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MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Bridge Office
LRFD Bridge
Design Manual
MANUAL
5-392

ii
Mn/DOT BRI DGE OFFI CE
LRFD Bridge Design Manual

Minnesota Department of Transportation
3485 Hadley Avenue North • Mail Stop 610
Oakdale, MN 55128-3307
Phone: (651) 747-2100 • Fax: (651) 747-2108















JULY 2003 OCTOBER 2003 JANUARY 2004 APRIL 2004 OCTOBER 2004
DECEMBER 2004 FEBRUARY 2005 MARCH 2005




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 Overview Of Manual 5-392 ............................................................... 1-1
1.1.1 Chronology Of Manual 5-392 ................................................... 1-1
1.1.2 Material Contained In Manual 5-392 ......................................... 1-1
1.1.3 Updates To Manual 5-392 ....................................................... 1-2
1.1.4 Format Of Manual References .................................................. 1-2
1.2 General Bridge Information .............................................................. 1-2
1.2.1 Bridge Office ......................................................................... 1-2
1.2.2 Highway Systems................................................................... 1-8
1.2.3 Bridge Numbers..................................................................... 1-8
1.2.4 Limit States To Consider In Design ......................................... 1-10
1.2.5 Ductility, Redundancy, Operational Importance ........................ 1-10
1.3 Procedures................................................................................... 1-10
1.3.1 Checking Of Mn/DOT Prepared Bridge Plans ............................. 1-10
1.3.2 Checking Of Consultant Prepared Bridge Plans ......................... 1-12
1.3.3 Schedule For Processing Construction Lettings ......................... 1-15
1.3.4 Bridge Project Tracking System.............................................. 1-16
1.3.5 Approval Process For Standards ............................................. 1-18

2. GENERAL DESIGN AND LOCATION FEATURES........................................ 2-1
2.1 Geometrics .................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1 Bridge Geometrics.................................................................. 2-1
2.1.2 Bridge Deck Requirements ...................................................... 2-2
2.1.3 Bridge Undercrossing Geometrics ............................................. 2-7
2.1.4 Geometric Details ................................................................ 2-15
2.1.5 Bridge Railings .................................................................... 2-27
2.2 Bridge Aesthetics .......................................................................... 2-27
2.3 Preliminary Bridge Plans ................................................................ 2-27
2.3.1 General .............................................................................. 2-27
2.3.2 Bridge Type Selection........................................................... 2-37



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN ii
2.4 Final Bridge Plans and Special Provisions.......................................... 2-42
2.4.1 Final Design Instructions....................................................... 2-44
2.4.1.1 Superstructure................................................................ 2-44
2.4.1.1.1 Framing Plan ..................................................... 2-44
2.4.1.1.2 Concrete Wearing Course .................................... 2-45
2.4.1.1.3 Diaphragms and Cross-frames ............................. 2-45
2.4.1.2 Pedestrian Bridges........................................................... 2-46
2.4.1.3 Temporary Bridges and Widenings ..................................... 2-48
2.4.1.4 Bridge Approaches........................................................... 2-49
2.4.1.5 Survey........................................................................... 2-50
2.4.1.6 Utilities .......................................................................... 2-50
2.4.1.7 Precedence of Construction Documents............................... 2-51
2.4.1.8 Design Calculation Requirements ....................................... 2-51
2.4.2 Final Plans .......................................................................... 2-52
2.4.2.1 Drafting Standards .......................................................... 2-53
2.4.2.2 Drafting Guidelines .......................................................... 2-53
2.4.2.3 General Plan and Elevation ............................................... 2-55
2.4.2.4 Bridge Layout and Staking Plan ......................................... 2-60
2.4.2.5 Standard Abbreviations .................................................... 2-63
2.4.2.6 Inclusion of Standard Bridge Details in Plan Sets.................. 2-63
2.4.2.7 Use of Bridge Standard Plans ............................................ 2-63
2.4.2.8 Standard Plan Notes ........................................................ 2-63
2.4.2.9 Quantity Notes and Pay Items ........................................... 2-64
2.4.3 Revised Sheets .................................................................... 2-65
2.5 Reconstruction Guidelines and Details.............................................. 2-66
2.5.1 Superstructure .................................................................... 2-66
2.5.1.1 Railings.......................................................................... 2-66
2.5.1.2 Wearing Course............................................................... 2-68
2.5.1.3 Expansion/Fixed Joints ..................................................... 2-68
2.5.2 Substructure ....................................................................... 2-80
2.5.2.1 Abutments...................................................................... 2-80
2.5.2.2 Piers.............................................................................. 2-80
2.5.3 Pavement ........................................................................... 2-80



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN iii
2.6 Construction Requirements............................................................. 2-86
Appendix 2-A: Bridge Type Numbers ....................................................... 2-87
Appendix 2-B: Bridge Special Provisions................................................... 2-88
Appendix 2-C: Standard Abbreviations..................................................... 2-92
Appendix 2-D: Bridge Details Part I (B-Details) ......................................... 2-94
Appendix 2-E: Bridge Details Part II ........................................................ 2-96
Appendix 2-F: Bridge Standard Plans: Culverts ......................................... 2-98
Appendix 2-G: Bridge Standard Plans: Retaining Walls ............................... 2-99
Appendix 2-H: Standard Plan Notes....................................................... 2-100
Appendix 2-I: Standard Summary Of Quantities Notes ............................. 2-109
Appendix 2-J: Bridge Pay Items ............................................................ 2-111
Appendix 2-K: Conversion From Inches To Decimals Of A Foot .................. 2-115

3. LOADS AND LOAD FACTORS .................................................................. 3-1
3.1 Load Factors And Combinations ........................................................ 3-1
3.2 Load Modifiers ................................................................................ 3-3
3.3 Permanent Loads (Dead And Earth) ................................................... 3-3
3.4 Live Loads ..................................................................................... 3-4
3.4.1 HL-93 Live Load, LL................................................................ 3-4
3.4.2 Multiple Presence Factor, MPF .................................................. 3-4
3.4.3 Dynamic Load Allowance, IM ................................................... 3-4
3.4.4 Pedestrian Live Load, PL ......................................................... 3-4
3.4.5 Braking Force, BR .................................................................. 3-5
3.4.6 Centrifugal Force, CE.............................................................. 3-5
3.4.7 Live Load Application To Buried Structures ................................ 3-5
3.4.8 Live Load Surcharge, LS.......................................................... 3-5
3.5 Water Loads, WA ............................................................................ 3-5
3.6 Wind Loads, WS.............................................................................. 3-5
3.7 Wind on Live Load, WL .................................................................... 3-6
3.8 Earthquake Effects, EQ .................................................................... 3-6
3.9 Ice Load, IC ................................................................................... 3-6
3.10 Earth Pressure, EV, EH, Or ES........................................................... 3-6
3.11 Temperature, Shrinkage, Creep, Settlement, TU, SH, CR And SE ........... 3-7



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN iv
3.11.1 General ................................................................................ 3-7
3.12 Pile Downdrag, DD.......................................................................... 3-7
3.13 Friction Forces, FR .......................................................................... 3-7
3.13.1 Sliding Bearings..................................................................... 3-7
3.13.2 Soil/Backwall Interface And Soil/Footing Interface ...................... 3-7
3.14 Extreme Event................................................................................ 3-8
3.14.1 Vehicle Collision, CT ............................................................... 3-8
3.14.2 Vessel Collision, CV ................................................................ 3-8
3.15 Uplift............................................................................................. 3-8
3.15.1 Deck Pours............................................................................ 3-9
3.16 Construction Loads.......................................................................... 3-9
3.17 Deflections..................................................................................... 3-9

4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION........................................... 4-1
4.1 Computer Programs ........................................................................ 4-1
4.2 Load Distribution ............................................................................ 4-2
4.2.1 Dead Load Distribution ........................................................... 4-2
4.2.2 Live Load Distribution............................................................. 4-2
4.2.2.1 Steel And Prestressed Concrete Beams ................................. 4-3
4.2.2.2 Slab Spans And Timber Decks ............................................. 4-3
4.2.3 Sidewalk Pedestrian Live Load ................................................. 4-3
4.2.4 Pedestrian Bridge Live Load..................................................... 4-4
4.3 Load Rating.................................................................................... 4-4
4.4 Substructure Fixity.......................................................................... 4-8
4.5 Structural Models............................................................................ 4-8
4.6 LRFD Exceptions ............................................................................. 4-8
4.6.1 Curved Bridges ...................................................................... 4-9
4.6.2 Rehabilitation Projects ............................................................ 4-9
4.6.3 Railroad Bridges, And Bridges Or Structures Near Railroads ......... 4-9

5. CONCRETE STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 5-1
5.1 Materials ....................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 Concrete............................................................................... 5-1



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN v
5.1.2 Reinforcing Steel.................................................................... 5-4
5.1.3 Reinforcement Bar Couplers .................................................... 5-4
5.1.4 Prestressing Steel .................................................................. 5-4
5.1.5 Post-tensioning Hardware ....................................................... 5-5
5.2 Reinforcement Details...................................................................... 5-5
5.2.1 Minimum Clear Cover and Clear Spacing ................................... 5-5
5.2.2 Reinforcing Bar Lists............................................................... 5-7
5.2.3 General Reinforcement Practices ............................................ 5-14
5.2.4 Reinforcement Bar Couplers .................................................. 5-14
5.2.5 Adhesive Anchors................................................................. 5-14
5.2.6 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ............................. 5-15
5.3 Concrete Slabs ............................................................................. 5-17
5.3.1 Geometry ........................................................................... 5-17
5.3.2 Design/Analysis ................................................................... 5-17
5.3.3 Exterior Strip....................................................................... 5-18
5.3.4 Reinforcement Layout........................................................... 5-18
5.3.5 Camber and Deflections ........................................................ 5-21
5.4 Pretensioned Concrete................................................................... 5-21
5.4.1 Geometry ........................................................................... 5-22
5.4.2 Stress Limits ....................................................................... 5-24
5.4.3 Design/Analysis ................................................................... 5-24
5.4.4 Detailing/Reinforcement........................................................ 5-27
5.4.5 Camber and Deflection ......................................................... 5-27
5.4.6 Standard I-Beams................................................................ 5-28
5.4.7 Rectangular Beams .............................................................. 5-28
5.4.8 Double-Tee Beams ............................................................... 5-31
5.5 Post-Tensioned Concrete................................................................ 5-36
5.5.1 PT Slab Bridges ................................................................... 5-36
5.5.2 PT I-Girders ........................................................................ 5-36
5.5.3 PT Precast or Cast-In-Place Box Girders .................................. 5-36
5.6 Concrete Finishes and Coatings....................................................... 5-36
5.7 Design Examples .......................................................................... 5-37
5.7.1 Three-Span Haunched Reinforced Concrete Slab....................... 5-39



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN vi
5.7.2 Prestressed I-Beam Design Example....................................... 5-71
5.7.3 Three-Span Haunched Post-Tensioned Concrete Slab
Design Example ................................................................. 5-101

6. STEEL STRUCTURES............................................................................... 6-1
6.1 Materials ....................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 General Dimensions And Details........................................................ 6-3
6.3 General Design Philosophy ............................................................... 6-7
6.3.1 Shear Connectors .................................................................. 6-9
6.3.2 Fatigue................................................................................. 6-9
6.3.3 Deflections............................................................................ 6-9
6.3.4 Camber .............................................................................. 6-10
6.4 Rolled Beams ............................................................................... 6-13
6.5 Plate Girders ................................................................................ 6-13
6.5.1 High Performance Steel Girders.............................................. 6-14
6.6 Curved Girders ............................................................................. 6-14
6.7 Box Or Tub Girders ....................................................................... 6-15
6.8 Bolted Connections And Splices....................................................... 6-15
6.9 Two-Span Plate Girder Design Example............................................ 6-16

7. RESERVED

8. WOOD STRUCTURES.............................................................................. 8-1
8.1 Materials ....................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.1 Wood Products ...................................................................... 8-1
8.1.2 Fasteners And Hardware ......................................................... 8-2
8.1.3 Wood Preservatives................................................................ 8-2
8.2 Timber Bridge Decks ....................................................................... 8-3
8.2.1 General ................................................................................ 8-3
8.2.2 Geometry ............................................................................. 8-5
8.2.3 Design/Analysis ..................................................................... 8-5
8.2.4 Detailing............................................................................... 8-6
8.2.5 Camber/Deflections................................................................ 8-6



DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN vii
8.3 Timber Pile Caps............................................................................. 8-6
8.3.1 Geometry ............................................................................. 8-7
8.3.2 Design/Analysis ..................................................................... 8-7
8.3.3 Detailing............................................................................... 8-7
8.3.4 Camber/Deflections................................................................ 8-7
8.4 Additional References ...................................................................... 8-7
8.5 Design Examples ............................................................................ 8-8
8.5.1 Longitudinally Laminated Timber Deck Design Example ............... 8-8
8.5.2 Design Example: Timber Pile Cap ........................................... 8-26

9. DECKS AND DECK SYSTEMS................................................................... 9-1
9.1 General ......................................................................................... 9-1
9.1.1 Deck Drainage....................................................................... 9-2
9.2 Concrete Deck on Beams ................................................................. 9-2
9.2.1 Deck Design and Detailing....................................................... 9-4
9.3 Reinforced Concrete Deck Design Example ....................................... 9-17

10. FOUNDATIONS .................................................................................... 10-1
10.1 Determination of Foundation Type and Capacity ................................ 10-1
10.1.1 Foundation Report................................................................ 10-1
10.1.2 Foundation Recommendations ............................................... 10-1
10.2 Piles............................................................................................ 10-3
10.3 Drilled Shafts ............................................................................... 10-5
10.4 Footings ...................................................................................... 10-8
10.4.1 General .............................................................................. 10-8
10.4.2 Footing Supported on Piling or Drilled Shafts............................ 10-9
10.4.3 Spread Footings................................................................. 10-10
10.5 Pile Bent Piers and Abutments ...................................................... 10-11
10.6 Evaluation of Existing Pile Foundations when Exposed by Scour ......... 10-11
10.7 Structure Excavation and Backfill .................................................. 10-13



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN viii
Appendix 10-A: Sample Bridge Construction Unit Recommendations
(Future Content) .......................................................... 10-14

11. ABUTMENTS, PIERS, AND WALLS ....................................................... 11-1
11.1 Abutments ................................................................................... 11-1
11.1.1 Integral or Contraction Abutments.......................................... 11-3
11.1.2 Parapet Abutments............................................................... 11-6
11.1.2.1 Low Abutments ............................................................... 11-9
11.1.2.2 High Abutments .............................................................. 11-9
11.1.3 Wingwalls ......................................................................... 11-12
11.1.4 Approach Panels ................................................................ 11-20
11.2 Piers ......................................................................................... 11-21
11.2.1 Geometrics ....................................................................... 11-21
11.2.2 Columns ........................................................................... 11-21
11.2.3 Cap.................................................................................. 11-21
11.2.4 Crash Walls....................................................................... 11-22
11.2.5 Design and Reinforcement................................................... 11-23
11.2.6 Miscellaneous .................................................................... 11-24
11.2.6.1 Pile Bent ...................................................................... 11-25
11.3 Retaining Walls........................................................................... 11-25
11.3.1 Cantilever Retaining Walls................................................... 11-25
11.3.2 Counterfort Retaining Walls ................................................. 11-25
11.3.3 Anchored Walls.................................................................. 11-26
11.3.4 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls....................................... 11-26
11.3.5 Prefabricated Modular Walls................................................. 11-28
11.3.6 Timber Noise Walls on Retaining Walls .................................. 11-28
11.3.7 Cantilevered Sheet Pile Walls............................................... 11-28
11.3.8 Design Charts of Cantilevered Sheet Pile Soil Retention
Walls for Temporary Applications.......................................... 11-29
11.4 Design Examples ........................................................................ 11-39
11.4.1 High Parapet Abutment Design Example................................ 11-39
11.4.2 Retaining Wall Design Example ............................................ 11-71
11.4.3 Three-Column Pier Design Example ...................................... 11-93



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN ix
12. BURIED STRUCTURES.......................................................................... 12-1
12.1 Geotechnical Properties ................................................................. 12-1
12.2 Box Culverts ................................................................................ 12-2
12.2.1 Precast ............................................................................... 12-2
12.2.2 Cast-In-Place ...................................................................... 12-4
12.3 Design Guidance........................................................................... 12-4
12.4 Arch Or 3-Sided Structure Design Data ............................................ 12-6
12.5 Design Criteria for Long-Span Corrugated Steel Structures ............... 12-14
12.6 10' x 10' Precast Concrete Box Culvert Design Example.................... 12-18

13. RAILINGS ........................................................................................... 13-1
13.1 Materials ..................................................................................... 13-1
13.2 Design Requirements..................................................................... 13-1
13.2.1 Traffic Railing ..................................................................... 13-8
13.2.2 Pedestrian/Bicycle Railing...................................................... 13-9
13.2.3 Combination Railing ........................................................... 13-10
13.2.4 Protective Screening........................................................... 13-10
13.2.5 Architectural/Ornamental Railings ........................................ 13-11
13.3 Design Examples ........................................................................ 13-12
13.3.1 “F” Rail Design Example ..................................................... 13-12
13.3.2 Adhesive Anchor Design Example ......................................... 13-27

14. JOINTS AND BEARINGS ...................................................................... 14-1
14.1 Bridge Movements and Fixity.......................................................... 14-1
14.2 Expansion Joints .......................................................................... 14-2
14.2.1 Thermal Movements ............................................................. 14-2
14.2.2 Expansion Joint Opening ....................................................... 14-2
14.2.3 Expansion Joint Detailing ...................................................... 14-3
14.2.4 Modular Expansion Joints ...................................................... 14-3
14.3 Bearings ...................................................................................... 14-4
14.3.1 Loads and Movements .......................................................... 14-4
14.3.2 Bearing Details .................................................................... 14-4
14.3.3 Elastomeric Bearings ............................................................ 14-5



FEBRUARY 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN x
14.3.3.1 Design ........................................................................... 14-6
14.3.3.1.1 Size and Stability ............................................... 14-6
14.3.3.1.2 Minimum Compressive Load ................................ 14-7
14.3.3.2 Fixed Bearings ................................................................ 14-7
14.3.3.3 Expansion Bearings.......................................................... 14-8
14.3.4 Pot Bearings........................................................................ 14-8
14.3.5 Other Types of Bearings ....................................................... 14-8
14.4 Curved Plate Design ...................................................................... 14-9
14.5 Bearing Plate Design ................................................................... 14-10
14.6 Sole Plate Design (Steel Beams) ................................................... 14-10
14.7 Tables ....................................................................................... 14-11
14.8 Design Examples ........................................................................ 14-17
14.8.1 Fixed Elastomeric Bearing Design Example ............................ 14-17
14.8.2 Expansion Elastomeric Bearing Design Example...................... 14-25

A. MEMOS
#2005-01 LRFD and Bridge Load Rating Issues ...................(dated February 14, 2005)



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-1

This section contains general information about the manual along with a
general description of the Bridge Office and its procedures. It also
includes guidance on use of the ductility, redundancy, and operational
importance factors given in LRFD 1.3.3 through 1.3.5.

Mn/DOT utilizes a decimal numbering system to classify documents. The
“5” before the hyphen represents a publication related to engineering
functions. The “300” series of documents is assigned to the Bridge
Office; the “90” series indicates that this is a “Manual”. The last digit “2”
specifies that the subject matter of the document is “Design”.


The original bridge design manual, numbered 5-392, provided guidance
for the design of highway structures in Minnesota in accordance with
allowable stress design methods. Subsequently, it has received periodic
updates as design methods have changed. This version of the Bridge
Design Manual contains significant changes. It presents Mn/DOT’s design
practices in conformance with a new design methodology, Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), and also contains fifteen
comprehensive design examples.

Use of this manual does not relieve the design engineer of responsibility
for the design of a bridge or structural component. Although Bridge
Office policy is presented here for numerous situations, content of the
manual is not intended to be exhaustive. Therefore, use of this manual
must be tempered with sound engineering judgement.


After the introductory material provided in this section, the manual
contains material arranged around the following section headings. To
simplify locating material, section numbers correspond to those used in
the LRFD specifications:
1. Introduction
2. General Design and Location Features
3. Loads and Load Factors
4. Structural Analysis and Evaluation
5. Concrete Structures
6. Steel Structures
7. Reserved
8. Wood Structures
9. Decks and Deck Systems
10. Foundations
11. Abutments, Piers, and Walls
12. Buried Structures
1.
I NTRODUCTI ON
1.1 Overview of
Manual 5- 392
1.1.1 Chronology
of Manual 5- 392
1.1.2 Material
Contained in
Manual 5- 392



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-2

13. Railings
14. Joints and Bearings
Memos


This manual will be updated multiple times each year as procedures are
updated and new information becomes available. Current files for each
section of the manual are available on the Bridge Office Web site
[http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/].


Each section of the manual contains general information at the start of
the section. Design examples (if appropriate) are located at the end of
each section. The general content is divided into subsections that are
identified with numerical section labels in the left margin. Labels for
design example subsections are identified with alphanumeric labels in the
left hand margin. The left hand margin also contains references to LRFD
Design Specification Articles, Equations, and Tables. These references
are enclosed in square brackets.

Within the body of the text, references to other sections of this manual
are directly cited (e.g. Section 10.1). References to the LRFD
Specifications within the main body of the text contain a prefix of: LRFD.


A bridge is defined under Minnesota Rule 8810.8000 as “a structure …
having an opening measured horizontally along the center of the roadway
of ten feet or more between undercopings of abutments, between spring
line of arches, or between extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes.
Bridge also includes multiple pipes where the clear distance between
openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening.”

In accordance with Minnesota Statute 15.06 Subd. 6, the Commissioner
of Transportation has delegated approval authority for State Preliminary
Bridge Plans, and State, County and City Final Bridge Plans to the State
Bridge Engineer. Plans for all bridge construction or reconstruction
projects located on the Trunk Highway System, and plans on County or
City highways funded fully or in part by state funds shall be approved by
the State Bridge Engineer.


The Bridge Office is responsible for conducting all bridge and structural
design activities and for providing direction, advice, and services for all
1.1.3 Updates to
Manual 5- 392
1.2 General Bridge
I nformation
1.2.1 Bridge Office
1.1.4 Format of
Manual References



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-3

bridge construction and maintenance activities. The responsibilities
include:

• Providing overall administrative and technical direction for the
office.
• Reviewing and approving all preliminary and final bridge plans
prepared by the office and consultants.
• Representing the Department in bridge design, construction and
maintenance matters with other agencies.

The office is under the direction of the State Bridge Engineer. It is
composed of sections and units as shown on the organizational chart
(Figure 1.2.1.1). Each of these subdivisions with their principal functions
is listed as follows:

A. Bridge Design Section
Responsible for the design, plans, and special provisions activities for
bridges, and miscellaneous transportation structures.
1. Design Unit
a. Designs and drafts bridge plans.
b. Reviews bridge plans prepared by consulting engineers.
c. Prepares special provisions for bridge plans.
d. Designs and drafts plans for miscellaneous highway structures.
e. Provides technical assistance, designs, and plans for special
bridge and structural problems.
2. Bridge Standards and Research Unit
a. Provides design aids and standards for the office and for
consultants, counties, and cities.
b. Coordinates the development and users of computer programs
with data processing systems.
c. Supports computer users throughout the office and manages
the local area network.
d. Provides oversight for research projects, which involve the
Office of Bridges and Structures.
3. Design/Build Unit
a. Provides oversight of design/build projects.
4. LRFD Implementation
a. Maintains LRFD Bridge Design Manual.
b. Provides support to office and consulting engineers concerning
LRFD issues.

B. Bridge Planning Section
Responsible for program, cost estimates, preliminary bridge plan
activities for Trunk Highways and review of state aid bridges.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-4

1. Bridge Agreements and Estimates Unit
a. Selects and negotiates with consulting engineers and
administers engineering agreements for the preparation of
bridge plans.
b. Provides liaison between the office and the consulting engineer
retained to prepare bridge plans.
c. Coordinates public and private utility requirements for bridges.
d. Prepares preliminary, comparative and final cost estimates.
e. Maintains and provides current program and plan status
records.
2. Preliminary Plans
a. Conducts preliminary studies from layouts and develops
preliminary bridge plans.
b. Provides liaison with district and central office road design
through the design stage.
c. Obtains required permits from other agencies for bridges.
3. State Aid Bridge Unit
a. Reviews bridge plans and special provisions for county and
municipal state aid projects.
b. Provides technical assistance to counties and municipalities,
when requested, for nonparticipating projects.

C. Bridge Construction and Maintenance Section
Responsible for bridge construction and maintenance specifications,
and bridge construction and maintenance advisory service activities to
the office and to the job site.
1. Construction and Maintenance Unit; North, Metro and South
Regions
a. Provides construction and maintenance advisory service to
bridge construction and maintenance engineers in the field.
b. Writes bridge construction and maintenance specifications,
manuals and bulletins.
c. Writes and maintains the file of current special provisions for
bridge construction and maintenance.
d. Performs preliminary, periodic and final review of bridge
construction and maintenance projects and makes
recommendations.
e. Reviews bridge plans and special provisions prior to lettings
and makes recommendations.
f. Aids municipal and county engineers with bridge construction
and maintenance problems, upon request.
g. Provides foundation design including selection of pile type,
length, design load, and foundation preparation.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-5

h. Reviews bridge improvement projects and prepares
recommendations for scope of work.
2. Bridge Ratings Unit
a. Makes bridge ratings and load postings analysis for existing
bridges and maintains the records.
b. Reviews and approves special load permit requests.
3. Structural Metals Inspection Unit
a. Provides inspection services for structural metals, fabrication
and assembly to ensure conformity with plans and
specifications.
4. Fabrication Methods Unit
a. Reviews and approves structural metals shop drawings
submitted by fabricators.
b. Provides fabrication advisory service to designers, fabricators
and field construction and maintenance personnel.
c. Provides overhead sign design services to the Office of Traffic
Engineering, including the design of bridge-mounted sign
trusses.
5. Bridge Management Unit
a. Maintains inventory and inspection data for the 19,600 bridges
in Minnesota. Works with all agencies to make certain
appropriate data is collected.
b. Responsible for implementing bridge management systems to
provide information on bridges for maintenance, repair,
rehabilitation and replacement.
6. Bridge Inspection Unit
a. Provides expert assistance to the Districts in organizing and
conducting inspections of complex bridges, special features,
and fracture critical bridges.
b. Conducts quality assurance inspections of all agencies
responsible for bridge inspections in Minnesota.
c. Reviews, recommends and provides bridge inspection training
for District, county, and municipal bridge inspectors.

