the variational boundary condition and collocational method with a constant normal velocity

at ka = 1.0. The singular integrations represent the integrations within the

Lachat and Watson subelements and the non singular integrations represent all other numeriintegrations. cal computational integration contribution This data allows the selection of the optimum integration balancing scheme, non singular

speed with accuracy. Such an integration scheme seems to be 2x2 singular integration.

and 3x3

However for this relatively small problem the timing from

due to the singular integration is high. For large problems the ne contribution integrations

the non-singular

will dominate the timing however accuracy will depend strongly

on the order of singular integration. Some timing data is shown in table (4.3), for both the collocational and variational methods, applied to the thin shell formulation. is used within erwise. matrix For this direct comparison of timings, 3x3 and 2x2 integration integration is used oth-

the subelements of the singular integration

This data is shown graphically

in figure (4.2). The assembly time for the variational

is clearly greater than that of the collocation matrix and both assembly times show the ne . There is a significant difference in the times of matrix times are significantly less than the re-

dependency of approximately same factorization.

Whilst for both methods the factorization

factorization time, the spective assembly

timings show a n3 dependency. For large problems for

become dominant factor, favouring factor 100, thus the this time the variational » will which n.e Choleski factorization. the quicker symmetric method with

4.8 Numerical

Results

4.8.1

Spheroids The thin shell formulation is used to calculate the backscattered form function for different

spheroidal

function form in by, The incident given geometries with an end on plane wave.

f

2Rb Off _
a2 0t

(4.8.1)

for the case of a=b spherical where spheroidal

this equation reduces to Eq (3.6.4).

The spherical and

in Chapter the 3. those geometries are same as mesh page 86

Variational

3ffthod.

Method

Non Singular

Singular

Timing sx 10-2

Accuracy (%)

Collocation

2x2

2x2 3x3
4x4

219 376
579

1.55 0.74
1.05

3x3

2x2 3x3 4x4

365 509 723
589

0.68 0.08 0.23
1.04

4x4

2x2

3x3 4x4 Variational 2x2 2x2 3x3
4x4

730 937 333 509
732

0.30 0.60 1.38 0.65
0.23

3x3

2x2 3x3 4x4

1157 1550 2204
3111

0.65 0.81 0.43
0.32

4x4

2x2

3x3 4x4

3847 4942

0.43 0.56

Table (4.2) Comparison

integration different orders of of accuracy with

page 87

Variational

Method.

Method

Elements

Nodes

CPU Timing in seconds x 1O-' Assembly Factorisation Total

Collocation

3
6

19
33

172
367

1
3

173
370

12 24 48 96 Variational 3 6 12 24
48

61 113 217 417 19 33 61 113
217

1039 3071 9680 36708 205 518 1437 4348
15258

7 49 457 5598 0 1 10 24
179

1046 3120 10137 42306 205 519 1447 4372
15437

96

417

58364

1205

59569

Table (4.3) Comparison
1UUU(o

factorization of matrix assembly and matrix

times

Assembly
10000

CPU Seconds
x10'2
1000

v

c c

V

100

Factorisation

1n

IV

10

100

Number of Elements
times for the variational,

Figure (4.2).

Matrix

factorization assembly and matrix (c), methods

(v), and collocation,

page 88

l'ariulion(il. For those closed geometries there will be problems of uniqueness at interior

1lcthod.

resonant fre-

quencies and 110method is ii pleiuented to reinme these problems. This is likely to account. for the breakdown of the numerical results with respect to frequency since the range of wavenuinbers over which the numerical problem is ill-conditioned at a critical wavenumber increases wit Ii

frequency until there is an overlap. Loss of accuracy at low frequencies is unlikely to be evident unless the vavenuiuber is very close to the critical wavenuniber. Figure (4.3) shows the results calculated using both the variational compared to the analytical and collocation method

solution for a sphere. The 6 element results show high accuracy at at ka = 2.5. There is

low frequencies with a breakdown of both numerical solutions starting no significant no breakdown variational difference in accuracy between the two methods. of the solutions below ka =5

The 24 element results show better accuracy for the

but the there is slightly

results at the higher frequencies.

Figures (4.4-5) show the two methods compared to the results generated by S. W. Wu's axisymmet ric method respectively. using 20 high order elements applied to prolate and oblate spheroids

In the case of the prolate spheroid, the breakdown of both numerical results occurs difference in accuracy between them.

at the same order of frequencies, and there is no significant

Since the mesh geometries for the spheroids are simply a scaled spherical mesh, higher accuracy would be obtained if a more intelligent mesh were used that reflected the geometry and boundary conditions of the specific spheroid. breakdown of the numerical methods for both mesh

For oblate spheroid there is no distinct

densities. The 24 element case shows high accuracy for all frequencies. For the 6 element case the accuracy of both methods degenerates at about ka = 3.0 with the variational slightly 4.8.2 higher accuracy. Flat Disk of the dimensionless radial surface presa baffle. The results and method showing

Figures (4.7-14) show the numerical sure on a circular are calculated collocation Chapter disk radiating

calculation

with constant normal velocity without

using the mesh geometries shown in figure (4.6) using both the variational

methods.

The equation for the surface pressure field for a thin shell was presented in

2. For a flat continuous surface with no incident wave Eq. (2.5.5) gives a relationship

for the surface pressure,

2ýdý+(P)+0-(P))

_ .Mk[ý](P)

= 0.

(4.8.2)

page 89

I-

Variational Therefore the dimensionless surface pressure is given by,

Mcihod.

2k (D

(4.8.3)

an /o (11..) 0 represents the constant normal surface velocity. Figure (4.7-10) show the amplitude (4.11-14) figure show the phase. and

where

of this quantity

The numerical results are compared to results extracted from work by Weiner [1951], which from diffraction were calculated data published by Leitner [1949]. Similar results have also been variational procedure.

[1987] by Ginsberg

Related Interests

Vu, Pierce and who use an axisymmetric published

All results show convergence between 20 and 80 elements and there is little that separates the accuracy between the collocation and variational degree high Overall is there a methods. at the

decreases however, is from It that these significantly accuracy graphs clear of accuracy.

density improve does disk. the The to the the of elements as not seem edge accuracy at edges of is increased. Figures (4.15-16) show the radiation reactance and resistance of the disk calculated using both the variational and collocation methods. The radiated power and rate of radiation of

kinetic energy for the disk are given by,

11_
K=1

1

Is on

2iwP JS 2k;,ßpsn

dS a dS (4.8.4)


(9

The radiation

impedance is defined using Eq. (4.8.4) by,

or = or,

11 Ui = *
damping,

(4.8.5)

is the positive radiation 0r where radiation damping.

resistance, representing radiation

is the and o-i

is that usually positive; reactance

fluid fluid than rather mass representing added

[1951] Weiner the and results of In both figures the numerical results compare well to Bouwkanip [1941], with a slightly higher degree of accuracy with the variational page 90 method. The

Variational resistance results from the work by Bouwkarnp were calculated for the complementary The results are plotted on logarithmic dependency quency of the radiation radiation resistance.

lfethod. . aperture.

scales in figure (4.15) to show the linear low order fre-

reactance and the higher order frequency dependency of the

The final result for the flat disk, figure (4.17), shows the convergence of the radial pressure for the three mesh discretizations. amplitude The 28 element mesh is distinguished by the high

density of elements near the edge, however all the mesh geometries show similar inaccuracies at the edge of the plate. To improve the accuracy at the edge of the disk it seams that a more sophisticated
4.8.3 Flat

imposing boundary the way of edge condition needs to be developed.
Square Plate

Figure (4.18-19) show the radiation

for the square plate resistance and reactance calculated and collocation

length L. The both the variational calculated of side numerical results are using from by «'arham to the and results extracted methods are compared work There is good agreement using all methods but the non logarithmic is higher accuracy with the variational method.

[1988].

plot shows that there

The results from \Varham correspond to his mesh show

for his fine Comparison for `practical' the with results mesh. an asymptotic results that there is a significantly collocation and variational

higher degree of accuracy and rate of convergence for both the methods. This would be expected since Warham's method uses a

discretization. piecewise constant element 4.8.4 Terai's Problem

Terai's paper [1980] provides a comparison between his numerical results and an experibetween (4.20) the Figure the collocation and variation results comparison shows mental result. and the measured result extracted from Terai's work. The results are the pressure gain in dB

The 0.31 due to are calculated at a radius of results point source. a around a rectangular plate from the origin, in the X-Z from distance 0.5 is the origin along the of at a source plane, and 0.3 0.2. dimensions has x plane

the Z axis. The rectangular plate in the X-Y

Both the collocation results and the variational results agree well with the measured values, and show a significantly higher degree of accuracy than Terai's results.

91 page

Variational 1.2

Method.

1.0
0.8 f 0.6

0.4

Elements a/b=16
0.2

nnv v.

0 1.2

1

2

3

ka

4

1.0

0.8
f
0.6

0.4

a/b=124 Elements

0.2

0.0 01234
Analytical Figure (4.3). Variational ----"--"- . Collocation

ka ----

5

The far field backscattered form function

for a sphere discretized

into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational and collocation thin shell formulations.
page 92

1.2

Variational

Method.

1.0
i

"i

0.8
f
0.6

t" 5

0.4

alb=0.5 6 Elements

0.2

nn
v. v

U 1.2

1

2

3

ka

4

1.0

0.8 f
0.6

., , ,
,

0.4

0.2

a/b=0.5 24 Elements

0.0 , 0123 S. W. Wu Figure (4.4). variational --------. Collocation

ka ----

4

The far field backscattered form

function

for a prolate spheroid

discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. using the variational incident plane wave.
page 93

The numerical results are calculated formulations shell with an end on

and collocation

thin

Variational

bfethod.

1.5
w

" ."` "

1.0

"ý i

f

0.5

Elements 6 a/b=2

0.0L 0
1.5 r

1

2

3

4

ka

5

.

-,

1.0

f

0.5

Elements 24 alb=2

0.0 01234
S. W. Wu Figure (4.5). Variational ......... . Collocation

ka ----

5

The far field backscattered form function

for an oblate spheroid

discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational plane wave.
Page 94

and collocation

thin shell formulations

with an end on

incident

Variational

Method.

(a) 20 element disk

(b) 28 element disk

(c) 80 element disk

(d) 36 element plate

(e) 24 element Terai problem plate

Figure (4.6). The thin plate mesh geometries
page 95

Variational

%ffihod. .

2.0

2 3

IPI

4
.... i

1.0

ka=1

0.0 " 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Variational

Figure radiating

The dimensionless

radial pressure amplitude

on a circular

disk

with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational

results

disk discretized into 20 the with one quarter of elements. were calculated

page 96

Variational

Method.

2.0

IPI

1.0

0.0L0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Variational

Figure radiating

(4.8).

The dimensionless

radial pressure amplitude

on a circular

disk results

The baffle. variational with constant normal velocity without a

80 into disk discretized the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
97 page

Variational

Method.

::::: '....:...
2.0

2 3

IPI

5

4

1.0

ka=1

0.010.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Collocation

---------

Figure radiating

(4.9).

The dimensionless

radial pressure amplitude

on a circular

disk

The baffle. collocation with constant normal velocity without a

results

20 into discretized disk the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
page 98

Variational

lfffhod. .

2.0

IPI

1.0

0.01'-0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

Collocation

radial pressure amplitude on a circular The baffle. collocation results a without velocity radiating with constant normal 80 into discretized disk the elements. of were calculated with one quarter Figure (4.10).
99 page

The dimensionless

disk

Variational

lfethod. .

90

S
60

4
30

3
0

-30

2

-60

ka=1

-90 0.0

-I

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Variational

--------- .

The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational results were discretized into disk 20 the elements. calculated with one quarter of

Figure (4.11).

page 100

Variational

Mdhod.

90

5
60

4
30

0

---- -----------................................................................ ............. .9 ...............

-30

a

-60

ka=l

-90 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

Variational

---------

.

disk radiatcircular a on phase dimensionless The pressure radial Figure (4.12). The baffle. were results variational a ing with constant normal velocity without 80 into diýcretized disk elements. the of quarter one with calculated
page 101

Gariational

Method.

90

5
60 4)

4
30

.....

3

0

1-----""" -1111*1 .................::: ;.
..

-30

........................................................................................ I-- ........... ..........
-60

ka=1

-90 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

Collocation

---------

. disk radiat-

Figure (4.18).

The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular

The baffle. collocation results were ing with constant normal velocity without a into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter calculated with one
page 102

Variational

Method.

S
ý" ....

40

a

4

10

3

'4.

z

\
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

-1
r/a 1.0

ka=1
`-90 0.0

Wiener

Collocation

--------.

Figure (4.14). The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The collocation into 80 disk discretized the elements. calculated with one quarter of results were

page 103

l ariational

Method.

10

1

.1

01

001

0001

0

0 11
Variational Bouwkamp Figure (4.15). normal The radiation ----

ka

10

Collocation

--------O. Wiener

.

impedence of a circular disk radiating The variational and collocation

with constant results were The results

velocity without

baffle. a

into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter one with calculated

frequency dependence. low highlight logarithmic the to scale are plotted on a
page 104

Variational

affthod.

1.5

resistance

1.0

ý,,,.
J~ýý"

ýd.

v,. ir.. "

i
0.5

reactance
I

0.0 ` 0

246

ka

8

10

Variational

Collocation

---------

.

Bouwkamp

Wiener

O.

Figure (4.16).

The radiation

impedance of a circular disk radiating with constant

baffle. These figure the the without a velocity are same results as normal previous but plotted on a linear scale.
page 105

Variational

Method.

1.0

ka= 1

0.8

IPI
0.6

0.4

3k

0.2

Di

0.0 0.0

L-

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

ka=4
2.0

IPI

1.0

a
0.0 0.0 Wiener Figure

0.2 .

0.4 o.

0.6

0.8 o.

1.0

ka

1.2 . mesh

20 Elements

28 Elements

80 Elements

(/x. 17). The dimensionless at ka =1

for different radial pressure amplitude

densities Method.

The the ka 4. and using results are calculated variational =

page 106

Variational

Method.

1 10

100

reactance

10-1

resistance

10 -2

10
.1

1L

10

Variational

Collocation

--------- .

Warham

----

Figure (4.18). normal

The radiation

impedence of a square plate radiating with constant The variational and collocation results were

velocity without

baffle. a

discretized into 36 The the one quarter with of elements. plate calculated results logarithmic frequency highlight low dependence. to the scale are plotted on a
page 107

Variational

Method.

1.5

r

"".
1.0

reactance

i"

0.5

resistance f. "
ýrý"

An

U.V0

L/%,

3

Variational

Collocation

---------

.

Warham

----

Figure (1.19).

impedance of a square plate radiating with constant figure baffle. These the the previous same results as are normal velocity without a but plotted on a linear scale. The radiation

page 108

Variational

Method.

4

dB
I.; '

0

I

` -4 0

90

180

270

0 360

iv

Microphone Source

Measured Figure (4.20).

Variational

--------- .

Collocation

----

Nearfield pressure gain for a point source wave scattered by a 18.44. The numerical results are calculated using 24

rectangular

plate at k=

by from Terai. is the the measured result extracted work elements and

page 109

The Superposition Method.

CHAPTER
The Superposition

5.
Method

5.1 Introduction

Superposition

methods have long been used as a bench test for other numerical analyses of Song and Fahnline [1989] suggested that a superposition

fields. Recently Koopmann, acoustic

method could be extended into a general solution technique for calculating acoustic fields. In the work of Koopmann et a1 [1989], Song et al [1991] and Miller et aI [1991], a complex radiator is replaced by an array of simple monopole sources of unknown magnitude constrained to lie on a surface interior to the body of the radiator. The magnitude of the simple sources is calculated

by equating the normal velocity prescribed on the surface of the radiator to that generated by the array of simple sources. This is performed at the same number of points as there are simple is generated. The solution of this equation set sources and consequently a system of equations gives the magnitude of the simple sources and from these values an exterior pressure field can be calculated. Since the superposition for integration the need singular method removes techniques is

has been suggested that the method improves on the traditional supports

BEM. The author however methods spoil the

the view of Katz [1987], who suggests that some [superposition]

but they they general are not some cases, and work with will produce will whole approach ... ill conditioned systems in some cases. It was decided that the superposition method was worth investigating in order to establish that in a hierarchy of integral methods, the BEM represents of the superposition method.

the limit in terms of accuracy and conditioning Although,

the superposition method described above circumvents the problem of uniqueness interior the point sources to be on which constrains at another set of critical wavenutnbers. These to the

in formulation found BEMs, a of solution interior an

does become ill-conditioned surface

Dirichlet interior to the the problem unrelated eigenvalues of wavenumbers correspond

layer distribution integral The is to a single source superposition now equivalent source surface. be Although, have to these eigenvalues. shown a non-unique solution at and as such can it is

interior lie the to that source surface so outside the any critical wavenumbers reduce possible frequency range of interest, there is also a potential loss in numerical stability. In this chapter,

be that this will presented strategy circumvents uniqueness problem, allowing the a numerical
page 110

The Superposition Method. optimum choice of interior be to surface made, in order to obtain the maximum improvement

in numerical stability

of the solution.

The problem of uniqueness has been overcome in this study by considering the superposition integral in terms of a hybrid combination of single and double layer potentials. to the problem of uniqueness in B. E..N1's is discussed by Filippi [1983]. A similar solution

[1977], and Colton and Kress

As noted by Koopmann et al [1989] it is possible to use derive a superposition integral either by assuming that the source distribution interior Green's function each and are constant over in Green's function to the some manner vary and In this paper the first

by distribution the allowing or source element and the kernel function

to be evaluated using Gaussian quadrature.

denoted (PSNI). Superposition is Point Results are also presented Method the as source method for the second method which is denoted as the Integrated source Superposition Method (ISM); the source distribution and geometry are approximated by the use of quadratic interpolation

functions defined using 9 noded surface elements.

5.2 The Superposition

Integral

For a body radiating with a prescribed surface velocity it is desirable to calculate the exterior field. The principle pressure for that the acoustic solution shows some of wave superposition interior to the

distribution is body to the acoustic solution of some source equivalent radiating

body. If both systems satisfy the same Neumann boundary condition on the surface of the body then the pressure distributions field by both since an exterior pressure equivalent are generated Koopmann et al proposed that the solution of

is unique for a prescribed boundary condition. the equivalent superposition formulation

of a problem offers many significant advantages over a

B. E. M solution of the same problem. The validity of the superposition method can be shown in the following way. Q. in This distria volume source of sources contained is S there a prescribed normal velocity on which surface

Consider a continuous distribution bution is interior to a closed fictitious distribution

S is denoted by S denoted D is to the The exterior volume and enclosed volume u,,.

(5.1). figure in is This E. shown geometry

page 111

The Superposition Method.

E

S

Figure (5.1).

The geometry for formulating .

the superposition

integral.

Applying

the principle of mass conservation (Pierce [1989] Chapter 4 p162) to the volume

leads by S defined by, to a modified reduced wave enclosed equation

v2 p(r) + k2P(r) = iwpgo(r),

rED.

(5.2.1)

A time dependence of e-'wt is assumed and qo(r) is the interior source strength defined by,

q(r) qo(r) = 0

rES2, (5.2.2) rEDexcluding ft

Using Eq. (5.2.1) the modified interior Helmholtz integral equation can be developed in a similar by, is Helmholtz interior the to given equation and standard way

ý Js

iwpu(ro)Gk(r,

öGk (nr,ro) ro) - p(ro) ö ra

d'Sr, +

fniwp4(ro)Gk(r,
(1
T= IT vol

ro)dVra (5.2.3)

- c(r))(r)p(r),

ikr Gk (r, ro) =1e 47rr

The unrelated exterior Helmholtz equation is independent of the interior source distribution

and

identical to the exterior Helmholtz equation for a real surface S with prescribed normal velocity distribution is defined by, This equation u,,. page 112

The cuperpositaon ,

Method.

Pro) S

ÖGk(r, ro)
a n*o

1.ý pun(ro)Gk

dS'ro

= C(r')P(r').

(5.2.4)

In the source distribution indicating

model of the vibrating

body, the surface S is a construction

where the normal velocity distribution

is prescribed. Consequently the pressure and When r is taken to be on S, Eq.

distributions velocity

across the surface must, be continuous.

(5.2.3) and Eq. (5.2.4) combine to give,

fipq(ro)Gk(r, P(r) = ro)dVro.

(5.2.5)

Eq. (5.2.5) is the superposition integral. Associated with this equation is its differentiated

form,

defined by,

In 2dn(r) = q(ro)ÖG3(ro 0 d###BOT_TEXT###.

(5.2.6)

5.3

Uniqueness

In the derivation of Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) the Helmholtz integral equations are cirdomain for interior that a source contains no volume, numerical implementations cumvented and frequencies. However S2 is the these all are unique at choice of equations of volume arbitrary implementation for ease of numerical and over an interior it is best to locate the interior source distribution integral will now in

S' 6r. However the superposition thickness of small surface

This be demonstrated wave numbers. non-uniqueness can exhibit non-uniqueness at critical the following manner. For the case where Sl is chosen to be a thin shell, Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) become,

IS/ P(r) =I

iwpq(ro)Gk(r,

ro)brrdSfo.

(5.3.1)

is,
un(r) =J

8GO(r'ro) 4(ro) o page 113

brdS;.

o.

(5.3.2)

The Superposition Method. In the limit as the thickness of the surface S' becomes zero, these equations show the pressure distribution notation, being defined in terms of a single layer potential. Using the integral operator

it is possible to write Eq. (5.3.1) and Eq. (5.3.2) in terms of a single layer potential in terms of a double layer

along with an associated expression for the pressure distribution potential. These expressions are defined by,

iwpCk[ P(r) 's](r),

(5.3.3)

u(r)
P(r)

[t3](r), Mk =
= 2Wp ik [11d](r),

(5.3.4)
(5.3.5)

Yk[0d](r), um(r) _

(5.3.6)

Consider the case of the single layer potential

formulation

for u

=0

Since S. the on

pressure field exterior to S' is unique for all wavenumbers then u, =0 and p+ =0 on S. The (-) (+) interior indicates the the surface pressure or velocity evaluated on exterior or superscript discontinuities S'. By the surface consideration of of in the integral operators Gk and Mk, it is

(5.3.4) limit in (5.3.3) S' from Eq. Eq. the to the exterior tends to as r r0 on and write possible domains. These interior equations are, and

p+(ro) = P-(r0)

iwprk[0, = (Mr

](ro), -2{

(5.3.7) s](ro). (5.3.8)

(ro) (ro) 0s(ro) un = = um Eq. (5.3.7) shows that the pressure distribution if p+ =0 and consequently

is continuous across the single layer surface

then p- = 0. From Eq. (5.3.8) with u,+, = 0, v, is non-zero when

Dirichlet interior S. At # the Since 0. to this of problem at eigenvalues occurs only p- =0 un these frequencies, 0, will have a non-trivial is these that critical unique at not t,,, means become ill-conditioned. (5.3.4) Eq. will of for distribution zero a velocity solution S. This on

wavenumbers and the numerical implementation

A similar treatment for the double layer potential

(5.3.6), interior Neumann is in Eq. 1d the the that eigenvalues of non-unique at problem shows interior to S. To eliminate the problem of uniqueness at critical wavenumbers, a hybrid combination for the superposition problem

layer double potentials of single and becomes,

is used. The formulation

page 114

The Superposition

Method. .1

[v, Ck iwp(. iTlMk) + 7(r), P(? ') = (Mk utz(r) = + ii \

(5.3.9)

(5.3.10)

The value of the real constant 77 in Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) is chosen to be 1/k to compensate for the order of frequency terms in the integral operators. The advantage of the superposition method using this hybrid formulation is that there is no high order singularity in the operator .A

since the source surface S' is not coincident with the boundary surface S. It should be noted however that in regions where there is a high density of critical wavenumbers, a high degree of is accuracy needed to reduce the range of wav-enumbers over which the non-hybrid operators are ill-conditioned, hybrid formulation that the so is efficient.

5.4 Numerical
A numerical

Formulation
implementation of the superposition integral has several advantages over a

BEM. A major factor in any BEM is the numerical treatment of the singularities that inevitably formulation. in the occur In the superposition method the source distribution Consequently there is no singularity is interior to the

body and therefore not coincident. (5.3.10). (5.3.9) Eq. Eq. and of

in the Green's function

In Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) the surface S' can be discretized into a number of elements, have Using interior The the a corresponding surface node. source elements must each nodes of n. the definitions interior is the the on node source corresponding surface of previous researchers This definition be extended to refer to the self element which can

known as the self node.

is the source surface element that contains the self node. Eq. (5.3.10) can be approximated numerically by,

n

un(r) =E

1ý,

aGk(r,
am

ro)

02Gk(r.

ro)

Ö12ranr.

7(ro)dSro7=1

For the PSM it is assumed that the kernel of Eq. (5.4.1) and be it written can element and in matrix form by,

is constant within the '(r0)

{un} = DA{ ;'}, page 115

(5.4.2)

The Supfrposition
With,

Method. .

r"n; Dij = Gk(r) r+

r-ni i77 rr
r=ri

r. nj

(G(r)

Gk(r) -T-r
r=Irl.

Ge(r)

nj 7zß.

C x. 4.3)

- rj.

A is diagonal the and area matrix. In Eq. (5.4.2) {u} is the vector containing the n values of u evaluated at the points r;

boundary interior defined the that to the the surface, on surface correspond on n nodal points rj. The source surface nodal points are defined at the centroid of the source surface element. 4j interior ý, the the , source surface and . contains n values of j evaluated on

The vector {0}

interior to the the nodal positions. of point source situated at amplitude radiators corresponds The discretized form of Eq. (5.3.9) is defined in a similar way to Eq. (5.4.2),

{p}

-

(5.4.4)

with,

M; j = Gk(r)

+ iriG' (r)

r"nj r

(5.4.5)

This is Eq. (5.4.2) and Eq. (5.4.4) can be combined to give an expression for p in terms of ums,.
written as,

{p} = MD-1{u}

(5.4.6)

In the PSM the principal assumption is that the interpolation given by,

of the source distribution

is

V= b(ro, rj)Zj,

(5.4. i)

defining V)j is is (ro, the the the 6 zero otherwise, and and element at nodal point one rj) where distribution the source nodal value of Within made. for the element. For the ISM a different assumption is

the element the source distribution

is given by.

page 116

Thf Superposition Method.