D. Hydraulic Engineering Section
Responsible for providing statewide hydraulic engineering services
that include design, construction and maintenance activities. In
addition, the section provides leadership in the development and
implementation of hydraulic automation technology, establishes policy
pertaining to hydrology and hydraulics, prepares design aids, provides
client training, participates in research projects, and represents the
department on state and national committees.
1. Bridge Design Hydraulics Unit



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-6

a. Provides bridge and culvert waterway designs for trunk
highway, county, city and township projects.
b. Analyzes and evaluates inplace bridges for scour.
c. Provides technical assistance to counties and municipalities
upon request.
d. Provides training in hydrology and hydraulics.
2. Road Design Hydraulics Unit
a. Evaluates and codes all bridges over water for scour.
b. Provides technical assistance to Districts on all aspects of
drainage design.
c. Reviews and cost prorates storm drains on the municipal and
county state aid system.
d. Coordinates the review of new products and development of
specifications and policies pertaining to their use.
3. Hydraulics Automation Unit
a. Provides leadership and technical direction for managing the
statewide hydraulic automation effort.
b. Develops and implements the means to integrate the hydraulic
design process with the road design process.
c. Develops, implements, and supports a hydraulic information
system to facilitate the sharing of hydraulic data among all
users and stakeholders.
e. Provides statewide training and support in the implementation
and use of hydraulic automation techniques.





JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-7







JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-8

Highways throughout the nation are divided into systems. These system
designations are important to know because design standards can vary
between the systems. The various highway systems are classified
according to the Agency that has responsibility for their improvement,
maintenance and traffic regulation enforcement. Listed below are the
jurisdictional divisions in Minnesota:

1. Trunk Highway System
The Trunk Highway System consists of all highways, including the
Interstate routes, under the jurisdiction of the State of Minnesota.
These routes generally are the most important in the state, carry the
greatest traffic volumes, and operate at the highest speeds.

2. County Highway System
The County Highway System is made up of those roads established
and designated under the authority of the county board. They
generally are the more important routes within a county that are not
on the Trunk Highway System.

3. Township Road System
The Township Road System is made up of the roads established under
the authority of the town board. They generally are of local
importance.

4. Municipal Street System
The Municipal Street System is all roads within a municipality not
designated as a trunk highway or county road. They are generally
of local importance.


All publicly owned bridges either on or over a trunk highway and over 10
feet in length measured along the centerline of the highway are assigned
a number for identification and cost accounting purposes.

The numbering scheme followed in assigning bridge numbers depends on
the time of construction. With few exceptions, the numbering procedure
is as follows:

1. Prior to about 1950, all bridges were numbered consecutively from 1
to 9999 as they were constructed. The 8000 series was used for
culverts over 10 feet in length (measured along the centerline of the
highway). The 7000 series was reserved for county bridges at trunk
highway intersections. Five-digit bridge numbers beginning with L or
R designate bridges in local bridge systems.
1.2.2 Highway
Systems
1.2.3 Bridge
Numbers



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-9


2. Since about 1950, a five-digit number has been assigned to each
bridge as it was constructed. The first two digits coincide with the
county number (01-87) in which the bridge is located (99 refers to
temporary bridges). The last three digits are assigned consecutively
using the following guidelines:
a. 001-499 are used for regular trunk highway bridges.
b. 500-699 are used for county bridges.
c. 700-999 are used for interstate bridges (any bridge on or
over the interstate system).

3. In 1991, additional numbers were required for bridges on the state
aid system in Hennepin County and for interstate bridges in Hennepin
County. To allocate more numbers for bridges on the local system an
alpha character is used as the third character of the bridge number.
For example, the next bridge number after Bridge No. 27699 will be
Bridge No. 27A00. Note that this happens only after 500 and 600
series have been exhausted.

To allocate more numbers on the Interstate road system, the 400
series of numbers will be used along with the 700, 800, 900's
presently used. For a bridge number XXYZZ, the following now
applies:
XX = county number (99 = Temporary Bridge)
Y = 0, 1, 2, 3, or R, T, U (for Trunk Highway Bridges)
Y = 4, 7, 8, 9, or V, or W (for Interstate Bridges)
Y = X and Y (Trunk Highway or Interstate Culverts)
Y = 5 or 6 or A through H (for non-trunk highway Bridges)
Y = J through N, and P, Q (for non-trunk highway Culverts)
ZZ = Sequence number (00 through 99)

4. In cases of twin bridges, a westbound or southbound lane bridge is
generally assigned a lower number than an eastbound or northbound
lane bridge.

All bridge numbers are assigned by the Bridge Office (phone 651-747-
2122). A complete listing of all numbered bridges is available in
computer printout form entitled “Minnesota Trunk Highway Bridge Log-
Statewide Listing”.




JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-10

Bridge designs shall typically consider Strength, Service, Extreme Event,
and Fatigue limit states. The limit state checks will vary with the
component under consideration. Not all elements will require
consideration of all limit states. For example, the fatigue limit state need
not be considered for fully prestressed pretensioned elements.


For most structures and structural elements the load modifiers for
ductility, redundancy, and operational importance shall be 1.00.
Exceptions are noted below:
1. The ductility factor shall be 1.05 for prestressed concrete through-
girder pedestrian bridges when they are over-reinforced.
2. The importance factor shall be 1.05 for a bridge which satisfies any
one of the following three criteria: 1) it is a major river crossing, 2)
its ADT is greater than or equal to 40,000, or 3) it is a new mainline
interstate bridge.
3. The importance factor shall be 0.95 for bridges with an ADT less than
500.


This section covers the Bridge Office procedures for checking of bridge
plans, scheduling of projects, and revising or creating standards.


The general practice of most engineering offices is to require that designs
they produce be checked before they are reviewed and certified by the
“Engineer in Responsible Charge”. Although this practice has always
been required for structures designed for Mn/DOT, it is recognized that
the quality of the checking process often varies according to time
restraints, confidence in the designer, and the instructions given to the
checker. Therefore, in order to maintain a consistent design checking
process the following guidance is given for routine bridge designs.

For more complex or unusual designs, the checker is advised to discuss
additional requirements with the design unit leader. Also, the checking
process described is not meant to apply to the check or review functions
required for Mn/DOT review of consultant plans (see Section 1.3.2.) or
for construction false work reviews. (See the Bridge Construction
Manual.)

Three types of design checking will apply:
a. An independent analysis of the completed design.
b. A check of original design computations for mathematical accuracy,
application of code, and accepted engineering practice, and
1.2.5 Ductility,
Redundancy,
Operational
I mportance
[ 1.3.3]
[ 1.3.4]
[ 1.3.5]
1.3 Procedures
1.3.1 Checking of
Mn/ DOT Prepared
Bridge Plans
1.2.4 Limit States
to Consider in
Design



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-11

c. A review of drafted details for constructibility, and accepted
engineering practice.

Generally, an independent analysis to confirm the adequacy of the
complete design is preferred. Significant differences should be discussed
and resolved before the plan is certified. The separate set of calculations
should be included with the design file as a record of the completed
design check.

When circumstances prevent a complete independent analysis, as a
minimum, an independent analysis shall be completed for the following:
a. Live and dead loads
b. Critical beam lines
c. A pier cap
d. A pier footing
e. Main reinforcement for high abutments
f. An abutment footing

However, for the elements not independently analyzed, the original
computations should be checked for mathematical accuracy of original
design computations, applications of code, and accepted engineering
practice. Checked computations should be initialed by the checker, and
the independent analysis should be included in the design file.

When doing a separate analysis, the checker may make simplifying
assumptions to streamline the checking process. However, when major
differences are found, results must be discussed and resolved with the
designer. For instance, for normal piers, piling might be analyzed for
dead and live loads only if lateral loads appear to have been reasonably
applied in the original computations or the “AISC Beam Diagram and
Formula Tables” may be used to approximate pier cap moment and
shear.

Whether the check is a completely independent analysis or a minimal
analysis combined with a computations check, some details, such as the
reinforcing details in a wall corner, also require review by the checker.
Often referencing old bridge plans with similar details allows the checker
to compare the current design to details that have performed well in the
past.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-12

Consultant prepared bridge plans are created by private engineering
firms through contracts with the Department. The finished plans are
complete to the extent that they can be used for construction.

Since these plans receive final approval of the State Bridge Engineer,
there must be assurance that the plans are geometrically accurate and
buildable; structural design is adequate and design codes have been
correctly applied; proper direction is given to the construction contractor;
and all construction costs are accounted for. Plan errors may cause
costly construction delays or safety may be compromised by an
inadequate design.

To keep consultant plan reviews consistent and timely, a procedure was
developed as a guide that assigns priority to specific items in the plans.
The overall review includes “a Thorough Check” and “Cursory Review” of
various items. The distinction between “Thorough Check” and “Cursory
Review” is as follows:

Thorough Check refers to performing complete mathematical
computations in order to identify discrepancies in the plans, or
conducting careful comparisons of known data and standards of the
Project with values given in the plan.

Cursory Review refers to a comparative analysis for agreement with
standard practice and consistency with similar structures, all with
application of engineering judgment. Mathematical analysis is not
required, but may be deemed necessary to identify the extent of a
discrepancy.

The review procedure is listed on the CONSULTANT BRIDGE PLAN
REVIEW form following this section. Headings on this list are defined as
follows:

PARTIAL PLAN: In order to assure that the consultant is proceeding in
the right direction, an early submittal of the plan is required. This
submittal usually consists of the General Plan and Elevation sheet
showing the overall geometry of the structure and the proposed beam
type and spacing; the Bridge Layout Sheet; the Framing Plan sheet; and
the Bridge Survey sheets. Errors and inconsistencies found in this phase
can be corrected before the entire plan is completed. For example, a
framing plan, including the proposed beams, must be assured as
workable on the partial plan before the consultant gets deep into the
design of the remainder of the bridge.
1.3.2 Checking of
Consultant
Prepared Bridge
Plans



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-13

FINAL PLAN: A final plan should be complete in all areas to the extent
that it can be certified by the designer, although a certification signature
is not required for this phase.

THOROUGH CHECK: Items indicated for checking on the consultant’s
partial plan must be correct. Given geometry must fit the roadway
layout. Most of this information can be checked using data from the
approved preliminary plan. Approval of the partial plan will indicate that
Mn/DOT is satisfied with the geometry and proposed structure, and the
consultant may proceed with further development of the plan. For the
final plan, obvious drafting and numerical errors should be marked to
point out the errors to the consultant, however, the reviewer should not
provide corrections to errors in the consultant’s numerical computations.

Checking on the final plan should be thorough to eliminate possible errors
that may occur, such as the pay items in the Schedule of Quantities.
Plan notes and pay items can be difficult for a consultant to anticipate
because of frequent changes by Mn/DOT. Pay items must be correct
because these are carried throughout the entire accounting system for
the Project. Plan (P) quantities must also be correctly indicated.

CURSORY REVIEW: Normally, a cursory review would not require
numerical calculations. This type of review can be conducted by reading
and observing the contents of the plan in order to assure the
completeness of the work. The reviewer should be observant to
recognize what looks right and what doesn’t look right. Obvious errors or
inconsistencies on any parts of the plan should be marked for correction.

Although structural design is usually the major focus of any plan, most
consultants are well versed in design procedures and should need only
minimal assistance from our office. A comparison of the consultant’s
calculations with the plan details should be performed to assure that the
plans reflect their design and that the applicable codes are followed. An
independent design by our office is time consuming and is not
recommended unless there is a reasonable doubt as to the adequacy of
the consultant’s design.

NO REVIEW: A thorough review of these items would be time-consuming
and may not produce corrections that are vital to construction; therefore,
it is recommended that little or no time be spent on the listed items.
Numerous errors can occur in the Bills of Reinforcement and quantity
values. However, checking this information is also time-consuming,
hence the burden of providing correct data should be placed on the
consultant.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-14

CONSULTANT BRIDGE PLAN REVIEW
Br. No. ________ RTE ____ DATE: PARTIAL PLAN REC'D. _____ DATE FINAL PLAN REC'D. ______
DESIGN GROUP _______________________ CONSULTANT ______________________________
No. OF SHEETS IN PLAN ______ DESCRIBE COMPLEXITY_________________________________
EST. REVIEW TIME BY DESIGN GROUP ________(hrs.) ACTUAL REVIEW TIME __________(hrs)
PARTIAL PLAN FINAL PLAN
THOROUGH CHECK THOROUGH CHECK
Horizontal and vertical clearances Pay items and plan quantities
Stations and elevations on survey line Project numbers
Deck and seat elevations at working points Design data block & Rating on GP&E sheet
Deck cross-section dimensions Job number
Working line location and data Certification block
Coordinates at working points and key stations Standard plan notes
Substructure locations by station Concrete mix numbers
Framing Plan Construction joint locations
Conformance to preliminary plan Prestressed beam design if inadequate design is suspected
Design loads Bridge seat elevations at working points
Utilities on bridge
Existing major utilities near bridge
CURSORY REVIEW

Steel beam splice locations and diaphragm spacing; flange
plate thickness increments (enough to save 800+ # of
steel)

Abutment and Pier design to be checked against
consultant’s calculations
Conformance to foundation recommendations.

Pile loads and earth pressures. Check against consultant’s
calculations.
CURSORY REVIEW Rebar series increments (min. 3”)
Proposed precast beams [per 5-393.509(2)] Interior beam seat elevations
Precast conformance to industry standards Bottom-of-footing elevations (for adequate cover)
Proposed steel beam sections Railing lengths and metal post spacing (check for fit)
Use of B-details and standard plan sheets
Conformance to aesthetic requirements
Notes – General, construction, reference, etc.
Quantity items on tabulations

Precast beam design (Check against consultant’s
calculations)
NO CHECK OR REVIEW REQUIRED
Diagonals on Layout sheet
Figures in Bills of Reinforcement
Bar shapes and dimensions
Rebar placement dimensions
Bar marks on details against listed bars
Quantity values (including total of tabulations)



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-15

To meet the Department’ s schedule requirements for construction
lettings, the following schedule for processing bridge plans, special
provisions and estimates must be followed. This schedule applies to all
projects: Federal Aid, State Funds and Maintenance. In general,
processing of bridge plans, special provisions and estimates for lettings
shall be given priority over all other work, and every effort must be made
to complete the processing in advance of the times shown, which are
deadlines.


SCHEDULE AND REMARKS
DEADLINE TIME BEFORE
LETTING DATE

Federal Project State Project
Bridge plans complete to the extent that
processing can be completed on schedule.
14 Weeks
(Friday)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
Preliminary bridge pay items and
quantities for estimate (to Estimating Unit
– Design Services)
13 Weeks
(Friday)
11 Weeks
(Friday)
Bridge plan and special provisions review
Complete (by Bridge Construction Unit)
13 Weeks
(Friday)
11 Weeks
(Friday)
Bridge special provisions complete, other
Information or material for inclusion in
Roadway Special Provisions complete (to
Special Provisions & Final Processing Unit
– Design Services)

12 Weeks
(Friday)

10 Weeks
(Friday)
Bridge plans complete, approved and
dated (to Office Management Unit)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
10 Weeks
(Friday)
Final bridge pay items and quantities for
estimate (to estimating Unit - Design
Services)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
10 Weeks
(Friday)
Final computer runs for bridge estimate during 9th week during 8th week
Office copy and final bridge plans (Bridge
plans to Special & Final Processing Unit -
Design Services for submittal to FHWA)

8 1/2 weeks
(Tuesday)

7 weeks
(Friday)
Federal Project to FHWA 7 1/2 weeks
(Tuesday)
7 weeks
(Friday)
Preliminary advertisement 6 1/2 weeks
(Tuesday)
6 weeks
(Friday)
Final advertisement 5 1/2 weeks
(Tuesday)
5 weeks
(Friday)
Sale of plans and proposals 5 weeks (Friday) 5 weeks
(Friday)
Last date for mailing letter addendums by
Special Provisions & Final Processing Unit
– Design Services
10 days
(Wednesday)
10 days
(Wednesday)
1.3.3 Schedule for
Processing
Construction
Lettings



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-16

Completing a bridge design project for contract letting is a multiple step
process that involves input from a variety of work units and personnel.
To follow the process of these projects, the following major milestones
shown in Tables 1.3.4.1 and 1.3.4.2 are tracked in the Bridge Program
and Project Management System (PPMS). The project typically begins in
the Preliminary Plan Unit, continues through a Bridge Final Design Unit,
and is completed with the Engineer’ s Estimate. The progress and
activities completed on active bridge projects are updated monthly.

Table 1.3.4.1 – PPMS Activities for Mn/DOT Prepared Bridge Plans
PPMS
ACTIVITY NO.
COMPLETED
ACTIVITY
% PROJECT
COMPLETED
0012
0020
0022
0023
0025
0030
0031
0035
0040
0045
0050



0076
0080
0085
0090
Program Estimate
Bridge Survey
Bridge Hydraulics
Bridge Grades (Packet)
Bridge Foundations
Bridge Construction Foundation Review
Bridge Aesthetics Recommendation
Bridge Preliminary Plan
District Letter & Prelim. Bridge Estimate
Bridge FHWA Approval
Final Bridge Plan
Designed:
Drawn:
Checked:
Bridge Plan Specifications
Bridge Plan Review by Bridge Construction
Bridge Plan Signed
Bridge Engineer’ s Estimate
0 %
5 %
6 %
8 %
13 %
14 %
14 %
15 %
20 %
20 %

20 - 40 %
40 - 65 %
65 - 85 %
90 %
90 %
95 %
100 %



1.3.4 Bridge
Proj ect Tracking
System



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-17

Table 1.3.4.2 – PPMS Activities for Consultant Prepared Bridge Plans
PPMS
ACTIVITY NO.
COMPLETED
ACTIVITY
% PROJECT
COMPLETED
0012
0019
0020
0022
0023
0025
0030
0031
0035
0040
0045
0060
0062
0064
0066
0068
0070
0075
0076
0080
0085
0090
Program Estimate
Bridge Consultant Pre Design Start
Bridge Survey
Bridge Hydraulics
Bridge Grades (Packet)
Bridge Foundations
Bridge Construction Foundation Review
Bridge Aesthetics Recommendation
Preliminary Plan
District Letter & Bridge Prelim. Estimate
Bridge FHWA Approval
Bridge Consultant Start
Consultant Partial Plan Delivery
Mn/DOT Review Partial Plan
Consultant Final Plan Delivery
Mn/DOT Review Final Plan
Consultant Final Plan In
Tracing Backcheck
Bridge Plan Specifications
Bridge Plan Review by Bridge Construction
Bridge Plan Signed
Engineer’ s Estimate
0 %
3 %
5 %
6 %
8 %
13 %
14 %
14 %
15 %
20 %
20 %
20 %
25 %
30 %
30 - 80 %
85 %
88 %
88 %
90 %
90 %
100 %
100 %






JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-18




1.3.5 Approval
Process for
Standards
NEED FOR NEW OR
REVISED STANDARD
INPUT FROM S.S.R.C.
INPUT FROM BRIDGE
DESIGN ENGINEER
INPUT FROM
CONSULTANTS,
INDUSTRY, AND
OTHER Mn/DOT
OFFICES
INPUT FROM BRIDGE
STANDARDS
ENGINEER
INPUT FROM BRIDGE
DESIGN UNITS
R. & D. COMMITTEE
FOR POLICY AND APPROVAL
TO MAKE CHANGES TO
STANDARD OR DEVELOP
A NEW STANDARD
IDEA IS SCRAPPED NO
NEW
STANDARD
DEVELOPED BY
STANDARDS
UNIT, DESIGN
UNIT OR
CONSULTANT
S.S.R.C., WITH
STANDARDS
UNIT, MAKES
CHANGES TO
STANDARD
STANDARD
GOES TO
R. & D.
COMMITTEE FOR
APPROVAL
THE WORD
“MODIFIED” AND A
REVISION DATE IS
ADDED TO
STANDARD.
STANDARD IS MADE
AVAILABLE.
COMMENTS RESOLVED AND
CHANGES MADE.
STANDARD IS SENT TO
STATE BRIDGE ENGINEER
FOR APPROVAL. A COPY IS
SENT TO THE STANDARDS
UNIT.
YELLOW
ROUTING
SHEET IS
DEVELOPED BY
BRIDGE
STANDARDS
ENGINEER
REVISED
STANDARD
AFFECTS ONLY
BRIDGE
OFFICE
NO
YES
MODIFY
ACCEPT
APPROVAL
DATE AND
SIGNATURE
ADDED TO
STANDARD.
TRANSMITTAL LETTER
DEVELOPED BY
BRIDGE STANDARDS
ENGINEER AND
SIGNED BY STATE
BRIDGE ENGINEER.
TRANSMITTAL LETTER
AND STANDARD SENT
TO PRINTER. COPIES
ENTERED INTO
STANDARDS UNIT
FILE.
ARCHIVE OLD
STANDARD
WITH
BACKGROUND
OF CHANGES
MANUAL INSERTS
RECEIVED BY USERS
FOR PLACEMENT
INTO MANUALS.
STANDARD IS SENT OUT ON
YELLOW TO OTHER OFFICES
WITHIN Mn/DOT AND TO BRIDGE
OFFICE PERSONNEL. THE WORD
“MODIFIED” AND REVISION DATE
IS REMOVED BEFORE
DISTRIBUTION.
CHANGES
REQUESTED BY
BRIDGE OFFICE
AND OTHER
OFFICES ARE
MADE.
MINOR
EDITORIAL
CHANGES
MADE TO
STANDARD
NO
REVISION
DATE IS MORE
THAN ONE
YEAR OLD
YES
MODIFY
YES



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-1

2. GENERAL
DESI GN AND
LOCATI ON
FEATURES
2.1 Geometrics
2.1.1 Bridge
Geometrics
The design of a bridge typically takes place in two major phases of work:
preliminary design and final design. During preliminary design, the
structure type, the foundation type, the aesthetics, and the primary
geometry for the bridge are determined. During final design, specific
details for all of the elements of the bridge are developed and presented
in the plan set. These details include material descriptions, quantities,
and geometric information. Final plan sets are typically assembled in an
order that roughly follows the order of construction: from the ground up.

This section of the manual contains a large amount of information useful
for the preparation and assembly of plans for a project. To facilitate the
production of plans and standardize the content of bridge plan sets,
special provisions, B-Details, standard plans, standard plan notes, and
standard pay items have been prepared by the Bridge Office. Appendices
to Section 2 identify the material available.

As the name of the section implies, content for this section is general in
nature. Guidance for the design of specific structural elements (e.g.
decks, retaining walls, etc.) is provided elsewhere in the manual.


Definitions
For discussion of bridge geometrics in this section, roadways are
classified as Mainline Highways, Ramps, Local Roads, and Local Streets.
Each of these four groups is further classified under either Urban or Rural
Design.

The following definitions apply:
• Mainline Highways – Roadways that carry through traffic lanes for
freeways, expressways, and primary and secondary highways.
• Local Roads – Rural roads off the trunk highway system.
• Local Streets – Urban roads off the state trunk highway system.
• Ramps – Segments of roadway connecting two or more legs at an
interchange.
• Urban Design – Roadways with curbs on the right and/or left sides.
• Rural Design – Roadways without curbs.
• Median Width – The distance between the edges of opposing through
traffic lanes.
• Auxiliary Lane – A lane adjoining a through traffic lane for a purpose
supplementary to through traffic movement such as truck climbing,
weaving, speed change or turning.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-2

2.1.2 Bridge Deck
Requirements
General Criteria
The width of the bridge deck and the typical section at the bridge
undercrossing are determined by the classification and geometrics of the
approaching roadway. The geometrics of the approaching roadway are to
be carried over and under the bridge to the maximum extent practicable.

Rural design is considered the desirable design and will be used in all
rural areas and in urban areas where sufficient right of way is available or
can be obtained. Urban design geometrics (curbed roadways) are slightly
more restrictive and are therefore used at locations where extensive
right-of-way cost or other unusual conditions are controlling factors.

The discussion of geometric details included in this section describes
bridge deck geometrics separately from bridge undercrossing geometrics.
For side clearances at certain undercrossing situations, both a “desirable”
and a minimum section are shown. Incorporation of the “desirable”
section at undercrossings is mandatory unless approved by the
Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer.

Application of Standards
The geometrics shown apply specifically to new work. However, use of
these geometrics is also highly desirable when upgrading or widening
existing facilities and should be incorporated in these situations. Bridge
deck geometrics on the local road system must also comply with
State-Aid for Local Transportation Operations Rules, Chapter 8820.

Responsibility
The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer will be responsible for assuring
that the geometric standards in this section are followed. Where a
deviation from the standard is necessary, a written description of the
deviation shall be prepared by the Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer and
submitted to the State Bridge Engineer when submitting the Preliminary
Bridge Plan for acceptance.


Bridge Width Criteria
Roadway cross sections that approach bridges will normally provide a
clear zone recovery area beside the travel lane for the benefit of out-of-
control vehicles. It is not economical or practical to carry these full clear
zone widths across bridges. Standard widths for bridge shoulders have
been set to balance costs and safety. Since the railing is located within
the clear zone it is considered a hazard and guardrail protection is
required in the approach area.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-3

Functions of the shoulder include:
• Recovery area to regain control of a vehicle.
• Emergency parking area for stalled vehicles and escape route for
stranded motorists.
• Passageway for bicycles and occasional pedestrians.
• Passageway for emergency vehicles.
• Parking area for bridge maintenance and inspection vehicle (snooper).
• Temporary traffic lane during deck repairs or overlay construction.
• Area for deck drainage and snow storage.
• Accommodates passing of wide oversize loads, especially farm
machinery.
• On two-lane highways, the shoulders provide an escape area to avoid
a head-on collision with an oncoming passing vehicle.

The following shoulder widths for both rural and urban design apply to
trunk highway bridges. In addition, these standards apply to bridges on
local roads at a trunk highway freeway interchange. For local roads and
streets, the bridge roadway widths are given in the State Aid Manual,
Section 5-892.210 and the State Aid Operations Rules, Chapter 8820.
Exceptionally long bridges or bridges with a high cost per square foot
should be evaluated on an individual basis and modifications to these
standards are allowed based on judgment. In addition to these values,
the bridge roadway width shall meet the additional requirements for sight
distance and sharp curvature as specified in Part 3 below.

1) Rural Design
a) Two-Lane Rural Design
Shoulder widths are given in the table on Figure 2.1.4.1 and are
dependent on the functional classification of the roadway and
traffic volumes.
b) Four-Lane Rural Design
i) Right Shoulder 12'-0"
ii) Left Shoulder 6'-0"
c) Six- or Eight-Lane Rural Divided Highway
i) Right Shoulder 12'-0"
ii) Left Shoulder 12'-0"
The full inside shoulder allows disabled vehicles in the left lane
to stop on the inside shoulder rather than try to cross two or
three lanes of traffic to get to the outside shoulder.
d) Mainline Rural Bridge with Auxiliary Lane
i) Right Shoulder 8'-0"
e) Mainline Rural Bridge with Entrance or Exit Ramps
i) Right Shoulder 8'-0"



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-4

f) Rural Bridges with Turn Lanes
i) Right Turn Lane
(1) Right shoulder 6'-0"
ii) Left Turn Lanes
(1) Adjacent to a barrier railing: 4'-0" minimum shoulder, 6'-0"
desirable.
g) Rural Ramp Bridges (one 16'-0" lane, one-way)
i) Right Shoulder 6'-0"
ii) Left Shoulder 4'-0"
On ramp bridges the dimension from edge of lane to gutter is
reduced to prevent the appearance of a two-lane bridge on a
one-lane ramp. The roadway width is 26'-0", which allows
traffic to pass a stalled vehicle. With a 16'-0" lane the outside
2'-0" could, in effect, be considered as part of the shoulder for
a 12'-0" lane.

2) Urban Design (Approach Curbs)
For urban designs the bridge gutter lines shall be aligned with the
curb line on the approaching roadway with the following exceptions:
a) On four-lane divided highways where there are no median curbs,
the left shoulder shall be 6'-0".
b) On six- and eight-lane divided highways where there are no
median curbs, the left shoulder shall be 10'-0" minimum.
c) On one-lane urban ramps (16'-0" approach roadway), both right
and left shoulders shall be 4'-0" (provides a 24'-0" roadway).
d) Where an auxiliary lane, ramp, or taper extends onto a mainline
bridge, the right shoulder shall be 6'-0".
e) The minimum distance to a barrier railing is 6'-0" desired, 4'-0"
minimum.

Urban shoulder widths will vary according to functional class, traffic
volumes, scope of work, and quality of pavement surface. Typical
values are shown in the Road Design Manual, Tables 4-4.01A,
4-4.01B, and 4-4.01C. Provide a 2'-0" reaction distance to a raised
island type median or sidewalk curb where vehicle speeds are 40 mph
and under. For design speeds 45 mph and higher, provide a 4'-0"
reaction distance.

3) Bus Shoulders
Where the right shoulder has been designated as a bus shoulder a
12'-0" width shall be provided across bridges. See Road Design
Manual 4-4.03 and Table 4-4.03A.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-5

4) Additional Width Criteria
a) Where a ramp (loop) bridge is on a radius of 190'-0" or less, or
when the volume of trucks is 10% or greater, the effective traffic
lane is increased from 16'-0" to 18'-0" in width to accommodate
truck turning movements. Increase the width of the ramp bridge
accordingly.
b) For curved bridges longer than 100 feet, check the horizontal
stopping sight distance and increase the inside shoulder width up
to a maximum of 10'-0". See Road Design Manual, Chapter 3 for
calculation of this distance. The 2001 edition of the AASHTO
book, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets,
changed the height of object from 6" (muffler) to 2'-0" (tail light).
Table 2.1.2.1 gives widths required for a continuously curving
bridge for various design speeds and curvature, and applies only
where the line of sight is blocked by the railing.

Table 3.1.2.1
Shoulder Width Requirements for Curved Bridges
SHOULDER WIDTH FOR DEGREE OF
CURVATURE LISTED
DESIGN
SPEED
6 FT. 8 FT. 10 FT.
70 mph to 0
o
45’ > 0
o
45’ to 1
o
> 1
o

60 mph to 1
o
15’ > 1
o
15’ to 2
o
> 2
o

50 mph to 2
o
30’ > 2
o
30’ to 3
o
15’ > 3
o
15’
40 mph to 5
o
30’ > 5
o
30’ to 7
o
> 7
o


c) For bridges on tapers, the taper should begin or end at a pier or
an abutment, or continue across the entire length of the bridge.
Extra width to eliminate or simplify a taper or curvature is
permissible where justified by simplified design and construction.

Cross Slopes on Bridges
1) The cross slope on bridge traffic lanes is the same as the approaching
roadway lanes, normally 0.02 ft./ft. The shoulder cross slope on the
bridge may continue at 0.02 ft./ft. or, if better drainage is desired,
may be 0.005 ft./ft. greater than the adjacent lane, with a maximum
cross slope of 0.04 ft./ft. When the bridge deck is superelevated, the
shoulders shall have the same slopes as the adjacent bridge traffic
lanes.

Keep superelevation transitions off bridges. In instances where they
are unavoidable, it is preferable for ease of deck pouring to maintain



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-6

a straight line across the deck at all locations (allows a straight screed
between paving rails placed at both sides of the deck.)

2) Ramp cross slopes shall be uniform between the bridge curbs with a
slope of 0.02 ft./ft. to the right unless superelevated.

Bridge Median
On divided highways with a separate bridge for each roadway, the
openings between bridges must be a minimum of 8'-0" wide if access for
bridge inspection vehicles (snoopers) is required.

Longitudinal joints along the median of bridges should be used only for
bridge roadways wider than about 100 feet or for other special cases. By
eliminating this joint on bridges with medians, simpler detailing and
simpler construction can be used.

Bridge Sidewalks and Bikeways
Bridge sidewalks of 6'-0" minimum widths are to be provided where
justified by pedestrian traffic. When bicycle traffic is expected, the width
should be 8'-0" minimum and 10'-0" desirable. Where an off road
bikeway is to be carried across a bridge, the full width of the approach
bikeway may be continued across the bridge up to a maximum width of
12'-0". Widths beyond 12'-0" are considered excessive. When the
shoulders of the bikeway cannot be carried over bridges, provide lead-in
guardrail.

The curb height for sidewalks adjacent to the roadway is 8". When the
design speed on the street is over 40 mph, a concrete barrier is required
between the roadway and the sidewalk (or bikeway). In addition, a
pedestrian (or bikeway) railing is required on the outside.

When a barrier is provided between the traffic lanes and the sidewalk,
use the bridge slab for the walkway (i.e., do not require an additional
pour for sidewalk). Advise the road plans designer to provide for any
necessary sidewalk ramping off the bridge.

Sidewalks and bikeways shall have a minimum cross slope of 0.01 ft./ft.

Protective Rails at Bridge Approaches
The ends of bridge railings must be protected from being impacted
(except on low speed roads such as city streets). For design speeds over
40 mph, a crash tested guardrail transition (normally plate beam
guardrail) is required.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-7

2.1.3 Bridge
Undercrossing
Geometrics
Refer to State-Aid Operation Rules, Chapter 8820 for guardrail
requirements on local bridges.


General Criteria for Lateral Clearance
Bridge undercrossing geometrics must rationalize safety requirements
with costs and physical controls such as span length and permissible
depth of structure. The following guidelines apply in establishing these
geometrics:

1) Safety
Piers, abutments, side slopes and back slopes steeper than 1:3, and
guardrails can all be hazards to an out of control vehicle. It is
desirable at all bridge undercrossings to provide a clear zone recovery
area beside the roadway that is free from these hazards. This clear
zone is given in the Road Design Manual, Section 4-6.0 and is a
function of the roadway curvature, design speed, ADT, and ground
slope. For the area under bridges a practical maximum clear zone of
30 feet may be used as permitted in the 2002 AASHTO Roadside
Design Guide, Table 3.1 based on consistent use and satisfactory
performance. Eliminate side piers from the roadside area wherever
possible. The “desirable” bridge undercrossing will satisfy the above
safety criteria.

For those locations where it is totally impractical to provide a full clear
zone recovery area at an undercrossing (as at some railroad
underpasses and in certain urban situations), lesser side clearances
are permitted. Where the full recovery areas must be infringed upon,
the greatest side clearances that circumstances will permit shall be
used. A side clearance of 20 feet is not as desirable as 30 feet but is
still better than the absolute minimum clearance. Minimum lateral
clearances are specified under the section for Lateral Clearance for
Mainline Highways.

Where drainage must be carried along the roadway passing under a
bridge, either a culvert must be provided at the approach fill or the
ditch section must be carried through at the toe of the bridge
approach fill. The use of a culvert will often permit more desirable
bridge geometrics, but the culvert openings can also introduce a
roadside hazard. A determination regarding drainage (need for
culverts, size of a culvert, and assessment of possible hazard) will be
a controlling factor in deciding geometrics of the bridge for the site.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-8

2) Economics
Prestressed concrete beam spans (in length up to about 145 feet) are
normally the most economical type of construction for grade
separations. In addition, there will usually be greater economy in
constructing grade separations using two long spans rather than
constructing four shorter spans, provided that a concrete
superstructure can be used.

3) Aesthetics
The use of longer spans will necessitate a deeper superstructure and
higher approach fills. Consideration must be given to the effect of the
depth of structure on the overall appearance and design of the
undercrossing.

For rough calculations during preliminary planning, the depth of
highway bridge superstructures can be assumed to be about 1/20 of
the length of the longest span. (Depth of superstructure refers to the
dimension from top of slab to bottom of beam.) Contact the
Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer for the exact dimensions to be used
in final planning. Contact the Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer for
depth of structure on railroad bridges.

Lateral Clearance for Mainline Highways
1) The desirable lateral clearance right and left from the edge of through
traffic lanes to any hazard (as described above) is the full clear zone.
30'-0" may be used as a practical maximum. Side piers shall be
eliminated entirely wherever feasible.

2) The details for rural design provide for selection of geometrics that
carry the ditch section through the bridge (Alternate B), and also
geometrics that have a filled ditch (Alternate A). (See Figures 2.1.4.1
and 2.1.4.3.) Alternate A permits a shorter bridge superstructure and
thereby improves the economics and the chance of eliminating side
piers and is used almost exclusively. However, Alternate A can only
be used where ditch culverts will be deleted or used without
introducing a significant safety hazard.

3) Where the roadway ditch section (rural design) is modified at the
bridge (Alternate A), a longitudinal transition from the ditch section to
the 0.04 ft./ft. side slope under the bridge must be provided. Use a
maximum longitudinal slope of 1:20.

4) For an auxiliary lane, the clear zone must be maintained from both
the through traffic lane and the auxiliary lane.



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-9

5) For ramps and tapers adjacent to the mainline highway, the clear
zone must be maintained from both the through lane and the taper.
A reduced design speed, usually 50 mph, is assumed for the taper.

6) Minimum Lateral Clearances
The following paragraphs list those instances where less than
desirable geometrics can be considered and describes the minimum
values that will apply. Where geometrics less than desirable are to be
used, approval of the State Bridge Engineer and State Design
Engineer must be obtained. For plate beam guardrail with standard
6'-3" post spacing, a minimum of 3'-0" is required between the face
of the guardrail and the face of the pier or abutment to allow room for
the guardrail to deflect. (See Road Design Manual 10-7.02.01.)

a) Through Traffic Lanes – Right Side
For urban design, the lateral clearance on the right measured
from the edge of the through lane shall be not less than 10'-0"
width for an approaching shoulder plus the minimum width of
approaching berm. This will result in minimum dimension of
16'-0" from the edge of a lane to face of substructure unit.

For auxiliary lanes, tapers, and ramps along urban mainline
highways, the minimum lateral clearance from the edge of a lane
to face of pier or abutment on the right is 10'-0". This provides
room to construct the standard 6'-0" ramp shoulder plus providing
an additional 4'-0" of space for guardrail. However, in no event
shall the distance from the edge of a through lane to the face of a
pier be less than 16'-0".

For rural design, the lateral clearance on the right may be reduced
from the full clear zone distance at railroad overpasses. At these
locations the minimum clearance on the right shall be as described
above for urban designs.

b) Through Traffic Lanes – Left Side of Divided Highways
i) Urban Highways with Continuous Median Barriers
The minimum clearances at continuous median barriers are
based on the use of a concrete barrier between the roadways.
(See Std. Plate 8322.)

For urban design, four-lane divided roadways, the minimum
clearance on the left will be based on providing an 8'-0" wide
shoulder from the edge of a through lane to median gutter line
away from the bridge. The 8'-0" wide shoulder may be



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-10

infringed upon as necessary to carry the median barrier
around a bridge pier. At normal grade separations, using 3'-0"
thick piers, the 8'-0" shoulder may be reduced to 6'-2" at the
pier. (See Figure 2.1.4.11.)

For urban design, six- and eight-lane divided roadways, the
minimum clearance on the left is based on providing a
10'-0" minimum wide shoulder from the edge of a through
lane to median gutter line outside of the bridge. As described
above for four-lane divided roadways, this dimension may be
infringed upon as necessary to carry the median barrier
around a bridge pier. This may result in reducing the shoulder
width from 10'-0" to 8'-2" at normal grade separations
(assuming 3'-0" thick pier). (See Figure 2.1.4.11.)

ii) Urban Highways without Continuous Median Barriers
The warrant requiring a median barrier is based on the median
width and the ADT. (See Road Design Manual.) At those
locations where the clear distance to a center pier is less than
the clear zone distance from the edge of a lane, but where a
continuous barrier will not be provided, a plate beam barrier
will normally be required at the pier.

The pier with plate beam guardrail protection can be used only
in medians that are 18'-6" or wider for four-lane divided
highways, and 22'-6" or wider for six- and eight-lane divided
highways. (Dimensions are from the edge of lane to edge of
lane.) Piers on high speed roadways should not be placed in
medians narrower than 18'-6" (four- lane) or 22'-6" (six- or
eight-lane).

The face of the plate beam will be located 2'-0" from the face
of the pier. At normal grade separations (with ± 3'-0" pier
thickness) this will result in a dimension of 5'-6" from the edge
of lane to face of the guardrail on four-lane divided roads, and
a dimension of 7'-6" from the edge of lane to face of the
guardrail on six- and eight-lane divided roads.

iii) Rail Overpasses Using Rural Design
For rural design, the median width (edge of lane to edge of
lane) for roadways passing under railroads may be considered
for a reduction. Where a reduced width is used, the distance
from the edge of lane to face of pier should be not less than
20'-0".



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-11

Lateral Clearances for Ramps
When rural or urban ramps pass under a bridge independently, piers
should be eliminated and the approaching typical section should be
carried through the bridge. On extremely skewed bridges where piers
are necessary, place the face of pier 2'-0" further from roadway than toe
of back slope. (See Figure 2.1.4.8.)

Lateral Clearances for Local Roads
Lateral clearances for local roads are dependent on ADT. The applicable
values are shown on Figure 2.1.4.9.

Lateral Clearance for Local Streets
Locate the face of piers or abutments on or beyond the property line.
This will provide for the ultimate development of the section by local
authorities. A minimum distance of 6'-0" from the face of a curb to the
face of pier or abutment must be provided.

Lateral Clearance for Railroads
Lateral clearances at railroads are to be determined as follows:
1) The statutory clearances diagram shown on Figure 2.1.4.10
represents the absolute minimums that must be adhered to. For
design, a minimum horizontal clearance of 9'-0" to a pier or abutment
is to be used (8'-6" legal).

2) Side piers are placed 4'-0" in from the back slope control point (18'-0"
clear to the centerline of track for a cut section without a
maintenance road). This puts the face of pier 2'-0" outside the
bottom of a 3'-0" deep ditch with a 1:2 slope and allows the railroad
to periodically clean the ditch with track-mounted equipment.

3) Mn/DOT and FHWA have agreed to the horizontal clearances shown in
Figure 2.1.4.10 (25'-0" minimum clearance to pier, 30'-6" to “back
slope control point”) for mainline BNRR tracks at sites meeting the
following conditions:
a) When the standard will not increase the cost of the structure by
more than $50,000.
b) When sufficient vertical clearance exists between the tracks and
inplace or proposed roadway profile to accommodate the structure
depth necessary for the longer spans typically required by the
standard.

If these conditions cannot be met, submit a letter to the Railroad
Administration Section along with the signed Preliminary Bridge Plan



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-12

stating the reasons the standard cannot be met including an estimate
of the increased cost if applicable.

4) Back slopes shall be 1:2 and pass through the “back slope control
point” shown on Figure 2.1.4.10 for the applicable case. The
dimension to the “back slope control point” indicates the maximum
extent of federal participation in the construction and must not be
exceeded.

5) The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer will contact the Railroad
Administration Section of the Office of Railroads and Waterways to
determine the need for provisions for a maintenance road for track
maintenance equipment. If the Railroad Administration Section
determines that the need is justified, the dimension to the “back slope
control point” can be increased up to 8'-0".

Waterway Sections Under Bridge Crossing Streams
The Waterway Analysis (hydraulics report) gives information on the
required stream cross section under the bridge including waterway area
and low member elevation. Potential flood damage, both upstream and
downstream, and permitting agencies’ requirements must be considered.

Vertical Clearance for Underpasses
Table 2.1.3.1 lists the minimum vertical clearance requirements for trunk
highway underpasses.

Table 2.1.3.1
Vertical Clearance for Underpasses
TYPE OF STRUCTURE
DESIGN VERTICAL
CLEARANCES
Trunk Highway Under Roadway Bridge 16'-4"
Trunk Highway Under Railroad Bridge 16'-4"
Railroad Under Trunk Highway Bridge 23'-0" *
Trunk Highway Under Pedestrian Bridge 17'-4"
Trunk Highway Under Sign Bridge 17'-4"
Portal Clearances on Truss or Arch 20'-0"
* Critical vertical clearance point offset 8'-6" from centerline of track, statutory
minimum vertical clearance is 22'-0".

For trunk highway bridges over local streets and roads, the minimum
vertical clearance is 16'-4" for rural-suburban designs and 14'-6" for



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-13

urban designs. For trunk highways crossing local roads or streets at a
freeway interchange, 16'-4" clearance is required. A complete list of
vertical clearances for local roads and streets is found in the
State-Aid Operations Rules, Chapter 8820.

The 2001 edition of the AASHTO book, A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets, recommends 16'-0" of clearance for highway
bridges and 17'-0" for pedestrian bridges and sign bridges for freeways
and arterials, a minimum clearance of 1'-0" above the legal vehicle
height, and an allowance for future pavement resurfacing. (See pages
476, 511, and 767.) The legal height of a truck in Minnesota is 13'-6",
which, when the additional 1'-0" is added, gives 14'-6". A 4" allowance
for a future overlay added to the 16'-0" and 17'-0" clearances gives the
standard 16'-4" and 17'-4" dimensions. The Truck Permits Unit of
Mn/DOT reports 5 to 20 permit requests a day for load heights of 15'-0"
or greater and a few every day for load heights over 15'-6".

The clearance over highways applies to the traffic lanes and full usable
width of shoulders.

The additional foot of clearance under pedestrian and sign bridges is
provided because these bridges are much less substantial and could
collapse in the event of a hit.

Where bikeways pass under a bridge or through a tunnel, a vertical
clearance of 10'-0" is desirable for adequate vertical shy distance. (See
AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, August 1991,
page 25.) Where this is impractical to obtain, a lesser clearance down to
a minimum of 8'-0" is acceptable. Clearances below 10 feet on the local
road system will require a variance to the State-Aid Operations Rules,
Chapter 8.

The 23'-0" clearance over railroads allows for future ballast to be added
to the line. If this clearance cannot be met, the Railroad Administration
Section of the Office of Railroads and Waterways should be contacted. A
clearance between 22'-0" (legal minimum) and 23'-0" may be used with
approval of the railroad. For clearances below 22'-0", approval from the
Rail and Motor Carrier Procedures Unit of Mn/DOT is required and may be
granted in instances where clearance on the line is limited by other
bridges likely to remain in place for a substantial time.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-14

Vertical Clearance over Waterways
1) Non-Navigable Waterways
A 3'-0" minimum clearance between the 50-year flood stage and low
point on the bridge superstructure is recommended. This amount of
clearance is desired to provide for larger floods and also for the
passage of ice and/or debris. If this amount of clearance is not
attainable due to constraints relating to structure depth, roadway
grades or other factors, reduced clearance may be allowed. The
Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer, after consultation with the
Hydraulics Section and the Mn/DOT District Office, will determine the
required clearance.

2) Navigable Waterways
a) Waterways that require a construction permit from Coast Guard
(generally considered to be waterways for commercial shipping):
• The Mississippi River downstream from I-694 in Fridley
• The Minnesota River downstream from Chaska
• The St. Croix River downstream from Taylors Falls
• The St. Louis River downstream from Oliver, Wisconsin.

Guide vertical clearances published by the Coast Guard are:
• Mississippi River:
• 52'-0" above 2% flowline or 60'-0" above normal pool,
whichever is greater, for the portion downstream of the
Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge near the University of
Minnesota (mile point 853.0).
• 4'-0" above river stage of 40,000 c.f.s. for the river portion
upstream (mile point 853.0 to 857.6).
• Minnesota River:
• 55'-0" above normal pool from mouth to I-35W bridge
(mile point 10.8).
• 30.8 feet above 1881 high water from I-35W bridge to
Chaska.
• St. Croix River:
• 52'-0" above 2% flowline or 60'-0" above normal pool from
mouth to Stillwater.
• St. Louis River:
• The Bong Bridge over the St. Louis River Bay in Duluth has
a vertical clearance of 120'-0".

The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer shall be consulted when
establishing navigation clearances.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-15

2.1.4 Geometric
Details
b) All Other Navigable Waterways
Bridges that cross waterways in other portions of the state may be
required to provide for local pleasure boat traffic. Vertical
clearance for these bridges will be determined on an individual
basis, based on local needs. The Mn/DOT District Office will make
this determination based on a survey of boats using the waterway.

Vertical and Horizontal Alignment
Information governing vertical curves, horizontal curves, and sight
distance may be found in the Road Design Manual and Technical Manual.

When preparing preliminary bridge plans for the local road system,
vertical and horizontal alignment charts from the State-Aid Manual shall
be employed.


Specific geometric details for bridge decks and undercrossings are shown
in the following figures:
Figure 2.1.4.1 2-Lane Highway (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.2 2-Lane Highway (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.3 4-Lane Divided Highway (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.4 4-Lane Divided Highway (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.5 6-Lane Divided Highway (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.6 6-Lane Divided Highway (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.7 6" Raised Island, Turn Lanes, and Sidewalk (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.8 Ramps (Rural and Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.9 Local Roads (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.10 Railroad Clearances
Figure 2.1.4.11 Minimum Lateral Clearances (Urban)

The above figures for various roadway types show sections as viewed
assuming traffic flow from bottom to top of page. Starting at the bottom
of the sheet, the typical fill roadway section to a bridge approach is
shown. The fill slope transitions to a 1:3 slope at the bridge. The section
above it shows a section of this road on the bridge deck. The third
section from the bottom is a continuation of the roadway as it approaches
a crossing under a bridge; the back slope transitions to a 1:2 maximum
slope at the bridge. The top section shows this roadway at the point
where a bridge crosses this roadway.

Where a range of side slopes is shown on the approaching roadway
section, Road Design should determine the slope used.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-16

Figure 2.1.4.1
Geometrics
2- Lane Highway ( Rural)



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-17

Figure 2.1.4.2
Desirable Geometrics
2- Lane Highway ( Urban)



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-18

Figure 2.1.4.3
Desirable Geometrics
4- Lane Divided Highway ( Rural)



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-19

Figure 2.1.4.4
Desirable Geometrics
4- Lane Divided Highway ( Urban)



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-20

Figure 2.1.4.5
Desirable Geometrics
6- Lane Divided Highway ( Rural)



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-21

Figure 2.1.4.6
Desirable Geometrics
6- Lane Divided Highway ( Urban)
(Details for 8-Lane Divided Highway Are Similar)



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-22

Figure 2.1.4.7
Desirable Geometrics
6" Raised I sland, Turn Lanes, and Sidewalks ( Urban)



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-23

Figure 2.1.4.8
Desirable Geometrics
Ramps ( Rural and Urban)



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-24

Figure 2.1.4.9
Local Roads
( Rural)



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-25

Figure 2.1.4.10
Railroad Clearances



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-26

Figure 2.1.4.11
Minimum Lateral Clearances



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-27

2.1.5 Bridge
Railings
2.2 Bridge
Aesthetics
2.3 Preliminary
Bridge Plans
2.3.1 General
See Section 13 of this manual for the policy on design of bridge railings
for Mn/DOT projects.


The aesthetic design process is initiated early in a bridge project’s life.
The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer will determine which of three
levels of aesthetic attention is appropriate for the bridge.
• Level A is intended for bridges with major cultural or aesthetic
significance.
• Level B is used for mid-level structures, including highway corridors.
• Level C is used for routine bridges.

Maximum levels of Mn/DOT participation in aesthetic costs are given in
the Mn/DOT Policy Manual, Chapter 6, 6-41. For Level A the maximum is
15% but not to exceed $3 million per bridge; for Level B the maximum is
7% but not to exceed $300,000 per bridge; for Level C the maximum is
5% but not to exceed $200,000 per bridge.

The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer along with the District Project
Manager coordinates the implementation of the aesthetic design process
as it relates to bridges. Other people, offices, agencies, etc. may also be
involved. The extent of this involvement may vary depending on the
individual project and its aesthetics level. This process leads to the
development of an Aesthetic Plan for the bridge. Once the project
reaches the final stage, the Bridge Design Unit Leader directs the
implementation of the Aesthetic Plan to completion with assistance from
the Preliminary Bridge Architectural Specialist as needed.

Section 3 of the Aesthetic Guidelines for Bridge Design Manual describes
the process of aesthetic design in more detail.


Purpose
The Preliminary Bridge Plan serves to document the main features of the
bridge (type, size, location, aesthetics, etc.) and is used to obtain
approvals and coordination before final design begins. By doing this, the
time and expense of revising a completed plan will hopefully be avoided.
The plan coordinates the work between Road Design and the Bridge
Office and enables the cost and scope of the work to be estimated.

Specific users of the plan include:
• Road Design to verify the grade, alignment and roadway widths and
to obtain the approximate limits of grading, paving and guardrail at
the bridge ends.



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-28

• FHWA to review and approve projects.
• Bridge Agreements and Permits Unit to select and negotiate contracts
with consultants.
• Final Bridge Design Units and Consultants to prepare final plans.
• Bridge Programs and Estimates Unit to prepare a preliminary estimate
of the bridge costs.
• DNR, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers and Watershed Districts to
review and issue required permits for stream crossings.
• Cities, Planning Agencies, and citizen groups to review and approve
projects.
• Site Development Unit to recommend aesthetic treatments.
• Signing, Lighting, and TMC Units to convey their needs on the new
bridge.
• Railroad Administration Section for use in negotiating railroad
agreements.

In preparing preliminary bridge plans, the plan users should always be
kept in mind, particularly those without bridge or technical experience.