{1Ve}T{ VI)=

a},

(5.4.8)

{Ne} where

is the vector of element shape functions and {ýJ}

is the vector of element nodal by Eq. given (5.3.10) now

values of the source distribution. becomes,

The numerical approximation

un(T)

-

ES J=1 ý°

(ýGk(rro) Onr + . ýa2GkI. (9nrOnr %Te}TdSr°{2J}. (5.4.9)

The numerical

integration

in Eq. (5.4.9) can be performed using simple Gaussian quadrature

be is for A there assembled matrix equation set can no singularity retracted source surfaces. since for the acoustic formulation eliminating 0, the global vector of nodal source strengths,

{p} = MIDI'{un}

(5.4.10)

In this study the interior

in for both PSM ISM the the and were generated points nodal

in is PSM, for Since the the the these nodal points needed element only nodal point same way. for ISM. To the the to the conditioning optimize nodal points can correspond definition the matrices, of the D and DI Following

is boundary the critical. and source surface nodal points of

by, defined interior the source points are previous work

Tj

=

Ti

-

d1

2,

(5.4.11)

defined is d as the retraction where to ensure optimum conditioning.

distance. The relationship in Eq. (5.4.11) is not sufficient

The boundary nodal points have to be defined so that,

ITi

-Tj

Ij,

4i >

ITi

-'I=i

.

(5.4.12)

These relationships ensure that there is optimum symmetry and diagonal dominance of the equation set. This requirement is important in reducing the degree of ill conditioning of the

formulation,

however such a restriction

boundary the the surface nodal points on positioning of

boundary the independent be applied of conditions. will page 117

The Super position

Method.

For radiation scattering

problems u

is simply the prescribed surface normal velocity. For plane wave

(Junger be [1986]) Feit to be equal to, u1. can shown and

PI wp

-

&I r

(5.4.13)

is fluid the where uj particle distribution, source amplitude 5.4.1

velocity on the boundary surface in the absence of any interior

generated by the incident pressure wave. The incident pressure wave has

kI. pl. and wave vector Condition Number

Matrix

A well recognized failing of the superposition method is the ill conditioning of the generated lack This of conditioning matrices. is due to the numerical instability of Fredholm equations of

the first kind (Arfken [1985], Miller [1974]). One loss of conditioning is due to the loss of diagonal dominance as the source surface is retracted from the boundary surface. Computationally loss of conditioning means that small changes in the surface velocity distribution the

can have a

large effect on the source distribution.

Following Golub and Van-Loan [1983] a conditioning

be linear The the that gives a measure of sensitivity of a system. matrix calculated number can be for ISM PSM the can stated as, or problem

{un}

D{O}. =

(5.4.14)

If the boundary
system,

velocity

distribution

is perturbed

by an amount {6u } then for this linear

{b}

D-1{bu, =

},

(5.4.15)

from the properties of vector and matrix norms, and

11 11 116un11 JID-111 < 11011 11011

(5.4.16)

tun III

IIDIIIIVII.

(5.4.1 7)

page 118

The Superposition 11Eihod. . Therefore condition the perturbation in un is related to the perturbation in L- by means of the

number n;,

IIa'+'II IIv'II

<K

IIbun II IIti II

(5.4.18)

IIDIIIID-111. =
In this study the conditioning number is calculated in terms of Euclidean matrix

(5.4.19)

norms.

The equality in Eq. (5.4.18) states that the conditioning

is the related of matrix equation set

to t;. However, the accuracy of the matrix equation solution need not be directly related to this quantity. This condition number can not reflect the improvement in solution accuracy that is

if the symmetry possible

relationship for nodal point placement is observed. The superposition

(5.4.14) be decomposition, defined in in Eq. terms can written of a singular value problem

{un} = XS2YT {b}"

(5.4.20)

The square matrices X and Y represent orthogonal matrices and the diagonal matrix Q2, repis DT D. The the to the the problem given solution symmetric matrix, eigenvalues of resents

bY,

lo}Y

Q-lf, =

un}X,

(5.4.21)

Y the X the the the onto respective orthogof vector projection represents and subscript where onal matrix. If the matrix D is nearly symmetric then the source distribution boundary the and An eigenvalue

distribution velocity (Strang analysis

in be the terms of same orthogonal matrix. expressed will

[1988]) of Eq.

(5.4.21) shows that when D is symmetric the eigenvalues of Therefore increasing the symmetry of the superposition

this equation are perfectly conditioned. matrix, 5.4.2 significantly Velocity

improves the overall conditioning of the numerical formulation. Error Norm

Reconstruction

In order to select the optimum position of interior nodal points a measure of the solution is needed. accuracy distribution This may be done by an a priori knowledge of the boundary pressure Another measure of the accuracy of

however this is clearly not always possible.

the superposition

is the extent to which the prescribed normal boundary velocity is method
page 119

Thf Superpo.'iiion reconstructed by the source distribution. By using the numerical approximations

110hod. .

of either the

PS-N1or ISM the reconstructed surface normal velocity is given by,

it,, (r) = {D(r)}T

D-1{ u, }.

(5.4.22)

When r corresponds to a boundary surface nodal point, Ti, then clearly,

(5.4.23)

For other points there will however be some difference in the prescribed and calculated surface difference is the velocity reconstruction error norm, this normal velocities and a measure of

Ilun

Ilun

unllo llo

(5.4.24)

where,

j(uun it'll, = (5.4.25)

This error norm will be closely linked to the error in the boundary surface pressure and can be used to select the optimum interior nodal positions without an a priori knowledge of the

boundary surface pressure distribution.

5.5 Numerical

Results

The superposition radiation

formulations

were applied to spherical and spheroidal scattering

and that

due boundary These to the cylindrical symmetry were chosen surfaces problems. boundary conditions. In all cases one quarter of the boundary

for appropriate exists is discretized, optimize distributed

surface

making use of the problem symmetry of the resulting superposition

to reduce the problem size. In order to matrices the surface nodal points are

the symmetry

boundary the as possible surface. as evenly over at critical wavenumbers of the A constant normal

Figure (5.2) contrasts the non uniqueness characteristics formulations layer double single and distribution velocity

with that of the hybrid formulation.

is prescribed for a sphere with radius a and the source surface is retracted
page 120

The Superposition J10hod. by 0.5a. These graphs show the variation of the condition number, n, and velocity reconstruction for ka For the to the spherical geometry the critical spherical problem. error norm, a, compared wavenumbers will occur at,

k(a - d) = kn.

(5.5.1)

For the breathing mode problem, ko is equal to it and 4.493 for the single layer and double layer problems respectively. resulting The loss of conditioning is clearly shown at these points along with the The hybrid

loss in numerical accuracy for the single and double layer formulations. removes the problem of non uniqueness at these frequencies.

formulation

The potential function

for both PSM form ISM back the the calculating accuracy of and scattered

for both spheres and spheroids is shown in figures (5.3-4). In figure (5.3) the PSNN1 and

ISM applied to the spherical problem is compared to the analytical result and the collocation BEM result. The retraction distance is taken to be 0.5a. The superposition method results show high degree due high to the of symmetry very accuracy between the spherical boundary and

improves The the the resulting matrices significantly conditioning of symmetry surfaces. source is The high that the possible. reduced size of the source surface elements accuracy problem so of boundary the to the surface elements also allows superposition methods corresponding compared to have a more accurate surface representation for this particular example.

Figure (5.4) shows the same comparison for the spheroidal back scattering problem. The b 0.5, has where a and represent the minor and major radii an aspect ratio of alb = spheroid respectively and a retraction distance of 0.4b is used. A converged solution is taken to be the

result of an axisymmetric calculated

BEM solution with a large number of elements and these results are by Wu [1990] using 40 quadratic line elements. The PSM

by a program written

results show satisfactory

high BEM the results show accuracy compared to the accuracy whilst

less accurate results of the ISM. The results of the ISM suggests that the solution accuracy is dependent on the conditioning In order to illustrate retraction of the superposition matrices. is dependent method on the

that the accuracy of the superposition

distance, the far field scattered pressure was calculated for the problem of a plane wave

incident upon a sphere. An error quantity, E, is defined as the error of the far field back scattered form function with respect to the result for a 96 element BEM calculation. The variation of

log the together the log this with of velocity reconstruction error the of page 121

error norm, a has been

The SupErposition Method. function d/a, for ka in figure (5.5) of a plotted as a = 1. Figure (5.5a) shows the results for the point superposition The condition figure (5.5b) for integrated the and method superposition method. number of the solution matrix for both superposition methods is given in

figures (5.6a) and (5.6b). The results for the spherical and spheroidal geometries are presented. Comparsion of the error measures in figure (5.5a) with the condition number of the matrix

P5M1 in figure (5.6a) indicates little correspondence between these the generated with spherical quantities. As the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is less than the far field error, the ma-

trices are conditioned such that the accuracy is dependent only on the order of the interpolation distribution. the source of As the source surface is moved closer to the boundary surface, both

error quantities increase until the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is greater than the error in the far field back scattered form function, F. The results for the ISM, shown in figure (5.5b), indicate that between d/a = 0.9 and 0.5 the trend in the conditioning similiar. of the problem, shown in figure (5.6b) and the error indicators a and e is distances the degree of symmetry in the problem increases, to allow very accurate

For this range of retraction

d=0.5 until at about

the problem became sufficiently well-conditioned

be to attained. solutions the internodal

The far field error, a, increases as d tends to zero, while the error in in formulation The the accuracy remains small. could be

velocity reconstruction

increased for these low retraction in the BEM. The velocity reconstruction

ratios by simply using the singular integration techniques used

error, a, and the far field back scattered form function error,

The for the values of a and e were calculated as a problem. spheroidal e, were also calculated function of d/b at kb =1 for both the point superposition and integrated superposition methods. The results are given in figures (5.7-8). For both methods the variation of a is similar, revealing for a particular a minimum significant. retraction due before d became the to numerical error small ratio,

The value of d/b where this occurs decreases with increasing n. The errors for the

PSM show there is a greater range of retraction distances over which there is low error reflecting the greater symmetry of the corresponding superposition matrices.

5.6 Conclusion
A numerical solution to acoustic problems has been described along with a strategy to The superposition formulation

hybrid formulation. of uniqueness using a overcome problems

breakdown be formulation the to the and valid of numerical was shown page 122

at the eigenvalues of

Thf Superposition Method. the interior demonstrated. source surface was The accuracy of the formulation was measured

through use of a velocity reconstruction
The problems that with solutions accuracy significant numerical results

error norm.
method applied to radiation and scattering results indicate

of the superposition

are presented careful with

for spherical

and spheroidal

surfaces.

The numerical

choice of boundary accuracy

and source surface nodal points that it is possible to attain classes of problems. unlike the surface The demonstrate results approaches, the accuracy that the to a

high

to both method,

of the superposition

integral than

depends

degree on the conditioning

of the problem

rather

of the source

representation.

It should be noted that both formulations tested are numerical approximations to Fredholm first kind the of equations As demonstrated and therefore subject to a inherent instability of the formulation in the solution process.

in the results the conditioning

deteriorate will as as the of the

deterioration boundary Despite from is the the surface. retracted source surface surface condition number, for a certain range of retraction accurate solutions are possible

distance,

however, once out of this range large errors occur in the calculated nodal surface velocities. The numerical face retraction conditioning be the optimized problem can of by reducing the source sur-

distance, and therefore, increasing the diagonal dominance of the formulation. distance is reduced close to the boundary surface then the

However, as the surface retraction

integration due inadequate deteriorate to the the of source sinagain once solution accuracy will gularity. Another factor that will increase the conditioning of the formulation, thus for specific

in degree is the high the resulting equation of symmetry accuracy, solution problems giving a formulation depend [1991] Song by the the the However, of will symmetry on et aI noted as set. the retraction points, nodal surface distance and the interpolation distribution. the of source

The numerical experiments indicate that for optimal ditioning

solution accuracy and problem con-

then the source nodal points need to be placed at a fixed distance along the normal locations, If the at any other are placed source nodal points nodal points.

from the boundary

then a dramatic loss of solution accuracy will occur. The results also indicate that in order to make the solution accuracy solely dependent on the discretization then the boundary of the problem, while optimizing the numerical conditioning of the formulation

and source surfaces need to be coincident.

page 123

The Sunervosition

8

'Method. .

Single layer
6
K 0

4

OOOOOOO00000000000

2

0
"

"

-2

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

" "

a "
"

"
-4 6. ý 78 6.280 6.282 6.284 6.286 ka

"
6.288

Double layer
6

OK

4

O0OOOO

2
" "

0

" "" "
""''''''""

""a

-2

A

-It

8.982

8.984

8.986

8.988

ka 8.990

The effect of the hybrid formulation on the elimination of critiformulations. for layer PSM layer double The the single and cal wavenumbers for distribution d=0.5. a sphere with and constant normal velocity are results The solid line represents the hybrid formulation.
page 124

Figure (5.2).

The Superposition Method.

a

N

a a " a
"
"

M

>,
C w

C
Cn

il

SC

¢ as a º.., "
a
13

0
N

LO

1:

" " " " "
O r

LC) 6

P
NO 00 ÖÖÖOO CO It NOO

uorppunj WJod
(5.3). The far field form function

Figure sphere. result.

for plane wave backscattering for a and analytical

The superposition

results are compared against a BEM

page 125

The Superposition Method.

U, N

aa d 134
13 m
N M

C

C

N

Gý .1

13

3 Ma .
0 4 a

0 N

0 a 4
40

13
LO

a

0

C3 L 6


NOc O

c0 Ö

IT 6

N 6

o° 0

uoip:)un,4 W.io,4
Figure (5.4). The far field form function for plane wave backscattering for a

The BEM 0.5. superposition results are compared against a spheroid with a/b = by S. W. Wu. result and results calculated
page 126

The Superposition Afethod.

1

r`

St

C

0

a
-1

-2

-3

1

-4

PSM
-5

0

.00.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

d/a

to

1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

d/a

1.o

Figure (5.5).

The variation

for d/a of e and a against a sphere calculated using (a) PSM with n= 33.

the PSM and ISM. (b) ISM with n=6.

The log of the error values is plotted.

page 127

The Superposition

Method.

20

T-,

1

3' -

ýd

n=33 pSM n=113 n=417 Sphere n=33

10

00.0
20

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

dlb

1

.o

ýý-°-

n=6 n=24 n=96 Sphere n=6

ISM

ýd

10

00.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

d/b

1.0

Figure (5.6).

The log of the superposition matrix condition number as a function

(b) (a) ISM. for PSM. the 0.5. d/b prolate spheroid with alb = of
page 128

The Superposition Method.

PSM

-----

n=33 n=113 n=417

`%

111

i

Y
i

-2
r

i 1i

-3

-4`0.0 1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

dlb

to

ISM
0

`%

-1

%

/
4 `d
.

..
4

i i

-2

-3

n=6 n=24 n=96
d/b

-4`0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Figure

(5.7).

The far field error as a function

for the d/b prolate spheroid of

(a) (b) PSM. ISM. 0.5.. with alb =
page 129

The Superposition Method.

8

PSM
6

ö bD
0
4

----'

n=33 n=113 n=417

2 J` 'el 0

/

'--2 0.0 8r

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

d/b

1.o

ISM
6 b1D O

n=6 n=24 n=96

4

R'

2

r

0

-2`' 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

dlb

1.0

Figure

(5.8).

The velocity reconstruction

function error norm as a

for d/b of

(a) PSM. (b) ISM. 0.5. the prolate spheroid with a/b =
page 130

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

CHAP TER 6.
Elasto-Acoustic Problem

6.1 Introduction

Previous chapters have been concerned with the acoustic analysis of rigid submerged structures. When a submerged structure is elasticly deformed by the acoustic pressure acting on its interaction.

be for fluid-structure the to this to expanded account acoustic model needs surface, The established technique for modeling the elastic deformation

is the Finite Element Method for-

(FEM). An elasto-acoustic analysis is performed by coupling the BEM to a FEM structural mulation. The resulting equation set can be solved for the structural and acoustic excitation.

displacement and surface

in terms of the structural pressure

In this chapter the elasto-acoustic

be thin presented. shells will analysis of

6.2 Structural

Problem

For an extensive treatment

is FEM the the reader referred to specialized texts, e.g. of section

Zienkiewicz and Taylor [1989], Hughes [1987], Hinton and Owen [1979]. The following

is an outline of the thin shell FE11 used in this study. For the thin shell domain, Sl, of density p, there exists a equilibrium forces, f, inertial forces the the applied surface equation relating

R and the local displacement vector, u,

Cu+R=f,

(6.2.1)

from formulated is The FEM the C is the minimization operator. elasticity where functional, energy

following the of

II=

2J

(Cu+R-f))" CUT .

(6.2.2)

The local displacement vector in Eq. (6.2.1) will have six degrees of freedom; three disthree rotational and placement components,
page 131

Elasto- Acoustic Problem.

u=0.

uT uy u,z
T

(6.2.3)

ey eZ
It is related to the global displacement vector by means of a transformation matrix,

u=TU,

(6.2.4)

is T the matrix where

directional of

cosines and U is the displacement vector expressed in the

global coordinate system. The structural dimensional domain is modeled by Mindlin type thin shell elements, defined in three element

space. These elements are derived from a three dimensional continuum

degeneration degeneration The technique. a using relies on two assumptions; first the normals to the mid surface of the element remain straight after deformation and second the stress component is to the shell constrained to zero. normal The thin shell elements are defined geometrically boundary in the acoustic used structural element problem. by the same set of interpolation functions

This conformity

between the acoustic and however it is believed achieved

between formulations, the the two coupling meshes simplifies

that in most cases, refinement of the resulting formulation by different acoustic and structural Using the shape functions terpolated written surface meshes.

would be most efficiently

defined in Chapter 3, the local displacement vector can be inFor the element j, this interpolation can be

from the element nodal displacements. relationship,

as a matrix

-71{vj}.
For nine noded elements the shape function matrix

(6.2.5)

N will have dimensions 6x 54 since { UP }

has six components per node. The local displacement vector given by Eq. (6.2.5) represents the displacement mid plane vector defined at 0. displacement The field is through thickness =

displacements by, the to surface mid related

page 132

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

ýr = ur+zOy, icy=tcy
üz = Uz ,

-SOX

(6.2.6)

from local the z variable ranges where -h/2

to h/2, where h is the thickness of the shell.

These equations reflect the assumption of constant through thickness displacement. The strain displacement differential operator matrix is defined by,

Ex Ey Ery
E12

a ax
ay

0 a ay
ax

0
ux 0 uy
fl, x

(6.2.7)

a 0

Z

Eyz Eq. (6.2.7) can be written

az

0 a

ay

a

in terms of the mid plane displacements using Eq. (6.2.6),

Ex
y

fxy
E= =

ax 0 ä y O 0 0 0

0
ay

0 0 o
ä

0 z -z
ay

äx z 0 zä y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
L

ux y

ä x o 0 0 0

ä 0 x

ä 0 0

-txz 7yz
The

-1 0 0

z z

y

pseudo-strains

(6.2.8), defined in Eq to the this stage eliminate nuat are yaZ and -tiyz freedom, 0, in final degree drilling the that the can of arise associated with The structural be in terms of the element nodal written strains can now

\

(6.2.8)

difficulties merical structural

formulation.

displacements,

E=

ýBý

J L#

)

(6.2.9)

where,

[Bý= AIM.
The operator 9 represents the differential (6.2.8). in Eq. matrix operator

(6.2.10)

The local stress-strain relationship

is defined by,

page 133

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

a=

Dc,

(6.2.11)

D, the reduced constitutive where matrix

equation, enforces the assumption of zero normal stress. This

by, be be to given shown can

1 v 1 D E 1 -v2

0 0 µ

0 0 0 0 O 0 µ O µ

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0, 0

(6.2.12)

where,

v= E=

Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, 1-v 2 (6.2.13)

The constant K defines the pseudo-strain / pseudo-stress relationship and takes a small value of

10-4.
The inertial forces in the structural domain are approximated by,

R- _0

Ps 0 0 0 ps 0 0 p, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[ps]u,

o 0 0
0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

üx
uy üZ 9x ey 9y '
(6.2.14)

= -W2 and the structural equilibrium

relationship

be defined using the variational can now by, defined equation set

principle

(6.2.2). This in Eq. in results a structural shown

([K]

{U} {1"} = - w2[M]) ,

(6.2.15)

from the mass matrices and the are assembled elemental components; stiffness where page 134

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

[k' ]=

in (6.2.16)

in [m'ý [MT ][Jdv, [p, =
and,

{ F' }=

j[rs7]T7fdS .

(6.2.17)

The expression for the applied body forces in Eq. (6.2.17) is integrated over the surface S. thin the shell, of to thermal expansion. Gaussian quadrature This assumes that there are no internal body forces due for example The numerical integrations in Eq. (6.2.16-17) are performed by using local-curvilinear the and derived Chapter in 2. relationships

6.3 Fluid-Structure

Interaction

Force

When a submerged elastic thin shell is vibrating, the shell. This force is the fluid-structure formulations. and acoustic

the fluid exerts a force on the surface of

interaction force, and it serves to couple the elastic (6.2.17) consists of two

The applied surface force vector in Eq.

fluid interaction force, forces the the structure and applied external components;

{F} = {FA} - {FI}.

(6.3.1)

The force F1 acts in the opposite direction to the normal, and the negative sign in Eq. (6.3.1), fluid. force is defined The Fj in by done is terms the the the that of structure on work shows bp, difference the across shell, pressure

{Fj} =

f[N]n6pds. ,

(6.3.2)

The modified structural

by, is equation now given

(K

{U} {bp} {FA} CA + = - w2Al) ,
page 135

(6.3.3)

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

by diagonal be A Chapdefined in the the same where approximated can area matrix area matrix ter 4. The matrix C represents the transformation of the normal values to the corresponding

in the global coordinate system, normal vectors

{FI} = C{FI },

(6.3.4)

FI where structural

is the normal components of the interaction

force. For the conforming acoustic and

meshes used in this study the coupling matrix C has dimensions nx 6n and is simply and acoustic meshes are used

direction different If the of normal composed structural cosines. this matrix must accommodate the two sets of interpolation

functions.

6.4 Coupled

Equation

Set

6.4.1

Fluid

Filled

and Non

Closed Shell Problems for the thin shell problem was derived in Chapter 2. This formu-

The acoustic formulation

lation depends on the assumption that the fluid density is equal on both sides of the shell. This formulation acoustic is valid for non closed thin shells; i. e. shells that do not enclose an interior

fluid density fluid the the thin that of with same as enclose a volume closed shells volume, and surrounding the shell. This class of problem will be called fluid filled shell problems (FFSP). and variational by, given respectively acoustic equation sets are

The collocation

Nk{6p} + = PW2CT{u}
x {bp} = pw2ACT {U} +A

än 1
ý l (9n I'

(6.4.1
(6.4.2)

Combining the acoustic equation sets in Eq. (6.4.1) and (6.4.2), with the structural equation in Eq. set variational (6.3.3) gives the combined elasto-acoustic formulations, acoustic for the collocation sets equation and

(K - w2M)
CT

CA
-Nk/w2p

U
bp

FA
of

(6.4.3)

(K - w2M) ACT

CA -Nk/w2p
page 136

(ýp) U

(u)' FA =

(6.4.4)

Elasto-Acoustic with,

Problem.

UI =

ap, /2 w
an

p.

(6.4.5)

The variational consistent formulation

BEM/FEM

formulation

in Eq. (6.4.4) is symmetric.

This is due to the

of the structural

and acoustic equation sets. The coupled equation set is

the result of minimizing functional is given by,

an energy functional that is symmetric with respect to bp and U. This

II =2

[{U}T (K

- w2M){U}

{bp}T Nk {bp}] + {U}T AC{bp}. -

(6.4.6)

Eq. (6.4.4) can be derived from the minimization

problem,

ýu =

an

= O(bp)
The collocation BEM/FEM formulation is non symmetric and cannot be formulated in terms the Insted it can be thought of as the result of minimizing

Off

(6.4.7)

of a similar variational functional 6.4.2

procedure.

in Eq. (6.2.2) subject to a constraint given in Eq. (6.4.1). Closed Shell Problems

Evacuated

The other class of elasto-acoustic problem considered in this study is the evacuated closed domain (ECSP). in For this the thin shell encloses a problem which the acoustic shell problem identically is pressure difference Consequently the pressure across the surface of the shell zero.

is simply the exterior surface pressure. The acoustic equation set for the exterior problem is Chapter 3. Neglecting in acoustic excitation, given by, is problem given exterior acoustic the Burton and Miller formulation of the

([Mk

Cpl + aNk) -

{p+}

(Lk + a[11ý1k + Cp]) CT {U}. = W2p

(6.4.8)

The coupled ECSP elasto-acoustic problem is now given by,

(K

- w2M)

CA

(np) U

(u7)' FA

GGG'

(6.4.9)

-H/w2p page 137

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

where the matrices G and H represent the left and right hand side matrices in Eq. (6.4.8) and ul represents the acoustic excitation
The coupled equation

for the Burton and Miller problem.
In previous work this equation

(6.4.9) in Eq is non symmetric. set

set

has been symmetrized by using the energy functional for the acoustic problem (Zienkiewicz et al [1977], Mathews [1979][1986]). This procedure differs from the true variational formulation in that the functional elasto-acoustic

is reconstructed using the non symmetric fluid impedance mauses the variational principle as the starting

trices. The variational for the method. point The formulations

elasto-acoustic formulation

in Eqs. (6.4.3) (6.4.4) and (6.4.9) will be referred to as the collocation the variational coupled method (VCM) Buton the and and Miller may

(CCM), coupled method, (BMCM). coupled method,

With the correct definitions of G and H, all three formulations

be generalized by Eq. (6.4.9).

6.5 Solution

Coupled of

Equation

Set

The coupled BEM/FEM tionally

be directly. equation set may solved

However this is computa-

it requires the factorization expensive since

of a 7n x 7n equation set. The normal

into The is the to structure variable methodology, equation set other. one substitute procedure (SVM), involves substituting the fluid equation set into the structural equation set. This method The fluid vari-

[1977], fluid formulation. in by Zienkiewicz results a modified elastic et al used able methodology Derivation involves substituting the structural

fluid into the equation set equation set. [1978] with subsequent work by Mathews

by first Wilton this given method was of

[1979][1986].

6.5.1

Structure

Variable

Methodology the elimination of the fluid variables from Eq. (6.4.9) gives,

Neglecting acoustic excitation,

(K

-w2M+w2

pCAH-1GCT)

{U} = FA.