Requirements for Preliminary Bridge Plans
Preliminary bridge plans are required for all new trunk highway bridges
(including Mn/DOT precast concrete arch structures) and all bridge
widenings where substructure widening is required. In addition,
preliminary plans signed by the State Bridge Engineer are required for all
county and local bridges that cross a trunk highway. Preliminary bridge
plans are not required for culverts, overlays, deck replacements, and
other projects where substructures are not widened.

The Bridge Preliminary Unit normally prepares preliminary plans for new
trunk highway bridges, although consultants occasionally develop plans.
Preliminary plans for bridge widenings are normally prepared by the
Bridge Design Units since significant design work is required to evaluate
the existing structure and schemes for widening and handling traffic.

Preliminary plans prepared by Consultants or Design Units are submitted
to the Bridge Preliminary Unit for review, submittal to the State Bridge
Engineer for signature, and distribution of signed copies.

Contents
The Preliminary Bridge Plan consists of a general plan and elevation sheet
and survey sheet with borings. For the more complex urban structures
additional road design sheets giving alignment, superelevation diagrams,
utilities, contours, traffic staging or intersection layout may be included.
The Preliminary Bridge Plan contains: plan and elevation views, a cross



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-29

section, design data, data on the type of structure, foundation
requirements, and aesthetic treatment. When aesthetics are of special
importance, architectural type drawings showing the proposed treatment
or type of construction may also be included. For bridge widenings, the
survey sheet may be eliminated or a copy of the survey sheet from the
existing bridge may be included.

Preparation of Preliminary Bridge Plans
The steps involved in preparing a typical preliminary plan set for a new
trunk highway bridge by the Preliminary Unit are as follows:
1) Layouts are received from Pre-Design and bridge numbers are
assigned and listed in PPMS.
2) Bridge Survey sheets are received from the district surveys section.
Copies are sent to the Foundations Unit of the Office of Materials and
Research requesting soil borings. For stream crossings a copy is sent
to the Hydraulics Unit requesting a hydraulics analysis.
3) A depth of structure and span arrangement are determined using the
layout and Waterway Analysis and are given to Road Design. This
typically involves communication between the Bridge Office, Road
Design, and Hydraulics to arrive at a structure depth and span
arrangement that produces the best overall solution. If a railroad is
involved, negotiations are held with the railroad to determine what
features should be incorporated into the plan to satisfy the railroad's
needs and also meet Mn/DOT standards.
4) Final grades and alignment are received from Road Design.
5) Traffic data is requested and received from the district traffic office.
6) The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer, District Project Manager, and
Environmental Services Section determine the extent of aesthetic
treatment.
7) A CADD operator is assigned the project and drafting of the plan
begins. Clearances are checked and more exact span lengths
determined.
8) Borings are received electronically from the Foundations Unit and
plotted on the survey sheets.
9) The Engineering Specialist in the Design Unit checks the completed
preliminary package, except the foundation type.
10) The preliminary package is given to the Regional Bridge Construction
Engineer along with the foundation report for determining pile type,
lengths, and bearing. When received, the pile information is added
to the preliminary plan.
11) The completed Preliminary Bridge Plan is reviewed with the Bridge
Planning and Hydraulics Engineer and taken to the State Bridge
Engineer for signature.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-30

Time Schedule for Preliminary Plan Preparation
The time schedule for receiving information and completing preliminary
bridge plans for normal bridges, as given in PPMS, is shown in Table
2.3.1.1.

Table 2.3.1.1
Preliminary Plan Time Schedule
WORK ITEM
TIME PRIOR TO SCHEDULED
LETTING DATE
Bridge Survey 17 months
Hydraulics 14 ½ months
Grades and Alignment 14 ½ months
Foundations 13 months
Preliminary Plan Completed 12 months

Additional lead-time is required for major bridges, bridges involving agreements with
cities or railroads, and bridges with extensive aesthetic requirements.

Use of Preliminary Bridge Plans
The completed and signed Preliminary Bridge Plan becomes the
department’s official proposal for that structure. The following steps are
then taken:
1) Unless cost estimates have been prepared to determine structure
type, the Program and Estimates Unit of the Bridge Office prepares an
estimated contract construction cost for the structure. This is
generally based on an estimated cost per square foot.

2) Sets of prints of the Preliminary Bridge Plan are distributed to the
various offices of Mn/DOT and outside agencies for information,
review, and approval, as the case may be. (See Table 2.3.1.2.)

Approval by all concerned of the proposed structure dimensions, type
of construction, and geometrics before the start of final design is one
of the most important functions of the Preliminary Bridge Plan. This
is particularly true of stream crossings, railroad crossings (over and
under), and structures requiring special aesthetic treatment.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-31


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Table 2.3.1.2



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-32

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is one of the outside
agencies that reviews bridge projects. The following categorizes
bridge projects according to the amount of FHWA oversight required
and also sets forth submittal requirements:

• Bridge Projects that Require Full Oversight by FHWA
This category includes new or reconstruction (rehabilitation and
improvement) bridge projects on the Interstate System with total
project cost more than $1,000,000 (bridges that carry interstate
traffic and interchange bridges). It also includes other National
Highway System bridges in which the bridge structure estimated
cost is equal to or over $10 million. Preliminary bridge plans, if
prepared, as well as final plans, specifications and estimates
(PS&E) will be submitted to FHWA for approval. Final plans at
85% to 90% completion will also be submitted to FHWA for
concurrent review. Please note that preliminary plans are not
normally prepared for bridge improvement projects.

• Bridge Projects that Require Partial Oversight by FHWA
This category includes new or reconstruction (rehabilitation and
improvement) bridge projects that carry traffic over the Interstate
Highway regardless of funding source. Preliminary bridge plans, if
prepared, will be submitted to FHWA for approval. This
submission is only for the purpose of evaluating horizontal and
vertical clearances on the Interstate System.

• Bridge Projects for which Mn/DOT Maintains Oversight
This category includes any bridge project not included in the
above full and partial oversight categories.

The following apply to Bridge Projects that Require Full Oversight by
FHWA, Bridge Projects that Require Partial Oversight by FHWA, and
Bridge Projects for which Mn/DOT Maintains Oversight:

The Preliminary Bridge Plan will be submitted to FHWA with a
transmittal letter. FHWA will not require a preliminary cost estimate
but will review the preliminary plan, elevation, and transverse
sections. It is very important that these plans be submitted to FHWA
as soon as they are developed and prior to proceeding with final
design.

Funding source does not change the above processes.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-33

For Mn/DOT oversight projects, a courtesy copy of the letter
transmitting the Preliminary Bridge Plan for the proposed bridge
project will be sent to FHWA (without the plans) for informational
purposes.

FHWA Headquarters Bridge Division shall be responsible for the
approval of preliminary plans for unusual bridges and structures on
the Interstate System. FHWA Headquarters Bridge Division will be
available for technical assistance on other Federal-aid and non-
Federal-aid highways when requested.

For the purpose of this guidance, unusual bridges are those bridges:
(1) that have difficult or unique foundation problems, (2) that have
new or complex designs with unique operational or design features,
(3) with exceptionally long spans, (4) being designed with procedures
that depart from currently recognized acceptable practices. Examples
of unusual bridges include cable-stayed, suspension, arch, segmental
concrete, movable, or truss bridges. Other examples are bridge types
that are not addressed by the AASHTO bridge design standards and
guide specifications, bridges requiring abnormal dynamic analysis for
seismic design, bridges with spans exceeding 500 feet, and bridges
with major supporting elements of “ultra” high strength concrete or
steel.

Unusual structures include tunnels, geotechnical structures featuring
new or complex wall systems or ground improvement systems, and
hydraulic structures that involve complex stream stability
countermeasures, or designs or design techniques that are atypical or
unique.

Preliminary documents submitted to FHWA Headquarters should
include the Preliminary Bridge Plan and supporting data along with
FHWA Division’s review comments and recommendations. Supporting
information should include bridge/structures related environmental
concerns and suggested mitigation measures, studies of bridge types
and span arrangements, approach bridge span layout plans and
profile sheets, controlling vertical and horizontal clearance
requirements, roadway geometry, design specifications used, special
design criteria, special provisions (if available), and cost estimates.
Hydraulic and scour design studies/reports should also be submitted
showing scour predictions and related mitigation measures.
Geotechnical studies/reports should be submitted along with
information on substructure and foundation types.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-34

For these projects, the State Bridge Engineer will submit two copies of
the Preliminary Bridge Plan along with a transmittal letter requesting
approval directly to the Division Engineer of the Federal Highway
Administration. The transmittal letter also includes the estimated
contract construction cost of the structure. (See Figure 2.3.1.1 for a
sample transmittal letter). The FHWA is the only outside agency to
which the Bridge Office sends a direct request for approval. All other
outside agencies are contacted through other offices of Mn/DOT.

3) The Preliminary Bridge Plan is used as a basis for preparing permit
drawings to accompany applications to construct structures and
approaches over navigable waters of the United States within or
bordering our state. Such drawings are prepared in the Preliminary
Plans Unit in accordance with detailed instructions issued by the U.S.
Coast Guard. The Coast Guard is charged with the responsibility of
issuing permits for bridges over navigable waters of the United States
within or bordering our state. This includes all bridge spans
(including land spans) from abutment to abutment. The Corps of
Engineers is responsible for issuing permits for any other
miscellaneous structures or work to be performed in navigable waters
of the United States.

There are two Coast Guard districts that have jurisdiction within the
State of Minnesota; the 9
th
Coast Guard District based in Cleveland
has jurisdiction over the Duluth harbor and navigable portion of the
St. Louis River, and the 8
th
Coast Guard District based in St. Louis has
jurisdiction over the navigable portions of the Mississippi, Minnesota,
and St. Croix Rivers.

After receiving a permit application, the Coast Guard issues a public
notice of application with prints of the permit drawings. These are
sent to shipping interests, other agencies, displayed in post offices,
etc. Generally, if no comments are received from others within
30 days of the notice of application, and if environmental statements
have been submitted and a certification given by the Minnesota
Pollution Control Agency, a permit will be issued.

Correspondence to the Coast Guard is generally prepared for the
signature of the State Bridge Engineer.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-35

4) When all approvals have been obtained, the Preliminary Bridge Plan is
used as the basis for the bridge design and for the preparation of final
detailed plans. If the design is to be by a consulting engineer, the
Preliminary Bridge Plan is also used as the basis for negotiation of the
consultant fee.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-36



Minnesota Department of Transportation


Bridge Office Phone No: 651-747-2100
3485 Hadley Avenue North Fax No: 651-747-2108
Mail Stop 610
Oakdale, MN 55128-3307




[ date ]


Mr. Alan R. Steger
Division Administrator
Federal Highway Administration
Metro Square Building, Suite 490
Seventh and Robert Streets
Saint Paul, Minnesota 55101

Bridge No.
Federal Project No.
Minnesota Project No.
S.P.
T.H.



Dear Mr. Steger,

Federal Funds will be requested for the construction of the above noted bridge. We
have prepared a layout showing the proposed clearances and general dimensions of
this structure. The contract construction cost of this structure is estimated at
approximately $ [ amount ].

One set of prints of the preliminary plan dated [ date ], and bridge survey sheets are
enclosed. This bridge is programmed for letting on [ date ].

Please review the above noted preliminary data. We would appreciate a written reply
indicating your concurrence or comments on the proposed bridge layout and general
dimensions.

Sincerely,




Daniel L. Dorgan
State Bridge Engineer
Bridge Office

Enclosure
Preliminary Plans

cc: [ District Engineer ], [ District ]
R. A. Stehr, Director, Program Support Group
K. L. Western, Bridge Design Engineer
P. Chaney, State Program Administrator Senior, Bridge
N. Sannes, Estimating Engineer, Office of Tech Support
K. Baker, Director, Office of EEO
Figure 2.3.1.1



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-37

2.3.2 Bridge Type
Selection
Preliminary Plans for Local Bridges
Consult the State-Aid Bridge Web site at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/StateAidBridge/ for the submittal and
approval process of State-Aid Preliminary Bridge Plans.


General
The type of structure and span arrangement selected will depend on cost,
aesthetics, depth available, geometrics, and site conditions. For some
bridges this may be an obvious choice. For others it may involve a great
deal of study, especially if aesthetics is a main concern. The section that
follows gives some general guidelines on the selection process.

Aesthetic Design Process
See Section 2.2 of this manual for a discussion of the aesthetic design
process.

Structure Type
The most commonly used structure types and their characteristics are as
follows:
1) Prestressed Concrete Beam
This is the most common structure type in Minnesota. Advantages
include: low initial and future maintenance costs, high quality factory
produced product, a stiff deck, and simple spans that accommodate
tapers. Beams are limited to standard depths and straight segments,
and a maximum length of about 145 feet based on shipping
limitations.

2) Welded or Rolled Steel Beam
This type of structure is well suited to complex urban freeways with
limited depth, long spans, and complex geometrics. Steel beam
bridges are also well suited for areas with bad soils, such as the Red
River Valley, as steel allows the flexibility of modifying the bearing
location and adding or reducing span lengths to accommodate shifting
abutments and piers. Advantages include: a shallower depth of
structure than prestressed concrete, beams with the ability to be field
spliced to produce long span lengths, web plates that can be cut to
any depth or to a haunched shape, beams that can be curved
horizontally, and beams that can be painted a color which contrasts
with the slab to make the structure appear thinner. Disadvantages
include: a typically higher cost than other structure types, more
difficult fabrication and inspection, a longer fabrication time, the
possible need for painting and future maintenance painting,



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-38

weathering steel staining of supports, rusting of weathering steel
when under salt exposure, and required annual inspections.

3) Cast-In-Place Concrete Slab Span
This type of structure is used for shorter span bridges where depth is
a major consideration. For simple spans conventionally reinforced,
spans range up to 40 feet. Continuous spans are limited to about
60 feet. (See table in Section 5.3.1 of this manual for limits.)
Advantages include: a minimum depth superstructure, ease of design
and detailing, pleasing aesthetics, and economy for short span
bridges. Disadvantages include: span lengths are limited, falsework
is required, concrete delivery rate requirements may be a problem, a
wearing course may be required to achieve a smooth ride, and the
maximum skew angle is 45°.

4) Concrete Box Girder
Concrete box girders provide an attractive structure with high
torsional resistance making them especially well suited for curved
structures. The ability to accommodate an integral pier cap is an
advantage since horizontal clearance is only required to the column
top and not the cap top. Limitations and drawbacks include the need
for falsework, the inability to redeck or widen, and the higher
construction cost.

5) Timber
This bridge structure is used only on the local road system, for 1 or 3
spans with a maximum span length of about 25 feet. Advantages
include: timber has a natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance,
special equipment is not required for installation, and construction can
be done in virtually any weather conditions. Disadvantages include:
timber is not an economical structure type, it is limited to low-volume
roads (roads with an ADT under 750), and the asphalt wearing
surface tends to crack due to differential deck deflections.

6) Pre-cast Double Tee Beam Span
This bridge structure is used only on the local road system. The
maximum span length is 48 feet for 22" depth stem, and a span
length of 64 feet for 30" depth stem is typical. Advantages include:
reduced construction time, reduced inspection time, and an
economical pre-cast bridge in the 30 foot to 40 foot span range.
Disadvantages include: not appropriate on steep grades, flared
bridges, curved bridges, and skewed bridges of higher ADT roadways
where salt is applied to the bridge.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-39

7) Box Culvert
Box culverts provide a quickly constructed, and economical structure
for stream crossings. Precast concrete box culvert standards are
available for culverts up to 14 ft. x 14 ft. in size. Use of up to two
large barrel boxes will be economical compared with a bridge.
Advantages include: quick installation and low maintenance.
Disadvantages include: span limitations, possible debris build-up
when multiple barrels are used, and lack of a natural stream for fish
unless the invert is lowered and riprapped.

8) Three-Sided Bridge Structure
Three-sided precast concrete structures offer an alternative for short
span structures up to 42 feet. Advantages include: quick installation,
and a natural stream bottom. Disadvantages include: a higher cost
than cast-in-place structures.

Abutment and Pier Locations
The following guidelines aid in setting abutment and pier locations:
1) Stream Crossings
For stream crossings the number of substructures in the stream
should be kept to the minimum practical. Piers in streams block the
natural flow of the waterway, trap ice and debris, impede navigation,
and are subject to scour. In addition, construction of a stream pier is
expensive (especially if cofferdams are needed), and environmentally
disturbs the stream bottom and water quality. Piers and abutments
should ideally be set on shore to minimize dewatering and allow easy
access for the Contractor. Substructures should also be set to avoid
interference with inplace substructures, including piling, wherever
practical. Setting spans and structure depth involves balancing the
hydraulic requirements of the low member elevation and waterway
area with the constraints of approach grades, structure depth, and
cost.

2) Grade Separations
For grade separations fewer piers are also desirable wherever
practical. Piers should be kept out of the clear zone unless absolutely
necessary. In locations where ramps enter or exit a highway under a
bridge, piers should be avoided between the mainline and ramp, if
possible, as they restrict visibility.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-40

Abutment Types
Abutments can generally be classified as stub, semi-high or high
abutments. A further breakdown of stub abutments can be made
according to the way expansion is handled – integral (fixed) or parapet
type.

Stub abutments with a standard berm were used extensively on four-
span freeway overpass structures. Since the end spans are short there is
no problem providing additional length for the berms, which provides
extra protection for the abutment. The use of longer two-span structures
for overpasses has diminished its use, but this abutment type is still used
where depth and spans will permit. The extra protection provided by the
berm is especially important for stream crossings.

Semi-high abutments part way up the fill slope have become more
popular as two-span overpasses have come into use. A higher abutment
and elimination of the berm reduces the span length and depth of beam,
which makes the structure more economical. From an aesthetic
standpoint an exposed face greater than the depth of the beam and less
than half the roadway clearance below the beams is desirable. Exposed
heights of abutment face should be limited to about 8 feet, if possible.

High abutments at the bottom of the fill slope are used primarily in
congested urban design where structure depth is critical. Their use is
discouraged since they are difficult to construct, expensive, and give a
closed-in feel to the highway.

Parallel wingwalls, parallel to the bridge roadway, are used most often for
aesthetic reasons. An angled wingwall, 45 degrees for bridges with no
skew, will give shorter wingwall lengths and less length of railing. These
are used on some stream crossings where the elevation view of the
bridge is not as prominent and the wingwalls help direct the stream flow
under the bridge. Straight wingwalls, an extension of the abutment
parapet, are the simplest to construct but are appropriate only for
shallow beams where aesthetics is not a concern.

Guidelines for the use of integral and parapet abutments are given in
Section 11 of this manual.

Pier Types
1) Stream Crossings
Pile bent piers, consisting of a row of piles with a concrete cap
encasing the pile tops, are the simplest and most economical type of
pier. They are used for stream crossings where the maximum height



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-41

from the top of pier to streambed is under 20'-0" and there is no ice
or debris problem. Spans must also be short enough to allow a single
row of piles to support the deck at reasonable spacing. The piles act
as columns, and bending strength to resist side impacts from ice or
debris is important. For cast-in-place piles (the most widely used) a
16" minimum diameter is required. If H-piles are used, the upper
portion is encased by a cast-in-place pile shell filled with concrete.
Timber piles are not permitted. Concerns with pile bent piers include
the potential to trap debris, and its appearance.

A wall type pier, consisting of a single row of piles (especially H-piles)
encased with concrete to form a wall, provides more resistance to ice
and debris and allows debris to pass through without becoming
entangled on the piles. This type of pier is used where more
resistance to ice and debris than afforded by the pile bent is needed,
and yet the size and expense of a solid shaft pier can be avoided.
This type of pier can be constructed by driving the piling, supporting
the wall forms on the stream bed, placing a seal with a tremie,
dewatering, adding reinforcement, and pouring the wall.

A solid shaft pier is used for major stream crossings where heavy
loads, tall piers or sizable ice and debris loads may occur. This type
of pier has a separate footing located a minimum of 6'-0" below
streambed. Construction of this type of pier involves driving sheeting
to form a cofferdam, excavating inside the cofferdam, driving piles,
pouring a seal, dewatering, and concrete placement.

2) Grade Separations
Piers at grade separations are typically multiple column type with a
cap. Piers are visible to passing motorists and the emphasis on
aesthetics has led to more use of rectangular shaped column type
piers, often with form liner treatments or rustication grooves. For
narrow ramp bridges a single shaft pier may be considered. Where
aesthetics is not a concern, a round column pier will usually provide
the lowest cost.

For bridges over railroads, piers located within 25 feet of the
centerline of railroad tracks must either be of “heavy construction”
(refer to Section 11.2.4 for requirements) or have crash walls. Piers
located between 25 and 50 feet of the centerline of railroad tracks
must be designed to withstand a 400 kip load unless they are
protected as specified in LRFD 3.6.5.1.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-42

2.4 Final Bridge
Plans and Special
Provisions
For the majority of bridges over roadways, piers located within 30
feet of the roadway edge (defined as the edge of the lane nearest to
the pier) must be designed to withstand a 400 kip load unless they
are protected as specified in LRFD 3.6.5.1. See Section 11.2.4 of this
manual for complete pier protection policy and requirements.


The primary purpose for preparing the Final Bridge Plan and special
provisions is to communicate the geometric, material, and procedural
requirements for the construction of a bridge. Several audiences will use
the final design or contract documents during the life of the bridge.
Initially, contractors use the documents to prepare their bids. A clear,
accurate, and complete set of documents will result in competitive
bidding. Well-communicated information reduces contractor uncertainty
regarding what is required for different elements of construction.

During construction, many parties will use the contract documents. For
example, surveyors will locate and mark the position of working points,
fabricators and construction engineers will prepare shop drawings and
other submittals/drawings, inspectors and suppliers will use the
documents for their work, and the contractor’s forces will use the
documents.

After construction of the bridge the detailed plans will be referenced
when modifying the bridge (e.g., adding signage), performing load rating
of the bridge, or rehabilitating/replacing the bridge.

The Final Bridge Plan contains geometric information, a schedule of
quantities and pay items for the bridge, traffic phasing (if applicable),
limits of removal of existing structures and foundation items (if
applicable), foundation details, substructure details, superstructure
details, typical sections, utilities (if applicable), survey information, and
other miscellaneous items.

Specifications are also required for each project. They describe
procedures for award and execution of the contract, how work will be
measured and paid, procedures to be followed during execution of the
work, and material and testing requirements for items incorporated into
the project.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-43

Bridge projects use specifications from four different sources:
1) Most of the specifications used for a project are provided in Mn/DOT’s
Standard Specifications for Construction. They are necessarily
general in nature and are intended to cover all types of Mn/DOT
projects.

2) The Bridge Office has assembled additional specifications. Because
they are not included in the standard specifications they are called
special provisions. A list of available bridge special provisions is
provided in Appendix 2-B. Special provisions address a variety of
work items, ranging from concrete placement in District 8 to the
fabrication and installation of pot bearings. Not all of the special
provisions are intended to be used on every project; rather, designers
should use only those applicable to the project.

3) The State-Aid Unit has additional bridge special provisions that apply
to local road bridge projects.

4) Custom special provisions. If a work item is of such unique character
that the standard specifications and the bridge special provisions
don’t describe or address the work, a custom special provision will
need to be prepared. Custom special provisions may be generated
for any number of items. Items may include schedules (e.g., dates
the contractor will have access to certain portions of the project) or
lists of required submittals, etc.

In general, information that is highly graphical or geometric in nature
should be presented on plan sheets. Large amounts of information
conveyed with text should be assembled in special provisions.

A specification or special provision usually contains the following five
sections:
1) A description
2) A list of the materials used (and their specifications)
3) Construction requirements for the work
4) A description of how the work will be measured
5) The basis of payment (pay item for the work)

Oversight by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is required for
some bridge projects. See Section 2.3.1 of this manual under “Use of
Preliminary Bridge Plans” for FHWA degree of oversight categories and
plan submittal requirements.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-44

2.4.1 Final Design
I nstructions
2.4.1.1
Superstructure
2.4.1.1.1 Framing
Plan
Unless specified otherwise within this manual, all structures shall be
designed in accordance with the current AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications. For those few cases where LRFD specifications have not
been created or adopted, the AASHTO Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges shall be used. These exceptions to the LRFD
specifications include: curved bridges, long span specialty bridges, and
sheet piling. Discuss exceptions with the Bridge Design Engineer prior to
beginning final design.

Railroad bridges shall be designed according to the current AREMA
specifications for the live load specified by the railroad. Additional notes
concerning the design of railroad bridges:
1) Railroad bridges will usually be designed with simple spans to avoid
uplift from the live load.
2) Bridges for the Duluth Mesabe & Iron Range Railway require a special
live load.

Plans and documents prepared during the preliminary design phase
should be reviewed prior to beginning final design. These documents
include:
1) Preliminary Bridge Plan
2) Bridge Construction Unit Foundation Recommendation Report
3) Design Study Report
4) Letter File

When reviewing preliminary plans, pay particular attention to geometry
and utilities. Check the layout. This includes reviewing grades,
stationing, end slopes, beams, railings, roadways, shoulders, and the
median (if applicable).


Space beams so moments in fascia beams will not be larger than
moments in interior beams.


For steel beams and prestressed I-beams, deck projections beyond the
centerline of the fascia beam should generally not exceed the smaller of:
1) Depth of beam
2) 40% of the beam spacing
3) 2'-8" plus one-half the flange width

The minimum slab projection beyond the tip of the flange shall be
6 inches.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-45

2.4.1.1.2 Concrete
Wearing Course
2.4.1.1.3
Diaphragms and
Cross- frames
For rectangular prestressed beams, the overhang is a concern when the
location of a wheel line falls outside of the beam. Keep the maximum
overhang projection beyond the centerline of the fascia beam to
approximately 2'-8".


For bridges with reinforced concrete decks, the deck may be cast in one
or two lifts. If two lifts are used, the second one is called the wearing
course and is placed during original construction of the bridge. Note that
the wearing course and the future wearing course are separate and
distinct items.

The wearing course shall be low slump concrete. Bridges meeting any of
the following criteria shall use a concrete wearing course:
1) All bridges carrying interstate traffic.
2) All interstate highway bridges at an interchange with access to the
interstate.
3) All bridges carrying trunk highway traffic in major metropolitan areas
and municipalities with populations of 5000 or greater.
4) All bridges on highways with 20-year projected ADT greater than
2,000.

The State Bridge Engineer shall determine the appropriate action on any
individual exceptions to this policy.


In most bridges, the orientation of the primary superstructure elements
is parallel to the centerline of the bridge. Aside from slab bridges, most
bridges in Minnesota are supported on multiple beam lines. The beam
lines are typically spaced on 5 to 15 foot centers. These bridges usually
have diaphragms or cross frames. They serve a number of purposes:
1) They provide compression flange bracing during erection and
construction of the bridge.
2) They increase lateral load distribution (more beams or girders
participate in carrying live loads).
3) They provide a load path for lateral loads to be carried from the deck
to the bearings.