(6.5.1)

Eq. (6.5.1) is a matrix equation of size 6n x 6n and can be rewritten

in a more concise way as,

(K

{U} 1I Mf]) FA, w2[. = page 138

(6.5.2)

Elasio-Acoustic where Alf is the added fluid mass matrix.

Problem.

This is a misleading name since the fluid interaction

dependent damping fluid The form frequency term. this mass and actually represents a mass of matrix depends on the acoustic formulation;

Alf = pCANk 1CT -TACT pCANk = _1Il Aff = pCAH-'GCT

(CCM), (N, 'CM), (BMCM).

(6.5.3) (6.5.4) (6.5.5)

Only equation (6.5.4) for the fluid stiffness term derived using the variational symmetric, the others are only symmetric in the continuous limit.

is method

These terms defined by Eq.

(6.5.3) and (6.5.5) are not exactly symmetric for the following reason presented by Hartmann

[1989].
The generalized collocation acoustic formulation,

He{p}

= w2pG'

{u

},

(6.5.6)

distributions, displacement between the the and pressure surface coupling expresses combination of collocation are not strictly

given by a

is finite SHIE DSHIE. However the the only satisfied at a coupling number and of points. Consequently the interpolated displacements and pressure distributions

identity, i. the e. compatible;

lun}T

A{PI

=

iP}T

Alu,

},

(6.5.7)

is not satisfied since the matrix identity,

{. V'9}T {1'\*9}H-1G

=

[{N9}T

{: v9}H-1G]T

,

(6.5.8)

holds only at the collocation points. The possibility of symmetrizing the fluid stiffness matrix has been mentioned before. How-

[1979] and Tullberg and Bolteus [1982] find that the highest accuracy is possible Mathews ever with the unmodified forms of Aff given by Eq. (6.5.3) and Eq. (6.5.5). page 139

Elasto-Acoustic 6.5.2 Fluid Variable Methodology

Problem.

Eliminating

the structural

fluid from Eq. (6.4.9) the equation set. variables gives modified

H +GC L0 p

[K_w2M]-1

CA

{bp}

=GCT

[K_W2M]-1FA+uj.

(6.5.9)

This equation set is considerably smaller than the modified structural resents a matrix equation of size nxn. acoustic excitation,
matrices,

it repequation set and and neglecting impedance

Writing

the normal applied force as f

this equation set can be written

in terms of fluid and structural

(I + ZfZ3 1) {6p} = ZfZ» 1fn,

(6.5.10)

where,

1= CT [K -1 CA, - w2M] -iwZs

(6.5.11)

and,

Zf = -iwNk Zf= Vk -'A

i

(CCM), (VCM), (B-N1CM),

(6.5.12) (6.5.13) (6.5.14)

Zf = -iwH-1G

Only the VCM results in both symmetric fluid and structural The fluid variable method is the preferred formulation distribution surface pressure

impedance matrices. The

of the elasto-acoustic problem.

is evaluated using Eq. (6.5.9) and the corresponding displacement first the

field is found using Eq. (6.3.3). There are two main advantages with this methodology; formulation the coupled size of is significantly smaller than the structural

variable formulation given in Chapter

filled distribution fluid for thin the shell problems exterior pressure and second displacement. field. The the independent is of 4, most computationally Eq. (6.5.9) is the backward and forward substitution
page 140

expensive part in solving formulation into the

of the structural

Elasto-Acoustic acoustic formulation. size of the structural This computational equation set. burden can be significantly

Problem.

reduced by reducing the

6.6 Eigenvector

Reduction

Elastic the of

Formulation

The reduction mations. reduction.

of the structural

equation set can be performed by a variety of transfor-

These include static condensation [Guyan 1965], Lanczos reduction and Eigenvector In connection with the elasto-acoustic is the most estabproblem modal reduction The equation set. structural eigenproblem

lished technique for reducing the size of the structural is defined by,

ýIi

-

w'M]{ek}

_0

The eigenvectors, ek, correspond to the n3 non trivial solutions to this equation at the eigenvalfollowing The identities E, that the set of orthogonal eigenvectors, ues, wk. are normalized so

hold,

ETME ET KE=

I, = S2, eigenvalues.

(6.6.1)

Q is diagonal the set of structural the matrix where

Using these identities the inverse of the dynamic stiffness matrix can be written of a modal summation,

in terms

n,

fek}fek k

}T

[K

- w2M]-i

k=1

(6.6.2)

By assuming that,

W «Wm,

(6.6.3)

it is possible to write,

m [K - w21\f]-1
k-1 2-w2 kk

T_

n+
=mß-1

{ekl f fk}T
64) k

m<n,

(6.6.4)

page 141

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

The second summation in Eq. (6.6.4) is a frequency independent static correction term. If m is large enough then this term can be neglected. Eq. (6.6.4) can be used in the FVM in order to significantly of the structural reduce the computational equation set into the fluid response, the number of

burden of the backwards and forwards substitution formulation. To accurately reconstruct

the fluid modified structural

`dry' eigenvectors used must be carefully selected. This is not always straight forward since the structural structural eigenmodes of a complex structure can be unpredictably by fluid. The the modified

inverse impedance in Eq. (6.5.11) can be approximated by,

m{

en

-2WZs1-ý
k=1

}{e" ký k IT

(6.6.5)

uJk -W2

where

{en}

{ek }. CT =

(6.6.6)

Using Eq. (6.6.5) has the added advantage that the individual

be `coleigenvectors may

lapsed' to their normal degrees of freedom only once, insted of at each frequency point.

6.7 Interpolation

Even with careful use of structural solution,

symmetry after the calculation of the `dry' eigenmode time needed to calculate the components of Benthien [1989] proposed that

large the total computational of part a

the FVM is taken by the assembly of the acoustic matrices.

the acoustic matrices could be calculated at a reduced number of frequency points and then interpolated this study. At wavenumbers greater than one the dominant frequency term of the H matrix exponential term of the Green's free space function. By using the transformation, is the for intermediate interpolation This points. for is implemented the FFSP in scheme

hi'

(k)

_

e-ikhij

(k),

r=1r1-vu,

(6.7.1)

the interpolation

is defined by, scheme
page 142

Elasto-. 1 coustic Problem.

ki (hij (k2) h'ij(ki)) h'ij(k) h' (k1) +kk2 - kl
At low frequencies the fluid matrices can be assumed to be constant. improvements in computation allow very significant schemes Kirkup modes. [1991]) have used interpolation

(6.7.2)

Such interpolation

times and recently researchers (eg

techniques in order to calculate elasto acoustic eigen-

6.8

Uniqueness

Coupled the and

Problem

The problem of a rigid submerged thin shell that encloses an interior domain can be conintegral The DSHIE the the general elasto- acoustic problem. acoustic special case of sidered as infor for the the the thin the closed shell consists of equation equation exterior problem and terior problem. Denoting p- and p+ as the interior and exterior nodal pressure distributions

these equations are,

H{p+}

- w2p+G+{'u

}=

{2ll},

H{p-}

- w2p-G-{u}

0, =

(6.8.2)

where,

H=

Nk

and

G± =

[±i

+ Mk

.

(6.8.3)

The vector u

is the normal components of the nodal surface velocity distribution

is the and p±

density of the fluid exterior and interior to the thin shell respectively. For the purposes of this interior is it the that assumed study ie the the acoustic same; and exterior waveneumbers are

domains is interior both in the equal. exterior and speed of sound The structural be for the written as, elasto-acoustic problem can equation set

S(w){U} + CT A ({p+} - {p- }) = CA{ f },
dynamic the stiffness matrix where structure interaction is denoted by S(w). The excitation

(6.8.4)

forces and the fluidIt

forces act on the normal direction degrees of freedom of the structure.
page 143

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

is advantageous to factorize out the other degrees of freedom. Denoting the normal degrees of freedom with the subscript n and the others with m, Eq. (6.8.4) can be rewritten as,

Snn 5'mn

Snm smm

un um

+A0

p+ 0000000

p_

(A

0f

(6.8.5)

It follows that the structural

impedance equation is given by,

Zs{il}

+ {p+} - {p-} = ff },

(6.8.6)

where,

-2WZ3

-

A-1

[Snn -

SnmSrnmSmn] .

(6.8.7)

The generalized fluid filled thin shell problem is better illustrated transformation,

by making the following

bp=p+-p-,

(6.8.8)
P=p +P

and,

6p=p

-p p++p . as,

(6.8.9)

Using these transformations

it is possible to write the coupled formulation

-iw

Z [bpMk +2 pI] -iw [pMk + 2bpI]

I0 Nk
0

0
Nk

ü bp

f

j=

eil
ui

(6.8.10)

Consider the coupled formulation p, variable

for (6.8.10), in Eq. the moment the fluid neglecting given

Z{ } + f6p}= ff},
Page 144

(6.8.11)

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

-ýw

SpMk +2 pI

{u} + :ýýk{6p} {ý; }. :--

(6.8.12

At eigenvalues of the interior Neumann problem, both the following homogeneous equations have non-trivial solutions,

Nk{v} = 0,

(6.8.13)

Mk + 2I

{v} = 0.

(6.8.14)

Assuming that bp # p, then at the interior Neumann eigenvalues Eq. (6.8.12) defines ü uniquely bp, but fluid bp defined is to the variable with respect to the surface not uniquely with respect ii, normal velocities, However the structural defines (6.8.11), both Eq. uniquely equation set , both are defined uniquely at frequencies

it,, and 6p, and consequently in the coupled formulation corresponding to the Neumann eigenvalues.

When bp = p; ie for the "evacuated" thin shell problem, Eq. (6.8.12) defines neither ufz or bp uniquely and the coupled formulation has longer a unique solution. The coupling of the no for 0 0, the that equation set, ensures p-

by fields interior the structural pressure exterior and formulation coupled is unique for all frequencies.

By considering the uncoupled expression for the second fluid variable, p, given in Eq. (6.8.10), is is possible to see that at the interior fined since, Neumann eigenvalues it is not uniquely de-

Nk{p} = iw

IPMT +

26PI

{Ti}

+ {ti7}.

(6.8.15)

Thus Eq. (6.8.10) is uniquely defined fort definition use a

however, for is, bp but It p. not and possible to

for interior derived from SHIE the p, the and exterior acoustic expressions of

frequencies, for defined in is p terms that all of uniquely problems,

{p} = Mk{bp} 21

iwSpLk{ü} -

+pi.

(6.8.16)

page 1/5

Elasto-. acoustic Problem. The advantage of this formulation variables, without is that it gives p in terms of the other fluid and structural

the need for matrix factorization.

Consider the specific example of a closed shell containing the same fluid in the exterior and interior domains. Neglecting acoustic excitation the FVM and SVM elasto-acoustic equation

sets are respectively,

(Z71

1) 1{f}, {bp} Zs +Zd = ={f}"

(6.8.17) (6.8.18)

(Zs+Zf){t}

At eigenvalues of the interior ill conditioned

Neumann problem the inverse of the fluid impedance matrix is ill defined. In Eq.

is

and the fluid impedance matrix

(6.8.17) the structure as in Eq. as,

impedance matrix removes the ill conditioning

from the left hand side. Formulated

(6.8.18), the SVM will be ill defined at the critical frequencies. However it can be rewritten

(z7'z3

+ i) {ü}

Z1{f}. =

(6.8.19)

It is perhaps computationally

unfeasible to formulate the SVM in this way, but it illustrates the

SVM frequencies. A for the the evacuated thin the similar argument at critical uniqueness of both Zf1 ZI fails and since shell defined interior ill Neumann problem. the are at eigenvalues

In order to obtain a unique solution for the evacuated closed thin shell problem, it is necessary to use the Burton and Miller formulation of the exterior acoustic problem.

Huang [1984] proposed that whilst the evacuated fluid interaction problem was in theory ill conditioned is ill in internal this conditioning practice critical wavenumbers, at is not seen. His

discretization that reasons were

degeneracy the of the eigenvalues of the H and errors remove

G+ matrix in Eq. (6.8.1-2). However the numerical results in this Chapter along with previous [1986]), ('1Mlathews this that proposition show results interpolation. surface Since the elasto-acoustic problem does not break down at the interior Neumann eigenvalues, it is is interesting the long to the properties of physical shell at these non-zero, consider pas as critical wavenumbers. Following the notation [1986], Junger Feit modal pressure and of and is not valid for the high order fluid and

by, surface velocity are related page 146

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

Wn

=

fn,
fn, Zn 2-t "n Zn 7"n

(6.8.20)
(6.8.21)

+-n Pn -+

Pn

_ =

fn Zn +4Zn ,

(6.8.22)

where,

Z-

ip- c_

jn(k-a)

(6.8.23)

impedance the and other relationships

defined are on page 161 and 233 of Junger and Feit.

For the fluid filled thin shell at the eigenvalues of the interior Neumann problem,

in' (k a) = 0"

(6.8.24)

Assuming p- 00 and c- 00

then the following relationships will hold;

wn=o,

(6.8.25) (6.8.26) (6.8.27)

Pn =1,

Pn -- -fn

At the interior Neumann eigenvalues the spherical shell will show a rigid response for that it display independent interior Dirichlet interior the will a response eigenvalues of at mode, whilst fluid.

6.9 Elastic

Thin

Plate

Problems

The treatment

of rigid plate problems has already been introduced in Chapter 4. For the is approximated in Eq. (4.6.5) by,

difference distribution the pressure collocation method,

HII{5pi}

=

{uj}.

(6.9.1)

page 147

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem. is

The pressure difference on IF is constrained to be zero. The consequence of this constraint that in general for the rigid plate problem the reconstructed interface to the not equal specified velocity,

is the the plate edge of velocity on

{UE}

0

HEI{SPI}.

(6.9.2)

For the elasto acoustic plate analysis the edge pressure difference can be constrained to be in As in the rigid plate problem, constraining zero a similar way. zero on the edge in this way will result in a discontinuity of the plate. The results for the rigid plate acoustic problem in chapter 4, indicate that the acoustic defined for is This is the the especially case nodes that are situated not well at edges. problem be further investigated by The the the can edge of plate. plate problem extending the analysis on Sl (6.1) divided into Figure two thin thin and regions, shells. represents a closed shell of closed S2. The interface between the two regions is the line F. Assume that there are two different boundary conditions specified for Sl and S2; the pressure difference to be

in the displacement field at the edge

U1 = U0,

(6.9.3) bp2 = bpo.

F

S7

n+

r

Figure 6.1. Representation

of plate problem.

If Sl is assumed to be -igid, and öpo is zero, then the acoustic equation set can be written,
page 1,(8

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

Hll
H21

H1`'
H22

bpi
0

u° _
U2

(6.9.4)

For the case where r does not contain any surface nodes then this equation may be rearranged to give a solution in terms of the known quantities,

Hip H21

0 -1

bPi u2 _

uo 0

(6.9.5)

Continuity

displacement by interpolation IF is the of pressure and over satisfied then Eq.

functions.

If however the edge nodes are taken into consideration determined set of equations for bpl ;

(6.9.5) results in an over

Hll{bpl}

{uo}, =

(6.9.6)

Hrl{bpl}

{uo}. =

(6.9.7)

Ignoring Eq. (6.9.7) gives the solution technique given in Eq. (6.9.1). An improvement (6.9.7) by least (6.9.6) Eq. Eq. be the a squares method. and solution of might

on this

6.10

Numerical

Results

The elasto-acoustic methodologies were fully implemented in FORTRAN.

This was done by

into large The the FEM the the matrices existing acoustic resulting code. and coupling coding size of the resulting structural lack the of an out of core solution procedure meant matrices and be could modeled. Ther majority of numerical

that only problems of a moderate complexity

in to the this analysis of submerged elastic spherical shells since correspond chapter results analytical forward. The other problem modeled was solutions are well established and straight

the cantilever plate.
6.10.1 Cantilever Plate

The cantilever plate shown in figure (6.2) was studied with dimensions; a=0.4064, 0.2032 and t=0.00267. v=0.3 The plate has constitutive material properties; E=0.2068

b= x 1012,

These 7830. be the parameters p, were chosen = so results could and compared to was incorporated

[1989]. Fyfe The Coyette and rigid wall anchoring the plate at X=0 those of page 149

Elasto-Acoustic into the model by assuming acoustic reflective symmetry in the Y-Z

Problem.

The plate was plane. 998) and the

discretized into 24 elements. The plate is submerged in water (c = 1500 and p= first four eigenvalues are calculated.

These results are shown in Table (6.1) and compared to [1965]. et al due a

the results of Coyette and Fyfe and the experimental results of Lindholm The numerical

results are calculated in two ways. First the pressure distribution

point load is calculated over a range of frequencies and the eigenvalues are extracted graphically (VCM). Second the fluid added mass is calculated in the incompressible limit (c = oo, k= 0)

done is on the resulting structural and an eigenvalue analysis equation set was formulated using the variational method.

equation set (FAM). The acoustic

The agreement between all results in Table (6.1) is satisfactory.

However the success of

the incompressible results shows that the analysis is at low frequencies and consequently not a formulation. test the of rigorous
6.10.2 Spherical Shell

The 24 element spherical shell illustrated acoustic radiation and the structural and scattering symmetry problems.

in Chapter 2 is used to model a number of elastoAgain only one quarter of the shell is discretized

is incorporated into the FEM by fixing the appropriate degrees of

freedom on the symmetry Structural

planes. This involves intro-

damping is included through a hysteretic approximation.

ducing a complex component to the stiffness matrix,

KD = K(1 - i-y).

If modal reduction is used for the structural by making the `dry' eigenvalues complex,

damping be introduced this then equation set, can

[KD -W 2M]-1 N

'r` E k-

{ek } {ek }T wk(1 17) w2

(6.10.1)

Unless specified the dimensionless structural

for the spherical shell are, constants

h/a = 0.01,

p3/p=7.67,
page 150

v=0.3,

Elasto-Acoustic

Problem.

/c iy/2), 3.53(1 cp = The thickness of the shell is denoted h and the structural

7=0.01.
speed of sound, cp is defined by,

ECp =

1/2

(6.10.2)
v2)

Ps(1 Table (6.2) shows a numerical

modal analysis of the in vacuo and submerged evacuated

[1986] from Junger Feit The the to spherical shell compared eigenresults extracted and p282. indicate which structural value results eigenvalue corresponds to the axisymmetric analytical

dimensionless defined by, frequency is the mode, and undamped

SZ = wa/cp.

(6.10.3)

An eigenvalue analysis is performed on the `dry' structure to extract the numerical eigenfor discretizations. 6 24 the and element values The results show that the numerical `dry' results is satisfactory. The sub-

eigenvalues converge and the agreement with the analytical

frequency from graphical plot, to three significant places, a merged eigenvalues were evaluated between discrepancy found is Junger it the that there coded analytical and a slight and was and Feit submerged eigenvalues. Again these results show good accuracy and convergence. The second set of results showing the ratio of tangential to radial displacement are more informative. The results for the lower branch modes again show good accuracy for the in vacuo

looses however the the of calculation submerged ratios numerical rapidly and submerged ratios, branch. There higher two for the the are contributory upper of modes accuracy factors to this

inaccuracy. First there is the inaccuracy of the dry eigenvector and second the inaccuracy of the fluid modification of the eigenvector. Whilst a refined mesh would reduce the inaccuracy, it may independently. and acoustic problems It is the author's

be more efficient to refine the structural belief that such a methodology efficiency.

increased balance the complexity would

with much improved

Figures (6.3-4) show the pressure gain in the far field from a fluid filled elastic spherical between force. is by The the far the unit point gain as ratio a calculated pressure shell excited field pressure and 1pPa For the variational The contribution the structural formulation there is high accuracy up to ka = 3. however

to the scattering from the lower branch modes is over approximated, For the collocation

damping for the test case is very small.

method however,

151 page

Elasto-Acoustic there is a similar accuracy in the underlying

Problem.

response, but the excitement of the lower branch to the far field radiation

ka be 0.5 is less After there ; zzý should modes no contribution accurate. from the lower branch modes. Although formulation, excitation

by a point source is a severe test of the of the variational BEM and

these results indicate that the consistent formulation

FEM may have the edge in accuracy over the coupled collocation BEM/FEM The results in figures (6.5-6) show the backscattering

formulation.

form function for the fluid filled

A little the shell. comparison elastic spherical collocation and variational results shows very of difference in accuracy and close agreement with the analytical result up to ka = 8. The difference between these results and the radiation results for the point excited spherical shell indicate that the accuracy of the structural be limiting response may a factor for consistent structural and

fluid meshes. Figure (6.7) shows the back scattered form function for the evacuated thin shell, Burton formulation. Miller the collocation and calculated using
The behaviour of the coupled shell, SHIE and Burton Dirichlet and Miller formulations applied to the (6.8).

"evacuated" Figure problem (6.9)

spherical compares

at the first

critical

frequency Miller and

is shown in figure formulations

the coupled critical

DSHIE

Burton and

for the same

at the first Neumann

frequency. formulation

Both set of results disprove Huang's conjecture for the "evacuated" thin shell problem. The

for the a modified need and show results elastic removes that in figure thin

(6.10) however support

the proposal

in for this that made study a fluid filled problems by the elastic formulation (6.10) show

shell, the coupling of uniqueness

of the exterior at the critical

and interior frequencies.

problems

The results of figure

first Neumann the at pressure.

frequency

the surface pressure difference will be equal to the applied

excitation

Figures (6.11-14) indicate the advantages of frequency interpolation. collocation and variational

The results for the step of Aka =

interpolation frequency both indicate that a methods

1.0 is possible before significant loss in error. Such a frequency interval in these plots represents the calculation impedance fluid matrices at approximately of 1% of frequency points.

page 152

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

A-*o .

NL...

Z

x
Figure 6.2. Cantilever plate geometry.

In Vacuo Mode Theory C&F Numerical Experimental

Submerged C&F FAM VCM

1 2 3 4

13.8 59.3 83.9 194

13.8 59.. E 899.1 198.5

13.9 60.0 89.2 198.4

5.1 29.8 34.4 99.1

6.1 34.8 40.8 120.2

6.0 34.0 40.0 116.0

6.0 33.1 40.1 112.6

Table (6.1). plate.

Comparison

for In the cantilever of submerged and vacuo quantities

page 153

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

Undamped dimensionless natural frequency Eig e avalue In Vacuo Submerged

Mode Lower 1 2 3 4 Upper 0 1 2 3 4

n=6 1 2 5 7 11 15 19 29 38

n=24 1 2 5 7 25 27 39 51 68

n=6 0.000 0.713 0.909 1.237 1.613 1.979 2.733 3.744 4.707

n=2.4 0.000 0.702 0.835 0.896 1.613 1.975 2.724 3.642 4.614

J&F 0.000 0.701 0.830 0.881 1.610 1.980 2.720 3.640 4.600

n=6 0.000 0.322 0.424 0.700 1.270 1.800 2.290 3.370 4.250

n=24 0.000 0.323 0.407 0.467 1.270 1.800 2.300 3.360 4.390

Anal. 0.000 0.324 0.407 0.465 1.270 1.800 2.300 3.360 4.390

J&F 0.000 0.318 0.392 0.461 1.220 1.820 2.550 3.420 4.420

Ratio of tangential to radial displacement In Vacuo Submerged

Mode Lower 1 2 3 4 Upper 0 1 2
3

n=6 1.000 0.275 0.117 0.118 0.000 -3.500 -0.593
-0.608

n=24 1.000 0.271 0.122 0.069 0.000 -0.500 -0.616
-0.673

J&F 1.000 0.270 0.123 0.070 0.000 -0.500 -0.616
-0.680

n=6 1.000 0.252 0.107 0.113 0.000 -0.669 -53.700
-22.400

n=24 1.000 0.250 0.116 0.067 0.000 -0.668 -153.0
-77.8.0

J&F 1.000 0.250 0.117 0.068 0.000 -0.646 -1.080
-3.280

4

-0.688

-0.679

-0.713

-34.200

-110.0

-5.500

Table (6.2). thin shell.

Comparison of submerged and In vacuo quantities for the evacuated

page 154

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

130

ci

120

dB

110

100

90

80

Analytical
""""""""' Variational

70
.1

1

ka

10

Figure (6.3).

The ; ar field back radiated pressure from

filled fluid a sphere ex-

force. discretized into 24 The is by the elements and unit sphere point a cited formulation The to the thin shell was used acoustic response. model variational is 100 set reduced using eigenvectors. structural equation
page 155

Elasio-acoustic

Problem.

130

120

dB
F

110
r, 1

100

90

80

"°"""""""

Analytical Collocation

70
1

1

ka

10

Figure (6.4).

The far field back radiated pressure from

fluid filled a sphere ex-

force. discretized into The is 24 by the unit elements point sphere a and cited formulation The thin the to shell was model acoustic response. used collocation is 100 set reduced using eigenvectors. structural equation
page 156

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

10

f
1

i i /

/ ' ' / ý,

.1

i

i

01

Analytical """""'. '. " """" Variational Rigid

001 . 1

1

ka

10

Figure (6.5).

The far field baclcscattered form function

for a fluid filled

elastic

discretized is into The 24 the variational elements and sphere sphere. formulation to used model the acoustic response. was The structural

thin shell equation

100 is using eigenvectors. reduced set
page 157

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

10

f
1

I

i . 41
i

i

.1

i '

.

01 .
Analytical Collocation Rigid

001 . 1

1

ka

10

Figure (6.6).

The far field backscattered form function

for a fluid filled

elastic

The is discretized into 2.4 the sphere and collocation elements sphere. formulation was used to model the acoustic response. The structural

thin shell equation

100 is eigenvectors. reduced using set
page 158

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

10

f

1
1'",,

.;

NX, "

i i i i i

i

1
i i

i

1

i

i i

i i i , i

""""

Analytical Numerical Rigid

01 . 1

1

ka

10

Figure (6.7). sphere.

The far field backscattered form function

for an evacuated elastic Miller and

The sphere is discretized into 24 elements and the Burton

formulation collocation

The to the was used structural model acoustic response.

is Lanczos 50 reduced using vectors. equation set
page 159

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

1.2

0.62 Real Pressur Difference "

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4

I

Related Interests


0.55
" "

0.2

Imaginary Press
v. v

nn 3.0416

nAQ v. -to

e Difference
ka 3.2416

3.1416

ka

3.2416

3.0416

3.1416

0.7

-0.25

Real Displa cement

Imaginary D splacement

40

0.3

-0.30

"

"

". "tý..

l..

"

0
ZS

""

"

L-0.1 3.0416

-V.

_n

J

3.1416

ka

3.2416

3.0416

3.1416

ka

3.2416

Analytical

.

BYM

---------

SHIE

f.

Figure (6.8). first Dirichlet

The surface pressure and velocity distributions critical

in the region of the The

for an evacuated elastic spherical shell. wavenumber

by discretized into is 24 is excited unit constant pressure. elements and surface

page 160

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

1.1

03 Real Pressur Difference
" "w " "

1.0

40
--- -------------------

0.2

-----------------

Imaginary
09
Al

Press

e Difference
ka 45934

4.3934

4.4934

ka

45934

4.3934

4.4934

0.05

-0.1

Imaginary Dis

acement

40

0.00

-0.2

" ""

"

Real Disp
nS _n 4.3934
4.4934 ka 4.5934 -0.3 43934

"
4.4934

ka

4.5934

Analytical

_.

B&M

--------- .

DSHIE

f.

Figure (6.9).

The surface pressure and velocity distributions

in the region of the

first Neumann critical wavenumber for an evacuated elastic spherical shell. The discretized into is 24 by is elements and surface excited unit constant pressure.

page 161

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

1.03

Lure Real Pr Difference

0.001

1.00

0.000

Imaginary
0.97'4.3934
nnni

Press re Difference

-v. w

i

4.4934

4.5934

4.3934

4.4934

4.5934

0.03

0.003

Imaginary

Displacement

0.00

0.000

Displacement

-0.03 4.3934

4.4934

4.5934

-0.003 4.3930

4.4930

' 4.5930

Analytical

Collocation

f.

Figure (6.1 D). The surface pressure and velocity distributions first Neumann critical

in the region of the The

filled fluid for elastic spherical shell. wavenumber a

discretized into by is is 24 unit constant pressure. elements and excited surface

page 162

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

130

dB

110

90

Analytical . ka=0.1

70 -

0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

130

dB

110

90

Analytical Oka=0.2

70 0.

1.1

ka

2.1

Figure (6.11).

The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere The results are calculated using the collocation (b) (a) Oka Oka 0.1 0.2. at and = =

force. by a point unit excited

frequency interpolation method with

page 163

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

130

dB

110

90

Analytical Oka=1.0

70 0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

130

dB

110

90

.....'--°......

Analytical Aka=-2.0

70 0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

Figure (6.12).

The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere

force. The by the using collocation calculated a point unit results are excited (b) (a) frequency interpolation 2.0. Oka Oka 1.0 at and = method with =

page 164

Elasto-acoustic

Problem.

130

dB

110

90

...............

Analytical 1 Oka=O.

70 0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

130

dB

110

90

...............

Analytical Oka-0.2

70 0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

Figure

(6.13).

The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere

force. by The the variational a point unit results are calculated using excited (b) frequency (a) interpolation Oka Oka 0.1 0.2. at and with = method =

page 165

Elasto-acoustic

Prvblem.

130

dB

110

90

.....'-.".. -"

Analytical Oka=1.0

70

0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

130

dB

110

90

. ..............

Analytical Aka=2.0

70 '-

0.1

1.1

ka

2.1

Figure

(6.14).

The far field back radiated pressure from a fluid filled sphere The results are calculated using the variational (b) (a) Oka Oka 2.0. 1.0 and at = =

force. by a point unit excited

frequency interpolation method with

page 166

Lanc: os vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

CHAP TER Lanczos vectors

7. analysis

in elasto-acoustic

7.1 Introduction
This chapter evaluates the use of Lanczos vectors in the coupled Boundary Element Method and Finite Element Method with a view to improving the currently available solution techniques, for exterior field problems, in terms of computational that the fluid variable method been has It shown speed and accuracy.

is the most economical solution technique for these exterior is substituted set equation into the

field problems. In the fluid variable method, the structural acoustic equation set, the structural of the resultant matrix

displacement vector is subsequently eliminated and solution

disadvantage The the of equation set yields normal surface pressure. is effort expended into the acoustic

solving the coupled system in this manner is that considerable computational in a forward and backward substitution dynamic the of structural matrix

basis Therefore it is to technique to represent the use a reduced advantageous equation set. dynamic structural back substitution matrix, in order to reduce the computational burden of this forward and

frequency. process, required at each in matrix was used order

In Chapter 6 an eigenvector reduction of the dynamic structural to ease this computational

burden. The difficulty in using the modal approach, is the large num-

ber of eigenvectors required to accurately represent the dynamic response of the `dry' structure. Recent work (Nour-Omid [1989] [1984], Chen Taylor Clough Nour-Omid and and and and Regelof Lanczos vectors to the solution of interior fluid-structure

brugge [1989]) on the application interaction structural

fewer far Lanczos has dynamic to the are vectors required represent shown problems matrix. The increased accuracy of these vectors is due in part to the manner in which into their generation; the starting vector for the Lanczos allater in the chapter, is the dynamic deflection shape. Not only

the loading vector is incorporated gorithm, demonstrated be as will

the fewer Lanczos far to submerged elastic structure, represent accurately required vectors are these vectors are also, computationally less expensive to generate than eigenvectors.

In this chapter two different methods for which the application of Lanczos vectors are used to solve the coupled fluid-structure interaction be First the solution of presented. problem will

the exterior acoustic problem for evacuated closed thin elastic shells is studied. The collocation formulation is to the that ensure and used acoustic method the methodology range, quency is valid throughout the entire fre-

of Burton and Miller is implemented. page 167

The finite element model

Lanc: os rectors in elasto-acoustic analysis. of the structural boundary Lanczos the to then coupled vectors and problem was reduced using fluid the variable methodology. using for arbitrary Second the variational formulation

element formulation

of the acoustic formulation

thin shells is used to evaluate an added fluid mass cor-

finite fluid for finite This the term element problem element elastic problem. modified rection is then reduced using complex Lanczos vectors. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and computational both to radiation solutions in an infinite corresponding advantages of these methodologies, to an elastic submerged sphere

and scattering problems pertaining

both the to using media are generated and compared similar results calculated exact analytical solution and an eigenvector methodology.

7.2 Lanczos

Vectors

Consider a dynamic structural

system defined by the matrix equation,

(Ik

{U} IF}, = - w2M)

(7.2.1)

The Krylov subspace of this system, given a starting vector rl, is defined by,

[ri, (k-1M) Rm =

(K-1M)2rl,..., ri,

(K-1M)(m-i)rlj

(7.2.2)

The Lanczos vectors for the system defined in Eq. by orthogonalizing subspace

(7.2.1) are derived from this Krylov

each vector with the previous two, as they are generated. It can be

form Lanczos is in that the theory this the that vectors set of procedure of result a set shown of M-orthonormal iteration contributes vectors. The strength of these vectors is that each successive vector in the

to the dynamic response of the system. Furthermore if the starting vector

displacement direction be in is the then to the the shape, static of no static chosen sequence of displacement is the characteristics static needed since correction iteration. subsequent To increase the rate of convergence of the Lanczos series, a spectral shift of the stiffness is An frequency by the to a made. appropriate a value a also eliminates need of constrain matrix Consequently the body transformed modes. matrix rigid is defined by, implicitly are included in each

page 168

Lanc: os rectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

KQ=K-a2M.

(7.2.3)

This spectral shift improves the Lanczos representation of the structural equation set by forcing the starting be to vector a more appropriate dynamic displacement shape. [1989] [1984], Nour-Omid Clough Chen Taylor and and and

It can be shown (Nour-Omid

[1989]) is Lanczos Regelbrugge for that the given vectors algorithm generating successive and

by,

Kam' FA, ro = qo = 0, Qj _ ýrý 11L1rý-i)1ý2. , rj-1 qj = a' rj = Kv'Mqj, aj = qý MTA,
ri = ri - aj qj 3jgj-i,

(7.2.4) (7.2.5) (7.2.6)

(7.2.7)
(7.2.8) (7.2.9)
(7.2.10)

defined by, Lanczos the vectors are set of m where

m

Qm =

qi.

(7.2.11)

Using this set of Lanczos vectors it is now possible to reduce the dynamic structural tion. By writing,

equa-

1 {x}. u} = Q, n
and premultiplying by, given Eq. (7.2.1) by QmMKý 1, the transformed dynamic structural

(7.2.12)

equation is

page 169

Lancxos vectors in elasto-acoustic

analysis.

[(Qm1ý1(wm ý2QmMKo 'MQm) -w2Q

1 {F'}. (7.2.13) {x} Qm-ý1KQ MAC-1,11Q, = n]

From the orthogonal properties of the Lanczos vectors, Eq. (7.2.13) can be greatly simplifled. The left hand side can be transformed by noting that,

QmMK;

1MQ, QT=

Tm, = n Im,

(7.2.14) (7.2.15)

where the tri-diagonal

defined by, Tm is matrix

a1 32

/32 az 03

TI.
Qm-1 am-1 Qm Qm am

(7.2.16)

The right hand side of Eq. (7.2.13) is given simply by,

QT MKS 1{FA} = {9,,,},

(7.2.17)

is by, identity Im, first defined the is if the given matrix g,,, column of as el where,

{g,,, } = ßi{el}.

(7.2.18)

Finally the reduced dynamic structural

be written as, equation can

[im + (0,2 w2) Tm] {x} }. {g,,, _ -

(7.2.19)

There are several numerical points that need to be considered before numerically Lanczos algorithm. menting a Although in theory the orthogonalization page 170

imple-

Lanczos of each vector

Lanczos rectors in elasto-acoustic analysis. with the previous two should ensure the orthogonality of the complete set, in practice this is not the case. Because of rounding errors orthogonality is lost as the iteration One way proceeds.

to overcome this problem would be to perform a full reorthogonalization this is computationally expensive and unnecessary. A more satisfactory

However at each step. be to method would reorthog-

degree the examine of orthogonality onalization be could performed.

at each step and when necessary, a Gram-Schmidt

In this study a method proposed by Simon [1982] was used, of the current

that iteratively

generates a test vector that represents the degree of orthogonality

Lanczos vector against all other Lanczos vectors. This vector is tested to indicate the degree of orthogonality at each step, and if necessary full reorthogonalization is performed. It was found

in this study that the rounding errors in the Lanczos algorithm became serious only when the value of o corresponded too closely to a `dry' eigenvalue. The second point is the determination of the point at which enough Lanczos vectors have

been generated to ensure convergence of the reduced system to the full dynamic response. Previhave ous researchers also evaluated error estimates of the accuracy of the reduced system which be determine to can used a point at which the algorithm should stop. However the accuracy indicators of such in purely structural has (Chen been into doubt analysis called and Taylor problem there is another factor to be considered.

[1989]) and for the coupled fluid-structure The interaction of the structure of a surrounding

fluid with a structure can often modify the `dry' eigensolution Therefore it is way. only with a prior understanding of

in an unpredictable

the problem that an adequate number of Lanczos vectors can be chosen. For this reason an automatic termination is difficult. Lanczos the algorithm very of For the purposes of this study response is specified for

the number of Lanczos vectors used in the analysis of the structural each problem.

7.3 Fluid

Variable

Methodology

The full coupled elasto-acoustic Chapter 6,

formulation

for an evacuated closed shell was given in

7K

G'

- w2M

CA

(U)

Fa _ -0

-H/w2p

bp

(7.3.1)

If the dynamic structural

matrix is reduced using Lanczos vectors Eq. (7.3.1) becomes, page 171

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

(In+(o2_w2)Tm

Qm 111 h'ý 1CA

GCT Qm

x

gm

-H/w2p

bp

-0

(7.3.2)

Following the fluid variable methodology the `participation' the fluid-structure interaction equation is given by,

factors x are eliminated

and

GCQm wH p+

[I,

+

-1QT Tm] 0-2 - w2)

%I K47-1CT A

{bp}

=

I{9m}. [I,, (cr2 GCQr T"]+ _W2)

(7.3.3)

Defining,

CQm = Om, Qm-11Ko1CT = [CKo 1MQm]T - O'm
[Im + (0.2 Tmý - w2)

(7.3.4) (7.3.5)
(7.3.6)

Eq. (7.3.3) can be written

more concisely as,

H+

GemS-1®

A {bp} = GO,, S-'{9m}.

(7.3.7)

7.4 Added Fluid

Mass Methodology

In Chapter 6 the elasto-acoustic problem for an fluid filled or open thin shell was derived in terms of a fluid added mass term,

(K

-

[M w2

Mf(w)]) -

{U} = {Fa},

(7.4.1)

formulating by where plex, symmetric

the acoustic problem in terms of the variational

method, ßllf is the com-

and frequency dependent `fluid mass' matrix, page 172

Lanczos rectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

Mf(w)

= pCANk-1

ACT

(7.4.2)

The symmetry position. Algorithms

of the added fluid mass term makes it more amenable to Lanczos decomare available for Lanczos decomposition of non symmetric equation sets

(Rajakumar

[1991], Rogers Nour-Omid and

[1991] [1983]), Golub but Van Loan al and and et

in (7.4.1) in be Eq. this terms of Mf evaluated at some study. are not considered can rewritten shift frequency o. This gives,

[K

{U} (Ms {Fa }. (o))] (o)) (Mf (w) Mf Mf + w2 = - w2 -

(7.4.3)

The third term in the left hand side of Eq. (7.4.3) will be a small correction term, assuming the added fluid mass and fluid damping has a small variation with respect to frequency in the region of a. A Lanczos decomposition is performed using Eq. (7.4.3) with,

Ka =K-cT2(M8-M1(u)),

(7.4.4)

M=ms

-Mf(Q).

(7.4.5)

In the first instance, if the small correction term in Eq. (7.4.3) is neglected the Lanczos reduction by, be given will

[(0,2_

w2)Tm

+ Im]

{Xm1

= t9m}"

(7.4.6)

be T,,,, complex. x,,, and g,,, will where The numerical solution of Eq. (7.4.6) will be extremely efficient for a range of frequencies. However its usefulness as an accurate model will depend on the assumption that the third term in the left hand side of Eq. (7.4.3) is negligible. The work performed in this study indicates that for ka « 1. where a is the same order as the size of the structure, the assumption that the added fluid mass is frequency independent
page

is

173

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis. valid and leads to little loss in accuracy. However, for ka -- 1 and ka >1 it will be shown that this assumption is inadequate.

7.5 Results
To test the different methodologies the spherical shell described in Chapter 6 was used. Hysteretic damping was implemented decomposition. Figures (7.1-4) show the results of the fluid variable methodology cretizations before by Lanczos the numerically modifying stiffness matrix

applied to different disre-

different with numbers of Lanczos vectors to characterize the `dry' structural

The sponse. nodal normal velocities were normalized firstly by P(cosO) formula, the malized with

and then further nor-

12 1Olog Ivn(n + 1)I2
exact

(7.5.1)

The modal analytical

solution was taken from the work by Geers and Felippa [1983] and elastic sphere

for lightly damped, the to solutions obtained a submerged, corresponds vibrating loads functions by Legendre that the are of polynomial. excited

The results in figures (7.1-4) show that only 5 Lanczos vectors are needed to accurately dynamic deflection the of the structure. represent For more complicated shell geometries care

in Lanczos in be the to choosing number of vectors shown order not to exclude higher needs structural be that may significantly modes perturbed by the influence of the fluid interaction.

Tables (7.1-2) show in more detail the degree of accuracy of the results shown in figures (7.1-4). The solutions for the higher modes would converge with the use of a finer mesh. Figures (7.5-8) show the results of an eigenvector decomposition of the dynamic structural however higher These good and convergence, accuracy a results also show number of matrices. for Figure 7 Lanczos than convergence. shows the absence of a vectors eigenvectors are needed structural is 50 that accurately reproduced with only eigenvectors, a resonance resonance with

5 Lanczos vectors. The added mass formulation correction was tested in the far field region only, with the fluid mass constants were used

being evaluated at the lowest frequency. The same structural page 17!

Lanczos rectors in elasio-acoustic analysis. for the fluid filled shell as previously. be 1500m/s. The acoustic speed of sound in water was assumed to by a

Figure (7.9) shows the results for the far-field pressure radiated at 9=0

fluid filled sphere excited by a point force at 0=0.

The pressure is measured in dB using one is given on series solution

level. The exact analytical the reference micropascal at one metre as the same figure.

It was shown in Chapter 6 that the elasto-acoustic problem for fluid filled or open shells is in general well defined at all frequencies. However, for fluid filled shells, the added fluid mass will be defined will not well at the eigenvalues of the interior Neumann problem. This problem can be circumvented by calculating the added fluid mass term away from these critical frequencies. the agreement

It may be observed from Figure 9 that for low frequencies, that is ka «1 with the analytical

is difference between The solution excellent. using 10 or 40 Lanczos vectors that the solution converges for a small number of Lanczos vectors.

is very small, indicating

However as the frequency increases the converged numerical solution displays a loss in accuracy in comparison to the analytical solution. This loss in accuracy was expected in this frequency

(7.4.3) hand in is longer Eq. term the third the on right side negligible at these no regime as higher frequencies. For this methodology to be effective at these higher frequencies, high order frequency terms would need to be added to the formulation. It was thought scattering problems. that use of the Lanczos methodology would be particularly The reduction of the dynamic structural beneficial for

matrix is performed in terms of

the incident acoustic wave and FA in equation (7.2.4) is defined by,

{FA}=ACT{p}

(7.5.2)

incident is the pressure. where p; Figure (7.10) shows the results for the far field back scattering of a plane wave by an problems.

for the the values as used parameter radiation shell with same spherical evacuated One quarter of a sphere was discretized into 24,9-noded fluid-variable the using methodology, elements.

The results, calculated a commonly

are presented as a plot of form function,

Lanczos Twenty measure, against vectors were used to model the wavenumber. used scattering elastic structural The response. results obtained are compared to an analytical series solution loss factor. Higher solution

[1986], Feit for different Junger by two and values of structural given

increased damping. It with attained structural was appears therefore, that considerable accuracy determination in is the needed accuracy, of the structural elastic response.

page 175

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

w/(nß-1) 0.1 7r

n=0 0.12 1.33

n=1 2.13 2.49

n=2 5.06 10.10

n=3 21.30 48.70

2ir 10

0.42 1.64

4.96 18.30

11.00 9.12

9.08 1.88

(a) 6 elements and 5 Lanczos vectors

w/(n+1) 0.1

n=0 0.12

n=1 2.13

n=2 5.06

n=3 21.30

7r 2ir 10

1.33 0.39 0.79

2.95 4.94 10.50

9.05 13.10 9.09

46.40 7.65 2.04

(b) 6 elements and 20 Lanczos vectors

Table (7.1). variable structural

The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid Lanczos 6 reduction with elements and dynamic the of

methodology matrix.

page 176

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysts.

w/(n+1)

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

0.1 ir 2ir
10

0.01 1.56 0.72
0.32

0.20 2.31 0.21
0.97

0.30 6.38 0.91
10.00

1.46 21.90 1.96
0.26

(a) 24 elements and 5 Lanczos vectors

w/(n+1) 0.1

n=0 0.01

n=1 0.20

n=2 0.30

n=3 1.46

7r 2ir 10

1.56 0.73 0.31

2.34 0.20 1.03

6.46 0.73 9.50

24.60 1.15 0.98

(b) 24 elements and 20 Lanczos vectors

Table (7.2). variable structural

The percentage accuracy of the modal surface velocity for the fluid

Lanczos dynamic 24 the and reduction of elements methodology with matrix.

page 177

Lanczos rectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

w/(n+1)

n =0

n=1

n=2

n=3

0.1

0.12

2.46

5.06

21.30

T 27r
10

0.55 0.02
0.88

2.60 5.19
12.20

6.37 18.30
9.19

42.00 10.90
1.77

(a) 6 Elements and 50 eigenvectors

w/(n+1)

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

0.1 7r 2ir 10

0.12 0.56 0.01 0.63

2.46 2.38 5.15 17.00

5.05 6.06 12.30 9.87

21.30 42.20 10.40 1.85

(b) 6 Elements and 100 eigenvectors

Table (7.3).

The percentage accuracy of modal surface velocity for the fluid

dynamic 6 the reduction of elements and eigenvector variable methodology with structural matrix.

page 178

Lanc: os vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

w/(n+1)

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

0.1 7r
21r

0.01 0.79
0.35

0.52 1.20
0.06

0.29 3.49
0.87

2.43 37.40
17.20

10

0.14

0.93

10.30

16.10

(a) 24 Elements and 50 eigenvectors

w/(n+1) 0.1 T

n=0 0.01 0.79

n=1 0.52 1.20

n=2 0.29 3.44

n=3 1.45 15.40

2ir 10

0.35 0.14

0.05 0.93

0.86 10.10

1.92 0.76

(b) 24 Elements and 100 eigenvectors

Table (7.4).

The percentage accuracy of modal surface velocity for the fluid

dynamic 24 the reduction eigenvector and of elements variable methodology with structural matrix.

page 179

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

20

dB

0
-10

dB

n=

-20

i stU

-30

_40

L

.1

1

10 10

.1

1

62

10

30

40

20

n=
20

n=

10

dB
0

dB
0

-10
In -'. v

.1

1

(0/3 10

20L .

.1

1

U4

10

Figure (7.1).

Velocity response for n=0,1,2

3 excitation and

of a submerged

fluid the discretised into 6 variable methodology elements using spherical shell The frequency dimensionless is Lanczos the 5 velocities are w/c. vectors. w and normalised with respect to v(n + 1)exact.

page 180

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

20

dB
0 dB

-10

n.

-20

-30

L

fiL2i1

,10 -40

`

.1

1

w

10

.1

1

62 10

30

40

20

n=
20

n=

10 dB 0 0 -10 In -w
Yii[C H2O `

dB

.1

1

wý3 10

(r .1

1

w/4 10

Figure

(7.2).

Velocity response for n=0,1,2

3 excitation and

of a submerged

discretised spherical shell

into 6 elements using the fluid

variable methodology

frequency The dimensionless Lanczos is 20 the velocities are vectors. w w/c. and normalised with respect to v(n + 1)exact.

page 181

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

20

dB

0
-10 dB

n=

-20

L -30

ee

ssss

,fin -VtJ.

.1

1

w

10

1

1

o/2 10

30

40

20

n=
20
10 dB 0

n=

dB 0

-10 L -20

-20

.l

1

W3 10

.1

1

oY4 10

Figure spherical

(7.3).

Velocity

for response into

n=0,1,2

3 and excitation

of a submerged methodology are

discretised shell vectors.

24 elements

fluid the using frequency

variable w/c.

Lanczos 5 and normalised

dimensionless is the w

The velocities

with respect to v(n + 1)exnct

page 182

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

20

dB

0 -10
n=
dB
-20

-30

.l

1

10 10

/2 .11

10

30

40

20

n=
20

n.

10

dB
0

dB 0

-10
In -w
i 4. [ L -If(ý lii[] [) CL44[]SLYi[1

.l

1

°3

10

oY4 10

Figure spherical

(7.4).

Velocity

for response

n=0,1,2

3 excitation and

of a submerged methodology are

discretised shell vectors.

into 24 elements

fluid the using frequency

variable w/c.

Lanczos 20 and normalised

dimensionless is the w

The velocities

with respect to v(n + 1)esact "

page 183

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

20

dB

0
-10

dB

n=

-20

l"l[[

-30

.1

1

co 10

'41ýA0 .11

c&2 10

40

40

n=
20 dB
0

n=
20 dB
0

L -20

scisa

cttý -20

Fscsss

14

gcsss

aii

.1

1

co/3 10

.11

oY4 10

Figure (7.5).

Velocity response for n=0,1,2

3 excitation and

of a submerged methodology

fluid discretised into 6 the variable elements using spherical shell 50 eigenvectors. and normalised frequency dimensionless is the w/c. w

The velocities are

with respect to v(n + 1)ezact"

page 184

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

20

dB

0
-10

dB

n=

-20

nil
lii[]lLC Ot

-30

L

[[]fLi

i[

i[ -40

.1

1w

10

.11

(o/2 10

40

40

20 dB 0

n=

n=
20 dB
0

L -20

20

.1

1

°3

10

.11

U4 10

Figure

(7.6).

Velocity response for n=0,1,2

3 and excitation

of a submerged

fluid discretised 6 into the elements using spherical shell 100 eigenvectors. and normalised

variable methodology The velocities are

frequency dimensionless is the w/c. w

to 1)eract. + respect with v(n

page 185

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

10

zu

0

0 dB

dB -10

n=

-20

1
-20 -40

n _'

f.n

.11

10 10

.11

OY2 10

40

40

n20 dB 0 20 dB
0

n-

-20

L

IA

.1

13

10

.11

aY4 10

Figure spherical

(7.7).

Velocity

for response into

n=0,1,2

and 3 excitation

of a submerged methodology are

discretised shell

24 elements

fluid the using frequency

variable

50 eigenvectors. and normalised

dimensionless is the w

w/c.

The velocities

with respect to v (n + 1)exact

page 186

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic

analysis.

10

zu

dB

0

0 n:
-10

dB -20

-40

nil
1 o'2 10

-30

.1

1

10 10

Ti

Kn

40

40

n: 2
20 20 dB

dB 0

0

-20

L

LL------

t-7Ffi2I2Flit[72fLGi2L7SSi3t1 -20

.1

1

w/3 10

.11

oY4 10

Figure spherical

(7.8).

Velocity

for response into

n=0,1,2

3 excitation and fluid the using frequency

of a submerged methodology are

discretised shell

24 elements

variable

100 eigenvectors. and normalised

dimensionless is the w

w/c.

The velocities

with respect to v(n + 1)exact"

page 187

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic

analysis.

8
öö
ÜÜ V

bOO
L 8

"o "

"""

oa

8 M
CIO

Q0o

00

a

o°°

8 N

OOOO0 ý4 v--4 "-d

8
O,\ 00

'Lý

Far field radiated pressure at 0=0 for a fluid filled steel spherical One is discrethe force by 0=0. of sphere quarter a point at excited shell, fluid the 24 added mass tised into elements and the results were calculated using Figure (7.9). methodology.
188 page

Lanczos vectors in elasto-acoustic analysis.

8

f
"

Analytical yß. 01

6

4

2

oý 0
3

1

ka

2

f
" 2

Analytical yam.l

1

oý 0
Figure (7.10).

1

ka

2

Far field backscattered form function hysteretic damping, (a) y=0.01,

for an evacuated spherical (b) y=0.1. The structural

different shell with

Lanczos is 20 modeled using vectors. response
189 page

Conclusions and Recommendations.

CHAP Conclusions

TER

8.