During final plan assembly, specify the type of diaphragm on the framing
plan, the deck cross section, and the longitudinal section.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-46

2.4.1.2 Pedestrian
Bridges
For bridges with integral abutments, the end diaphragm also functions as
an abutment element. Provide a construction joint between the end
diaphragm and the approach panel to accommodate settlement under the
approach panel. To facilitate the transfer of axial load from the deck into
the end diaphragms, provide a concrete fillet as shown on Details B809
and B811.


[ Guidance On Diaphragms For Prestressed Beam Bridges
Moved To Section 5.4.1 ]


Pedestrian bridges shall be designed in accordance with the Guide
Specifications for Design of Pedestrian Bridges. Several additional
constraints are placed on pedestrian bridges to ensure they are
accessible, safe, and durable:
1) The standard width for pedestrian bridges is 8'-0". This dimension is
from face of handrail to face of handrail. Bridges carrying bicycle
traffic shall be 2'-0" wider than the approaching bikeway width with a
maximum width of 12'-0".
2) The maximum grade permitted on a pedestrian bridge is 8.33%. A
grade flatter than the maximum is preferable. When the grade is
steeper than 5%, a 5'-0" platform shall be provided for each change
in elevation of 2'-6".
3) Protective screening, preferably a chain link fence system or a railing
system, must be placed on both sides of the bridge. The height of
the fence or railing must be 8'-0" above the top of the sidewalk. For
sites with special aesthetic treatments involving ornamental railings, a
minimum height of 6'-0" will be allowed.
4) A 6'-0" clear platform shall be provided at the bottom of each ramp.
5) A platform shall be provided at each abrupt change in a horizontal
direction. The minimum plan dimension of a platform is 5'-0" by
5'-0".
6) The profile grade should be laid out such that there are no abrupt
grade breaks at expansion devices.
7) Only in the rare case where handicap accessibility need not be
provided can stairs be incorporated into a design. When stairs are
provided, use the following guidelines:
a) Stairs shall have a 1'-0" tread and a 6" rise.
b) Adjust the sidewalk or superstructure elevations to make all risers
6" tall.
c) The preferred number of risers in a flight of stairs is 14 to 16. The
maximum number is 19.



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-47

8) The rails shall be detailed with regard to the following:
a) Pedestrian railings must be at least 3'-6" in height.
b) Bicycle railings must be at least 4'-6" in height.
c) For pedestrian bridges over roadways, the opening between
elements of a pedestrian railing shall not permit a 4" sphere to
pass through.
d) For pedestrian bridges that are not over roadways, the opening
between elements of a pedestrian railing shall not permit a 4"
sphere to pass through the lower 27" of the railing. A 6" sphere
shall not be able to pass through any opening above 27".
e) Handrails shall be placed 2'-8" above the top of the deck.
9) Provide an electrical ground for continuous chain link fences,
ornamental railings, and metal handrails. If appropriate, provide
bicycle ramps on pedestrian bridges that contain stairs.

Materials
The superstructure of a pedestrian bridge shall be steel, prestressed
concrete, reinforced concrete, or timber. Aluminum is not an acceptable
material for use in any portion of the superstructure.

The minimum structural steel thickness is
1
/
4
inch for pipe or tube
sections and
5
/
16
inch for all other sections. The minimum thickness
requirements do not apply to railings. Details associated with structural
tubing shall be watertight or designed such that moisture cannot be
trapped in or on the member to accelerate corrosion.

The concrete for the deck of a pedestrian bridge shall be Mn/DOT Mix
No. 3Y33 or 3Y33A.

The Brazilian hardwood known as IPE, though very durable, is not an
accepted decking material on state or federally funded projects. If the
use of IPE wood is desired by the owner, it shall be paid for by local
funds.

Bridge Substructure
The bridge substructure shall be reinforced concrete supported on piling
or spread footings as recommended in the Bridge Construction Unit
Foundation Recommendations report. Incorporate drainage systems
(Details B910 or B911) into the abutments as needed.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-48

2.4.1.3 Temporary
Bridges and
Widenings
Bridge Superstructure
Bearing assemblies shall be elastomeric pads or masonry plates. All
other types will require approval by the Bridge Design Engineer.

To limit transverse deck cracking due to negative flexure, provide
additional longitudinal bars in the top of the deck over the piers. Stagger
the ends of the additional longitudinal bars to transition the capacity of
the section. (See Figure 9.2.3.5.)

Detail anchorages for the piers and abutments to resist uplift and
overturning forces associated with wind loads.

Provide a cover plate over all pedestrian bridge expansion joint openings
to protect pedestrians from a tripping hazard.

Type 5.0 strip seals with expansion joint openings up to 5.0 inches are
allowed on pedestrian bridges since the joint is concealed by a cover
plate.

Highway Geometrics
A pedestrian bridge over a roadway shall meet Mn/DOT design standards
for horizontal and vertical clearances.


Temporary Bridges
Temporary bridges are used to detour traffic while removal of an existing
bridge and construction of a new bridge occur on the mainline of the
roadway. The superstructure consists of a glue-laminated wood panel
deck on steel or prestressed beams. Substructures typically are pile bent
structures with steel pile caps.

Design temporary bridges in accordance with the LRFD Specifications
using the HL-93 live load with an associated load factor of 1.75.

The posted speed for work zones is 45 mph. Per LRFD 13.7.2, design the
railings, the railing/deck connection, and the deck overhang on
temporary bridges to meet railing Test Level 2.

Temporary Widenings
Temporary widening occurs when staging requires widening of an existing
bridge while construction of an adjacent new bridge occurs.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-49

2.4.1.4 Bridge
Approaches
Design structural components of the temporary widening to meet or
exceed the capacity of the existing bridge components. The deck
material of the widening shall match the deck material of the existing
bridge.

For temporary widenings, design the railings, the railing/deck connection,
and the deck overhang to meet the railing test level required for the
roadway.


In most cases, the bridge approach panel will be included with the
roadway grading plans for a project. For situations where approach panel
details can’t be wrapped into roadway plans, guidance for the treatment
and details of approach panels can be found in the following:

• Bridge Approach Treatment
The approach treatment standard sheets describe the limits and
treatment of excavation and backfill near the abutments. These
sheets are found in the Mn/DOT Standard Plans Manual, Figures
5-297.233 and 5-297.234.

• Bridge Approach Panel
The standard sheets covering bridge approach panels are found in
the Mn/DOT Standard Plans Manual, Figures 5-297.223 through
5-297.232. These figures cover standard approach panels for
abutments with joints, abutments without joints, abutments with
different amounts of skew, different mainline pavement types, and
miscellaneous details. A special design for approach panels is
required when a bridge has a skew angle equal to or greater than
45°.

Specify a concrete wearing course on approach panels when the bridge
deck has a concrete wearing course. The wearing course on the
approach panels will be placed at the same time as the wearing course on
the bridge. Include the approach panel wearing course quantity in the
summary of quantities for the superstructure. When using integral
abutments, provide approach panel detail to roadway design for inclusion
into the roadway plans.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-50

2.4.1.5 Survey
2.4.1.6 Utilities
When assembling the survey sheets for final plans, verify that the most
current grading plans are being used.

The final design survey sheets should contain the centerlines and object
lines for the abutment and pier footings. All test piles should be
identified and located.


The Utilities Unit determines if provision must be made for lighting
(roadway, navigation, inspection, etc.), signing, signals, utilities, etc.

If no current utilities are required to be carried on a bridge, provide
details in the abutments for a future conduit system for all Mn/DOT
bridges with beam superstructures. Provide a clear passageway to install
one future 4 inch diameter conduit on one side of the bridge between the
fascia and first interior beams. For twin bridges, allow for a conduit in
the outside bay of both bridges. The provisions for the future conduit
include a 6 inch diameter PVC pipe sleeve block-out with cap in the
parapet wall at each abutment. All other hardware such as hangers,
inserts, etc. will be the responsibility of the utility that utilizes the
block-outs.

The conduit for utilities is to be suspended below the deck on hanger
systems between the beams. Locate the conduit above the bottom of the
beams and generally below the diaphragms or in the lower openings of a
cross frame diaphragm. To minimize the impact to the structure in the
future, avoid casting conduits for utility companies in the deck, sidewalk,
or rail.

Roadway lighting conduit (1
1
/
2
inch diameter maximum) will be allowed
in rails and sidewalks.

When conduit is embedded in concrete rail, deck, or sidewalk, use a
combination expansion/deflection fitting at the abutments. This will
accommodate horizontal movements (due to temperature change, creep,
shrinkage, etc.) and vertical movements (due to jacking operations for
bearing replacement, etc.).

For hanging systems, only an expansion fitting is required at the
abutments. Hangers and conduit can accommodate vertical deflection
(due to superstructure jacking) at the abutment. Lateral bracing of
conduit is needed only for fiberglass conduit. The temperature
movements of rigid steel conduit approximate those of concrete.
Consequently, lateral bracing is not needed. Choose a transverse



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-51

2.4.1.7 Precedence
of Construction
Documents
2.4.1.8 Design
Calculation
Requirements
spacing for the conduits that permits proper placement of concrete
between embedded anchors.

To ensure the integrity of substructure units, the following restrictions
should be included in all permits to install utilities near bridge structures
supported on spread footings:
1) No soils shall be disturbed below a line extending from the bottom of
the footing horizontally for a distance of 3 feet from the edge of the
footing and then continuing downwards and outward on a 1:2 slope.
2) Any water, sanitary sewer, or storm lines that are within 50 feet of
the edge of any spread footings shall be cased unless the elevation of
the line is 15 feet or more above or 50 feet below the footing
elevation. Storm sewer lines that are impractical to case shall be
placed outside the “50 foot line”.


Designers, while striving to produce accurate error-free construction
documents, may at times end up with documents that have conflicting
content. A hierarchy has been established to determine which content is
governing for a project. In general, the more project specific the
document, the higher the document’s position in the hierarchy.
Section 1504 of the Standard Specifications for Construction describes
the precedence of construction documents for a project:

In case of discrepancy, calculated dimensions will govern over scaled
dimensions; Special Provisions will govern over Standard and
supplemental Specifications and Plans, Plans will govern over
Standard and supplemental Specifications, and supplemental
Specifications will govern over Standard Specifications.


Office practice is to permit the limit states to be exceeded by a maximum
of 3%. However, caution should be exercised to ensure that a 3%
exceeded limit state at a particular location does not adversely affect the
structure load rating.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-52

2.4.2 Final Plans The plan order shall typically follow this list:
• General Plan, Elevation, Cross section
• Pay Items
• Staging Plan
• Working Point Layout
• Removal Details
• Abutment Details and Reinforcement
• Pier Details and Reinforcement
• Framing Plan
• Beam Details
• Superstructure Details
• Plan Details (Railing, Expansion Joint, Slope Paving, Conduit, etc.)
• B-Details
• As-Built Bridge Data
• Surveys, etc.

When presenting geometric information, enough baseline information
needs to be provided to permit others to verify the information
presented. For example, the top of roadway elevations presented on a
bridge layout sheet can be confirmed by others using vertical curve
information on the general elevation and the cross slopes provided on the
typical transverse section.

In general, the same dimensions should not be presented several times.
Providing dimensions in multiple locations increases the chance that not
all dimensions will be updated as changes occur during the design
process.

The clarity of the details used in plan sets should be a primary concern of
designers. Only the simplest details should combine the presentation of
concrete geometry and reinforcement. In most cases there is less
confusion if two details are used, one to convey concrete geometry and a
second to identify and locate reinforcement.

All sheets (except survey sheets) shall show the initials of the individuals
responsible for the design, drafting, design check, and drafting check of
each sheet. Similarly, all sheets (except survey sheets) must be certified
by a Professional Engineer licensed in the State of Minnesota.

If plan sheets containing standards (Standard Bridge Details Part I and
Part II, or Bridge Standard Plans) are changed (other than simply filling
in blanks), place the word “MODIFIED” under the B-Detail or Figure
Number. Also add a box containing a note which states what was
modified to help plan readers quickly locate them.



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-53

2.4.2.1 Drafting
Standards
2.4.2.2 Drafting
Guidelines
In most cases, details are presented with stationing increasing as one
moves from the left side to the right side of the sheet. Always include a
north arrow on plan views. Plan views are typically oriented with north
arrows pointing toward the top or to the right of the sheet. Stationing
increases for northbound and eastbound traffic.


The Bridge Office has adopted standards to be used when drafting plan
sheets. (Download Summary of Recommended Drafting Standards from
the link (Mn/DOT CADD Requirements and CADD Resources) posted at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/.)


Sheet Layout and Continuity
Read plans from a contractor’s perspective to check that they contain all
information needed to build the bridge. Make sure enough dimensions
are given for constructibility. Use extra details for uncommon work. Use
perspective views when clarity is needed.

Use sheets efficiently. Balance the drawings on sheets to avoid one
sheet being empty while another is crowded. Use additional sheets, as
needed, to avoid crowding details on sheets. Make sure that details,
data, and other information given on more than one sheet agree between
sheets. Avoid unnecessary repetition of details and notes.

Large-scale corner details are required for all skewed bridges and for
other complex corners.

Round dimensions to the nearest
1
/
8
of an inch.

Note and dimension bar splices.

Cross-referencing sheets to details is recommended.

Use bill of reinforcement tables for all but very minor reinforced concrete
work. Do not enlarge details (such as rebar bends) just to fill up space.
Referencing bar bend details by letter to various generic shapes should
never be used.

Keep details together for abutments, piers, superstructure, etc.

For abutments, piers, and other complex drawings, use different views
and sections to separate dimensions and reinforcement.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-54

Place pile design loads and notes pertaining to a particular substructure
on the sheet that contains the footing plan view.

For bridges with numerous footings and curved alignment, a separate
foundation layout drawing is recommended.

If the plan contains numerous variable dimensions and other data
(especially for framing plans and beams), make use of tables to keep this
data in order.

On the Framing Plan, show bearing type beside each bearing point
instead of lines and arrows, which tend to clutter the drawing.

For simple beam spans (prestressed beams, etc.), dimension beam
spacing at pier cap along centerline of the pier(s). Include supplemental
dimensions along centerline of bearing for curved and flared structures.

On jobs with staged construction, use enough drawings to clearly indicate
how the bridge construction is to be coordinated with the staging. Keep
structure units together. Reinforcement and quantity tabulations are to
be split between stages.

On rehabilitation jobs, clearly indicate cut lines and extent of all
removals. If there is a saw cut, be sure to use a straight line (WT=5). If
elevations are taken off original plans, note as such and require the
contractor to verify elevations in the field.

When it appears that plan notes, such as procedure descriptions,
specifications, etc., will become excessively wordy relegate these notes
to the special provisions.

List general notes first and specific numbered notes last. Specific detail
notes should be numbered with circles and referenced to the detail to
which they apply. Place all notes together on the right hand side of the
sheet.

Leave extra lines in the Summary of Quantities and Bill of Reinforcement
for additions. Also, leave extra space in the list of notes.

Use the words “will” and “shall” correctly. “Will” refers to the portion of
work to be performed by the owner (Mn/DOT). “Shall” refers to the
portion of work to be performed by the Contractor. “Shall” may also be
thought of as a directive to the Contractor.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-55

2.4.2.3 General
Plan and Elevation
Pay Quantities
Make computations neat and readable. Strive for continuity. These
computations may be needed for future reference and the reader must be
able to interpret them.

Box in or underline computation totals for quicker take off. Initial, date,
and put the bridge (or job) number on every computation sheet.

Two sets of independently worked quantity computations are required for
each pay item.

Arrange design and quantity computations into a neat and orderly
package.


The General Plan and Elevation sheet is intended to summarize the
primary features and horizontal geometry of the bridge. Figure 2.4.2.3.1
shows an example General Plan and Elevation sheet and Figure 2.4.2.3.2
shows a Typical Cross Section sheet with pay items.

Plan
On the plan view identify the following: working points, working line,
centerlines, bench mark disks, utilities, location of inplace bridges or
substructures, ditch drains, deck drains, lights, and name plate. Label
the following: span lengths, deck width, size of angles between the
working line and centerlines, horizontal curves, minimum horizontal
clearance to substructure units, point of minimum vertical clearance for
each roadway under the bridge, extent of slope protection, roadway
stationing and elevations, and distance between twin bridges. Provide a
north arrow. Tie bridge dimensions to working points. Show the
direction of traffic for each design lane.

Elevation
Present the primary vertical geometry of the bridge on the elevation
view. This consists of vertical curve data, end slopes, existing ground
lines, footing elevations, limits of excavation, grading notes, ditch clean
out along railroad tracks, and scale. Label bearings as fixed, expansion,
or integral. Also label piers, spans, abutments, and slope protection.

For bridges over waterways, hydraulic information must be provided.
Required information includes: channel bottom width, low member
elevation, design high water elevation, and assumed flowline elevation.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-56

For grade separation bridges, provide the minimum vertical and
horizontal clearances. In addition, provide the dimension from centerline
of pier to toe of slope protection. If there is no side pier, give the
dimension from toe of slope to centerline of roadway. Dimension the
pier, lane, and shoulder widths on the roadway under. Lane slopes on
the roadway under are typically omitted, but can be provided if space
permits.

When illustrating slope protection use a straight slope line; do not follow
the ditch radius curve. To reduce confusion concerning slopes, do not
show slopes as 1:2. Many individuals are unsure of whether the first or
second number is the horizontal part of the slope. Show the slopes
graphically. Where slopes need to be provided in text, explicitly call out
the slopes (e.g., 1 vertical to 2 horizontal).

Typical Cross Section
The typical cross section is the third general view of the structure.
Combined with the general plan and elevation views, the primary
geometry of the bridge should be conveyed. On the typical cross section
show transverse bridge dimensions, lane widths and slopes, beam depth
and spacing for all spans, roadway slab and concrete wearing course
thicknesses, type of railing, medians, sidewalks, profile grade location,
working line, and all centerlines.

For staged construction projects, include the inplace, interim, and final
cross sections with anchored safety barrier locations.

For complex projects, consider creating a separate plan sheet for pay
items and notes for clarity.

Utilities
Show all utilities that may affect bridge construction. Note what is to be
done with them (will they be moved, will they no longer be used or do
they need to be protected during construction).

Miscellaneous
Provide a Design Data block on the General Plan and Elevation Sheet of
the bridge plan set. The information given in the block provides a
summary of the primary parameters used for the design. Information in
the Design Data block includes: design specifications, design method,
design live load, design material strengths, future wearing course
assumed in the design, deck area, traffic data, and the operating rating
for the new structure.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-57

Also on this sheet, identify the governing standard specifications for
construction. Show a north arrow on the plan view and include a block
for engineering certification. Present applicable project numbers on the
first sheet; project numbers depend on specific funding sources, so there
may be both state and federal project numbers.

Review the title block to ensure it accurately describes the bridge. Within
the title block provide span lengths to the nearest foot and the bridge
type identification number. The three-character identification number
should follow the numbering scheme provided in Appendix 2-A.

Include any additional standard construction notes and the sheet list for
the plan set on the first sheet of the plan set. Provide the schedule of
quantities for the entire bridge in tabular form on the second or third
sheet of the plan.

Standard practice for placement of bench marks and bridge nameplates is
as follows. Place a single nameplate on the southeast corner of the
bridge for a roadway running north and south. For a roadway running
east and west, provide the nameplate at the northeast corner. On twin
bridges place a nameplate on each right hand corner approaching bridge.
For railroad and pedestrian bridges, place the nameplate on a
substructure unit. On reconstructed bridges, install a new nameplate
with the original year completed and the year the bridge was renovated.
Place a bench mark disk on the southeast corner of each bridge. If the
bridge is over 250 feet in length, or if there is an elevation difference of
more than 10 feet, place a second bench mark disk on the bridge. Place
the second disk in the northeast corner for roadways running north and
south and in the southwest corners for roadways running east and west.

Check if ditch drainage pipe is necessary for the project. If drainage pipe
is necessary and the contract has multiple portions (grading, bridge,
etc.), identify which portion of the contract contains the pipe. Label ditch
drainage pipe on plan and elevation views.

Concrete or aggregate slope protection is used along a highway or
railway (grade separation structures). Aggregate slope protection is used
more frequently when pedestrian traffic below the bridge is limited.
Stream crossings use riprap slope protection supported on a granular or
geotextile filter. The Preliminary Bridge Plan will indicate the type of
slope protection to be used.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-58

Figure 2.4.2.3.1
General Plan and Elevation



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-59

Figure 2.4.2.3.2
Typical Cross Section



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-60

2.4.2.4 Bridge
Layout and Staking
Plan
The Bridge Layout Sheet is used by surveyors to locate the bridge in
space with its primary geometry. The primary geometry consists of
centerline of roadway(s) and centerline of substructure bearings.
Working points are located on substructure bearing centerlines where
they are intersected by fascia beam lines and working lines. By providing
stationing, X-coordinates, and Y-coordinates for each of the working
points, the position of the bridge can be fixed. Figure 2.4.2.4.1 contains
an example.

In Figure 2.4.2.4.1 the working line and its azimuth are labeled. Also
shown is the angle of intersection between the working line and each of
the substructure units and roadways under the bridge. As a primary
geometry line, the working line should be labeled throughout plan set.

Place the control point at the intersection of the survey line and
centerline of cross road, track etc. For river crossings, place the control
point at an abutment centerline of bearing. Label the control point with
its coordinates. Coordinates of the control point and the working points
should be given to three decimals of a foot. Tie the working point layout
to the control point. Present dimensions in feet (a note on the sheet
should say the same).

List the coordinates for all working points in a table labeled
“DIMENSIONS BETWEEN WORKING POINTS”. Stations and the distances
between working points should be presented to the nearest 0.01 foot.
Coordinates are assumed to be State Plane coordinates. If another
system is used, place a note on the sheet identifying the system used.

In addition to horizontal geometry, a limited amount of vertical geometry
is provided on the Bridge Layout Sheet. The vertical geometry consists
of elevations and drops. The elevation at the top of roadway and the
bridge seat is provided for all working points located on beam lines and is
appended to the “DIMENSIONS BETWEEN WORKING POINTS” table.

Drop or elevation difference information is provided for each substructure
unit. Drop information is summarized in the “TOP OF ROADWAY TO
BRIDGE SEAT” table. The table should contain the following items:
1) Deck Thickness
2) Stool Height
3) Beam Height
4) Bearing Height
5) Total Height



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-61

If the drop dimension is the same for all beam lines, provide a single
value for each substructure unit. If the drop dimensions vary at
substructure locations, provide a value for each beam line. Total values
should be given in both inches and decimals of a foot to two places.





MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-62

Figure 2.4.2.4.1
Bridge Layout



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-63

2.4.2.5 Standard
Abbreviations
2.4.2.6 I nclusion
of Standard Bridge
Details in Plan Sets
2.4.2.7 Use of
Bridge Standard
Plans
2.4.2.8 Standard
Plan Notes
Use standard abbreviations to clarify information on plan sets and reduce
the clutter on a crowded plan sheet. Appendix 2-C presents a list of
standard abbreviations that can be utilized in a plan. Define
abbreviations used in a plan set on the sheet where they are used or as
part of a General Notes sheet.


There are two parts to the Bridge Details: Part I and Part II. They have
been published on the Bridge Office Web site at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ . Bridge details are intended, where
applicable, to be incorporated into a set of bridge plans. The Bridge
Details Part I is usually called B-Details. The details are presented in a
“portrait” orientation on an 8 1/2" x 11" sheet. Available B-Details are
listed in Appendix 2-D. The 100 series contains nameplate details, the
200 series has pile splices, the 300 series has bearing details, and the
400 series has a variety of steel superstructure/diaphragm/cross frame
details. A slab protection plate is provided in Detail B553. The 700
series contains floor drain details and the 800 series contains
joint/diaphragm/railing details. Miscellaneous details are collected in the
900 series.

Bridge Details Part II is listed in Appendix 2-E. These details occupy an
entire plan sheet. The majority of these details are for railings, parapets,
medians, and prestressed concrete beams.


Similar to Bridge Details Part II, Bridge Standard Plans are intended to be
incorporated into bridge plan sets and occupy an entire plan sheet. The
information presented may be much more in-depth as the information for
multiple designs is presented on a single sheet. An example is retaining
walls; designs for a number of retained earth heights are presented on a
single sheet.

Bridge Standard Plans consist of culverts and retaining walls. Appendix
2-F lists available culvert standards. Retaining wall standards are listed
in Appendix 2-G.


Similar to other plan elements, standard plan notes have been prepared
to increase the consistency of information presented on final design
plans. Plan notes serve a variety of purposes; they communicate design
criteria, specific construction requirements, and a variety of notes
pertaining to the construction or fabrication of specific bridge elements.



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-64

2.4.2.9 Quantity
Notes and Pay
I tems
Appendix 2-H contains the Standard Plan Notes. These notes have been
grouped into the following categories:
• Design Data
• Construction Notes
• Drainage and Erosion Control
• Excavation and Earthwork
• Reinforcement
• Piling and Footings
• Materials, Fabrication and Erection
• Concrete Pours
• Welded Steel Bearing Assemblies
• Cutting and Removal of Old Concrete
• Joints and Joint Sealer
• Timber Bridges
• Miscellaneous

Designers unfamiliar with Mn/DOT’s Standard Plan Notes should review
the list prior to beginning final design. Reviewing the notes prior to
design will familiarize designers with the material properties to be used,
and other constraints typically placed on construction. A second review
of the notes should be performed at the end of design to ensure that all
applicable notes were incorporated into the plan set.


Standard Summary of Quantities Notes
During construction, contractors are compensated according to the work
they complete. The value of the work completed is identified when the
contractor submits their bid. For each work item or pay item the
contractor must supply a price. The pay items are coordinated with
specifications and special provisions. To clarify what is included in a
specific pay item, the Bridge Office has assembled a Standard Summary
of Quantity Notes. Like other plan elements, these notes help ensure
uniformity across plan sets and permit Mn/DOT to generate a historical
price database that can be used to estimate the cost of future bridges.
The Standard Summary of Quantities Notes for bridge projects is listed in
Appendix 2-I.

Pay Items
A list of Standard Pay Items is provided in Appendix 2-J. Items for which
payment to the contractor will be based on plan quantities are identified
with a “(P)” as an appendix to the item label.




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-65

2.4.3 Revised
Sheets
Miscellaneous
Round off quantities to the nearest pay item unit except for the following:
• Earth excavation to nearest 10 cubic yards.
• Reinforcement bars and structural metal to nearest 10 pounds.
• Piling lengths to nearest 5 feet.