Recommendations and

8.1 Conclusions

For the numerical acoustic analysis of arbitrary

three dimensional structures the boundary In this study a

becoming is element method established as the preferred solution technique. collocation and variational

BEM have been presented. Both methods make use of isoparametric

but (e. [1980]), BEM Terai they are independent of the order of unlike many previous elements g. interpolation used. The difficulty in implementing the Burton and Miller composite formulation

formulation the thin shell acoustic or integral operator. Both the collocation

has been the accurate evaluation of the hyper singular and variational formulations presented make use of the

conversion to tangential

derivatives first presented by Maue [1949]. derivatives there still remains a Cauchy type O(r-2)

After conversion to tangential larity.

singu-

In order to implement a collocation form of the hypersingular integral operator, Chapter It was shown that of

3 gave an argument for essentially ignoring the degree of this singularity. for a collocation Cl the on surface with strict continuity, point equation.

there will be cancellation

in the assembled matrix errors still sufficient continuity collocation approximation formulations.

It is assumed that with just Co continuity,

there is

of first order derivatives to ensure numerical accuracy. The resulting both is in Ak the thin shell and Burton and Miller operator used of

The thin shell formulation,

Chapter in 4, uses the variational procedure of Mariem presented A comparison of computational and collocational effort needed

[1987] JVk Hamdi the to operator. evaluate and to form this operator by using the variational

methods shows the increased

burden imposed by the extra integration for the variational method. However in terms of matrix factorization the advantages of a symmetric formulation are shown. The timing data indicates will

that with a n3 computational become the computational The Burton

time dependency, for large problems the matrix factorization

bottle neck. formulation is implemented using the collocational

and Miller

method and at re-

tested with rigid sphere, spheroids and cylinders.

The effectiveness of the formulation

is the of uniqueness shown, and numerical results show good accuracy and problems moving
page 190

Conclusions and Recommendations. for The the the cylinder are encouraging since they show the results accuracy of convergence. validity formulation the of applied to structures with surface discontinuities. for tested a range are

In Chapter 4 the variational

and collocation thin shell formulations

of closed and open thin shells. Both formulations

again show good accuracy and convergence

and there seems to be little to separate the accuracy of either method for the rigid problems. It be however that the formulations must noted boundary and gentle conditions. An extensive analysis of the superposition were compared using relatively simple geometries

method is given in Chapter

5.

It is shown

that although accuracy is possible using retracted surface boundary element methods, there are severe problems of conditioning are coincident. and stability unless the source surface and boundary surfaces

The main objective of this work was to disprove the belief that superposition

methods offer advantages over boundary element methods for arbitrary acoustic problems. The problem of numerical singularities have to be dealt with rather than avoided.

The finite element method for thin shells is introduced in Chapter 6 and the various coupling for elasto-acoustic analysis are presented. The collocation and variational acoustic methodologies formulations are coupled to the FEM using the structural variable method. The modal reduction frequency is described interpolation along with equation set of the fluid matrices.

of the structural

The problem of uniqueness at critical frequencies for the closed elastic acoustic sell is clarified, formulation is it that the thin shell elastic shown and couples the exterior and interior acoustic

is is In the the the case of the evacuated rigid or shell evacuated. shell when problems except thin shell uniqueness problems are shown to occur in theory and results are presented that disprove Huang's conjecture, that these problems occur for numerical test cases. Results are also for fluid filled is ill thin that to the problem shell not elasto-acoustic conditioned show presented fluid interpolation The frequencies. of advantages at critical are also clearly shown.

The comparison of the collocation method and variational

method coupled with the struc-

tural equation set, is more revealing than the similar comparison for the rigid body case in Chapter 4. For the far field results for scattering from an elastic sphere show there is little difference in accuracy. The results for the point loaded sphere however show that fluid modification of higher eigenmodes is significantly acoustic problem. more accurate with the variational formulation, formulation of the

For the collocation coupled BEM/FEM

the point loading results and variational

inaccurate the excitation show

higher in the analytical of eigenmodes, which page 191

Conclusions and Recommendations. impedance. high have modal cases very FEM and BEM formulation. Chapter 7 examines the use of Lanczos vectors in the coupled boundary element and finite element structural acoustics problems in an infinite domain. Two methodologies were described This indicates the advantages of having a consistent

along with a review of the principles of Lanczos vectors. The results of the numerical implementation of these two methods together with a comparison of the more traditional eigenvector

approach were presented. The results from the fluid variable methodology show that even with Lanczos large dynamic in therefore, the the number a small of vectors and a reduction size of structural matrix, high accuracy is still possible. The results obtained using the added mass

methodology and simplicity

reveal a loss in accuracy at the higher frequencies. however, the method's speed allows the character of the dynamic frequency response to a particular excitation

force to be very quickly ascertained. The numerical results presented Chapter 7 show that using Lanczos vectors instead of eigendynamic form basis for the to structural matrix offers significant improvements a reduced vectors in accuracy and computational The efficiency. examples presented also show that far fewer Lancresponse.

zos vectors are needed than eigenvectors to accurately calculate the elastic structural The use of Lanczos vectors for the solution of structural

acoustics problems in infinite domains, efficiency with increased solution

increase in the computational advantage of a considerable offer in the to eigenvector modal methods. comparison accuracy

The numerical methods presented in this thesis have been validated and their accuracy shown. It is felt that they represent the state of the art in acoustic BEM formulations. The

variational

be but felt is from the to the most robust and accurate method suffers method burden of the extra integration. The collocation method shows commethod.

increased computational

is in the than the more efficient and results variational presented parable accuracy

However the results for the point loaded elastic sphere show that it may not be as accurate as the variational for coupled problems. method

8.2 Recommendations
Comparison of the variational both that have complithey shows methods and collocation

be implemented Galerkin by A could method collocating at mentary strengths and weaknesses. distributing Gauss then points and element the resulting non square matrix to the nodal points

by using the Gauss weighting factors. Such a procedure for the thin shell acoustic formulation
page 192

Conclusions and Recommendations. be would equivalent to the variational integration formulation but would be more efficient since the second Further more, by definition, there

would be more efficient as a matrix multiplication.

Cl be continuity would

at the collocation points since they are interior to the element. and implementation of the

The work presented in this thesis represents an investigation basic building blocks of a coupled FEM/BEM

elasto-acoustic analysis. Within

the next three

in College Imperial hopes the to the techniques order group research at years refine and expand to produce a totally integrated structural be This package will acoustics software package.

heart in from highly The of the scratch a modular and object orientated way. numerical written based be in this thesis, along with other state of the methods around presented will program the art procedures necessary for a robust and practical software package. The proposed project distinct divided into be subtasks: several can (a) Development and refinement of analytical solutions (b) Wetted surface mesh generation (c) Generation of the fluid matrices using BIE Ensure that the program can handle mixed boundary conditions Development of out-of-core matrix utilities (d) implementation interpolation fluid the matrix of FEM matrices using technique

(e) generation of the structural (f) Implementation (g) Implementation (h) Implement

Lanczos the vector generation algorithm of of the coupling algorithm gradient semi-iterative solution method and compare

the biconjugate

factorization LU the type normal with (i) Post processing graphics incorporating X-Y including plotting results

solution method for tools the necessary all presentation of

hard copy postscript output. and

display field the 3-D interactive Full of scattered pressure colour contoured r At this point a complete working three-dimensional on: 193 page code will exist and research can begin

Conclusions and Recommendations. (j) Dynamic substructuring techniques

in order to model interior ballast tanks and structure (k) Adaptivity
mance

using error indicators and mesh refinement to optimize solution perfor-

(1) Enhance the computational code (m) Enhancement

performance through optimization

of key portions of the

biconjugate the of gradient semi-iterative

solution method through

is fluid from the trial the a system where solution vectors solution obtained using as treated as incompressible. The code will be developed using the C and C++ languages within a UNIX environment, facilities the graphics and X-Windows. be implemented using will

page 194

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[70] M. P. Stallybrass. On a pointwise variational principle for the approximate solution of linear boundary value problems. Journal of Maths and Mechanics, 16(11): 1247-1286, 1967. [71] M. P. Stallybrass. On a pointwise variational principle for the approximate solution of linear boundary value problems. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 16(11): 12471287,1967.
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[72] G. Strang. Linear Algebra and its Applications. 1988. [73] T. Terai.

Harcourt Brace Jovanoývich, third edition,

On calculation of sound fields around three dimensional by integral objects equation methods. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 69(1): 71-100,1980.

[74] O. Tullberg and S. Bolteus. A critical study of different boundary element matrices. In C. A. Brebbia, editor, Boundary Element Methods in Engineering, Proc. Ph Int. Semina Southampton, pages 621-635. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982. [75] V. K. Varadan and V. V. Varadan V. V. Computation body by prolate of rigid scattering spheroids using the t-matrix approach. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71(1): 22-25, January 1982. [76] A. G. P. Warham. The helmholtz integral equation for a thin shell. Technical Report DITC 129/88, National Physical Laboratories, 1988. [77] M. F. Werby and R. B. Evans. Scattering from objects submerged in unbounded and bounded oceans. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, OE-12(2): 380-394,1987. [78] F. M. Wiener. On the relationship between the sound fields radiated and diffracted plane obstacles. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 23(6): 697-700,1951. by

[79] D. T. Wilton. Acoustic radiation and scattering from elastic structures. Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 13: 123-138,1978.

International

[80] S. W. Wu. A fast robust and accurate procedure for radiation and scattering analyses of bodies. PhD Department Aeronautics, Imperial thesis, elastic submerged axisymmetric of College, London, 1990. [81] T. W. Wu, A. F. Seybert, and G. C. Wan. On the numerical implementation of a cauchy for insure integral to a unique solution acoustic radiation and scattering. value principal Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90(1): 554-560,1991. [82] X. F. Wu. Faster calculations of sound radiation from vibrating cylinders using variational formulations. Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design, 111: 101107, January 1989. [83] X. F. Wu, A. D. Pierce, and J. H. Ginsberg. Variational method for computing surface bodies, disks. to IEEE transversely applied oscillating vibrating on pressure acoustic Journal of Oceanic Engineering, OE-12(2), 1987. [84] O. C. Zienkiewicz, D. Kelly, and P. Bettess. The coupling of finite element and boundfor Journal A'umerical Methods International in Engineering, ary solution procedures. 11:355-375,1977. [85] O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L. Taylor. (London), fourth edition, 1989. The Finite Element Method, volume 1. McGraw-Hill

page 199

Symmetry and Half Space Problems.

APPENDIX
Symmetry and Half

1.
Space Problems

A 1.1 Image

Sources

A important surrounding

result in potential

theory is the uniqueness of the exterior

field, pressure

a radiator.

The implication

be field is that this the can of result exterior pressure One important (Wiener

by boundary the uniquely specified conditions on the surface of the radiator.

consequence of this theory is that scattering and radiation problems are inter-changeable [1951]). This theory has another important semi-infinite

in for the modeling of acoustic problems consequence

bounded by media, a zero pressure or zero velocity plane. Such half space problems free the acoustics, where effect of rigid or

interest in great are of submarine and environmental

surfaces correspond to the effect of the surface of the ground or water respectively. The conceptual device of image sources is used to simplify the half space problem (Pierce condition

Ch. 5 [1989]). The plane surface is replaced by an image source so that the boundary

(A1.1). for is in figure is This the the rigid surface shown concept preserved. on plane surface

un=0
r oý

un =0 _/ 1
r

S

Image Source
Imaginary Boundary T

Rigid Boundary T

Figure (A1.1).

Image source construction

to model infinite

rigid plane.

Consider the exterior acoustic pressure for the source and image source. The pressure and distributions layer double be fields source written as single and can velocity image of S the combined effects of the source distributions and since S' is the

be gathered under one integral, can

page 200

Symmetry and Half Space Problems.

p_

Jrr, 4r s

1j

eikr ((ikr

esk"

µ(ro)dS,

(A1.1.1)

u" =1 47r

s

ör 1) ikr' -1 (9r' ik,." =k,,+ e an öne I2 r2

01.1.2)

where µ and a are the single and double layer source distributions Consider points r0. next the limit of these source distributions

defined at the surface source

on the rigid plane. If the normal

is defined as the normal to the plane, then from the symmetry of S and S', n

r=T

or an

ÖTV an

on r.

(A1.1.3)

Consequently the normal velocity on the surface of the imaginary plane is zero and the pressure is twice the pressure than if the image surface were absent. A semi-infinite domain bounded by be by acoustic a rigid plane, can modeled modifying according to the reflective symmetry in the plane. A pressure image surface, so that the exterior pressure

the Greens free space function

be by modeled an antisymmetric release plane can by, fields are given and velocity
eikr eikr'

p-

4r

r

r'

p(ro)ds,

(A1.1.4)

Is ((ikr u" =1 4r

ör 1) an 2 r

eikr

-

ikr' -1
r/2

ör'
an eikr

ý(ro)dS.

(A1.1.5)

In general the appropriate modifying modification formulations

boundary

condition

can be imposed upon a ficticious

surface by This

the Green's free space function according to Eq. (A1.1.1-2) or Eq. (A1.1.4-5).

for both is function indirect free Green's direct the the appropriate space and of boundary the element method. of

A1.2

Geometric

Symmetries
defined by a repeating surface So, with surface

Consider a symmetric

acoustic radiator

A transformation geometric ro. points

describes the whole surface from So,

r; =Ti ro,

i=1... 201 page

n, -1,

(A1.2.1)

Symmetry and Half Space Problems. is the order of symmetry where n, Jacobian in the integral formulation transformation and T is the geometric transformation operator. The area

of the acoustic problem is invariant under the symmetry by, is the of given acoustic problem

and so the boundary layer formulation

n"-1

eikr,

p=- 47r S. ýn = 47r

i-0 n, -1

r

)dS, p(r,, 1) ýn eikr, ý(ro)dS.
s

(A1.2.2)

(ikrr2

JS,

(A1.2.3)

i-0

Again the geometric formulation

is accounted for by modifying the Green's free space func-

tion and the same procedure can be applied to the SHIE and DSHIE formulations of the acoustic problem. The appropriate modifications of the Green's functions are summarized in figure

(A1.2).
In this study two symmetry lems analyzed were asymmetric axisymmetric transformations and so rotational were implemented. symmetry The majority of prob-

for implemented to account was matrix is given by,

geometric symmetries. The appropriate

transformation

7rotro

f
-

cosO; sing; cos0i _sin9; 001Z

0X 0Y,

(A1.2.4)

where,

ei=

2iri -, n,

(A1.2.5)

Reflectional Chapter

implemented in the cantilever plate problem of and used geometry was also

6, to model the half-space problem defined by the rigid wall holding the cantilever for a reflection in an arbitrary r, plane, with normal vector (1, in, n)

The transformation plate. is given by,

1- 212 Tr ef_ T°-2m1 -2n1
0

-21m 1- 2m2 -2nm
0

-21n -2mn 1- 2n2
0

dz dy dZ
1

X Y Z
1

(A1.2.6)

direction in from dZ) is the dy, the the the (dt, to the of origin plane vector normal to the where is fourth the transformation A that reflection added so coordinate plane. can be written in terms

202 page

Symmetry and Half Space Problems. of a matrix multiplication. Up to three reflection planes with orthogonal normals can be used

to generate image sources. For reflection planes that are not orthogonal, an infinite number of image sources are generated. The set of symmetric by, b a, and c, are given transformations for three reflection planes,

(yreJ)b (7ä ,f )a ra, b,e =

(TTref

)C

roe

b, 0,1. a, c =

(A1.2.7)

The order of the symmetry

is given by 23 = 8.

page 203

Symmetry and Half Space Problems.

U =o

Rigid Boundary

Pressure Release Boundary

un =o

Gk*

_GkI+

Gk2

Geometric Symmetry

Figure

(A1.2).

Summary

for image the sources acoustic problem. of

The modi-

fied Green's function

is denoted by G*.

204 page

Analytical

Series Solution for the Sphere.

APPENDIX
Analytical Series Solution

2.
for the Sphere

A2.1

Rigid

sphere
this study the spherical radiator is used to validate the acoustic numerical solution for the spherical problem is easily available. These results

Throughout

methods since an analytical

are covered in great depth by Junger and Feit [1986], and they are summarized in this appendix. The SHIE for the exterior problem is given by,

p(r)

=

jo

(p(ro)Or0)

T_w2pwGk(r,

ra)

dSro,

rEE,

(A2.1.1)

displacement. is the radial where w

If the coordinate system of the problem allows variable

Greens free function, then an analytical solution is available. In spherical the space separation of polar coordinates the Greens free space function can be written in terms of spherical Besse]

functions and Legendre polynomials,

Gk(r, O,01r, Bo Oo) =_

00 ik Z
47r

n

n=o m=-n

(n - m)1 ! (2n + 1)cos m(0 00) (n +
m)! Pn (cose)PP (coseo)jn(kro)hn(kr), r> ro

(A2.1.2)

The coordinate system (r, 6, ¢) describes the exterior domain and (ro, Bo,0o) describes the Green's For the the where an analytical solution systems exists, coordinate sphere. surface of function in Eq. (A2.1.1) can be written as,

(r, r(r, Gk + ro), ro) 9(rß ro) =

(A2.1.3)

Helmholtz' derivative homogeneous the is r the F to equation and normal of a solution where (A2.1.1) Eq. be S. Consequently Gk derivative the can rewritten on of normal cancels as,

P(r) = -,. )

2p

is Js , wg(r, ro)dSra,
r> r0.

(A2.1.4)

page 205

Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere. Taking the general case of ro =a the correct expression for g(r, r0), satisfying the homogeboundary Neumann condition and the radiation condition, is given by, neous

e, 0,0o) 0ja, 9(r,

=1 47rka2

ZZ

00

n

n-o m. -n

(n - m)! (2n + 1)cos m(¢ - 40) (n + m).
h'ý(ka)
n(

(. X2.1.5)

Pn (cosO)PP (cosOo)

r>a.

The exterior pressure field given in Eq. (A2.1.4) can now be written in terms of this modified

Green's function,

oo p(r ý) B, =2

n

(n-rn)! (

hn(kr)

47rk j

n=0m=-n

(n + m)! cos m(0 -

2n + 1)

hn (ka) r a..

2x

rJ 0 0)P(cosB)P(cosG0)sinBodBod0o,

(A2.1.6)

The radial displacement in Eq. (A2.1.6) can also be written as a summation displacements,

of modal

00

W=1:
nl=0

1:
m'=-nl

WmmnuPP

'(CO89o)COS m'0.

(A2.1.7)

When the modal expansion of w is substituted into Eq (A2.1.7), the orthogonality field, for the exterior pressure tions simplifies the expression

functhe of

B, q) =p(r,

wkP EE
n-0

2

°O

n
m--n

ftn kr

WmnPn (cos9)cos mO ,r>a., h, (ka) n

(A2.1.8)

where,

2r j0 Z (n - m)i Pn (cos90)cos m (2n + 1) wmn =1 4ir ()o n+m . ,0

90, ýo) sin90dO0dýo. w(a,

(A2.1.9)

in be terms the impedance, the of The pressure on the surface of expressed modal can sphere

206 page

Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.

00

B, ¢) P+(a, =

ZZ
n-0

n

Z+,W,,,,, Pn (cosB)cos MO,
m--n

(. 12.1.10)

with,

zn = iPCh, n(

(kQ) )

(A2.1.11)

The acoustic problem interior The modified Green's function

to the spherical shell can be analyzed in a similar

way.

in Eq.

(A2.1.5) must be constructed so that it satisfies the The corresponding surface

homogeneous Neumann boundary condition and be finite as r-0. interior the pressure on surface is,

00

n

-(a, 8,0) =
n-0 m=-n

Zn Wmn P,'," (cos9)cos MO,

(A2.1.12)

with,

?pCý;+(ka) .
n

(A2.1.13)

A comparison of Eq. (A2.1.11) and Eq. (A2.1.13) shows that whilst the exterior pressure distribution is composed of a superposition of traveling waves, the interior pressure distribution is

a superposition

The eigenvalues of the interior spherical problem correspond of standing waves.

to the solutions to,

zn (kD) = 0, 1 (A2.1.14)

=0 . (kN) Ln

The interior

eigenvalues for the spherical problem are tabulated in Table (A1.1) and the figure in ( is j;, 2.1). and shown

frequency dependence of j

page 207

Analytical

Series Solution for the Sphere.

1.0

0.5 -------------

1

---------------

0.0

-0.5 0.000
0.4

3.142

6.284

ka

9.426

0.2
,"

:.rte

ý
1 ," " ý' ý.

0.0

-----------

-------------

----

-

----

-0.2

--Jý

-0.4

-0.6`0.0000

3.1416

6.2832

ka

9.4248

Figure tives.

(2.1).

Plot

first the of

four

spherical

Bessel's functions

derivathe and

208 page

Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.

Dirichlet 1

eigenvalues kD where j((kD), n=1 n=2

) = 0. n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6

n=0

1 2 3
4

3.141593 6.283185 9.424778
12.566371

4.493409 7.725252 10.904122
14.066194

5.763459 9.095011

6.987932 10.417119

8.182561 11.704907 15.039665
18.301256

9.355812 12.966530 16.354710
19.653152

10.512835 14.207392 17.647975
20.983463

12.322941 13.698023
15.514603 16.923621

Neumann eigenvalues kN where jn((kN)I) 1 1 n=0 4.493409 n=1 2.081576 n=2 3.342094

0. = n=3 4.514100 n=4 5.646704 n=5 6.756456 n=6 7.851078

2 3
4

7.725252 10.904122
14.066194

5.940370 9.205840
12.404445

7.289932 10.613855
13.846112

8.583755 11.972730
15.244514

9.840446 13.295564
16.609346

11.070207 14.590552
17.947179

12.279334 15.863222
19.262710

Table (A2.1).

The resonant frequencies for the interior

Dirichlet spherical

and

Neumann acoustic problems.

For any prescribed velocity distribution distribution

on the surface of the sphere the surface pressure

(A2.1.10). from Eq. For be scattering rigid spheres the surface may calculated using

fluid Therefore incident be the the to particle zero. velocity of wave must equal velocity must From the uniqueness of the external acoustic problem, the the that wave. scattered of cancel by Helmholtz' field is the solving obtained scattered pressure virtual boundary condition, acceleration reduced wave equation with the

iv, = -fi i=I

api

on S.

(A2.1.15)

An incident plane wave can be expanded in terms of spherical harmonics by using an addition theorem,

E(2n (r, O) P; p =
n-0

00

+ 1)i P(cosO)jn(kr).

(A2.1.16)

Substituting

Eq (A2.1.16) into Eq. (A2.1.15), Eq. (A2.1.8) gives an expression for the axisym-

field, metric scattered pressure

page 209

Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.

p5(r, O) = -Pi

00 E(2n
n. 0

+ 1)i"Pn(cos9)

h jn(kr)" hn(ka)

(. 2.1.17)

The external pressure distribution

is given by,

E(2n O) Ps + P(r, p, pi = =
n-0

00

+ 1)inPn(cos8)

li [n(kr)_

hn(kr)

7(kr) h, n( ka
)

.

(A2.1.18)

A2.2

Asymptotic

solutions

The frequency dependence of the far field scattered pressure for an arbitrary be approximated by asymptotic solutions. Consider Eq. (A2.1.17) in the far field,

geometry can

(R, B) psf -

Rj ZPkR

00

: (2n + 1)Pn(cos8)
n-0

1

, hn(kr n(

)

kR»

n2 + 1.

(A2.2.1)

At low frequencies the first two terms of this series expansion are O((ka)2) and the n=2 is only O((ka)5). Taking the first two terms gives the far field pressure at low frequencies,

term

f (R, 8) p; =

ikR (cosO P3R e k2a3 3

-1

k3a3 9 1,

kR » 1.

(A2.2.2)

The commensurate influence of monopole and dipole radiation k2 dependence the radiation amplitude of consequent general consideration

in the far field, and the

is typical of Rayleigh Scatterers. A more

low frequencies far field that the shows at scatterers of such pressure

form, has the amplitude

ff

k 2V aR

k3L3«1,

kR » 1.

(. 2.2.3)

is L is V the the characteristic volume and where In the high frequency regime an approximation wave approximation

dimension of the scatterer. due to Kirchoff is appropriate. In this plane

it is assumed that each surface element radiates as if it were in an plane

baffle,
page 210

Analytical

Series Solution for the Sphere.

dpP (R) -

pw(ro)exp(ikIR - roI )dS,

kra » 1.

(A2.2.4)

The far field back scattered pressure is given by integrating surface of the scatterer,

Eq. (A2.2.4) over the illuminated

jf

(R) _

iP, k Is.
2irR

n" elexp(2ikIR

- r0I)dS,

kro » 1.

(A2.2.5)

In Eq. (A2.2.5) the plane wave is incident along the direction of Z-,. Consider now the case of (A2.1). in figure a spheroid shown the cylindrical For end on incidence the problem is axysymmetric and so In this

(q, 0, Z) is appropriate to form the Kirchoff integral. coordinate system,

(A2.2.5) becomes, Eq. coordinate system,

is" (R)R ptf h-i k nze6T1(Z)dF Pi ,

kL»

1,

(A2.2.6)

where ,

2

dI' =1+

az 2

dZ,

(A2.2.7)

nz

öZ

+

az

(A2.2.8)

b(Z) = 2ikZ.

(A2.2.9)

Eq. (A2.2.6) now becomes,

(R)R pof

k

J,

ýZ eaikZdZ

kL » 1,

(A2.2.10)

for the spheroid, where

(R) R_ p'f pi

0 ka2 fb(. ZezikzdZ , b2

kb » 1,

2.2.11)

211 page

Analytical

Series Solution for the Sphere.

Inctuerli

rruve

Figure

(A0. L).

Geometry

for

the spheroidal

Kirchof

problem.

The integral in Eq. (A2.2.11) can be done in parts, and neglecting the terms of O((kb)-1 far field back frequency high higher the scattering amplitude or is given by,

I= (R)R pof Pi

I2l, a2

kb » 1.

(A2.2.12)

This is the result used in Chapter 4, and for the special case of the sphere, with b=a,

it

higher frequency included Chapter 3. If in terms to the are an spherical result used reduces interference pattern is introduced into the farfield result. This interference corresponds to a -b and one at

between Z= difference ie 2b; the difference a specular wave at path of path Z=0.

The numerical results contained in this thesis show such an interfence pattern, however by Kirchoff less the those than predicted approximation. are much

the period of the fluctuations

[1982]) (eg Varadan is interference for that they are the et al pattern The accepted explanation Z= between the interference at reflection specular the of result a wave originating is given by, b=0. at the circular cross section at Franz and a or creeping -b

The predicted period of the interference

27 A(kb) =D -+2 , half is the D perimeter one where in X=0 the the spheroid of

(A2.2.13)

plane. For the various aspect

is, this in this period study used ratios 212 page

Analytical

Series Solution for the Sphere.

alb = 0.5,

z(kb) -- 1.42, 1.22, = 2.84, =

J(ka) = 0.71, J(ka) = 1.22, 0(ka) = 1.42. (A2.2.14)

1,0(kb) alb = alb = 2,0(kb)

A2.3

Elastic

sphere
boundary conditions, there is a readily accessible analytical solution for

For axisymmetric

the dynamic elastic response of the spherical elastic shell. This solution is described in greater depth in many standard texts, and is summarized in this appendix. Membrane and flexural variational are

in included the analytical effects are principle.

model which can be derived from Hamilton's

Many of the thin shell approximations ie deformation the result;

for finite the element derivation used

for the analytical used

be described in terms of the mid-shell can

displacements and the mid-shell normal is remains straight after deformation. Axisymmetric, nontortional displacements the shell motions are considered and can be

described in terms of the tangential and radial components; ur and ue. A free dynamic analysis (5l for frequencies, dimensionless in the the natural an expression shell results of Q2, in which are roots of a quadratic 2')2, )2 and (52,,

524- [1+3v+A

-/32(1-v-An-vAn)] ß2 [An-4,

52+(AT

-2)(1-v2)+ =0,

(A2.3.1)

n+An(5-v2)-2(1-v2)]

where,

=

ca,
P

h2 Q' = 1222

An = n(n + 1).

(A2.3.2)

The radial or normal and the tangential displacements can be expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials,

ur

=

00 1: WWPn(µ), n=O

°°
P2)1/2
n=0 p=COSO.

dPn(p) dp

(A2.3.3)

213 page

Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere. For forced vibration modal force amplitude by, of the spherical shell, the modal radial amplitude is related to the

fn ýn =_ __

IP, cp h [c2

-

(c(1))2]

[92

-

(9(2»2,

(A2.3.4)

2wwn where the modal excitation

9

a[92-

(1 - QZ)(v + An - 1)]

force is given by,

(2n + l) fn =2f

1 f(µ)P i (µ)dp.

(A2.3.5)

Finally the modal radial and tangential

amplitudes are related by,

V _

[32(v+A

1)+(i+ -

v)]

(A2.3.6)

For a spherical shell vibrating force, f', the apllied consists of

in an acoustic fluid, the excitation

force in Eq.

(A2.3.5)

modified by the fluid-structure

interaction force, f'.

The modal

is by, the submerged spherical shell given of velocity normal

Z,

n=fn

n, f -.

(A2.3.7)

where,

fn=

Pn - Pn =

ýz

] Wn. zn -

(A2.3.8)

Therefore by combining Eq. (A2.3.7) and Eq. (A2.3.8) the surface pressure and velocity fields for the excited spherical shell are given by,

°O (a, e) =Zn_ un
i=0 0o P(a, 0) =Z

fa [Zn PP (cose), + Zn Zn

Zn+ fn a

(A2.3.9)
P1 (COSB). zn_

i-0

`Zn

+ Zn

-

For the point excited spherical shell the modal excitation force is defined by, page 214

Analytical Series Solution for the Sphere.

(2n + 1)F f" a_47ra2 field field far is, the pressure and resulting

(. -2.3.10)

f(R, B) pf

Fpce'kR -

(-i)n(2n+ (2n + Z+ n =o

47razkR J

1)Pn(cos8) -n) h' (ka)'

kR»

1.

(A2.3.11)

The case of scattering from an elastic spherical shell is more complicated.

It is necessary The

to consider both the rigid body scattering component and the elastic radiated component.

(A2.1.18) body due incident is in Eq. the to with an plane wave given rigid surface pressure on r=a. This expression may be transformed by means of a Wronskian relationship to give,

in(2n + 1)Pi P(a, 8) _ (ka)2hn(ka) Taking this to be the excitation force, the corresponding surface velocity distribution impedances, by the modal means of at

(A2.3.12)

is arrived

Pi

nr

_j2-a2

Z

i"+l(2n

+ 1)Pn(cos9)
-Z

(Z

+Zri

)hn(ka).

(A2.3.13)

The radiated far field pressure can be obtained from Eq. (A2.1.8),

ipceikRPi

i"+1(2n

(R, B) p*f =-

0) 1)Pn(cos +
-Z

kR n=O

(Zn

+

Zn

)[kah' (ka)]2

kR » n° + 1.

2

(A2.3.14)

The far field scattered pressure is obtained when this result is combined with the rigid-body distribution, scattered pressure Eq. (A2.2.1). This can be expressed as a form function,

if (O)l=

2p1f (R, B)R aPi
(A2.3.15) 2Z
ka n_0

(2n + 1)P(cos0)
hn(ka)

[.

1(k) ln

PC - (ka)2hn(ka)n
+, Z+ -, Zn )

The analytical results presented in this study were calculated using FORTRAN [1986] James Geers J. T. L. by the author, and and C. A. Felippa [1983]. page 215

code written

Related Interests

. 4 =1

1-ßs)(1+7)s),

N3 = 4(1 - ßs)(1 - ýIs)>

4(1 +ý3)(1 = -CJs)

The Jacobian is defined by,

IJ(ýs, ýs)I=
where,

äý äý'
ýs qs

o3

ai18

'

(3.3.1)

as ii=11

aSs

(3.3.2)

The superscript

indicates the subelement nodal coordinate with respect to the 77axes. The 4,

(3.3.1) defined in a similar way. in Eq. terms are other Noting evaluated, that ý3 = ý4 and r73 = q4, an expression for the subelement Jacobian can be

ýJ3(i

3,0

I=

(,q, + 1)-4 -1 ,

(3.3.3)

in Ai is the the that is i the the curvilinear space area of subeleand subelement of number where ment. The integration into be transformed an expression, removing of a singular element can

the singularity,

1

subel

1,

r(ý i1
integration In the modified space. shape functions

Idýsdiis Js

(3.3.4)

integration between the distance the Here r represents the singular node and curvilinear scheme, the curvilinear

point in the

interpolated points are allows numerical

using the subelement implementation

defined above

This transformation

Gauss integration. using a simple

3.. 4 Integral

Operators

The object of any numerical method is to transform the governing equations into a system of equations that is amenable to numerical solution. page 50 For a boundary element method this

Collocation Method. involves approximating equations. the integral Chapter in by 2, discretized matrix equations, presented

This has to be done so that high order singularities and problems of non-uniqueness are removed or circumvented. The integral operators that form

formulation the of numerical

the components of the integral equations will be discussed individually. 3.4.1 £k Operator This operator is defined by.

fGk(PQ)(Q)dSq. Gk [01(P) _

(2.2.3)

The kernel of this integral operator contains singularities O(r-1) form this operator for numerical discretization.

is there no need to transand the Ck ,

Using the element shape functions

operator may be approximated

by the following numerical expression,

ne

Gk[OI (P) _f
j =l

S'

Gk (P, q){Ne}T dS;

{ý }.

(3.4.1)

In this equation, ne is the number of elements. The integration is performed numerically in the curvilinear described field The Lachat Watson the above. of and surface method system using dSj functions is by, the the given area element and element shape using

is interpolated point

dS, -- IJ I<dq.
(3.4.1) is evaluated at each of the set of collocation points {Pt},

(3.4.2)

When Eq.

a system of

be These be written can equations assembled. equations can
way,

in matrix form in the following

{, Ck[OI (Pi)l

=

[Lk]{

}.

(3.4.3)

3.4.2

Mk

Operator

This operator is defined by.

Mk[q5](P) =J

aGäPýQ)q(Q)dsq.
Sq

(2.2.4)

page 51

Collocation alethod. For this integral operator, the kernel contains singularities O(r-`') is and so a way needed to in the following

avoid the integration
way,

of high order singularities.

The operator can be rewritten

[Mk

-c(P)1]0=

[Mk-Mol0+

[Mo-c(P)ll0.

(3.4.4)

Eq. (3.4.4) can be approximated

in terms of the element shape functions,

Mk ýýý(P)

E

j=1
:

Is, ( aGk(P, q) 3G0(ß 4) . _ ön 9 an, an
iaý

{Ne}T dS;

10i }+ (3.4.5)

is i

ÖG0(P,

q)

an

IN

eT e

dS;

{0i }-

c(p)O(P).

The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.5) contains singularities of O(r-2). singularity integration is ignored and Eq. (3.4.5) is integrated numerically technique.

This

using the modified numerical

By taking the field point P to each of the collocation points a system of

in by, be form be These matrix expressed assembled. can equations can

{[Mk

-

C(P)1]I

=

[Mk

-

Cp]l01

-

[Alk

-_

lo]Lq}

+ [M0

-

Cp]101.

(3.4.6)

The diagonal matrix the following

[Cp] is the value of c(P) evaluated at the collocation node points. Consider (3.4.6), in last Eq. the term of

definition

mil

- cl
m21

M12 m22 c2

... ...

mli m2i

min
M2n

Oi
02

[Mo-Cp]{O}=

Mil

mat

772t;

c;

ln2n

Oi

(3.4.7)

Mni

mn2

mni

mnn

-

Cn

0n

The O(r-2)

singularities

are distributed

by the element shape functions to the diagonal elements

of this matrix. The definition

These matrix elements can be accurately defined by using a row sum procedure. in Chapter by, 2 given c(P) was of

is

(P, j 0Go g) ds .

(3.2.13)

page 52

Collocation By using this relationship

Method.

the diagonal elements of the matrix defined in Eq (3.1.7) are given

by,

mii

-

ci -

-1

j#i

mij.

(3.4.8)

Therefore not only are the singular elements evaluated but c(p) is also implicitly The A4

evaluated.

it be in By as, operator may numerically evaluated redefining a similar way.

[Mk

+ c(P)Z]

[Mk

+ Mo]

-

[Mo

ß, c(P)Zj -

(3.4.9)

the operators

in the numerical

approximation

by, are given

T

n,

k

[0] (P)

aGk (P, q)

aGoýP,

-E
? =1

ifp
n` r

On
aGGO(P,

+
Q)

an 9
{N
eT }

IN

e } 7' dSj

{

}(3.4.10)

j=1

JS

an q

dSj

{0j }-

c(p)O(P).

This leads to the following matrix expression;

{ [MT

+ C(P)Z]

01 =

[1ý1k + Cp]{0}

[Mk M0]{0} + =

-

[silo

-

Cp]{q}

(3.4.11)

The first matrix on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.11) contains singularities O(r-1) O(r-2) above.
3.4.3 )/k Operator

and the

singularities

in the second matrix are evaluated using the row sum procedure described

This operator is defined by,

s a2Gk(P, Q)O(Q)dSq. ti-ý[¢](P) = , ön ön s9P It is this operator numerical

(2.2.6)

that, need the greatest amount of consideration when implementing that need integrating.

a

high there are order singularities method since page 53

Based on a

Collocation 11(thod. [1949], (2.2.6) in by it is Eq. into tangential Maue to the possible convert expression proof shown derivatives using the basic vector identity,

(np - Vq)(n9 - Vq) = (nn nq)(Vq 0) (nq (np Vq) Vq). x x " "

(3.4.12)

By integrating

by parts, the transformed

Nk for is by, the expression given operator

Nk [01(P) -J S

{(nP is

. nq)k2Gk(P,

q)O(q)

-

(nq

xV

q0(q))

" (nP

x

C9)Gk(P,

q)]

dSq+

(3.4.13)
n9 O9 x (q)(np x VgGk(P,

q))] dSq.

The second term on the right hand side of Eq. (3.4.16) can be transformed by Stoke's theorem into an integral around the edge of S. Therefore for closed surfaces it is equal to zero and can finally be neglected. The transformed expression for the 111, is by, given E operator

Nk[01(P)

=f

[(np s

(n9 (9)) (np dSq. Vq Vq)Gk(P, X x q)] ' n9)k2Gk(P, 4)o(q) .

(3.4.14)

The validity of this expression has been shown in greater detail by Stallybrass [1967] and Mitzner [1966]. Eq. (2.2.6) can be rewritten in the following way,

Nk0

=

[.Nk

-

Vol 0+

%Voc"

(3.4.15)

The first operator on the right hand side contains terms of order O(r-1) of order O(r-2). following

and the second terms by the

Using the element shape functions Eq. (3.4.15) can be approximated

expression,

Nk [01 (P)

-J
j=1

l(nP

nq)k2Gk(P,

q){Ne}T

_

(nq X Vq{Ne}T)

"

(np

x V9)(Gk(P,

q) -Go(P,

q))dS9

10i }-

(3.4.16)

/J

(nq x Vq{Ne}T)

(np x V)Go(P.

q)dSj

{ 0i }.

1=1

J)

page 54

Collocation The O(-2) singularity

11ethod. .

in the second term of this expression is ignored for the time being and

Eq. (3.4.16) is evaluated at each collocation point to assemble the following matrix equation;

{-Nk[OJ(PP)} _ [,''k]M

[_1'o]{yh}. [: Vo){¢} Vk + _ - .

(3.4.1 7)

This represents the matrix made to integrate the singularity

Nz for the equation operator, [N0] in the term. occurring

and no further modification

is

It will be shown that there is of these terms. The singularity

inaccuracies due integration the to the of cancellation numerical Consider the singular integration

for A'ö the over one element operator.

is separated from the rest of the element by a disk segment of small radius e. The singular integration integration be into the over element can over the element separated a non singular

disk integration disk Iý Iý the the segment, over segment, ; and and a singular minus ,

Ij s,
The integration

(nq XVq (4)) - (np x V, GO(P,q))dS9 = I,j,

Ij,

.

(3.4.18)

Iý is assumed to be accurate within

the limits of the numerical integration the

be integration for to inaccuracies The the contained within are assumed element scheme. integration

Ij2. The small disk segment is assumed to be flat and the vector T is assumed to be to the normal. The gradients within Eq. (3.4.18) can be

in the plane of the disk, perpendicular expressed as,

(nq x Oq4(r, e)) =
B)) = (np xV gGo(r,

ö«r, B)

(n9 X ''),
(np x T),

3G0(r, B)
Or

(3.4.19)

The integration

in Eq (3.4.18) can be rewritten as,

In e' In E ä0(r, 6)2oGo(r, 0) drd9. JI Ij rI ar 8r

(3.4.20)

IJI be Within taken Jacobian can as constant. where the

the disk segment it is assumed that 0

(3.4.20) is in Eq 0 the dependency the linear variation global of on position has a vector and so by, from r and given independent page 55

Collocation

1lfthod. .

00)
Or r-0

= pose

(OX 0
r=0

sine

y

(3.4.21)
r_0

Using this relationship

Ij can be represented by,

Ii =Ii,

+IB1jr

.

(3.4.22)

For all elements j that contain the singularity inadequate singular integration.

there will be similar errors in Ir due to the

However since the summation of the Ie terms is equal to zero

these errors cancel each other out. Therefore it is safe to evaluate the singular terms in the [N. ] matrix using the Lachat and Watson inverse distance singularity scheme. method has

In a recent paper by Wu, Seybert and Wan [1991] a very similar collocation

been described. This shows that Maue's equation needs C' continuity at the collocation points and to achieve this on CO continuous elements the collocation points are put inside the elements to form an over determined set of equations. To achieve the integration of the Cauchy principal (3.4.18) in integral Eq. they use additional shown value This study uses a much more simple method. directly elements X, operator. regularization. Eq. (3.4.18) for singular of the

By integrating

it is recognized that there will be errors in the matrix approximation

However this work has shown that there will be cancellation of these errors when

the acoustic problem is solved and so the sophisticated treatment of Eq (3.4.18) in the work by Wu et al is unnecessary. 3.4.4 Matrix formulation for the Burton and Miller boundary

It is now possible to write the matrix approximation integral equation, Eq. (2.4.4);

([Mk

-

Cp]

+

a[Nk])

f01

=

QLk}

+

a[Mk

+

cr])

{o}
an

(90i -foil -a

ön

(3.4.23)

Eq. (3.4.23) represents a matrix equation of the form,

[H]x =
page 56

(3.4.24)

Collocation where the matrix [H], is full, complex and non-symnmetric.

Method.

In the past considerable effort

has been made to symmetrize symmetric

this matrix equation (Mathews [1986]). For this study this non technique followed

directly equation set was solved using a standard LU-factorization

by forward and backward substitution.

The imaginary coupling constant a takes the value i/k,

since this has been shown by previous researchers (Burton and Miller [1971]) to be the optimum value. For the numerical integration 3x3 Gauss integration was used for both the non singular

for Lachat the elements and and Watson subelements. 3.4.5 Exterior pressure distribution is given by,

The exterior pressure distribution

Os(P) _ Mk[0](P)

£k[01(P). -

PEE.

(3.4.25)

This expression can be approximated

numerically by using the element shape functions,

(P)

_
j=1

öGk(P, q) fSa9 {Ne}dS

(is
{(' )i=1 I

Gk (P, q){Ne}dS

ai

=1

a

(3.4.26)

Since the field point P is exterior

to the boundary surface there is no singular kernel in this

expression that needs special consideration. For the far field pressure distribution this numerical expression can be further simplified.

By considering the geometry shown in figure (3.3) it is possible to write,

Off (P) _
eikR ný

4ýR

Js

iknq - ReikR. 9{Ne}dS

{¢ý }-J

/ý ei

kiý

)f
q{: ý'e}dS

a

S

an (3.4.27)

boundary far-field field the the R surface point. point vector and q represents represents where In vector form this expression can be written as

o3

-

lMkf

J

{0}

{L'k'} an

(3.4.28)

page 57

Collocation Method.

Figure (3.3) Geometry for evaluating the far field pressure distribution.

3.5

The computer

code
of the collocation method was coded in FORTRAN

The numerical implementation

predom-

inantly on an IBM RS6000 machine in a UNIX environment.

The code was written to primarily

evaluate the numerical method presented above and it was found that in core memory space was large enough to run problems of a large enough size to demonstrate of simple geometries. Use was made of structural geometry in order to reduce the problem size considerably. This symmetry Z the global axis and in most about for accuracy a number

done by degree a was specifying of rotational cases only one axisyinmetric

discretized. is the actually quarter of acoustic structure

3.6 Numerical

results
fron

3.6.1

Radiation

submerged

spheres

One axisymmetric

discretized into is a number of elements quarter of a sphere with radius a

for A different (3.4) the Figure the spherical problem, geometries mesh shows of equal area. Legendre distribution a with velocity surface is specified on the sphere,

an

ao aoo P(cos9).
an

(3.6.1)

The resulting normalized acoustic impedance, Z, is calculated,
page 58

Collocation %fcihod.

Z-ko/0'0.

(3.6.2)

and further

normalized

with respect to P,

to form the normalized modal acoustic impedance. and modes are plotted with respect to wavenuinber

The results for various discretizations

in figures (3.5-8). These results are compared to the analytical solution (Junger and Feit [1986]) and show high accuracy and good convergence. The effectiveness of the of the Burton and 1-filler formulation non-uniqueness at critical in removing the problem of

frequencies is shown in figures (3.9-10). The error in the normalized

is impedance plotted at the internal acoustic eigenvalues for the interior spherical problem, modal for ka less than 10. These eigen-frequencies can be calculated analytically. high formulations for SHIE DSHIE the the quite clearly errors and critical frequencies of the interior problem. The error plots show

around the appropriate

These plots also show that with the Burton and

Miller formulation,

the error in modal impedance for these modes is less than 0.1% for n=0, and n=2 from and less than 5% for n=3. a submerged sphere

less than 1% for n=1 3.6.2 Acoustic

scattering

Figure (3.11) shows the convergence of the backscattered far-field form function for scattering of a plane wave by a rigid sphere compared to an analytical solution. The incident wave is defined by,

Oi

=

eikz

(3.6.3)

backscattered the and

far-field form function is given by,

2R 10, = aa

(3-6.4)

low high frequency the to This plot shows good convergence the analytical solution and and characteristics of plane wave scattering. is predominant. At low frequency the form-function depends on k2 as

Raleigh scattering

In this frequency regime the acoustic wavelength is large depends only on the volume of the sphere. At limit. In this frequency regime

form-function the the to and scatterer compared higher frequencies the form-function

converges to the Kirchoff

from the illuminated is it the specular reflections

for dominate the sphere the that and surfaces

page 59

Collocation Kirchoff approximation of the illuminated frequency independent form-function, predicts a

Ifcthod.

dependent on the area

frequency This plot also shows the characteristic oscillations due to surface.

the interference of Franz' waves. Figures (3.12-13) show the scattering distribution The axis magnitudes for these plots is the Y-Z with unit magnitude solution. Y-Z in the the of surface pressure for the plane The incident in the Y-Z for frequencies. various plane

far-field the pressure amplitude components of

plane wave. Again the numerical results are compared to an

analytical

Figure (3.14) shows the amplitude same unit amplitude

incident plane wave, at two frequencies for different discretizations.

plotted points in this figure correspond to the nodal points on the surface mesh. These points are far-field It is for 24 the to the that solution. analytical compared worth noting elements accuracy be to greater than the surface accuracy. This indicates a degree of error `smoothing' when seems calculating 3.6.3 the far-field quantities. scattering from a submerged spheroid distributions for oblate and prolate

Acoustic

The figures (3.15-16) show the far-field scattering One axisymmetric spheroids.

quarter of the spheroid is discretized and the plane-wave is taken of the problem. the mesh for the spheroids was The comparison to

to be incident end on to preserve the axisyinmetry

In the absence of any sophisticated meshing algorithm,

directions. in Y, Z X, by the the spherical mesh simply scaling calculated

S. for his by W. Wu, PhD project by the the numerical results was provided program written [1990]. This program was written to solve for purely axisymmetric acoustic problems using high order line-elements. The program was run using 20 such elements and the assumption made that There seems to be a high degree of accordance between

this represented a converged solution. the results.

These test cases show the efficiency of the model for geometries other than the

described above. simple spherical problem 3.6.4 Acoustic scattering from a submerged finite cylinder from a finite

The last set of numerical results concerns the far-field scattering distribution

in for Figure The L length this are shown problem mesh geometries and radius a. cylinder of (3.17). Again only one axisynunetric discretized is is the the and plane wave quarter of cylinder

incident. along the Z axis. The numerical results are compared to the results of S.W. Wu using 44 axi-syrrunetric line elements.
page 60

Collocation .lfethod. Figure (3.18) shows the far field scattering results for a cylinder with length 4a and 8a. Both plots in the figure show good agreement with the results of S.W. \Vu. Figure (3.19) shows the convergence of the scattering distribution importance from the L=8.0 figure This cylinder. shows the for is the case as

discontinuities, high density the around surface of elements of a

the 104 element mesh.

page 61

Collocation

Method.

(a) 6 Elements

(b) 24 Elements

(c) 96 Elements

Figure (3.4).

The different

for the spherical problem mesh geometries
page 62

Collocation Method.

1.5 Z 1.0 n=O

0.5
0.0

-0.5
` -1.0 0

246g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0

0.5

0.0
-0.5

1 .V 1n

02468 Analytical Figure (3.5). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary

ka A.

10

modal impedance for the rigid sphere, modes 0 and 1.

quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 elements.
page 63

Collocation

Method.

1.5 Z 1.0 n=2

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

02

4

6

g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0 n=3

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5 02468
Analytical Figure (3.6). Normalized One axisymmetric Real .

ka Imaginary

10

2 3. for impedance the and modal rigid sphere, modes

discretized into 6 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 64

Collocation

Method.

1.5 Z 1.0 n-0

0.5

0.0
-0.5

-1.0

0

2

4

6

g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0 n=1

0.5 0.0
-0.5
1"

02468 Analytical Figure (3.7). Normalized One axisymmetric Real . Imaginary

ka &.

10

0 for impedance 1. the modes and modal rigid sphere,

discretized into 24 is the quarter of elements. sphere, radius a,
page 65

Collocation

Method.

1.5 Z 1.0
n=2

0.5

0.0
-0.5

V -I.1A

0246

g

ka

10

1.5 Z 1.0 n=3

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0 1.5 -

02468 Analytical Real . Imaginary

ka A.

10

Figure (3.8). Normalized One axisymmetric

2 3. for impedance the and rigid sphere, modes modal

into 24 discretized is the elements. quarter of sphere, radius a,
page 66

Collocation Method.

104

0

0

3 10
L L

n=0
e

0

O

102
e 101
100 000ee

eo e0


10-1 sse0 o 0a 0 epe ®e e ®e

ao G

0

A A

10 -2 0

0

10 -3 10-4 02468 104 103
L

ka

10

00

n=1
eeA 0
A o AA

O

L 102 101 100 10 -1 0 A, 00
-

eeA00 &
oQs: O am O ta

A

$8

es0
NW MI 'Do

102

103
10-4 02468 Coupled . SHIE o. DHSIE ka '& . 10

Figure (3.9). Normalized

for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal quarter discretized is into the sphere, radius a, of

0 and 1. One axisymmetric 24 elements.

page 67

Collocation Method.

104 103
O V

n=2
A
A

0 A

L 102
101 10° 10 -1 10 -2
0
e0°°00

0 Ao

g
00

®

®o

°o °

oo 000

10 -3
, n-4 IV

s

02468 104 3 10
LA

ka

10

n=3

00 `

2es 10

101
Ls

10

000

AS

00

e
ae

10 -1

0o0 00 "

0

CPA

°0
Le 00 MEN

o49

A

o

10 -2 103

00

"

10-4 02468 Coupled
Figure (8.10).

ka . SHIE o. DHSIE .

10

Normalized

for impedance the rigid sphere, modes error of modal discretized is into the quarter of sphere, radius a,

2 and 3. One axisymmetric 24 elements.

page 68

Collocation

Method.

kn

o
0 0

0 0
0 0

Itt

M

0 0 0

N

0

. --4

O ri

00 -

ýO r-+

ýt

NO .-OOOOO

00

N

uo! Jz)un, 4 uuao3
6 elements Figure (4.11). 0.24 .

elements

Plane wave backscattered form function

for the rigid sphere.