When computing small bituminous quantities use the following:
Wearing course = 110 pounds / square yard / inch thickness

Shoulder or Wearing Course – 6.5%
0.065 (thickness in inches) (110 pounds) = ___ pounds / sq. yard

Tack Coat = 0.03 gallons / square yard

Binder or Base Course – 5.3%
0.053 (thickness in inches) (110 pounds) = ____ pounds / sq. yard

Deck area shall be computed (rounded to the nearest square foot) by
multiplying the transverse out-to-out bridge width by the longitudinal
end-of-deck to end-of-deck distance. (Do not include bridge approach
panels or paving brackets.)


Sometimes, revisions to the plan are required after the letting due to an
error found in the plan or other issues that arise during construction.
When this occurs, use the following procedure:
1) Make the necessary revisions to the sheet in the electronic file and
add a revision block that includes a description of the revision. (See
Figure 2.4.3.1.)
2) Plot and certify the revised sheet.
3) Draft a transmittal letter from the Bridge Design Engineer to the
Resident Engineer in the district construction office. Submit the letter
and the revised sheet to the Bridge Design Engineer for distribution.

Figure 2.4.3.1





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-66

2.5 Reconstruction
Guidelines and
Details
2.5.1
Superstructure
2.5.1.1 Railings
Typical details for the reconstruction of railings, superstructure joints,
and pavement joints are presented in this section.


[Future manual content]














The following figures show typical details for railing reconstruction:
Figure 2.5.1.1.1 One-Line Railing Reconstruction on Existing Deck
Figure 2.5.1.1.2 F-Railing Reconstruction on Existing Deck

Figure 2.5.1.1.1
Railings



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-67

Figure 2.5.1.1.2
Railings



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-68

2.5.1.2 Wearing
Course
2.5.1.3
Expansion/ Fixed
J oints
[Future manual content]








The following figures show typical details for the reconstruction of
expansion joints and fixed joints:
Figure 2.5.1.3.1 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type A
Figure 2.5.1.3.2 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type B
Figure 2.5.1.3.3 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type C
Figure 2.5.1.3.4 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type D
Figure 2.5.1.3.5 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type D
Figure 2.5.1.3.6 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type E
Figure 2.5.1.3.7 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type F
Figure 2.5.1.3.8 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type X
Figure 2.5.1.3.9 Reconstruct Expansion Joint Type X
Figure 2.5.1.3.10 Reconstruct Fixed Joint Type A
Figure 2.5.1.3.11 Reconstruct Fixed Joint Type A

Expansion/Fixed Joint Reconstruction Pay Items
• Item No. 2433.603 “Reconstruct Expansion Joint, Type ____”, Lin. Ft.
• Type A – Replace sliding plate or inplace waterproof device with
new waterproof joint.
• Type B – Slab over parapet and contraction type abutments
replace joint with waterproof joint at same location.
• Type C – Slab over parapet, replace joint with waterproof joint at
front of parapet.
• Type D – Replace cork joint at pier with waterproof joint.
• Type E – Replace joint at hinge with waterproof joint.
• Type F – Replace finger joints with waterproof joint or raise device
and place a waterproof trough.
• Type X – Evazote material joint.
• Type Special – None of the above or a combination of the above.

• Item No. 2433.603 “Reconstruct Fixed Joint, Type ____”, Lin. Ft.
• Type A – Eliminate inplace joint
• Type B – Install waterstop
• Type Special – None of the above





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-69

Figure 2.5.1.3.1
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-70

Figure 2.5.1.3.2
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-71

Figure 2.5.1.3.3
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-72

Figure 2.5.1.3.4
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-73

Figure 2.5.1.3.5
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-74

Figure 2.5.1.3.6
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-75

Figure 2.5.1.3.7
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-76

Figure 2.5.1.3.8
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-77

Figure 2.5.1.3.9
Expansion J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-78

Figure 2.5.1.3.10
Fixed J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-79


Figure 2.5.1.3.11
Fixed J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-80

2.5.2 Substructure
2.5.2.1 Abutments
2.5.2.2 Piers
2.5.3 Pavement
[Future manual content]






[Future manual content]






[Future manual content]








The following figures show typical details for pavement joint
reconstruction:
Figure 2.5.3.1 Reconstruct Pavement Joint Type A
Figure 2.5.3.2 Reconstruct Pavement Joint Type B
Figure 2.5.3.3 Reconstruct Pavement Joint Type C
Figure 2.5.3.4 Reconstruct Pavement Joint Type Special
Figure 2.5.3.5 Reconstruct Pavement Joint Type Special

Pavement Joint Reconstruction Pay Items
• Item No. 2433.603 “Reconstruct Pavement Joint, Type ____”, Lin. Ft.
• Type A – Approach panel or roadway, remove inplace protection
angles and compression seals and recast concrete. (Eliminate
Joint.)
• Type B – Approach panel, replace inplace joint or crack with
concrete sill and 4" relief joint.
• Type C – Remove protection angles and replace with roadway
joint.
• Type Special – None of the above or a combination of the above.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-81

Figure 2.5.3.1
Pavement J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-82

Figure 2.5.3.2
Pavement J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-83

Figure 2.5.3.3
Pavement J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-84

Figure 2.5.3.4
Pavement J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-85

Figure 2.5.3.5
Pavement J oints



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-86

2.6 Construction
Requirements
Mn/DOT’s general practices and guidelines for the construction of bridges
are presented in Mn/DOT’s Bridge Construction Manual. The manual
number is 5-393. It contains sections on:
.050 Preparation of Foundation and Backfill
.100 Pile Driving
.150 Falsework and Forms
.200 Metal Reinforcement
.250 Concrete Bridge Construction
.300 Timber Construction
.350 Steel Construction
.400 Surface Preparation and Painting Structural Steel
.650 Slope Protection
.700 Construction on Railroad Right-of-Way

The contract documents for the project shall explicitly state the required
submittals and the qualifications of the individuals responsible for the
preparation of falsework and other submittals.

Falsework and forms are to be designed in accordance with the AASHTO
Guide Design Specifications for Bridge Temporary Works. Falsework
submittals shall meet the requirements of Bridge Special Provision
No. BS2ME-2401.2.

Submittals describing proposed temporary shoring for works adjacent to
railroad tracks require approval by the railroad.

The details or specifics of a temporary shoring design are to be detailed
in the plans with consideration given to the domestic availability of the
materials used. Frequently, showing the location of the sheeting and the
minimum required section modulus is sufficient. However, designers
should satisfy themselves that adequate clearances have been provided
for at least one reasonable shoring scheme for staged construction
projects. If more complex details are required, they must be provided in
the plans. See Sections 11.3.7 and 11.3.8 for more guidance.





APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-87

APPENDIX 2-A
BRIDGE TYPE NUMBERS

MINNESOTA BRIDGE TYPE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (3 characters)

First Digit
(Material)

Second & Third Digits
(Bridge Type)
1 Concrete 01 Beam Span
2 Concrete Continuous 02 Low Truss
3 Steel 03 High Truss
4 Steel Continuous 04 Deck Truss
5 Prestress 05 Thru Girder
6 Prestress Continuous 06 Deck Girder
7 Timber 07 Box Girder
8 Masonry 08 Rigid Frame
9 Wrought or Cast Iron 09 Slab Span
O Other 10 Slab Span-Voided
A Aluminum 11 Channel Span
P Post Tensioned 12 Arch
13 Box Culvert
14 Pipe Culvert (Round)
15 Pipe Arch
16 Long Span
17 Tunnel
18 Movable
19 Other
20 Double Tee
21 Quad Tee
22 Bulb Tee
23 Suspension
24 Tied Arch


EXAMPLES
BRIDGE TYPE ID NUMBER
Continuous Concrete Multiple Box Girders 207
Simple Span Concrete Slab 109
Tunnel in Rock 017
Prestressed Beam Span 501 approach span
Steel Continuous Beam Span 401 main span
Concrete Channel Span 111

Note: A bridge may have one identification number for main span
and another number for approach span. Identify main
span and approach span accordingly.



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-88

APPENDIX 2-B *
BRIDGE SPECIAL PROVISIONS - 2000 Mn/DOT CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS



NO. TITLE
BS1ME-1 INDEX (COMBINED)
BS2ME-1 BRIDGE PLANS
BS2ME-1508 (1508) CONSTRUCTION STAKES, LINES, AND GRADES
BS2ME-1706 (1706) EMPLOYEE HEALTH AND WELFARE
BS2ME-1707 (1707) CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS ADJACENT TO ROADWAYS
BS2ME-1709 (1709) NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS
BS2ME-1717 (1717) AIR, LAND AND WATER POLLUTION
BS2ME-1803 (1803) PROSECUTION OF WORK
BS2ME-1807.1 (1807) FAILURE TO COMPLETE WORK ON TIME
BS2ME-1807.2 (1807) FAILURE TO COMPLETE WORK ON TIME
BS2ME-1901 (1901) MEASUREMENT OF QUANTITIES
BS2ME-2104 (2104) REMOVAL OF REGULATED WASTE (BRIDGE)
BS2ME-2105 BRIDGE ABUTMENT CONSTRUCTION
BS2ME-2301 BRIDGE APPROACH PANELS
BS2ME-2350 PLANT MIXED ASPHALT PAVEMENT
BS2ME-2401 (2401) CONCRETE BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
BS2ME-2401.1 Concrete Aggregate for Bridges
BS2ME-2401.2 Falsework and Forms and Bridge Slab Placement
BS2ME-2401.3 Beam Tie Downs for Slab Construction
BS2ME-2401.4 Bridge Slab
BS2ME-2401.5 Placement of Concrete in High Abutments
BS2ME-2401.6 Slipforming of Bridge Railing Prohibited
BS2ME-2401.7 Placement of Concrete
BS2ME-2401.8 Bridge Slabs
BS2ME-2401.9 Joint Filler and Sealer
BS2ME-2401.10 Architectural Concrete Texture
BS2ME-2401.11 Finish of Concrete
BS2ME-2401.12 Finish of Concrete
BS2ME-2401.13 Finish of Inplace Concrete
BS2ME-2401.15 Reverse Batten Surface Treatment
BS2ME-2401.16 Ordinary Surface Finish
BS2ME-2401.17 Strike-off and Screeding of Bridge Structural Slab
BS2ME-2401.18 Roadway Finish of Bridge Slabs
BS2ME-2401.19 Median Construction
* Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge Special Provisions



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-89

APPENDIX 2-B * (Continued)
BRIDGE SPECIAL PROVISIONS - 2000 Mn/DOT CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS



NO. TITLE
BS2ME-2401.20 Curing Bridge Deck Slabs
BS2ME-2401.21 POST TENSIONING SYSTEM
BS2ME-2401.22 Placing Subsequent Concrete Pours
BS2ME-2401.23 Integral Concrete Diaphragms
BS2ME-2402 (2402) STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
BS2ME-2402.2 Dimensional Tolerances
BS2ME-2402.3 Fracture Critical Steel Bridge Members
BS2ME-2402.4 Expansion Joint Devices
BS2ME-2402.5 Modular Bridge Joint System
BS2ME-2402.6 Metal Railing
BS2ME-2402.7 Pot Bearing Assemblies
BS2ME-2402.8 Cast Bearing Assembly
BS2ME-2402.9 Existing Cover Plate Weld Inspection
BS2ME-2402.10 Bolted Connections
BS2ME-2403 (2403) TIMBER BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
BS2ME-2404 (2404) CONCRETE WEARING COURSE FOR BRIDGES
BS2ME-2404.1 Concrete Wearing Course 3U17A
BS2ME-2404.2 Concrete Wearing Course 3U17A
BS2ME-2404.3 Roadway Finish of Bridge Slabs
BS2ME-2405 (2405) PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS
BS2ME-2405.1 Prestressed Concrete Fabricator Certification
BS2ME-2405.2 Steel Intermediate Diaphragms
BS2ME-2405.3 Concrete Finish of Exterior Beams
BS2ME-2405.4 Prestress Transfer
BS2ME-2433 (2433) STRUCTURE RENOVATION
BS2ME-2433.1 Structure Removals
BS2ME-2433.2 Remove Concrete Bridge Deck
BS2ME-2433.3 Anchorages
BS2ME-2433.4 Grouted Anchorages
BS2ME-2433.5 Bridge Surface Sealing
BS2ME-2433.6 Removal of Existing Steel Members
BS2ME-2442 (2442) REMOVAL OF OLD BRIDGES
BS2ME-2451 (2451) STRUCTURE EXCAVATIONS AND BACKFILLS
BS2ME-2451.1 Structure Excavation
* Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge Special Provisions



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-90

APPENDIX 2-B * (Continued)
BRIDGE SPECIAL PROVISIONS - 2000 Mn/DOT CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS



NO. TITLE
BS2ME-2451.2 Aggregate Backfill
BS2ME-2451.3 Foundation Backfill
BS2ME-2451.4 Foundation Preparation (Pier Nos. ______ )
BS2ME-2451.5 Foundation Preparation (Pier Nos. ______ )
BS2ME-2451.6 Foundation Exploration
BS2ME-2451.7 Foundation Preparation for Pile Bent Pier(s) – Bridge No(s). ______
BS2ME-2451.8 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls with Precast Concrete Panels
BS2ME-2452 (2452) PILING
BS2ME-2452.1 Delivery and Inspection of Piling
BS2ME-2452.3 Pile Tip Protection
BS2ME-2452.4 Pile Points
BS2ME-2452.5 Pile Redriving
BS2ME-2452.6 Pile Load Test
BS2ME-2452.7 Dynamic Monitoring of Pile Driving
BS2ME-2452.8 Substitution for Steel H-Piling
BS2ME-2452.9 Substitution for Steel H-Piling Prohibited
BS2ME-2452.10 Substantial Refusal
BS2ME-2453 (2453) DRILLED SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
BS2ME-2461 (2461) STRUCTURAL CONCRETE
BS2ME-2471 (2471) STRUCTURAL METALS
BS2ME-2472 (2472) METAL REINFORCEMENT
BS2ME-2472.1 Couplers for Reinforcement Bars
BS2ME-2472.2 Slab Bar Supports
BS2ME-2476.1 METHODS FOR PAINT REMOVAL AND WASTE DISPOSAL
BS2ME-2476.2 CONTAINMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE MATERIALS
BS2ME-2478 (2478) SHOP OR FIELD APPLIED EPOXY ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM
BS2ME-2478.1 Removal of Soluble Salts
BS2ME-2479 (2479) SHOP AND FIELD APPLIED INORGANIC ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM
BS2ME-2502 DRAINAGE SYSTEM FOR HIGH ABUTMENTS
BS2ME-2514.1 FABRIC-FORMED SLOPE PAVING
BS2ME-2514.2 (2514) SLOPE PAVING
BS2ME-2545 CONDUIT SYSTEMS
BS2ME-2557.1 (2557) FENCING
* Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge Special Provisions



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-91

APPENDIX 2-B * (Continued)
BRIDGE SPECIAL PROVISIONS - 2000 Mn/DOT CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO. TITLE
BS2ME-2557.2 (2557) FENCING
BS2ME-3310 (3310) HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY COLUMBIUM-VANADIUM STEEL
BS2ME-3316 (3316) HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL (345 MPa Y.S.)
BS2ME-3317 (3317) HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL (485 MPa Y.S.)
BS2ME-3371 (3371) STEEL SHELLS FOR CONCRETE PILING
BS2ME-3471 (3471) TIMBER PILING
BS2ME-3741 (3741) ELASTOMERIC BEARING PADS


* Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge Special Provisions



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-92

APPENDIX 2-C
STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS

ABBREVIATION REPRESENTS ABBREVIATION REPRESENTS ABBREVIATION REPRESENTS
A.A.S.H.T.O.
American
Association of
State Highway
and
Transportation
Officials
ABT. About ABUT. Abutment
A.D.T.
Average Daily
Traffic
A.D.T.T.
Average Daily
Truck Traffic
APPR. Approach
ALT. Alternate APPROX. Approximate ASSY. Assembly
AZ. Azimuth @ At
B.F. Back Face BIT. Bituminous B.M. Bench Mark
BM Beam BOT. Bottom BR. Bridge
BRG. Bearing BTWN. Between
C & G Curb and Gutter C-I-P Cast-in-Place
C
L

Centerline
CL. (or CLR.) Clear C.M.P.
Corrugated Metal
Pipe
COL. Column
COMP. Composite CONC. Concrete CONST. Construction
CONT.
Continuous or
Continued
C.S.A.H.
County State Aid
Highway
CU. Cubic
CULV. Culvert
D.C. Degree of Curve DET. Detail D.H.V.
Design Hourly
Volume
D.H.W.
Design High
Water
DIA. Diameter DIAPH. Diaphragm
D.L. Dead Load DWL. Dowel
E. East E.B.L. East Bound Lanes E.F. Each Face
EA. Each ELEV. (or EL.) Elevation ENGR. Engineer
EQ. Equal EXP. Expansion
F. Fahrenheit F.B.M.
Foot Board
Measure
F.F. Front Face
F.L. Flowline FIN. Finished FIX Fixed
FT. Foot (Feet) FTG. Footing
G1 Grade One G2 Grade Two GA. Gage
H.W. High Water HORIZ. Horizontal HWY. Highway
INPL. Inplace
JCT. Junction JT. Joint
KWY. Keyway
L. Length of Curve L.L. Live Load L.W. Low Water
LB. Pound LIN. Linear LT. Left
LONG. (LONGIT.) Longitudinal



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-93

APPENDIX 2-C (Continued)
STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS

ABBREVIATION REPRESENTS ABBREVIATION REPRESENTS ABBREVIATION REPRESENTS
m Meter mm Millimeter M.B.M.
Thousand Board
Feet
M.L. Main Line M.O. Maximum Offset MAX. Maximum
MIN. Minimum MISC. Miscellaneous
N. (or NO.) North N.B.L.
North Bound
Lanes
NO. Number
O.D. Outside Diameter
P.C. Point of Curvature P.C.C.
Point of
Compound Curve
P.G. Profile Grade
P.I.
Point of
Intersection
P.O.C. Point on Curve P.O.T. Point on Tangent
P.S.I.
Pounds per
Square Inch
P.T. Point of Tangency PED. Pedestrian
P
L
. Plate PRESTR. Prestressed
PROJ.
Project /
Projection
PROV. Provision PT. Point
R. Radius R.O.W. Right of Way R.R. Railroad
R.S.C.
Rigid Steel
Conduit
RDWY. Roadway REINF.
Reinforced,
Reinforcing/ment
REQ’D. Required REV. Revised RT. Right
S. (or SO.) South S.B.L.
South Bound
Lanes

SEC. Section SDWK. Sidewalk SHLDR. Shoulder
SHT. Sheet SP. / SPS. Spaces SPA. Spaced
SPEC.
Special /
Specification
SPG. Spacing SQ. Square
STA. Station STD. Standard STIFF. Stiffener
STL. Steel STR. (or STRUC.) Structure SUBGR. Subgrade
SUPER. Superelevation SUPERST. Superstructure SYM. Symmetrical
T. & B. Top and Bottom T.H. Trunk Highway T.T.C. Tangent to Curve
TAN. Tangent TWP. Township TYP. Typical
V.C. Vertical Curve V.P.C.
Vertical Point of
Curvature
V.P.I.
Vertical Point of
Intersection
V.P.T.
Vertical Point of
Tangency
VAR. Varies VERT. Vertical
W. WEST W.B.L. West Bound Lane W.C. Wearing Course
W.P. Working Point W.W. Wingwall
YD. Yard





MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-94

APPENDIX 2-D*
BRIDGE DETAILS PART I (B-DETAILS)

NAME DESCRIPTION
B101 Bridge Nameplate (For New Bridges)
B102 Bridge Nameplate (For Bridge Reconstruction)
B201 Pile Splice (Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles)
B202 Pile Splice (Steel H Bearing Piles 10" To 14")
B303 Sole Plate (Prestressed Concrete Beams) (For Bearings With Pintles)
B304
Elastomeric Fixed Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams)
(For Replacement Of Inplace Bearings Only)
B305
Elastomeric Bearing Pad (Prestressed Concrete Beams)
B308
Elastomeric Bearing Assembly (22" And 30" Concrete Double Tee Beams)
(Fixed and Expansion)
B310 Curved Plate Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Fixed)
B311 Curved Plate Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Expansion)
B312
Pot Type Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams)
(Guided Expansion)
B313
Pot Type Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams)
(Non-Guided Expansion)
B314 Pot Type Bearing Assembly (Steel Beams) (Guided Expansion)
B315 Pot Type Bearing Assembly (Steel Beams) (Non-Guided Expansion)
B316 Pot Type Bearing Assembly (Steel Beams) (Fixed)
B317 Curved Cast Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Fixed)
B318 Curved Cast Bearing Assembly (Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Expansion)

B354 Curved Plate Bearing Assembly (Steel Beams) (Fixed)
B355 Curved Plate Bearing Assembly (Steel Beams) (Expansion)
B357 Curved Plate Bearing Assembly (Steel Beams) (Vulcanized Expansion)
B400 Splices For Rolled Steel Beams (3309 Steel)
B402 Bolted Diaphragms (For Steel Beams)
B403
Steel Intermediate Diaphragm
(For 36M - 54M Prestressed Concrete Beams)
B406
Steel Intermediate Bolted Diaphragm
(For 63M – 81M Prestressed Concrete Beams)
B407 Cross Frame Intermediate Diaphragm (For Steel Beams)
B408 Cross Frame Intermediate Diaphragm (For Curved Steel Beams)
B410 Bolted Flange To Stiffener Detail (For Straight Steel Beams Only)
B411 Stiffener Details (For Steel Beams)
B553 Protection Plate (For End Of Slab)
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-95

APPENDIX 2-D* (Continued)
BRIDGE DETAILS PART I (B-DETAILS)


NAME DESCRIPTION
B701 Bridge Floor Drain (Welded Box)
B702 Bridge Floor Drain (Structural Tube)
B705 Bridge Offset Floor Drain (Welded Box)
B706 Bridge Offset Floor Drain (Structural Tube)
B710 Floor Drain For Tee Beams
B801 Contraction Joint
B807
Concrete End Diaphragm (For Double Tee Beam Spans With Contraction Abutment)
B809 Concrete End Diaphragm (For Steel Beams With Contraction Abutment)
B811
Concrete End Diaphragm
(27M – 81M Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Contraction Abutment)
B812
Concrete End Diaphragm
(63M – 81M Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Parapet Abutment)
B813
Concrete End Diaphragm
(63M – 81M Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Integral Abutment)
B814
Concrete End Diaphragm
(27M - 54M Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Parapet Abutment)
B815
Concrete End Diaphragm
(27M – 54M Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Integral Abutment)
B816
Concrete End Diaphragm
(14", 18" & 22" Rectangular Prestressed Concrete Beams) (Integral Abutment)
B822 Concrete Pier Diaphragm (For Double Tee Beams)
B830 Concrete Railing (Type F) (Slipform Alternate)
B831 Concrete Parapet Railing (Slipform Alternate)
B850
Concrete Relief Joint Detail
(Bridge Reconstruction On Trunk Highway Bridges)
B901 Median Sign Post Anchor
B905 Fence Post Anchorage
B910 Drainage System (For High Abutments)
B911
Drainage System (For Slab Over Parapet Abutments)
(With No Approach Treatment)
B920
Portable Precast Barrier Anchorage
(Temporary Usage In Limited Barrier Displacement Areas)
B922 Portable Precast Barrier Anchorage (Temporary Usage On Roadways)
B935 Triple Beam Guardrail
B942 Inspection Door (In Vertical Or Horizontal Position)
B950 Anchor Bolt Cluster for Light Pole
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-96

APPENDIX 2-E *
BRIDGE DETAILS PART II

NAME DESCRIPTION
Fig. 5-397.114
Concrete Railing (Type F) With Separate End Post
(Without Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.115
Concrete Railing (Type F) With Integral End Post
(Without Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.116
Concrete Railing (Type F) With Separate End Post
(With Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.117
Concrete Railing (Type F) With Integral End Post
(With Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.119
Wire Fence (Design W-1) And Concrete Parapet (Type P-1)
(With Integral End Post)
Fig. 5-397.120
Wire Fence (Design W-1) And Concrete Parapet (Type P-1)
(With Separate End Post)
Fig. 5-397.121
Concrete Railing (Type F-SW) With Bridge Slab Sidewalk And Separate End Post
(With Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.122
Concrete Railing (Type F-SW) With Bridge Slab Sidewalk And Integral End Post
(With Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.123
Concrete Railing (Type F-SW) With Bridge Slab Sidewalk And Separate End Post
(Without Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.124
Concrete Railing (Type F-SW) With Bridge Slab Sidewalk And Integral End Post
(Without Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.130 Solid Median Barrier – Type F (With Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.131 Split Median Barrier – Type F (With Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.132 Solid Median Barrier And Glare Screen – Type F (With Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.135 Split Median Barrier And Glare Screen – Type F (Without Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.136 Split Median Barrier And Glare Screen – Type F (With Concrete Wearing Course)
Fig. 5-397.137 Offset Split Median Barrier And Glare Screen – Type F (With Concrete Wearing
Course)
Fig. 5-397.154
Metal Railing For Bikeways (Type M-1) And Concrete Parapet (Type P-1)
(With Integral End Post)
Fig. 5-397.157
Structural Tube Railing (Design T-1) And Concrete Parapet (Type P-2)
(With Integral End Post)
Fig. 5-397.158
Structural Tube Railing (Design T-2) And Conc. Railing (Type F)
Or Conc. Parapet (Type P-1)
Fig. 5-397.202
5 Ft. Wire Fence (Design W-1)For Pedestrian Bridges
Fig. 5-397.205
8 Ft. Wire Fence For Pedestrian Walks
Fig. 5-397.212
Structural Tube Railing With Fence (Design T-3) And Concrete Parapet (Type P-1)
Fig. 5-397.300 Grouted Injected Fabric Formed Slope Paving
Fig. 5-397.301 Concrete Slope Paving Under Bridges
Fig. 5-397.302 Stabilized Aggregate Slope Paving Under Bridges
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-97