One axisymmetric elements.

quarter of the sphere, radius a, is discretized into 6 and 24

page 69

Collocation Method.

ka=0.1 0.015 0.010 0.005

0.000

-0.005
-0.010 4--0.015 -0.020

-0.015

-0.010

-0.005

0.000

0.005

ka=1

0.8
0.6
0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2

-0.4
-0.6 -0.8 -1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

Analytical Figure (S. 12). Far field form function

Numerical distribution for scattering incident of an

from left One by The is incident to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and quarter of sphere, radius a, axisyinmetric the distribution is calculated at ka = 0.1 and 1.0
page 70

Collocation

Method.

ka=3 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

ka=5

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
-0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5
Analytical Figure (3.13). Far field form function

X

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Numerical distribution

O.

for scattering of an incident

left from One by incident The is to right. a rigid sphere. plane wave plane wave into 24 discretized is the elements and sphere, radius a, axisymmetric quarter of the distribution is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 71

Collocation Method.

ka=3 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5
-1 -1.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

ka=5

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5
Analytical Figure (3.14). Amplitude

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

24 Elements

13 .

96 Elements

by for a rigid plane wave scattering of surface pressure

One is from left incident The to axisymmetric quarter plane wave right. sphere. distribution discretized is into the 6 24 the elements and and sphere, radius a, of is calculated at ka = 3.0 and 5.0
page 72

Collocation

Method.

k=1.0 b=0.2 a=1.0
0.20

0.10

0.00
-0.10

ý-0.20 . -0.40

.1

-0.20

0.00

0.20

0.40

a=1.0 b=0.2 k=3.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8_ 1.8 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4
O.

-1.4

-1.0

-0.6

-0.2

1.8

S. W. Wu Figure (8.15. Farfield pressure distribution

Numerical

for scattering of an incident plane left from to incident is The by right. plane wave a rigid oblate spheroid. wave 96 into discretized is the One axisymmetric elements and quarter of spheroid the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 axisymmetric calculated using line elements.
page 73

Collocation

Method.

a=0.2 b=1.0 k=1.0 0.02

0.01

0.00
-0.01

-0.02 -0.02

-0.01

0.00

0.01

a=0.2 b=1.0 k=3.0
0.05

0.03

0.01

-0.01

-0.03

+-0.05
-0.05 -0.03 -0.01

0.01

0.03

0.05

S. W. Wu Figure (3.16). Farfield pressure distribution

Numerical for scattering of an incident plane The plane wave is incident from left to right.

by a rigid prolate spheroid. wave

One axisymmetric quarter of the spheroid is discretized into 96 elements and the distribution is calculated at k=1.0 and k=3.0. The results of S. W. Wu were 20 line axisymmetric elements. calculated using
Page 74

Collocation

Method.

(a) 72 Elements

(b) 88 Elements

(c) 104 Elements

Figure (3.17.

The different

for the cylinder problem mesh geometries

page 75

Collocation

Method.

a=1.0 L=4.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3

0.5

a=1.0 L=8.0 k=1.0
0.6 0.4 0.2 0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

S. W. Wu
Figure wave (3.18). by a rigid Farfield pressure distribution for

Numerical
scattering

O.
incident of an left to right. plane The

cylinder.

The plane at k=1.0 for

is incident wave L=4.0

from

distribution quarter for

is calculated

and L=8.0.

One axisymmetric and 104 elements line

the cylinder of

is discretized

into 72 elements for L=4.0

L=8.0.

The results of S. W. Wu were calculated

44 axisymmetric using

elements.
page 76

Collocation

Method.

\o ö

Ö

4 1N
0 0 II 0
ea


N O

.w.

0

N 9

i

.`

ýi

1

9

Ö
ÖCCÖÖÖ ýt NO C14 lqt ýc

S. W. Wu

.

72 Elements

f

.

88 Elements

13.104 Elements

.

Figure

(8.19).

Convergence a=1.0,

farfield the of

scattering

distribution

from

the cylin-

der, L=8.0,

at a wave number

of k=1.0.

page 77

I ariaftonal

110hod. .

CHAPTER
Variational Method

4.1 Introduction
In this chapter a variational proximation of the hyper-singular method is described that enables the accurate numerical apYk operator. This method is based on the work of Mariem is important operator .A for two

[1987]. Hamdi Previous chapters have indicated that the and reasons. First it is a main constituent

of the DSHIE for closed body acoustic problems, which circumventing the probdescribed in

SHIE, forms the the Burton and Miller formulation when coupled with

lem of uniqueness. Second it forms the basis of the thin shell acoustic formulation Chapter 2.

The variational integrating of resulting

is method considered since it provides an elegant solution to the problem kernel as well as resulting in a symmetric matrix equation. The is also independent of the type of numerical interpolation used.

the hypersingular

numerical formulation

Subsequent chapters will show that the variational formulation couples to the elastic formulation in the thin shell an efficient and symmetric way. of The disadvantage with the method is that it involves an extra integration which increases the computational radiation size of the problem. Results are presented for thin shell scattering and accuracy of the method. and

problems that show the validity

Both closed and non

between the thin variational method and made are comparisons and considered are shells closed the collocation in Chapter 3. described method

4.2

Weighted

Residue

Techniques

Variational the and

Method

The purpose of this section is to outline the principles behind the collocation and variational methods. highlight 4.2.1 The arguments that follow are taken from Zeinkiewicz [1989] and are presented to the relationship between the two methods. Method

Weighted

Residual-Galerkin

The general acoustic problem may be expressed by the linear equation,

A[O] (p) =8ý

(P)

(4.2.1)

page 78

Variational .11cthod.
Eq. (4.2.1) n-iust be satisfied at every point, domain, p, on some surface S. It follows therefore

that;

is

(p)A[¢](P)dSp =J u.,

is u'(P)B ön

(P)dSp,

(4.2.2)

where w is a weighting be approximated may

function

and Eq. (4.2.2) must be satisfied for all w. The fluid variables

in terms of the global shape functions,

{N9}T

{0},

a0

:

1, %-g IT

fan

(4.2.3)

If the approximated

fluid the values of variables are inserted into Eq. (4.2.2) then it is clearly is made and u'

impossible for this expression to be satisfied for all uw. Instead an approximation is replaced by a finite set of weighting functions so that,

w=

wj,

j=1

to n.

(4.2.4)

Eq. (4.2.2) will now yield a set of n simultaneous equations given by,

f

w(P)A[{'ßr9}T

{}](p)dS=

is
J

w(P)13

{N}T

'91]

(P)dS.

(4.2.5)

This equation represents an integral of error residuals and clearly the equation set generated depends on the set of weighting functions that are chosen. If the weighting functions are chosen so that,

b(P wi = - Pj),

(4.2.6)

(4.2.5) Eq. to the is then the collocation method will correspond of nodal points set pj where described in Chapter 3. If however the weighting functions are chosen so that,

Wj

_

ý'J : ,

(4.2.7)

Galerkin is the (4.2.5) then Eq.

weighted residual method. page 79

Variational 4.2.2 Variational Method
some scalar functional

If0hod. .

For the variational

method

is generated

using some a priori

guess

as to the physical nature of the problem. may correspond to the potential

For some physical problems this scalar functional

energy or the energy dissipation of the system. The solution this functional with respect to the unknown variable.

of the problem is achieved by minimizing Consider the BEM formulation

for the thin shell acoustic problem defined in Chapter 2,

a4(P) an

[ýDl(P)Alk _

(4.2.8)

The appropriate

functional

is defined by,

n=I
The minimization the symmetry functional this of

(

Oý3 9n

2ýA1 [<D] (p) dSp.
formulation of the problem.

(4.2.9)
Due to

gives the variational

of the J1/k operator, the stationary value problem can be evaluated in a straight

forward manner,

bII =I

b(a(P)

b(DA-k[(DI (P) -

dSp = 0.

(4.2.10)

It can be seen that this expression is identical to the Galerkin formulation problem. Galerkin

of the thin shell and

In general if the governing integral operator is self adjoint then the variational formulations be identical. will The whole subject of variational

methods is discussed

in great detail in the book by Morse and Feshbach [1953].

4.3

Variational

Boundary

Integral

Formulation

The full boundary integral equation for the thin shell problem is defined by,

ao(p) as (P) A, + P _ k[ýJ(P)

(2.5.6)

difference is in Chapter 1 Following the the the 3 pressure across shell. method shown where be Nk transformed can the operator into tangential derivatives; page 80

Variational If0hod.

[(

tp

*f9)k2Gk(P,

q)4(q)

-

(n9

X Vq

(q))

-

(nP

x

Vq)C'k(P,

dSq. q)]

(4.3.1)

For the variational

formulation,

Eq.

(2.5.6) is multiplied

by 6D(p) and integrated

with

respect to p over the shell surface S,

I s

bý(P)

aanP)

dsp =

Ibý(p)i1

is

[<D](p)dSp + k

&D(p)

aý (P)
p

dSp.

(4-3.2)

The expression for the Alk operator given in Eq. integrating by parts to obtain the expression,

(4.2.1) can be further

transformed

by

All [6

ý] =ff ,

[(np ss

(np (nq GPb(D(P)) Vq(D(q))] Gk(p, nv)k26D(P)(D(4') x x q)dSgdSp. ' '

(4.3.3)
Eq. (4.3.3) contains singularities of O(r-1) it is and consequently possible to integrate [1976]. Lachat Watson scheme of and this

equation accurately using the modified integration In arriving justification

at Eq. (4.3.3) integrations around the edge of the thin shell are discarded. The

for this in Chapter 3 was that for closed thin shells there is no edge and consequently must be equal to zero. For non-closed thin shells this is not the case. However

these integrations in Chapter

2 it was shown that the pressure difference around the edge of the shell must be must also be equal to zero.

integration for Therefore the these to shells edge zero. equal

4.4 Numerical

Implementation

The discretization interpolation by, mated

of the variational

formulation

is implemented using the same order of approxi-

Vk. be for The that the numerically as operator can collocation method.

ýe

ne

i=1

j-1

E {bitIT I> l [(np
(nP

" nq)k`2{N

}{Ng

}T

_

X OPlApj)-(n9

X Vq{NgIT)]Gk(P,

W}. 9)dSqdSp
(4.4.1)

page 81

Variational Alethod. In Eq. (4.4.1) the gradient of the shape function axis system. is expressed in terms of the local coordinate shown

In order to evaluate these gradients it is necessary to use the relationship The Jacobian matrix

in Eq (3.2.11).

for the system, defined in Eq. (3.2.7), then enables the system.

gradient to be expressed in derivatives of the curvilinear For the integration The integration

in Eq. (4.4.1), the point p ranges over Si and the point q ranges over Sj . The singularities i=j. points when

with respect to p is performed using simple Gauss integration. will occur at these Gauss integration

in the above numerical approximation It is these auto-influence singular integration

elements that need to be integrated

Watson Lachat the and using

scheme. For the integration

divided be to the with respect q, element, will

in figure (4.1) as shown

Singularity at Gauss point

Figure (4.1).

Subelement division.

The expression in Eq. (4.4.1) can be assembled into a matrix formulation problem,

of the variational

[N{} -A

a0 -

190`

älß an

0. =

(4.4.2).

where the matrix

[A] represents the numerical approximation,

ne

{b4ti}T {o}T [A]{O} =E j=1

(Isir

{Ne}{Ne}TdS

(4.4.3)

In practice this banded symmetric matrix may be further approximated page 82

by the diagonal matrix,

Variational

Method.

aii

=i' S

(4) dSq. ý! ,

(4.4.4)

The matrix the standard

(4.4.2) in Eq. is symmetric equation

and is factorized into a LLT form using

Choleski factorization

technique (Jennings [1977)). The pressure differences are The order of Gauss integration

then evaluated by means of forward and backward substitution.

used to calculate the numerical results in this chapter are summarized in Table (4.1). Chapter 2 showed that the pressure distribution exterior to the thin shell is given by,

0 (P) _

(4.4.5)

following and approximated

similar

arguments presented in Chapter 3 the far field pressure distribution

is

by the vector expression,

Osf (R) _

{111kf}

ý,

PEE.

(4.4.6)

Element

p Integration

Integration q

Singular Non - singular
j Integration within subelement

3x3 2x2

4x4x4t 2x2

Table (4.1) Order of Gauss integration

4.5

Uniqueness

Numerical the of
method was introduced

Formulation

The variational thin shells.

formulating as a way of

the acoustic problem for

In general there is no problem of uniqueness of the numerical solution for thin

domain Since density interior interior for the the tends to the of resonant zero. shell shells since frequencies is proportional to this volume, the numerical formulation for non closed thin shells

is unique for all frequencies. For rigid thin shells that enclose a finite interior domain there will be problems of uniqueness interior frequencies this of at the resonant domain. page 83 Since the variational formulation of the

Variational problem is equivalent to the double boundary layer formulation detailed in Chapter

Method. 2, the

numerical solution will become ill-conditioned Although resulting a hybrid boundary boundary layer formulation

interior the at eigenvalues of

Neumann problem.

overcomes these problems of uniqueness, the

layer potential

is no longer equivalent to the pressure difference across the formulation hybrid does the of problem

shell. The reason for this is that a natural variational not exist, and the corresponding Galerkin formulation

is non-symmetric.

In this chapter no effort is made to circumvent the problems of uniqueness that arise for rigid closed thin shells. formulation the shells, However Chapter 6 will demonstrate that for the elastic, closed thin is unique at all frequencies.

4.6 Edge Boundary

Conditions

In Chapter boundary edge

2 it was shown that for non closed thin shells it is necessary to enforce an condition. The physical reality of this is that the pressure difference across the in the collocation

Since is implicit boundary be the this edges. condition not zero at shell must or variational numerical approximation .k the of

be it imposed then must operator, on the

resulting matrix

be by, This matrix equation set can represented equation set.

[H]{ýD} = {y},

(4.6.1)

[H] is the matrix where the appropriate

approximation

of the collocation or variational

formulation

{y} is and

hand side of this matrix equation; right

{ [A] {y} =
{

an _
an

} 0'
}

Variational, (4.6.2) Collocation.

a0
an

Defining

{'EJ

interior {(DI} to the that those correspond edge or vector elements of as and as,

be (4.6.1) Eq. can rewritten nodes,

HII HEI

HIE HEE

(b I 41>E

yI YE

(4.6.3)

The interior

known differences be in terms the edge pressure of pressure can now written

{yl}, known the vector differences and
page 84

Variational

lfethod. .

[HIf]Oýj}

-

{y'}

-

[HIE]{(ýE}.

(4.6.4)

If (D is equal to zero on the edge of the plate, this equation reduces to,

[HII]{(DI}

=

{yI}.

(4.6.5)

Imposing the edge boundary condition in this way is equivalent to making the shape function for an edge node equal to zero so that there is no contribution difference within to the interpolated pressure

the element from this node. Consequently the way the pressure difference goes

to zero, depends on the other shape functions within the edge element. This problem has not been delt extensively before in previous work. (Mariem and Hamdi [1987], Terai [1980], Warham [1988]). These studies have used constant value elements and condition is satisfied when

for these cases there are no edge nodes and the edge boundary distributing

differences from the element constant value to the nodal values. the out pressure described in this the that method above satisfies the chapter show results larger found it is However there that are numerical errors adequately. boundary the condition. edge of One possible im-

The numerical edge boundary

condition

due imposition to the these edge points at provement implemented not

in this study would be the modification

of the shape functions in

the edge elements, so that the edge boundary condition is included in the numerical formulation implicitly and thus more efficiently.

4.7

Computer

Code

The variational environment

FORTRAN like the using method collocation method was coded

in a UNIX

in the collocation method program were used the same routines used and many of Again all matrix routines are performed in core, however the symmetry be in that they more efficiently stored can a method means

little modification. with

in the the variational matrices of triangular

form, reducing the strain on memory requirements. feature of the variational in increase is the computational method time

The most striking

the to matrix assemble needed due to the extra integration.

equation set. This increase in computational

time is clearly method the

For both methods, but especially the variational page 85

Variational computational
order

Method.

effort needed to generate the numerical matrices will depend heavily on the
used.

of Gauss integration

Table (4.2) shows a comparison of accuracy for different orders of integration for the 6 element test case using the variational boundary condition and collocational method with a constant normal velocity

at ka = 1.0. The singular integrations represent the integrations within the

Lachat and Watson subelements and the non singular integrations represent all other numeriintegrations. cal computational integration contribution This data allows the selection of the optimum integration balancing scheme, non singular

speed with accuracy. Such an integration scheme seems to be 2x2 singular integration.

and 3x3

However for this relatively small problem the timing from

due to the singular integration is high. For large problems the ne contribution integrations

the non-singular

will dominate the timing however accuracy will depend strongly

on the order of singular integration. Some timing data is shown in table (4.3), for both the collocational and variational methods, applied to the thin shell formulation. is used within erwise. matrix For this direct comparison of timings, 3x3 and 2x2 integration integration is used oth-

the subelements of the singular integration

This data is shown graphically

in figure (4.2). The assembly time for the variational

is clearly greater than that of the collocation matrix and both assembly times show the ne . There is a significant difference in the times of matrix times are significantly less than the re-

dependency of approximately same factorization.

Whilst for both methods the factorization

factorization time, the spective assembly

timings show a n3 dependency. For large problems for

become dominant factor, favouring factor 100, thus the this time the variational » will which n.e Choleski factorization. the quicker symmetric method with

4.8 Numerical

Results

4.8.1

Spheroids The thin shell formulation is used to calculate the backscattered form function for different

spheroidal

function form in by, The incident given geometries with an end on plane wave.

f

2Rb Off _
a2 0t

(4.8.1)

for the case of a=b spherical where spheroidal

this equation reduces to Eq (3.6.4).

The spherical and

in Chapter the 3. those geometries are same as mesh page 86

Variational

3ffthod.

Method

Non Singular

Singular

Timing sx 10-2

Accuracy (%)

Collocation

2x2

2x2 3x3
4x4

219 376
579

1.55 0.74
1.05

3x3

2x2 3x3 4x4

365 509 723
589

0.68 0.08 0.23
1.04

4x4

2x2

3x3 4x4 Variational 2x2 2x2 3x3
4x4

730 937 333 509
732

0.30 0.60 1.38 0.65
0.23

3x3

2x2 3x3 4x4

1157 1550 2204
3111

0.65 0.81 0.43
0.32

4x4

2x2

3x3 4x4

3847 4942

0.43 0.56

Table (4.2) Comparison

integration different orders of of accuracy with

page 87

Variational

Method.

Method

Elements

Nodes

CPU Timing in seconds x 1O-' Assembly Factorisation Total

Collocation

3
6

19
33

172
367

1
3

173
370

12 24 48 96 Variational 3 6 12 24
48

61 113 217 417 19 33 61 113
217

1039 3071 9680 36708 205 518 1437 4348
15258

7 49 457 5598 0 1 10 24
179

1046 3120 10137 42306 205 519 1447 4372
15437

96

417

58364

1205

59569

Table (4.3) Comparison
1UUU(o

factorization of matrix assembly and matrix

times

Assembly
10000

CPU Seconds
x10'2
1000

v

c c

V

100

Factorisation

1n

IV

10

100

Number of Elements
times for the variational,

Figure (4.2).

Matrix

factorization assembly and matrix (c), methods

(v), and collocation,

page 88

l'ariulion(il. For those closed geometries there will be problems of uniqueness at interior

1lcthod.

resonant fre-

quencies and 110method is ii pleiuented to reinme these problems. This is likely to account. for the breakdown of the numerical results with respect to frequency since the range of wavenuinbers over which the numerical problem is ill-conditioned at a critical wavenumber increases wit Ii

frequency until there is an overlap. Loss of accuracy at low frequencies is unlikely to be evident unless the vavenuiuber is very close to the critical wavenuniber. Figure (4.3) shows the results calculated using both the variational compared to the analytical and collocation method

solution for a sphere. The 6 element results show high accuracy at at ka = 2.5. There is

low frequencies with a breakdown of both numerical solutions starting no significant no breakdown variational difference in accuracy between the two methods. of the solutions below ka =5

The 24 element results show better accuracy for the

but the there is slightly

results at the higher frequencies.

Figures (4.4-5) show the two methods compared to the results generated by S. W. Wu's axisymmet ric method respectively. using 20 high order elements applied to prolate and oblate spheroids

In the case of the prolate spheroid, the breakdown of both numerical results occurs difference in accuracy between them.

at the same order of frequencies, and there is no significant

Since the mesh geometries for the spheroids are simply a scaled spherical mesh, higher accuracy would be obtained if a more intelligent mesh were used that reflected the geometry and boundary conditions of the specific spheroid. breakdown of the numerical methods for both mesh

For oblate spheroid there is no distinct

densities. The 24 element case shows high accuracy for all frequencies. For the 6 element case the accuracy of both methods degenerates at about ka = 3.0 with the variational slightly 4.8.2 higher accuracy. Flat Disk of the dimensionless radial surface presa baffle. The results and method showing

Figures (4.7-14) show the numerical sure on a circular are calculated collocation Chapter disk radiating

calculation

with constant normal velocity without

using the mesh geometries shown in figure (4.6) using both the variational

methods.

The equation for the surface pressure field for a thin shell was presented in

2. For a flat continuous surface with no incident wave Eq. (2.5.5) gives a relationship

for the surface pressure,

2ýdý+(P)+0-(P))

_ .Mk[ý](P)

= 0.

(4.8.2)

page 89

I-

Variational Therefore the dimensionless surface pressure is given by,

Mcihod.

2k (D

(4.8.3)

an /o (11..) 0 represents the constant normal surface velocity. Figure (4.7-10) show the amplitude (4.11-14) figure show the phase. and

where

of this quantity

The numerical results are compared to results extracted from work by Weiner [1951], which from diffraction were calculated data published by Leitner [1949]. Similar results have also been variational procedure.

[1987] by Ginsberg 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Vu, Pierce and who use an axisymmetric published

All results show convergence between 20 and 80 elements and there is little that separates the accuracy between the collocation and variational degree high Overall is there a methods. at the

decreases however, is from It that these significantly accuracy graphs clear of accuracy.

density improve does disk. the The to the the of elements as not seem edge accuracy at edges of is increased. Figures (4.15-16) show the radiation reactance and resistance of the disk calculated using both the variational and collocation methods. The radiated power and rate of radiation of

kinetic energy for the disk are given by,

11_
K=1

1

Is on

2iwP JS 2k;,ßpsn

dS a dS (4.8.4)


(9

The radiation

impedance is defined using Eq. (4.8.4) by,

or = or,

11 Ui = *
damping,

(4.8.5)

is the positive radiation 0r where radiation damping.

resistance, representing radiation

is the and o-i

is that usually positive; reactance

fluid fluid than rather mass representing added

[1951] Weiner the and results of In both figures the numerical results compare well to Bouwkanip [1941], with a slightly higher degree of accuracy with the variational page 90 method. The

Variational resistance results from the work by Bouwkarnp were calculated for the complementary The results are plotted on logarithmic dependency quency of the radiation radiation resistance.

lfethod. . aperture.

scales in figure (4.15) to show the linear low order fre-

reactance and the higher order frequency dependency of the

The final result for the flat disk, figure (4.17), shows the convergence of the radial pressure for the three mesh discretizations. amplitude The 28 element mesh is distinguished by the high

density of elements near the edge, however all the mesh geometries show similar inaccuracies at the edge of the plate. To improve the accuracy at the edge of the disk it seams that a more sophisticated
4.8.3 Flat

imposing boundary the way of edge condition needs to be developed.
Square Plate

Figure (4.18-19) show the radiation

for the square plate resistance and reactance calculated and collocation

length L. The both the variational calculated of side numerical results are using from by «'arham to the and results extracted methods are compared work There is good agreement using all methods but the non logarithmic is higher accuracy with the variational method.

[1988].

plot shows that there

The results from \Varham correspond to his mesh show

for his fine Comparison for `practical' the with results mesh. an asymptotic results that there is a significantly collocation and variational

higher degree of accuracy and rate of convergence for both the methods. This would be expected since Warham's method uses a

discretization. piecewise constant element 4.8.4 Terai's Problem

Terai's paper [1980] provides a comparison between his numerical results and an experibetween (4.20) the Figure the collocation and variation results comparison shows mental result. and the measured result extracted from Terai's work. The results are the pressure gain in dB

The 0.31 due to are calculated at a radius of results point source. a around a rectangular plate from the origin, in the X-Z from distance 0.5 is the origin along the of at a source plane, and 0.3 0.2. dimensions has x plane

the Z axis. The rectangular plate in the X-Y

Both the collocation results and the variational results agree well with the measured values, and show a significantly higher degree of accuracy than Terai's results.

91 page

Variational 1.2

Method.

1.0
0.8 f 0.6

0.4

Elements a/b=16
0.2

nnv v.

0 1.2

1

2

3

ka

4

1.0

0.8
f
0.6

0.4

a/b=124 Elements

0.2

0.0 01234
Analytical Figure (4.3). Variational ----"--"- . Collocation

ka ----

5

The far field backscattered form function

for a sphere discretized

into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational and collocation thin shell formulations.
page 92

1.2

Variational

Method.

1.0
i

"i

0.8
f
0.6

t" 5

0.4

alb=0.5 6 Elements

0.2

nn
v. v

U 1.2

1

2

3

ka

4

1.0

0.8 f
0.6

., , ,
,

0.4

0.2

a/b=0.5 24 Elements

0.0 , 0123 S. W. Wu Figure (4.4). variational --------. Collocation

ka ----

4

The far field backscattered form

function

for a prolate spheroid

discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. using the variational incident plane wave.
page 93

The numerical results are calculated formulations shell with an end on

and collocation

thin

Variational

bfethod.

1.5
w

" ."` "

1.0

"ý i

f

0.5

Elements 6 a/b=2

0.0L 0
1.5 r

1

2

3

4

ka

5

.

-,

1.0

f

0.5

Elements 24 alb=2

0.0 01234
S. W. Wu Figure (4.5). Variational ......... . Collocation

ka ----

5

The far field backscattered form function

for an oblate spheroid

discretized into 6 elements and 24 elements. The numerical results are calculated using the variational plane wave.
Page 94

and collocation

thin shell formulations

with an end on

incident

Variational

Method.

(a) 20 element disk

(b) 28 element disk

(c) 80 element disk

(d) 36 element plate

(e) 24 element Terai problem plate

Figure (4.6). The thin plate mesh geometries
page 95

Variational

%ffihod. .

2.0

2 3

IPI

4
.... i

1.0

ka=1

0.0 " 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Variational

Figure radiating

The dimensionless

radial pressure amplitude

on a circular

disk

with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational

results

disk discretized into 20 the with one quarter of elements. were calculated

page 96

Variational

Method.

2.0

IPI

1.0

0.0L0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Variational

Figure radiating

(4.8).

The dimensionless

radial pressure amplitude

on a circular

disk results

The baffle. variational with constant normal velocity without a

80 into disk discretized the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
97 page

Variational

Method.