APPENDIX 2-E * (Continued)
BRIDGE DETAILS PART II


NAME DESCRIPTION
Fig. 5-397.402 Conduit System For ______
Fig. 5-397.403 Conduit System (Lighting) Type F (Or Concrete Parapet and Fence Railing)
Fig. 5-397.504 27" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 27M-______
Fig. 5-397.505 36" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 36M-______
Fig. 5-397.514 45" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 45M-______
Fig. 5-397.515 54" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 54M-______
Fig. 5-397.516 63" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 63M-______
Fig. 5-397.517 72" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 72M-______
Fig. 5-397.518 81" PCB (Pretensioned) Type 81M-______
Fig. 5-397.525
22" Prestressed Concrete Double Tee Beam Type 22-___
6' Or 8' Wide Tee Without Slab
Fig. 5-397.526
30" Prestressed Concrete Double Tee Beam Type 30-___
6' Or 8' Wide Tee Without Slab
Fig. 5-397.550
14", 18" & 22" Rectangular Prestressed Concrete Beam
(Pretensioned) ___ RB-______
Fig. 5-397.627 Waterproof Expansion Device (With Type F Barrier)
Fig. 5-397.628
Waterproof Expansion Device Snow Plow Protection
(Use On Skews Over 15° And Less Than 50°)
Fig. 5-397.630 Waterproof Expansion Device (With Raised Median Or Sidewalk)
Fig. 5-397.900 As-Built Bridge Data
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards *Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-98

APPENDIX 2-F *
BRIDGE STANDARD PLANS: CULVERTS

NAME DESCRIPTION
Fig. 5-395.100 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Tables 2 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.101(A) Barrel Details
Fig. 5-395.101(B) Barrel Details (Special Design)
Fig. 5-395.102
Precast Concrete End Section Type I - Single Or Double Barrel
For Skews Up To 7.5 Degrees
Fig. 5-395.104(A)
Precast Concrete End Section Type III - Single Or Double Barrel
For Skews Up To 7.5 Degrees
Fig. 5-395.104(B)
Precast Concrete End Section Type III - Single Or Double Barrel
For Skews Up To 7.5 Degrees
Fig. 5-395.110(A)
Precast Concrete End Section Type III - Single Or Double Barrel
For Skews 7.5 Degrees To 45 Degrees
Fig. 5-395.110(B)
Precast Concrete End Section Type III - Single Or Double Barrel
For Skews 7.5 Degrees To 45 Degrees
Fig. 5-395.111 Alternate Dropwalls For Box Culverts
Fig. 5-395.115 Embankment Protection For Box Culverts


*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-99

APPENDIX 2-G *
BRIDGE STANDARD PLANS: RETAINING WALLS

NAME DESCRIPTION
Fig. 5-395.200 General Notes And Summary Of Quantities
Fig. 5-395.201 Wall Reinforcement (Panels ______-______ ) (Short Walls)
Fig. 5-395.202 Wall Reinforcement (Panels ______-______ ) (Medium Walls)
Fig. 5-395.203 Wall Reinforcement (Panels ______-______ ) (Tall Walls)
Fig. 5-395.204 Miscellaneous Details I
Fig. 5-395.205 Miscellaneous Details II
Fig. 5-395.206 Panel Tabulations (Level Fill) 4 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.207 Panel Tabulations (2:1 Sloped Fill) 4 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.208 Panel Tabulations (2' – Live Load Surcharge) 4 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.209 Retaining Wall
Fig. 5-395.210 Retaining Wall (Level Fill) 4 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.211 Retaining Wall (2:1 Sloped Fill) 4 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.212 Retaining Wall (2' – Live Load Surcharge) 4 Sheets
Fig. 5-395.213 Concrete Parapet Railing For Retaining Walls
Fig. 5-395.214 Concrete Railing (Type J) For Retaining Walls
Fig. 5-395.215 Light Standard Anchorage For Retaining Walls


*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ for current Bridge CADD Standards



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-100

APPENDIX 2-H
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

A. DESIGN DATA
2004 and Current Interim AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
Load and Resistance Factor Design Method
HL 93 Live Load
Dead Load includes 20 pounds per square foot allowance for future wearing course
modifications

Material Design Properties:
Reinforced Concrete:
f’
c
= 4 ksi n = 8
F
y
= 60 ksi for reinforcement
Prestressed Concrete:
f’
c
= ____ ksi n = 1 (Coordinate with beam detail sheet)
f
pu
= 270 ksi For ½" and 0.6" diameter low relaxation strands
Structural Steel:
F
y
= 36 ksi Structural Steel Spec. 3306
F
y
= 50 ksi Structural Steel Spec. 3309 or 3310
F
y
= 70 ksi Structural Steel Spec. 3317
Cycles for Fatigue Design - _______________
Timber:
F
c
= 1.20 ksi Pile Caps
F
b
= 1.60 ksi Sawn Stringers and Timber Rails
F
b
= 2.40 ksi Glued Laminated Timber Rails
F
b
= 2.40 ksi Glued Laminated Stringers
F
b
= ____ ksi
F
b
= 1.75 ksi Rail Posts
F
b
= 1.20 ksi All Other Timber

Deck Area = __________ square feet
[Coping to Coping and Out to Out of end blocks]
________________ (Projected, Current) ADT for year __________
________________ (Projected, Current) ADTT for year __________
Design Speed = __________ miles per hour
Bridge Operating Rating HS ________

B. CONSTRUCTION NOTES
The 2000 edition of the Minnesota Department of Transportation Standard
Specifications for Construction shall govern.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-101

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

Bridge seat reinforcement shall be carefully placed to avoid interference with drilling
holes for anchor rods. The beams shall be erected in final position prior to drilling
holes for and placing anchor rods.

The first two digits of each bar mark indicate the bar size. Bars marked with the
suffix “E” shall be epoxy coated in accordance with Spec. 3301.

The subsurface utility information in this plan is utility quality level D. This utility
quality level was determined according to the guidelines of CI/ASCE 38-02, entitled
"Standard Guidelines for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility
Data".
[Use on all plans involving excavation.]

[The signature title in the title block on the General Plan and Elevation sheet shall
be as follows:]

Approved _________________________________ Date ____________
State Bridge Engineer

C. DRAINAGE AND EROSION CONTROL
3" diameter non-metallic drains.
[Use this note for weep holes in high wall abutments]

Restore side ditches after placement of slope paving to provide drainage as directed
by the Engineer. Restoration costs shall be included in price bid for Structure
Excavation.
[Use this note on railroad underpass.]

_______________ pipe to be placed under grading portion of contract.
[Use this note with combined Bridge and Roadway contracts only. Modify the
notes to suit job requirements.]

D. EXCAVATION AND EARTHWORK
Quantity of Structure Excavation for payment is computed with the elevation shown
for each substructure unit as the upper limit. Excavation above these elevations will
be paid for under the grading portion of the contract.
[Specify an elevation for top of exposed or buried rock and add the note:
average elevations of top of rock are assumed for estimated plan quantities.
Use this note when rock and other type excavation will be encountered. Do not
use this note when lump sum payment for structure excavation is used.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-102

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

The lower limits of structure excavation Class E shall be the same as the upper
limits of structure excavation Class WE except for rock excavations.

Construction of each abutment shall not be started until the approach fill at that
abutment has been constructed to the full height and cross section (and allowed to
settle for __________ days).

Roadway (or channel) excavation will be made by others in advance of bridge
construction.
[Not applicable on combined project.]

Footings shall be keyed into sound bedrock as directed by the Engineer. Top of
footings shall have a minimum of 1'-0" cover.

Contractor shall dress slopes and place filter materials and riprap in approximate
areas as directed by the Engineer.

E. REINFORCEMENT
Spiral Data
Outside Diameter ______________________
Height _______________________________
Pitch ________________________________
Spiral Rod Size _______________________ Plain Round
Weight ______________________________ each

Outside diameter of dowel circle to be 2
1
/
4
" less than inside diameter of spiral.
[Where No. 32E and larger sized column vertical bars are used, the 2
1
/
4
"
dimension should be increased where required to provide for a proper fit.]





MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-103

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

F. PILING AND FOOTINGS

ON SPREAD FOOTING ON SPREAD FOOTING
__________ ABUTMENT
Computed Soil Pressure – Tons/Square Foot


PIER _______
Computed Soil Pressure – Tons/Square Foot
Factored Dead Load +
Earth Pressure
Factored Dead Load
Factored Live Load
Factored Live Load
Factored Overturning
* Factored Design Load * Factored Design Load
* Based on __________ load combination. * Based on __________ load combination.
Design Bearing Resistance φ·q
n
= ____ tons/sq ft Design Bearing Resistance φ·q
n
= ____ tons/sq ft


WITH PILING WITH PILING
__________ ABUTMENT
Computed Pile Load – Tons/Pile


PIER _______
Computed Pile Load – Tons/Pile
Factored Dead Load +
Earth Pressure


Factored Dead Load


Factored Live Load
Factored Live Load
Factored Overturning
* Factored Design Load =
Pile Bearing Resistance

* Factored Design Load =
Pile Bearing Resistance

* Based on __________ load combination. * Based on __________ load combination.


__________ ABUTMENT
DRIVEN PILE ULTIMATE BEARING
CAPACITY Q
drive
– Tons/Pile

PIER _______
DRIVEN PILE ULTIMATE BEARING
CAPACITY Q
drive
– Tons/Pile
FIELD CONTROL METHOD φ
drive

* Q
drive
FIELD CONTROL METHOD φ
drive
* Q
drive





* Q
drive
= (Pile Bearing Resistance) / φ
drive
* Q
drive
= (Pile Bearing Resistance) / φ
drive





MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-104

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

Pile Notes [substructure with Test Piles]
______ ___*___ Test Piles _______ ft. long
______ ___*___ Piles est. length _______ ft.
______ ___*___ Piles req’d for __________
[ * Specify - treated timber, untreated timber, steel, or cast-in-place concrete.]

Pile Notes [substructure without Test Piles]
______ ___*___ Piles _______ ft. long req’d for __________
[ * Specify - treated timber, untreated timber, steel, or cast-in-place concrete.]

Pile Notes [substructure with Special Pay items]
______ ___*___ Piles est. length _______ ft. req’d for __________
[ * Specify - steel or cast-in-place.]

General Pile Notes
Pile spacing shown is at bottom of footing.
[Use for all piling.]

Piles marked thus (O-> , H-> ) to be battered ____ per ft. in direction shown.
[Use for all battered piling.]

All piles to be HP - ____.
[Use with all steel H piling.]

Piles to have a nominal diameter of __________.
[Use with all cast-in-place concrete piling.]

For pile splice details see B-Detail (B201 [CIP], B202 [steel]).

G. MATERIALS, FABRICATION AND ERECTION
(Use standard notes that are relevant to the project)

All structural steel shall conform to Spec. (3306, 3309, 3310, 3316, or 3317) unless
otherwise noted.

Shear studs on the top flange of the girder shall be installed in the field.

Chord line in camber diagram is a straight line from end to end of beam segment at
bottom of top flange.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-105

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

The maximum residual camber in Span _________ is ___ inches at the ______
point of the span.

The maximum residual camber is ______". It is located at ____________.

Special assembly per Spec. 2471 will be required for the beam splices. The section
to be special assembled shall be from ________ to __________ .
[Check with the Structural Metals Unit; Abutment to abutment if < 300 ft. Three
adjacent points of support if > 300 ft.]

For welded flange splices, see Spec 2471.3F1a.
[Use drawings only if different than Bridge Welding Code 2002 Fig. 2.7 or 2.8]

Full assembly will be required per Spec. 2471.3H1b and 2471.3J2.
[The use of full assembly should be considered for extremely complicated
curved, superelevated structures (i.e. grid analysis used for design). Check with
the Structural Metals Unit and Fabrication Methods Unit.]

Web plates shall be furnished in available mill lengths and widths with a minimum
number of web splices. Location of splices shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer and shall be a minimum of 1'-0" from stiffeners or flange splices.

Bearing stiffeners and ends of beams shall be perpendicular to flange.
[For rolled beams or grades < 3%.]

Bearing stiffeners at abutments shall be vertical. Bearing stiffeners at piers shall be
perpendicular to flange. Ends of beams shall be vertical.
[For grades less than, or equal to, 3% on plate girder bridges or skews greater
than 20°. Check web crippling at pier if grade is greater than 3%.]

Rows of shear connectors shall be aligned parallel to the transverse slab
reinforcement bars.
[For bridge skews over 0° but less than 20°.]

Shear connectors to project a minimum of 2" into deck structural slab. In no case
shall shear connectors project closer than 1" to top of deck structural slab.
Engineer to field verify beam elevation and authorize stud length.

Shear connectors to be included in weight of Structural Steel (3306, 3309, 3310)
and conform to Spec. 3391.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-106

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

Flange plates for beams shall be cut to proper curvature.
[Check requirements of AASHTO Standard Specifications Section 10.15.2 to see
if heat curving is feasible.]

Camber diagram shown is for beams in unloaded position and provides for all dead
load deflections and residual camber.

All bolted connections shall be made with
7
/
8
" diameter A325 bolts, except as noted.

Elevations given at field splices are taken at top of top flange splice plate.

Elevations shown at field splices are theoretical elevations furnished as a guide for
erection.
[Deflections from weight of beam and diaphragm are included.]

Deflections shown are for weight of slab, concrete overlay, railing, (median and
sidewalk). Negative sign indicates uplift.
[Do not include the weight of steel beams or future wearing course.]

H. CONCRETE PLACEMENTS
Cast counter weight at least 48 hours in advance of placing deck slab.

Make saw cut in structural slab (and concrete wearing course) over centerline of
piers as soon as the cutting can be done without raveling the concrete. Apply
polystyrene to tips of flanges that project past centerline of pier. Seal joint per
Spec. 3723.
[Use on prestressed concrete beam bridges with double diaphragms and slab
continuous over piers. Saw cut both structural slab and concrete wearing
course. See Figure 9.2.3.6 in this manual for detail.]

I. WELDED STEEL BEARING ASSEMBLIES
Structural steel shall conform to Spec. 3306 except as noted.

Shims to be included in price bid for bearing assemblies.
[Add to B Detail if shims are used.]

Pins and rollers shall conform to Spec. 2471.3D5.

Pins shall be cold finished alloy bar steel per Spec. 3314 Type II.
[For pins 5" or less where pin is not made from a larger diameter stock.]




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-107

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

Pins shall be hot rolled bar alloy bar steel per Spec. 3313 Type II.
[For pins over 5" where pin will be made from a larger diameter stock.]

Pintles shall conform to Spec. 3309 or 3310.

Lubricated bronze bushings shall conform to Spec. 3329.

All welded bearing assemblies shall be annealed after welding. Pin holes and top
and bottom plates shall be finished after annealing.
[For welded rockers and bolsters.]

Pins and pin holes shall be coated, in the shop, with a heavy protective grease.
Prior to erection, the pins and pin holes shall be cleaned and coated with an
approved grease.

The price bid for bearing assembly shall include all material (anchor rods, sheet
lead, bearing, and bolts for attaching bearing to beam) for each type as shown.

J. CUTTING AND REMOVAL OF OLD CONCRETE
Hatched areas indicate concrete to be removed.

No cutting will be permitted until the cutting limits have been outlined by the
Contractor and approved by the Engineer. Removal and reconstruction shall
conform to Spec. 2433.

K. JOINTS AND JOINT SEALER
Finish top of all sidewalk and median joints with
1
/
4
" radius edger, and vertical
edges with
1
/
2
" V strips.

Break bond at joint by approved method. No reinforcement through joint.
[Use for concrete sections less than 12" in height.]

L. TIMBER BRIDGES
Construction requirements per Spec. 2403.3.

All timber piling to meet requirements of Spec. 3471.

All hardware to be galvanized per Spec. 3392.

All timber to be rough unless otherwise noted.




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-108

APPENDIX 2-H (Continued)
STANDARD PLAN NOTES

Top of wing pile which projects outside of wing cap shall be shaped to a 45° slope.

Treat tops of bearing and wing piles per Spec. 2452.3F. See Spec. 3491 for
preservation requirements.

Fill in back of abutment is not to be placed until after superstructure has been
completed.

Fasten backing to abutment piles with two 60d nails at each intersection.

Bolt projections exceeding 1" shall be cut off. Repair end of bolt by painting with an
approved zinc-rich primer.

Drive all piles to a bearing of not less than __________ tons per pile. See Special
Provisions for wing wall pile driving requirements.

All timber shall be preservative treated in accordance with Spec. 3491.

M. MISCELLANEOUS
The Contractor shall make field measurements as necessary prior to fabrication of
the __________ to assure proper fit in the final work.
[Use when not otherwise referenced to Spec.2433.]

Beam length dimensions are slope lengths.
[Use where necessary for proper fit for prestressed beams.]




MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-109

APPENDIX 2-I
STANDARD SUMMARY OF QUANTITIES NOTES

1. State will furnish disk. Bend prongs outward to anchor disk in concrete. Bottom
of disk top to be placed flush with concrete. Payment shall be considered
incidental to concrete pay items.
[When bench mark disk is required.]

2. Payment shall be considered incidental to _______________.
[For incidental quantities not listed as pay items (joint filler, waterproofing,
nameplate, etc.). Fill in blank with appropriate pay item (e.g. for three-ply joint
waterproofing: Payment shall be considered incidental to Structural Concrete
(3Y43)).]

3. Included in weight of “Structural Steel (3306, 3309, 3317)”.
[Miscellaneous steel quantities (protection angle, etc.).]

4. Does not include test piles.
[When piling quantities are listed.]

5. Includes slab (end diaphragms, median, median barrier, sidewalk,) and railing
reinforcement.
[Add to epoxy coated reinforcement bar totals.]

6. “Bridge Slab Concrete (3Y3_ )” volume was computed using an average stool
height of ______ inches and is approximately ______ cubic yards. Includes end
blocks.
[Use when the item as listed in the Summary of Quantities for Superstructure is
paid for on a square foot basis.]

7. “Concrete Wearing Course (3U17A)” volume is approximately ______ cubic yards.
Item includes ______ square feet for bridge approach panels.
[Use when the item as listed in the Summary of Quantities for Superstructure is
paid for on a square foot basis.]

8. “Type ______ Railing Concrete (3Y46(A))” volume is approximately ______ cubic
yards.
[Use when the item as listed in the Summary of Quantities for Superstructure is
paid for on a linear foot basis.]

9. “Sidewalk Concrete (3Y46(A))” volume is approximately ______ cubic yards.
[Use when the item as listed in the summary of Quantities for Superstructure is
paid for on a square foot basis.]




APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-110

APPENDIX 2-I (Continued)
STANDARD SUMMARY OF QUANTITIES NOTES

10. “Median Barrier Concrete (3Y46(A))” volume is approximately _____ cubic yards.
[Use when the item as listed in the Summary of Quantities for Superstructure is
paid for on a linear foot basis.]

11. “Raised Median Concrete (3Y46(A))” volume is approximately ______ cubic yards.
[Use when the item as listed in the Summary of Quantities for Superstructure is
paid for on a square foot basis.]

12. Includes end diaphragm concrete.

13. Payment for beams included in item “Prestressed Concrete Beams ______” per
linear foot.
[Use with prestressed concrete beams.]

14. Concrete for diaphragm for type ______ prestressed beams. Volume is
approximately ______ cubic yards.
[Use with prestressed concrete beams.]

15. Payment for bearings included in item “Bearing Assembly” per each.

16. Quantities listed above are for informational purposes. Any additional minor
items and slight changes in quantities required shall be furnished by the
contractor with no additional compensation.
[Use with summaries of quantities for items paid for by lump sum. (e.g. conduit
systems).]

17. Payment for anchorages included in item “Anchorages Type Reinf. Bars” per each.

18. Payment for threaded couplers included in item “Threaded Couplers (Reinf. Bars)”
per each.





MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-111

APPENDIX 2-J *
BRIDGE PAY ITEMS

ITEM NO. ITEM UNIT QUANTITY
2013.602 TCLP TEST EACH __________ (P)
2021.501 MOBILIZATION LUMP SUM __________
2031.501 FIELD OFFICE TYPE ______ EACH __________
2031.503 FIELD LABORATORY TYPE ______ EACH __________
2041.610 TRAINEES HOUR __________
2102.501 PAVEMENT MARKING REMOVAL SQ. FT. __________
2105.601
1
______ LANE BYPASS (
2
______ LANE) LUMP SUM __________
2301.601 BRIDGE APPROACH PANELS LUMP SUM __________
2331.604 ______ " THICK BITUMINOUS WEARING COURSE SQ. YD __________ (P)
3

2357.502 BITUMINOUS MATERIAL FOR TACK COAT GALLON __________
2401.501 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ( ______ ) CU. YD. __________ (P)
3

2401.511 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ( ______ ) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
3

2401.512 BRIDGE SLAB CONCRETE ( __ ) [ 3Y33(A) or 3Y36(A)] SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2401.513 TYPE ______ RAILING CONCRETE (3Y46(A)) LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2401.514 MEDIAN BARRIER CONCRETE (3Y46(A)) LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2401.514 SPLIT MEDIAN BARRIER CONC (3Y46(A)) LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2401.514
SPLIT MEDIAN BARRIER WITH GLARE SCREEN CONCRETE
(3Y46(A)) LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2401.515 SIDEWALK CONCRETE (3Y46(A)) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2401.516 RAISED MEDIAN CONCRETE (3Y46(A)) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2401.521 STRUCTURE EXCAVATION CLASS R CU. YD. __________
2401.541 REINFORCEMENT BARS POUND __________ (P)
2401.541 REINFORCEMENT BARS (EPOXY COATED) POUND __________ (P)
2401.543 SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT (EPOXY COATED) POUND __________ (P)
2401.601 FOUNDATION PREPARATION ______ LUMP SUM __________
2401.601 STRUCTURE EXCAVATION LUMP SUM __________
2401.608 SHAFT REINFORCEMENT POUND __________
2411.618 REVERSE BATTEN SURFACE TREATMENT SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2401.618 SPECIAL SURFACE FINISH (INPLACE) SQ. FT __________
2402.521 STRUCTURAL STEEL ( __ ) [ 3306, 3309 or 3317] POUND __________ (P)
2402.546 FLOOR DRAIN TYPE ______ EACH __________
2402.583 ORNAMENTAL METAL RAILING TYPE ______ LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.583 STRUCTURAL TUBE RAILING DESIGN ______ LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.583 METAL RAILING FOR BIKEWAYS TYPE M-1 LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.583 METAL FISHING RAIL TYPE M-X LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.585 PIPE RAILING LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.590 ELASTOMERIC BEARING PAD TYPE ______ EACH __________
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bidlet/itmlists.html for current Bridge Pay Items



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-112

APPENDIX 2-J * (Continued)
BRIDGE PAY ITEMS

ITEM NO. ITEM UNIT QUANTITY
2402.591 EXPANSION JOINT DEVICES TYPE ______ LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.595 BEARING ASSEMBLY EACH __________
2402.601 [ Use for Miscellaneous Items ] LUMP SUM __________
2402.601 DRAINAGE SYSTEM (ABUTMENTS) LUMP SUM __________
2402.602 [ Use for Miscellaneous Items ] EACH __________
2402.603 STRUCTURAL TUBE RAILING WITH FENCE DES__________ LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2402.603 [ Use for Miscellaneous Items ] LIN. FT. __________ (P)
3

2403.510 GLUED LAMINATED DECK PANELS TYPE ______ EACH __________
2403.602 GLUED LAMINATED STRINGERS TYPE ______ EACH __________
2403.602 PREFAB TIMBER PANELS TYPE ______ EACH __________
2403.603 GLUED LAMINATED RAIL TYPE 1 LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2403.603 TIMBER RAILING LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2404.501 CONCRETE WEARING COURSE (3U17A) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2404.618 BLASTING (SPECIAL) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2404.618 CONCRETE WEARING COURSE (3U17A) ______ " SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2405.502 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS ______ LIN. FT __________ (P)
2405.511 DIAPHRAGMS FOR TYPE ______ PRESTRESSED BEAMS LIN. FT __________ (P)
2405.603 PRESTRESSED CONC. DOUBLE TEE-BEAM TYPE ______ " LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE TEXTURE (ASHLAR STONE) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE TEXTURE (CUT STONE) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE TEXTURE (FIELDSTONE) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE TEXTURE (FRACTURED FIN) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE TEXTURE (FRACTURED GRANITE) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE TEXTURE (RANDOM BATTEN) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL SURFACE FINISH (SINGLE COLOR) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ARCHITECTURAL SURFACE FINISH (MULTI-COLOR) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2411.618 ANTI-GRAFFITI COATING SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2412.511 ______ PRECAST CONCRETE BOX CULVERT LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2412.512 ______ PRECAST CONCRETE BOX CULVERT END SECTION EACH __________
2433.501 STRUCTURAL REMOVALS LUMP SUM __________
2433.502 REMOVE CONCRETE CU. YD. __________ (P)
3

2433.503 REMOVE STRUCTURAL METALS POUND __________ (P)
3

2433.505 REMOVE ______ SQ. FT. __________ (P)
3

2433.506 REMOVE ______ LIN. FT. __________ (P)
3

2433.507 REMOVE ______ LUMP SUM __________
2433.512 PLACE USED TRUSS LUMP SUM __________
2433.516 ANCHORAGES TYPE ______ EACH __________
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bidlet/itmlists.html for current Bridge Pay Items



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-113

APPENDIX 2-J * (Continued)
BRIDGE PAY ITEMS

ITEM NO. ITEM UNIT QUANTITY
2433.601 REPAIR ______ LUMP SUM __________
2433.601 RECONSTRUCT ______ LUMP SUM __________
2433.602 REPAIR ______ EACH __________
2433.602 RECONSTRUCT ______ EACH __________
2433.602 CLEAN ______ EACH __________
2433.602 GREASE EXP BRG ASSEMBLIES TYPE ______ EACH __________
2433.603 RECONSTRUCT ( __ ) JOINT TYPE ___ ( EXP., FIX, PAVEMENT) LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2433.603 REPAIR ______ LIN. FT. __________
2433.603 RECONSTRUCT ______ LIN. FT. __________
2433.607 CEMENT GROUT CU. YD. __________
2433.618 SCARIFY ______ SQ. FT. __________
2433.618 BRIDGE SURFACE SEALER SQ. FT. __________
2442.501 REMOVE OLD BRIDGE LUMP SUM __________
2442.502 SALVAGE AND HAUL MATERIAL (BRIDGE) LUMP SUM __________
2451.503 GRANULAR BACKFILL ( __ ) [ CV OR LV] CU. YD. __________ (P)
2451.505 AGGREGATE BACKFILL ( __ ) [ CV OR LV] CU. YD __________ (P)
2452.503 TREATED TIMBER PILING DELIVERED LIN. FT __________
2452.504 TREATED TIMBER PILING DRIVEN LIN. FT __________
2452.507 C-I-P CONCRETE PILING DELIVERED
4
______ " LIN. FT. __________
2452.508 C-I-P CONCRETE PILING DRIVEN
4
______ " LIN. FT __________
2452.510 STEEL H-PILING DRIVEN
5
______ " LIN. FT __________
2452.511 STEEL H-PILING DELIVERED
5
______ " LIN. FT __________
2452.517 TREATED TIMBER TEST PILE 25' LONG EACH __________
2452.519 C-I-P CONCRETE TEST PILE ______ FT LONG
4
______ " EACH __________
2452.520 STEEL H-TEST PILE ______ FT LONG
5
______ " EACH __________
2452.526 PILE LOAD TEST TYPE ______ EACH __________
2452.602 DRILLED SHAFT LOAD TEST TYPE ______ EACH __________
2452.602 PILE ANALYSIS EACH __________
2452.602 PILE PLACEMENT EACH __________
2452.602 PILE POINTS ______ " EACH __________
2452.602 PILE REDRIVING EACH __________
2452.602 PILE TIP PROTECTION ______ " EACH __________
2452.602 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY TEST EACH __________
2452.603 ______ " STEEL PILE SHELLS LIN. FT. __________
2452.603 C-I-P CONCRETE PILING __" FLUTED FURNISH & DRIVEN LIN. FT. __________
2453.603 ___" DIA CASING LIN. FT. __________
2453.603 ___" DIA DRILLED SHAFT ( ______ ) LIN. FT. __________
*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bidlet/itmlists.html for current Bridge Pay Items



MARCH 2005 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-114

APPENDIX 2-J * (Continued)
BRIDGE PAY ITEMS

ITEM NO. ITEM UNIT QUANTITY
2472.602 COUPLERS (REINFORCEMENT BARS) EACH __________
2476.501 PAINTING METAL STRUCTURES LUMP SUM __________
2476.502 PAINTING METAL STRUCTURES SQ. FT. __________
2476.601 LEAD SUBSTANCES COLLECTION & DISPOSAL LUMP SUM __________ (P)
2476.601 WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL LUMP SUM __________ (P)
2478.502 EPOXY ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM (SHOP) SQ. FT. __________
2478.503 EPOXY ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM (FIELD) LUMP SUM __________
2478.506 EPOXY ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM (OLD) SQ. FT __________ (P)
2478.618 EPOXY ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM (NEW) SQ. FT. __________
2479.618 INORGANIC ZINC-RICH PAINT SYSTEM (FIELD) SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2479.618 SHOP APPLIED INORGANIC ZINC-RICH PRIMER SQ. FT. __________ (P)
2511.501 RANDOM RIPRAP CLASS ______ CU. YD. __________ (P)
2511.507 GROUTED RIPRAP CU. YD. __________
2511.511 GRANULAR FILTER CU. YD. __________ (P)
2514.501 CONCRETE SLOPE PAVING SQ. YD. __________ (P)
2514.503 AGGREGATE SLOPE PAVING SQ. YD __________ (P)
2545.501 ELECTRIC LIGHT SYSTEM LUMP SUM __________
2545.509
CONDUIT SYSTEM ( __ ) [ LIGHTING, SIGNALS, TELEPHONE,
or POWER] LUMP SUM __________
2557.501 WIRE FENCE DESIGN ______ LIN. FT. __________ (P)
2557.603 CHAIN LINK ENCLOSURE LIN. FT __________ (P)
2563.601 TRAFFIC CONTROL LUMP SUM __________
2563.613 [ Use for Traffic Control Devices ] UNIT DAY __________
2564.603
4" ______ LINE ______-POLY PREFORMED
LIN. FT. __________

(P) Denotes plan quantity pay items as per Spec. 1901.
1
Number of Lanes
2
Actual Lane Width

3
Plan quantity may or may not be used for payment
4
Diameter of Pile
5
Size and Weight


*Refer to http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bidlet/itmlists.html for current Bridge Pay Items



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-115

APPENDIX 2-K
CONVERSION FROM INCHES TO DECIMALS OF A FOOT



APRIL 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-116
















[ This Page Intentionally Left Blank ]




JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-1

The loads section of the AASHTO LRFD Specifications is greatly expanded
over that found in the Standard Specifications. This section will present
applicable loads and provide guidance to Mn/DOT’s practice for the
application of these loads.