::::: '....:...
2.0

2 3

IPI

5

4

1.0

ka=1

0.010.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Collocation

---------

Figure radiating

(4.9).

The dimensionless

radial pressure amplitude

on a circular

disk

The baffle. collocation with constant normal velocity without a

results

20 into discretized disk the elements. with one quarter of calculated were
page 98

Variational

lfffhod. .

2.0

IPI

1.0

0.01'-0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

Collocation

radial pressure amplitude on a circular The baffle. collocation results a without velocity radiating with constant normal 80 into discretized disk the elements. of were calculated with one quarter Figure (4.10).
99 page

The dimensionless

disk

Variational

lfethod. .

90

S
60

4
30

3
0

-30

2

-60

ka=1

-90 0.0

-I

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

.

Variational

--------- .

The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The variational results were discretized into disk 20 the elements. calculated with one quarter of

Figure (4.11).

page 100

Variational

Mdhod.

90

5
60

4
30

0

---- -----------................................................................ ............. .9 ...............

-30

a

-60

ka=l

-90 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

Variational

---------

.

disk radiatcircular a on phase dimensionless The pressure radial Figure (4.12). The baffle. were results variational a ing with constant normal velocity without 80 into diýcretized disk elements. the of quarter one with calculated
page 101

Gariational

Method.

90

5
60 4)

4
30

.....

3

0

1-----""" -1111*1 .................::: ;.
..

-30

........................................................................................ I-- ........... ..........
-60

ka=1

-90 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

Wiener

Collocation

---------

. disk radiat-

Figure (4.18).

The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular

The baffle. collocation results were ing with constant normal velocity without a into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter calculated with one
page 102

Variational

Method.

S
ý" ....

40

a

4

10

3

'4.

z

\
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

-1
r/a 1.0

ka=1
`-90 0.0

Wiener

Collocation

--------.

Figure (4.14). The dimensionless radial pressure phase on a circular disk radiating with constant normal velocity without a baffle. The collocation into 80 disk discretized the elements. calculated with one quarter of results were

page 103

l ariational

Method.

10

1

.1

01

001

0001

0

0 11
Variational Bouwkamp Figure (4.15). normal The radiation ----

ka

10

Collocation

--------O. Wiener

.

impedence of a circular disk radiating The variational and collocation

with constant results were The results

velocity without

baffle. a

into 20 discretized disk the elements. of quarter one with calculated

frequency dependence. low highlight logarithmic the to scale are plotted on a
page 104

Variational

affthod.

1.5

resistance

1.0

ý,,,.
J~ýý"

ýd.

v,. ir.. "

i
0.5

reactance
I

0.0 ` 0

246

ka

8

10

Variational

Collocation

---------

.

Bouwkamp

Wiener

O.

Figure (4.16).

The radiation

impedance of a circular disk radiating with constant

baffle. These figure the the without a velocity are same results as normal previous but plotted on a linear scale.
page 105

Variational

Method.

1.0

ka= 1

0.8

IPI
0.6

0.4

3k

0.2

Di

0.0 0.0

L-

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/a

1.0

ka=4
2.0

IPI

1.0

a
0.0 0.0 Wiener Figure

0.2 .

0.4 o.

0.6

0.8 o.

1.0

ka

1.2 . mesh

20 Elements

28 Elements

80 Elements

(/x. 17). The dimensionless at ka =1

for different radial pressure amplitude

densities Method.

The the ka 4. and using results are calculated variational =

page 106

Variational

Method.

1 10

100

reactance

10-1

resistance

10 -2

10
.1

1L

10

Variational

Collocation

--------- .

Warham

----

Figure (4.18). normal

The radiation

impedence of a square plate radiating with constant The variational and collocation results were

velocity without

baffle. a

discretized into 36 The the one quarter with of elements. plate calculated results logarithmic frequency highlight low dependence. to the scale are plotted on a
page 107

Variational

Method.

1.5

r

"".
1.0

reactance

i"

0.5

resistance f. "
ýrý"

An

U.V0

L/%,

3

Variational

Collocation

---------

.

Warham

----

Figure (1.19).

impedance of a square plate radiating with constant figure baffle. These the the previous same results as are normal velocity without a but plotted on a linear scale. The radiation

page 108

Variational

Method.

4

dB
I.; '

0

I

` -4 0

90

180

270

0 360

iv

Microphone Source

Measured Figure (4.20).

Variational

--------- .

Collocation

----

Nearfield pressure gain for a point source wave scattered by a 18.44. The numerical results are calculated using 24

rectangular

plate at k=

by from Terai. is the the measured result extracted work elements and

page 109

The Superposition Method.

CHAPTER
The Superposition

5.
Method

5.1 Introduction

Superposition

methods have long been used as a bench test for other numerical analyses of Song and Fahnline [1989] suggested that a superposition

fields. Recently Koopmann, acoustic

method could be extended into a general solution technique for calculating acoustic fields. In the work of Koopmann et a1 [1989], Song et al [1991] and Miller et aI [1991], a complex radiator is replaced by an array of simple monopole sources of unknown magnitude constrained to lie on a surface interior to the body of the radiator. The magnitude of the simple sources is calculated

by equating the normal velocity prescribed on the surface of the radiator to that generated by the array of simple sources. This is performed at the same number of points as there are simple is generated. The solution of this equation set sources and consequently a system of equations gives the magnitude of the simple sources and from these values an exterior pressure field can be calculated. Since the superposition for integration the need singular method removes techniques is

has been suggested that the method improves on the traditional supports

BEM. The author however methods spoil the

the view of Katz [1987], who suggests that some [superposition]

but they they general are not some cases, and work with will produce will whole approach ... ill conditioned systems in some cases. It was decided that the superposition method was worth investigating in order to establish that in a hierarchy of integral methods, the BEM represents of the superposition method.

the limit in terms of accuracy and conditioning Although,

the superposition method described above circumvents the problem of uniqueness interior the point sources to be on which constrains at another set of critical wavenutnbers. These to the

in formulation found BEMs, a of solution interior an

does become ill-conditioned surface

Dirichlet interior to the the problem unrelated eigenvalues of wavenumbers correspond

layer distribution integral The is to a single source superposition now equivalent source surface. be Although, have to these eigenvalues. shown a non-unique solution at and as such can it is

interior lie the to that source surface so outside the any critical wavenumbers reduce possible frequency range of interest, there is also a potential loss in numerical stability. In this chapter,

be that this will presented strategy circumvents uniqueness problem, allowing the a numerical
page 110

The Superposition Method. optimum choice of interior be to surface made, in order to obtain the maximum improvement

in numerical stability

of the solution.

The problem of uniqueness has been overcome in this study by considering the superposition integral in terms of a hybrid combination of single and double layer potentials. to the problem of uniqueness in B. E..N1's is discussed by Filippi [1983]. A similar solution

[1977], and Colton and Kress

As noted by Koopmann et al [1989] it is possible to use derive a superposition integral either by assuming that the source distribution interior Green's function each and are constant over in Green's function to the some manner vary and In this paper the first

by distribution the allowing or source element and the kernel function

to be evaluated using Gaussian quadrature.

denoted (PSNI). Superposition is Point Results are also presented Method the as source method for the second method which is denoted as the Integrated source Superposition Method (ISM); the source distribution and geometry are approximated by the use of quadratic interpolation

functions defined using 9 noded surface elements.

5.2 The Superposition

Integral

For a body radiating with a prescribed surface velocity it is desirable to calculate the exterior field. The principle pressure for that the acoustic solution shows some of wave superposition interior to the

distribution is body to the acoustic solution of some source equivalent radiating

body. If both systems satisfy the same Neumann boundary condition on the surface of the body then the pressure distributions field by both since an exterior pressure equivalent are generated Koopmann et al proposed that the solution of

is unique for a prescribed boundary condition. the equivalent superposition formulation

of a problem offers many significant advantages over a

B. E. M solution of the same problem. The validity of the superposition method can be shown in the following way. Q. in This distria volume source of sources contained is S there a prescribed normal velocity on which surface

Consider a continuous distribution bution is interior to a closed fictitious distribution

S is denoted by S denoted D is to the The exterior volume and enclosed volume u,,.

(5.1). figure in is This E. shown geometry

page 111

The Superposition Method.

E

S

Figure (5.1).

The geometry for formulating .

the superposition

integral.

Applying

the principle of mass conservation (Pierce [1989] Chapter 4 p162) to the volume

leads by S defined by, to a modified reduced wave enclosed equation

v2 p(r) + k2P(r) = iwpgo(r),

rED.

(5.2.1)

A time dependence of e-'wt is assumed and qo(r) is the interior source strength defined by,

q(r) qo(r) = 0

rES2, (5.2.2) rEDexcluding ft

Using Eq. (5.2.1) the modified interior Helmholtz integral equation can be developed in a similar by, is Helmholtz interior the to given equation and standard way

ý Js

iwpu(ro)Gk(r,

öGk (nr,ro) ro) - p(ro) ö ra

d'Sr, +

fniwp4(ro)Gk(r,
(1
T= IT vol

ro)dVra (5.2.3)

- c(r))(r)p(r),

ikr Gk (r, ro) =1e 47rr

The unrelated exterior Helmholtz equation is independent of the interior source distribution

and

identical to the exterior Helmholtz equation for a real surface S with prescribed normal velocity distribution is defined by, This equation u,,. page 112

The cuperpositaon ,

Method.

Pro) S

ÖGk(r, ro)
a n*o

1.ý pun(ro)Gk

dS'ro

= C(r')P(r').

(5.2.4)

In the source distribution indicating

model of the vibrating

body, the surface S is a construction

where the normal velocity distribution

is prescribed. Consequently the pressure and When r is taken to be on S, Eq.

distributions velocity

across the surface must, be continuous.

(5.2.3) and Eq. (5.2.4) combine to give,

fipq(ro)Gk(r, P(r) = ro)dVro.

(5.2.5)

Eq. (5.2.5) is the superposition integral. Associated with this equation is its differentiated

form,

defined by,

In 2dn(r) = q(ro)ÖG3(ro 0 d###BOT_TEXT###.

(5.2.6)

5.3

Uniqueness

In the derivation of Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) the Helmholtz integral equations are cirdomain for interior that a source contains no volume, numerical implementations cumvented and frequencies. However S2 is the these all are unique at choice of equations of volume arbitrary implementation for ease of numerical and over an interior it is best to locate the interior source distribution integral will now in

S' 6r. However the superposition thickness of small surface

This be demonstrated wave numbers. non-uniqueness can exhibit non-uniqueness at critical the following manner. For the case where Sl is chosen to be a thin shell, Eq. (5.2.5) and Eq. (5.2.6) become,

IS/ P(r) =I

iwpq(ro)Gk(r,

ro)brrdSfo.

(5.3.1)

is,
un(r) =J

8GO(r'ro) 4(ro) o page 113

brdS;.

o.

(5.3.2)

The Superposition Method. In the limit as the thickness of the surface S' becomes zero, these equations show the pressure distribution notation, being defined in terms of a single layer potential. Using the integral operator

it is possible to write Eq. (5.3.1) and Eq. (5.3.2) in terms of a single layer potential in terms of a double layer

along with an associated expression for the pressure distribution potential. These expressions are defined by,

iwpCk[ P(r) 's](r),

(5.3.3)

u(r)
P(r)

[t3](r), Mk =
= 2Wp ik [11d](r),

(5.3.4)
(5.3.5)

Yk[0d](r), um(r) _

(5.3.6)

Consider the case of the single layer potential

formulation

for u

=0

Since S. the on

pressure field exterior to S' is unique for all wavenumbers then u, =0 and p+ =0 on S. The (-) (+) interior indicates the the surface pressure or velocity evaluated on exterior or superscript discontinuities S'. By the surface consideration of of in the integral operators Gk and Mk, it is

(5.3.4) limit in (5.3.3) S' from Eq. Eq. the to the exterior tends to as r r0 on and write possible domains. These interior equations are, and

p+(ro) = P-(r0)

iwprk[0, = (Mr

](ro), -2{

(5.3.7) s](ro). (5.3.8)

(ro) (ro) 0s(ro) un = = um Eq. (5.3.7) shows that the pressure distribution if p+ =0 and consequently

is continuous across the single layer surface

then p- = 0. From Eq. (5.3.8) with u,+, = 0, v, is non-zero when

Dirichlet interior S. At # the Since 0. to this of problem at eigenvalues occurs only p- =0 un these frequencies, 0, will have a non-trivial is these that critical unique at not t,,, means become ill-conditioned. (5.3.4) Eq. will of for distribution zero a velocity solution S. This on

wavenumbers and the numerical implementation

A similar treatment for the double layer potential

(5.3.6), interior Neumann is in Eq. 1d the the that eigenvalues of non-unique at problem shows interior to S. To eliminate the problem of uniqueness at critical wavenumbers, a hybrid combination for the superposition problem

layer double potentials of single and becomes,

is used. The formulation

page 114

The Superposition

Method. .1

[v, Ck iwp(. iTlMk) + 7(r), P(? ') = (Mk utz(r) = + ii \

(5.3.9)

(5.3.10)

The value of the real constant 77 in Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) is chosen to be 1/k to compensate for the order of frequency terms in the integral operators. The advantage of the superposition method using this hybrid formulation is that there is no high order singularity in the operator .A

since the source surface S' is not coincident with the boundary surface S. It should be noted however that in regions where there is a high density of critical wavenumbers, a high degree of is accuracy needed to reduce the range of wav-enumbers over which the non-hybrid operators are ill-conditioned, hybrid formulation that the so is efficient.

5.4 Numerical
A numerical

Formulation
implementation of the superposition integral has several advantages over a

BEM. A major factor in any BEM is the numerical treatment of the singularities that inevitably formulation. in the occur In the superposition method the source distribution Consequently there is no singularity is interior to the

body and therefore not coincident. (5.3.10). (5.3.9) Eq. Eq. and of

in the Green's function

In Eq. (5.3.9) and Eq. (5.3.10) the surface S' can be discretized into a number of elements, have Using interior The the a corresponding surface node. source elements must each nodes of n. the definitions interior is the the on node source corresponding surface of previous researchers This definition be extended to refer to the self element which can

known as the self node.

is the source surface element that contains the self node. Eq. (5.3.10) can be approximated numerically by,

n

un(r) =E

1ý,

aGk(r,
am

ro)

02Gk(r.

ro)

Ö12ranr.

7(ro)dSro7=1

For the PSM it is assumed that the kernel of Eq. (5.4.1) and be it written can element and in matrix form by,

is constant within the '(r0)

{un} = DA{ ;'}, page 115

(5.4.2)

The Supfrposition
With,

Method. .

r"n; Dij = Gk(r) r+

r-ni i77 rr
r=ri

r. nj

(G(r)

Gk(r) -T-r
r=Irl.

Ge(r)

nj 7zß.

C x. 4.3)

- rj.

A is diagonal the and area matrix. In Eq. (5.4.2) {u} is the vector containing the n values of u evaluated at the points r;

boundary interior defined the that to the the surface, on surface correspond on n nodal points rj. The source surface nodal points are defined at the centroid of the source surface element. 4j interior ý, the the , source surface and . contains n values of j evaluated on

The vector {0}

interior to the the nodal positions. of point source situated at amplitude radiators corresponds The discretized form of Eq. (5.3.9) is defined in a similar way to Eq. (5.4.2),

{p}

-

(5.4.4)

with,

M; j = Gk(r)

+ iriG' (r)

r"nj r

(5.4.5)

This is Eq. (5.4.2) and Eq. (5.4.4) can be combined to give an expression for p in terms of ums,.
written as,

{p} = MD-1{u}

(5.4.6)

In the PSM the principal assumption is that the interpolation given by,

of the source distribution

is

V= b(ro, rj)Zj,

(5.4. i)

defining V)j is is (ro, the the the 6 zero otherwise, and and element at nodal point one rj) where distribution the source nodal value of Within made. for the element. For the ISM a different assumption is

the element the source distribution

is given by.

page 116

Thf Superposition Method.

{1Ve}T{ VI)=

a},

(5.4.8)

{Ne} where

is the vector of element shape functions and {ýJ}

is the vector of element nodal by Eq. given (5.3.10) now

values of the source distribution. becomes,

The numerical approximation

un(T)

-

ES J=1 ý°

(ýGk(rro) Onr + . ýa2GkI. (9nrOnr %Te}TdSr°{2J}. (5.4.9)

The numerical

integration

in Eq. (5.4.9) can be performed using simple Gaussian quadrature

be is for A there assembled matrix equation set can no singularity retracted source surfaces. since for the acoustic formulation eliminating 0, the global vector of nodal source strengths,

{p} = MIDI'{un}

(5.4.10)

In this study the interior

in for both PSM ISM the the and were generated points nodal

in is PSM, for Since the the the these nodal points needed element only nodal point same way. for ISM. To the the to the conditioning optimize nodal points can correspond definition the matrices, of the D and DI Following

is boundary the critical. and source surface nodal points of

by, defined interior the source points are previous work

Tj

=

Ti

-

d1

2,

(5.4.11)

defined is d as the retraction where to ensure optimum conditioning.

distance. The relationship in Eq. (5.4.11) is not sufficient

The boundary nodal points have to be defined so that,

ITi

-Tj

Ij,

4i >

ITi

-'I=i

.

(5.4.12)

These relationships ensure that there is optimum symmetry and diagonal dominance of the equation set. This requirement is important in reducing the degree of ill conditioning of the

formulation,

however such a restriction

boundary the the surface nodal points on positioning of

boundary the independent be applied of conditions. will page 117

The Super position

Method.

For radiation scattering

problems u

is simply the prescribed surface normal velocity. For plane wave

(Junger be [1986]) Feit to be equal to, u1. can shown and

PI wp

-

&I r

(5.4.13)

is fluid the where uj particle distribution, source amplitude 5.4.1

velocity on the boundary surface in the absence of any interior

generated by the incident pressure wave. The incident pressure wave has

kI. pl. and wave vector Condition Number

Matrix

A well recognized failing of the superposition method is the ill conditioning of the generated lack This of conditioning matrices. is due to the numerical instability of Fredholm equations of

the first kind (Arfken [1985], Miller [1974]). One loss of conditioning is due to the loss of diagonal dominance as the source surface is retracted from the boundary surface. Computationally loss of conditioning means that small changes in the surface velocity distribution the

can have a

large effect on the source distribution.

Following Golub and Van-Loan [1983] a conditioning

be linear The the that gives a measure of sensitivity of a system. matrix calculated number can be for ISM PSM the can stated as, or problem

{un}

D{O}. =

(5.4.14)

If the boundary
system,

velocity

distribution

is perturbed

by an amount {6u } then for this linear

{b}

D-1{bu, =

},

(5.4.15)

from the properties of vector and matrix norms, and

11 11 116un11 JID-111 < 11011 11011

(5.4.16)

tun III

IIDIIIIVII.

(5.4.1 7)

page 118

The Superposition 11Eihod. . Therefore condition the perturbation in un is related to the perturbation in L- by means of the

number n;,

IIa'+'II IIv'II

<K

IIbun II IIti II

(5.4.18)

IIDIIIID-111. =
In this study the conditioning number is calculated in terms of Euclidean matrix

(5.4.19)

norms.

The equality in Eq. (5.4.18) states that the conditioning

is the related of matrix equation set

to t;. However, the accuracy of the matrix equation solution need not be directly related to this quantity. This condition number can not reflect the improvement in solution accuracy that is

if the symmetry possible

relationship for nodal point placement is observed. The superposition

(5.4.14) be decomposition, defined in in Eq. terms can written of a singular value problem

{un} = XS2YT {b}"

(5.4.20)

The square matrices X and Y represent orthogonal matrices and the diagonal matrix Q2, repis DT D. The the to the the problem given solution symmetric matrix, eigenvalues of resents

bY,

lo}Y

Q-lf, =

un}X,

(5.4.21)

Y the X the the the onto respective orthogof vector projection represents and subscript where onal matrix. If the matrix D is nearly symmetric then the source distribution boundary the and An eigenvalue

distribution velocity (Strang analysis

in be the terms of same orthogonal matrix. expressed will

[1988]) of Eq.

(5.4.21) shows that when D is symmetric the eigenvalues of Therefore increasing the symmetry of the superposition

this equation are perfectly conditioned. matrix, 5.4.2 significantly Velocity

improves the overall conditioning of the numerical formulation. Error Norm

Reconstruction

In order to select the optimum position of interior nodal points a measure of the solution is needed. accuracy distribution This may be done by an a priori knowledge of the boundary pressure Another measure of the accuracy of

however this is clearly not always possible.

the superposition

is the extent to which the prescribed normal boundary velocity is method
page 119

Thf Superpo.'iiion reconstructed by the source distribution. By using the numerical approximations

110hod. .

of either the

PS-N1or ISM the reconstructed surface normal velocity is given by,

it,, (r) = {D(r)}T

D-1{ u, }.

(5.4.22)

When r corresponds to a boundary surface nodal point, Ti, then clearly,

(5.4.23)

For other points there will however be some difference in the prescribed and calculated surface difference is the velocity reconstruction error norm, this normal velocities and a measure of

Ilun

Ilun

unllo llo

(5.4.24)

where,

j(uun it'll, = (5.4.25)

This error norm will be closely linked to the error in the boundary surface pressure and can be used to select the optimum interior nodal positions without an a priori knowledge of the

boundary surface pressure distribution.

5.5 Numerical

Results

The superposition radiation

formulations

were applied to spherical and spheroidal scattering

and that

due boundary These to the cylindrical symmetry were chosen surfaces problems. boundary conditions. In all cases one quarter of the boundary

for appropriate exists is discretized, optimize distributed

surface

making use of the problem symmetry of the resulting superposition

to reduce the problem size. In order to matrices the surface nodal points are

the symmetry

boundary the as possible surface. as evenly over at critical wavenumbers of the A constant normal

Figure (5.2) contrasts the non uniqueness characteristics formulations layer double single and distribution velocity

with that of the hybrid formulation.

is prescribed for a sphere with radius a and the source surface is retracted
page 120

The Superposition J10hod. by 0.5a. These graphs show the variation of the condition number, n, and velocity reconstruction for ka For the to the spherical geometry the critical spherical problem. error norm, a, compared wavenumbers will occur at,

k(a - d) = kn.

(5.5.1)

For the breathing mode problem, ko is equal to it and 4.493 for the single layer and double layer problems respectively. resulting The loss of conditioning is clearly shown at these points along with the The hybrid

loss in numerical accuracy for the single and double layer formulations. removes the problem of non uniqueness at these frequencies.

formulation

The potential function

for both PSM form ISM back the the calculating accuracy of and scattered

for both spheres and spheroids is shown in figures (5.3-4). In figure (5.3) the PSNN1 and

ISM applied to the spherical problem is compared to the analytical result and the collocation BEM result. The retraction distance is taken to be 0.5a. The superposition method results show high degree due high to the of symmetry very accuracy between the spherical boundary and

improves The the the resulting matrices significantly conditioning of symmetry surfaces. source is The high that the possible. reduced size of the source surface elements accuracy problem so of boundary the to the surface elements also allows superposition methods corresponding compared to have a more accurate surface representation for this particular example.

Figure (5.4) shows the same comparison for the spheroidal back scattering problem. The b 0.5, has where a and represent the minor and major radii an aspect ratio of alb = spheroid respectively and a retraction distance of 0.4b is used. A converged solution is taken to be the

result of an axisymmetric calculated

BEM solution with a large number of elements and these results are by Wu [1990] using 40 quadratic line elements. The PSM

by a program written

results show satisfactory

high BEM the results show accuracy compared to the accuracy whilst

less accurate results of the ISM. The results of the ISM suggests that the solution accuracy is dependent on the conditioning In order to illustrate retraction of the superposition matrices. is dependent method on the

that the accuracy of the superposition

distance, the far field scattered pressure was calculated for the problem of a plane wave

incident upon a sphere. An error quantity, E, is defined as the error of the far field back scattered form function with respect to the result for a 96 element BEM calculation. The variation of

log the together the log this with of velocity reconstruction error the of page 121

error norm, a has been

The SupErposition Method. function d/a, for ka in figure (5.5) of a plotted as a = 1. Figure (5.5a) shows the results for the point superposition The condition figure (5.5b) for integrated the and method superposition method. number of the solution matrix for both superposition methods is given in

figures (5.6a) and (5.6b). The results for the spherical and spheroidal geometries are presented. Comparsion of the error measures in figure (5.5a) with the condition number of the matrix

P5M1 in figure (5.6a) indicates little correspondence between these the generated with spherical quantities. As the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is less than the far field error, the ma-

trices are conditioned such that the accuracy is dependent only on the order of the interpolation distribution. the source of As the source surface is moved closer to the boundary surface, both

error quantities increase until the velocity reconstruction error norm, a is greater than the error in the far field back scattered form function, F. The results for the ISM, shown in figure (5.5b), indicate that between d/a = 0.9 and 0.5 the trend in the conditioning similiar. of the problem, shown in figure (5.6b) and the error indicators a and e is distances the degree of symmetry in the problem increases, to allow very accurate

For this range of retraction

d=0.5 until at about

the problem became sufficiently well-conditioned

be to attained. solutions the internodal

The far field error, a, increases as d tends to zero, while the error in in formulation The the accuracy remains small. could be

velocity reconstruction

increased for these low retraction in the BEM. The velocity reconstruction

ratios by simply using the singular integration techniques used

error, a, and the far field back scattered form function error,

The for the values of a and e were calculated as a problem. spheroidal e, were also calculated function of d/b at kb =1 for both the point superposition and integrated superposition methods. The results are given in figures (5.7-8). For both methods the variation of a is similar, revealing for a particular a minimum significant. retraction due before d became the to numerical error small ratio,

The value of d/b where this occurs decreases with increasing n. The errors for the

PSM show there is a greater range of retraction distances over which there is low error reflecting the greater symmetry of the corresponding superposition matrices.

5.6 Conclusion
A numerical solution to acoustic problems has been described along with a strategy to The superposition formulation

hybrid formulation. of uniqueness using a overcome problems

breakdown be formulation the to the and valid of numerical was shown page 122

at the eigenvalues of

Thf Superposition Method. the interior demonstrated. source surface was The accuracy of the formulation was measured

through use of a velocity reconstruction
The problems that with solutions accuracy significant numerical results

error norm.
method applied to radiation and scattering results indicate

of the superposition

are presented careful with

for spherical

and spheroidal

surfaces.

The numerical

choice of boundary accuracy

and source surface nodal points that it is possible