The standard load combinations for LRFD design are presented in LRFD
Table 3.4.1-1. Mn/DOT regularly uses all load combinations except
Strength-II and Extreme Event-I. These are used only for specialized
structures or situations.
Several of the loads have variable load factors (e.g., γ
P
, γ
TG
, γ
SE
). The
load factors for permanent loads (γ
P
) typically have two values, a
maximum value and a minimum value. When analyzing a structure it will
often be necessary to use both values. The objective is to envelope the
maximum load effects on various elements for design. A box culvert
structure illustrates the use of both values. When determining the
moment in the top slab of the culvert the maximum load factor is used
with vertical earth loads, while the minimum load factor is used on the
lateral or horizontal earth loads. The situation reverses when
determining the moments in the wall of the culvert. A minimum load
factor is used on the vertical earth loads and a maximum value is used
on the horizontal earth loads.

When assembling load combinations do not use more than one load
factor for any load component. For example, when checking uplift, a load
factor of 0.90 or 1.25 should be used for the dead load on all spans.
Designers should not try to use 0.9 on the span adjacent to the uplift
point and 1.25 on the next span.

Designers must ensure the structure has been checked for adequacy in
carrying all appropriate load combinations at any possible construction
stage. For example, a high abutment should be checked for any
permissible construction case in addition to the final condition. The
abutment may be completely constructed prior to placement of the
beams (a case which maximizes the horizontal earth pressure load with a
minimum of vertical load) or the abutment could be constructed such
that the superstructure is completed prior to backfilling. This latter case
would maximize vertical load without horizontal earth pressure load.
Designers should investigate both cases.

Load Combinations
The load factors and the combination of different load components
presented in LRFD Table 3.4.1-1 have been calibrated to produce
3. LOADS AND
LOAD FACTORS
3.1 Load Factors
and Combinations
[ 3.4.1]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-2

structures with more uniform reliability than that offered with Standard
Specification designs. In general Mn/DOT recognizes all of the load
combinations presented in the LRFD Specifications. The Strength II and
Extreme Event I load combinations will rarely control. In addition to the
standard load combinations, Mn/DOT designs should consider a
construction load combination.

Strength I: Basic load combination used to determine the flexural and
shear demands without wind.

Strength II: Basic load combination used to determine the flexural and
shear demands of a structure subject to a permit vehicle or a special
design vehicle specified by the owner. (Mn/DOT does not use a special
vehicle for design)

Strength III: Load combination used to determine flexural and shear
demands that include wind. (Winds over 55 mph)

Strength IV: Load combination relating to very high dead load to live
load force effect ratios.

Strength V: Load combination corresponding to normal vehicular use of
the bridge concurrent with a wind of 55 mph.

Extreme Event I: Load combination including earthquake effects.
Earthquake analysis is typically not performed.

Extreme Event II: Load combination corresponding to ice loads,
collision loads, and certain hydraulic events with a reduced vehicular live
load. This combination is used for barrier and deck overhang designs.

Service I: Load combination used for the design of many elements. It
is used for service load stress checks (prestressed concrete), deflection
checks, crack control checks in reinforced concrete, etc.

Service II: Load combination used to check yielding and connections in
steel structures.

Service III: Load combination used to check nominal tension in
prestressed concrete structures.

Fatigue: Load combination used for the design of structures subject to
repetitive live load. This pertains primarily to steel structures and steel
reinforcement in concrete structures.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-3

Construction: While not specifically identified as a load case in LRFD
Table 3.4.1-1, Mn/DOT requires construction load cases to be considered
by designers. Use a 1.5 load factor for construction live loads and a 1.25
load factor for dead loads (including formwork and falsework).


For most structures, each of the load modifiers will be 1.00. For a limited
number of bridges, load modifiers with values different from 1.00 need to
be used. Table 3.2.1 summarizes Mn/DOT’s policy for load modifiers.

Table 3.2.1 – Standard Mn/DOT Load Modifiers
Modifier Value Condition
1.00
Steel structures, timber bridges,
ductile concrete structures
Ductility (η
D
)
1.05 Non ductile concrete structures
Redundancy (η
R
)
1.00
1.05
Redundant
Non Redundant
0.90 Temporary Bridges
0.95 ADT < 500
1.00
500 ≤ ADT ≤ 40,000 Importance (η
I
)
1.05
Major river crossing, or
ADT > 40,000 or
Mainline interstate bridge


To reduce the number of load factors considered through the design
process, use a value of 0.020 ksf for the future wearing surface load and
combine with the other component dead loads (DC loads).

Table 3.3.1 lists unit weights for a number of materials. Designers
should note that several of these items differ slightly from the values
contained in Section 3 of the LRFD Specifications.


Table 3.3.1 Mn/DOT Standard Unit Weights
Material Unit Weight (kcf)
Bituminous Wearing Course 0.150
Cast In Place Concrete 0.150
Precast Concrete 0.155
Precast Box Culvert 0.150
Compacted Fill on Box Culverts 0.130
Standard Fill 0.120
Steel 0.490
Timber 0.050
Water 0.0624
3.3 Permanent
Loads ( Dead and
Earth)
[ 3.5]
3.2 Load
Modifiers
[ 1.3.3, 1.3.4,
1.3.5]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-4

HL-93 is the calibrated design live load provided in the LRFD
Specifications. It should be considered the normal design load for
Mn/DOT highway structures.

Where appropriate additional live loads should be considered, additional
live loads might include: snow removal equipment on sidewalks and
bridge inspection or snooper loads on bridges with large overhangs. If
construction equipment or maintenance equipment can or will operate
adjacent to retaining walls and abutments, a live load surcharge should
be incorporated into the design.


Use the design truck, fatigue truck, design tandem, truck train and lane
loads described in the LRFD Specifications. The double tandem loading
described in the commentary to LRFD Article 3.6.1.3.1 will not be used.
Tables 3.4.1.1 and 3.4.1.2 at the end of this section list the unfactored
moments and shears for HL-93 loading on simple spans between 1 and
200 feet.


When a structure is being evaluated for load cases involving more than
two lanes of traffic a reduction factor or multiplier can be used. This
factor recognizes the reduced probability that all lanes will be fully loaded
at the same time. Designers should note that the LRFD Specifications
require that a 1.2 factor be used for the design of structures carrying a
single lane of traffic.

Mn/DOT has one variance to the multiple presence factors listed in LRFD
Table 3.6.1.2-1. When evaluating the live load deflections of a structure,
designers should use a 0.85 multiple presence factor for load cases with
more than three lanes of traffic.


What was known as impact in the Standard Specifications is called
dynamic load allowance in the LRFD Specifications. The base dynamic
load allowance factors are presented in LRFD Table 3.6.2.1-1. Designers
should note that the base values are reduced for buried components and
for wood structures.


Pedestrian live loads vary with the function of the bridge. For
conventional highway bridges with sidewalks wider than two feet, an
intensity of 0.075 ksf should be used. Bridges carrying only pedestrian
3.4 Live Loads
[ 3.6]
3.4.1 HL- 93 Live
Load, LL
[ 3.6.1.2]
3.4.4 Pedestrian
Live Load, PL
[ 3.6.1.6]
3.4.2 Multiple
Presence Factor,
MPF
[ 3.6.1.1.2]
3.4.3 Dynamic
Load Allowance, I M
[ 3.6.2]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-5

or bicycle traffic should be designed with a live load intensity of 0.085
ksf.


Use judgement when applying braking forces to a structure. For two
lane, two-way bridges, apply traffic in one direction. For bridges with
more than two lanes, apply braking force over half of width in one
direction.

The dynamic load allowance factor is not applied to braking forces.
However, multiple presence factors should be used. Braking forces are
assumed to act at a height six feet above the roadway surface and in a
longitudinal direction. With elastomeric bearings, the force should be
applied at the bearing.


Similar to braking forces, multiple presence factors should be used and
the dynamic load allowance should not be used.


For buried structures, a lane plus a design truck or tandem is applied to
the roadway and distributed through the fill. If the fill is 2 feet or less,
the live load is applied as a footprint to the top of the structure. For fills
over 2 feet, the footprint load spreads out through the soil fill.


Retaining walls and abutments typically need to be designed for load
combinations with live load surcharge. The equivalent soil heights to be
used for different heights of abutments and retaining walls are provided
in LRFD Tables 3.11.6.4-1 and 3.11.6.4-2.


The design flood event for Mn/DOT structures is a 100-year flood. If a
hydraulic report is prepared for the structure, it will identify estimated
streambed elevations due to general and local scour at substructure
locations. Structural elements should be designed for both the no scour
condition and the anticipated scour condition.


The design wind speed is 100 mph. For most structures the total height
will be below 30 feet and base wind pressures can be used for design.
The vertical overturning wind load described in LRFD Article 3.8.2 should
be considered in design.
3.4.5 Braking
Force, BR
[ 3.6.4]

3.4.6 Centrifugal
Force, CE
[ 3.6.3]
3.5 Water Loads,
WA
[ 3.7]
3.6 Wind Loads,
WS
[ 3.8.1.2, 3.8.2]
3.4.7 Live Load
Application to
Buried Structures
3.4.8 Live Load
Surcharge, LS
[ 3.11.6]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-6

The force effects of wind on live load should be considered for the
Strength V and the Service I load combinations. The force components
(parallel and normal) for different wind skew angles are presented in
LRFD Table 3.8.1.3-1. The wind on live load forces are applied at a
height 6 feet above the top of the deck.


All of Minnesota is in Seismic Performance Zone 1 with acceleration
coefficients varying between 2 and 3 percent. With very small
acceleration coefficients, earthquake forces will rarely govern the design
of Mn/DOT structures. However, the LRFD Specifications require that
Performance Zone 1 structures satisfy detailing requirements. These
requirements pertain to the length of bearing seats supporting
superstructure elements and the capacity of a force path for
superstructure dead loads to be transferred to substructure elements.

In accordance with LRFD Article 3.10.9.2, the connection between
superstructure and substructure shall be capable of transferring 20% of
the vertical reaction due to permanent load and tributary live load. Fixed
bearing anchorages shall be capable of resisting a horizontal force equal
to 20% of the total vertical dead load.


The design ice load is 1.5 feet of ice with a crushing strength of 32.0 ksf.
Assume the ice load is applied at a height two-thirds of the distance from
the flowline elevation to the 100-year design high water elevation.


For applications with level backfill, simplified equivalent fluid methods can
be used. For level backfill applications where the at-rest earth pressures
can be relieved by rotation (cantilevered walls with stem heights of 5 feet
or greater), design walls for an active earth pressure of 0.033 kcf
equivalent fluid weight.

For level backfill applications where at-rest earth pressures cannot be
relieved, design for an equivalent fluid weight of 0.060 kcf.

Assume that the horizontal resultant for lateral earth pressures acts at a
height of H/3.

Passive earth pressures should be used for integral abutment designs.
3.8 Earthquake
Effects, EQ
[ 3.10]
3.10 Earth
Pressure,
EV, EH, or ES
[ 3.5.1, 3.5.2]
[ 3.11.5, 3.11.6]
3.7 Wind on Live
Load, WL
[ 3.8.1.3]
3.9 I ce Loads, I C
[ 3.9]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-7

Temperature, shrinkage, creep, and settlement produce several
structural effects. They generate internal forces, redistribute internal
forces, and produce movements.

The mean design temperature is 45°F. The design low temperature is
-30°F. The design high temperature is 120°F. Shear forces in bearings
should be computed with a load factor of 1.0. The translation capacity of
bearings and the movement capacity of expansion joints should be based
on a load factor of 1.3.

For internal forces in concrete frame structures, a temperature rise of
35ºF and a temperature fall of 45ºF should be considered in design. Use
a load factor of 0.5 for forces due to temperature effects.

Mn/DOT’s design relative humidity is 73% for concrete shrinkage
computations.


For situations where long friction piles or end-bearing piles penetrate
through a soft, top layer of material, there may be settlement of the top
soft layer. The settlement of this layer will add load to the pile, through
friction. The foundation report will provide the amount of down drag to
be considered.


Friction forces are used in the design of several structural components.
For example, substructure units supporting bearings with sliding surfaces
should be designed to resist the friction force required to mobilize the
bearing.


LRFD Table 14.7.2.5-1 provides design coefficients of friction for PTFE
sliding surfaces.


Use LRFD Table 3.11.5.3-1 to obtain the coefficients of friction between
the backwall/footing and soil. When cohesionless backfill is used behind
a vertical or near vertical wall, the friction between the backwall and the
backfill can be ignored.

When evaluating the sliding resistance between a concrete and soil
interface a coefficient of 0.80 shall be used. For cases where a shear key
is utilized, the portion of the failure plane with soil on both sides should
be evaluated with a coefficient of friction of 1.00.
3.11
Temperature,
Shrinkage, Creep,
Settlement,
TU, SH, CR, & SE
[ 3.12]
3.11.1 General
3.12 Pile
Downdrag, DD
3.13 Friction
Forces, FR
[ 3.13]
3.13.1 Sliding
Bearings
3.13.2
Soil/ Backwall
I nterface and
Soil/ Footing
I nterface



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-8



The probability of extreme event loads occurring simultaneously is
extremely small and therefore are not to be applied concurrently. In
some cases, extreme event loads are mutually exclusive. A vessel
collision load can not occur when the waterway is iced over.


Designers need to be concerned with vehicle collision loads. Unprotected
structural elements that may be struck bluntly by a vehicle or train
should be designed to resist an equivalent static collision force of 400
kips. If unprotected, the vehicular collision force will govern the design of
the piers. Review the preliminary plans and discuss the safety features
with the roadway designers to ensure that the piers will be protected
before neglecting this load. In most cases, designers will be able to
consider the piers protected with safety features (barriers, etc.).

A large number of safety barriers were tested as part of NCHRP Report
350. The performance of the barriers was classified with different test
levels ranging from TL-1 to TL-6.

Decks supporting safety barriers designed to contain errant vehicles on
bridges should be designed for collision forces consistent with roadway
standards. In most cases, the minimum standard for safety barriers in
Minnesota is test level TL-4. Under certain circumstances, (timber
railings on secondary roads being an example) barriers may satisfy
reduced test level requirements. See the preliminary design section of
this manual for additional guidance.


Structures within reaches of the Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix
rivers, and Lake Superior deemed navigable by the Corps of Engineers
shall be designed to resist vessel collision loads.


For curved bridges with skews or continuous bridges with spans that vary
significantly, there is a possibility of uplift at the end supports. For
situations where a sidespan is less than 70 percent of the adjacent
continuous span, uplift should be considered. Uplift may occur during
construction if deck placement is not sequenced properly or during
service due to the application of live load if the spans are not balanced.
If uplift occurs, the performance of the bearings and expansion joints
may be compromised. When evaluating a structure for uplift the load
factors for permanent load should be reviewed. Minimum and maximum
3.14 Extreme
Event
3.14.1 Vehicle
Collision, CT
[ 3.6.5]
3.14.2 Vessel
Collision, CV
[ 3.14]
3.15 Uplift
[ Table 3.4.1- 2]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-9

factors should be combined for different elements to generate the most
conservative or largest uplift force effect.


The construction of a deck on beam bridge will require that a concrete
deck be placed on supporting elements. The sequence the deck is
poured and the time between steps in the sequence will typically have
little impact on the strength of composite sections, however, the service
level stresses locked into the structure will be impacted by the order and
timing of the placement of the deck. To minimize cracking in the deck it
is desirable to place the deck in one of two ways. If the bridge is modest
in size it may be possible to pour the entire deck before any of the
concrete has set. For larger structures it may be desirable to pour
positive moment sections of the deck first, followed by negative moment
areas. This will reduce the amount of dead load moment added to the
negative moment regions after the deck has set.


The designer should consider construction loads during design. Specialty
structures such as segmental concrete bridges have unique construction
loads to consider during design that are explicitly defined. Unless project
specific information is available or necessary, designers should use the
following loads:

Formwork
For conventional formwork (plywood, etc.) assume a uniform dead load
of 0.010 ksf. In addition to dead loads, concrete formwork should be
designed for a construction live load of 0.050 ksf.

Structural Elements
Structural elements that support formwork are assumed to have a larger
tributary area and consequently have a smaller construction live load
(0.020 ksf) than formwork.

Reconstruction loads should be considered for the design of diaphragms
and cross-frames. At substructure locations, these elements will need to
carry vertical jacking forces during bearing replacement.


Mn/DOT’s maximum permitted live load deflection for highway bridges
without sidewalks is L/800. For pedestrian bridges or highway bridges
with sidewalks, the limit is reduced to L/1000.
3.15.1 Deck Pours
3.16 Construction
Loads
3.17 Deflections
[ 2.5.2.6.2]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-10

For deck-on-beam bridges, use the following load distribution when
computing deflections:
Live Load:
Live Load Distribution Factor =







BEAMS #
LANES #
MPF

Dead Load:
Dead Load (per beam) =






BEAMS #
DC Total




JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-11

Table 3.4.1.1
Maximum Unfactored HL-93 Live Load Moments, Shears, and Reactions
Simple Spans, One Lane, w/o Dynamic Load Allowance
MOMENTS SHEARS & END REACTIONS
SPAN TRUCK TANDEM LANE TOTAL SPAN PT. TRUCK TANDEM LANE TOTAL
FT KIP-FT KIP-FT KIP-FT KIP-FT % KIP KIP KIP KIP
1 8.0 6.3 0.1 8.1 0.50 32.0 25.0 0.3 32.3
2 16.0 12.5 0.3 16.3 0.50 32.0 25.0 0.6 32.6
3 24.0 18.8 0.7 24.7 0.50 32.0 25.0 1.0 33.0
4 32.0 25.0 1.3 33.3 0.50 32.0 25.0 1.3 33.3
5 40.0 31.3 2.0 42.0 0.50 32.0 30.0 1.6 33.6
6 48.0 37.5 2.9 50.9 0.50 32.0 33.3 1.9 35.3
7 56.0 43.8 3.9 59.9 0.50 32.0 35.7 2.2 38.0
8 64.0 50.0 5.1 69.1 0.50 32.0 37.5 2.6 40.1
9 72.0 62.5 6.5 78.5 0.50 32.0 38.9 2.9 41.8
10 80.0 75.0 8.0 88.0 0.50 32.0 40.0 3.2 43.2
11 84.5 92.0 9.3 101.3 0.40 32.0 40.9 3.5 44.4
12 92.2 104.0 11.1 115.1 0.40 32.0 41.7 3.8 45.5
13 103.0 115.9 13.4 129.3 0.45 32.0 42.3 4.2 46.5
14 110.9 128.3 15.5 143.8 0.45 32.0 42.9 4.5 47.3
15 118.8 140.6 17.8 158.4 0.45 34.1 43.3 4.8 48.1
16 126.7 153.0 20.3 173.3 0.45 36.0 43.8 5.1 48.9
17 134.6 165.4 22.9 188.3 0.45 37.6 44.1 5.4 49.6
18 142.6 177.8 25.7 203.4 0.45 39.1 44.4 5.8 50.2
19 150.5 190.1 28.6 218.7 0.45 40.4 44.7 6.1 50.8
20 158.4 202.5 31.7 234.2 0.45 41.6 45.0 6.4 51.4
21 166.3 214.9 34.9 249.8 0.45 42.7 45.2 6.7 52.0
22 174.2 227.3 38.3 265.6 0.45 43.6 45.5 7.0 52.5
23 182.2 239.6 41.9 281.5 0.45 44.5 45.7 7.4 53.0
24 190.1 252.0 45.6 297.6 0.45 45.3 45.8 7.7 53.5
25 198.0 264.4 49.5 313.9 0.45 46.1 46.0 8.0 54.1
26 210.2 276.8 53.5 330.3 0.45 46.8 46.2 8.3 55.1
27 226.1 289.1 57.7 346.9 0.45 47.4 46.3 8.6 56.0
28 241.9 301.5 62.1 363.6 0.45 48.0 46.4 9.0 57.0
29 257.8 313.9 66.6 380.5 0.45 48.8 46.6 9.3 58.1
30 273.6 326.3 71.3 397.5 0.45 49.6 46.7 9.6 59.2
31 289.4 338.6 76.1 414.7 0.45 50.3 46.8 9.9 60.2
32 307.0 351.0 81.1 432.1 0.45 51.0 46.9 10.2 61.2
33 324.9 363.4 86.2 449.6 0.45 51.6 47.0 10.6 62.2
34 332.0 375.0 92.5 467.5 0.50 52.2 47.1 10.9 63.1
35 350.0 387.5 98.0 485.5 0.50 52.8 47.1 11.2 64.0
36 368.0 400.0 103.7 503.7 0.50 53.3 47.2 11.5 64.9
37 386.0 412.5 109.5 522.0 0.50 53.8 47.3 11.8 65.7
38 404.0 425.0 115.5 540.5 0.50 54.3 47.4 12.2 66.5
39 422.0 437.5 121.7 559.2 0.50 54.8 47.4 12.5 67.2
40 440.0 450.0 128.0 578.0 0.50 55.2 47.5 12.8 68.0



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 3-12

Table 3.4.1.2
Maximum Unfactored HL-93 Live Load Moments, Shears, and Reactions
Simple Spans, One Lane, w/o Dynamic Load Allowance
MOMENTS SHEARS & END REACTIONS
SPAN TRUCK TANDEM LANE TOTAL SPAN PT. TRUCK TANDEM LANE TOTAL
FT KIP-FT KIP-FT KIP-FT KIP-FT % KIP KIP KIP KIP
42 485.2 474.8 139.7 624.9 0.45 56.0 47.6 13.4 69.4
44 520.9 499.5 153.3 674.2 0.45 56.7 47.7 14.1 70.8
46 556.5 524.3 167.6 724.1 0.45 57.4 47.8 14.7 72.1
48 592.2 549.0 182.5 774.6 0.45 58.0 47.9 15.4 73.4
50 627.8 573.8 198.0 825.8 0.45 58.6 48.0 16.0 74.6
52 663.4 598.5 214.2 877.6 0.45 59.1 48.1 16.6 75.7
54 699.1 623.3 230.9 930.0 0.45 59.6 48.1 17.3 76.8
56 734.7 648.0 248.4 983.1 0.45 60.0 48.2 17.9 77.9
58 770.4 672.8 266.4 1036.8 0.45 60.4 48.3 18.6 79.0
60 806.0 697.5 285.1 1091.1 0.45 60.8 48.3 19.2 80.0
62 841.6 722.3 304.4 1146.1 0.45 61.2 48.4 19.8 81.0
64 877.3 747.0 324.4 1201.7 0.45 61.5 48.4 20.5 82.0
66 912.9 771.8 345.0 1257.9 0.45 61.8 48.5 21.1 82.9
68 948.6 796.5 366.2 1314.8 0.45 62.1 48.5 21.8 83.9
70 984.2 821.3 388.1 1372.3 0.45 62.4 48.6 22.4 84.8
75 1070.0 887.5 450.0 1520.0 0.50 63.0 48.7 24.0 87.0
80 1160.0 950.0 512.0 1672.0 0.50 63.6 48.8 25.6 89.2
85 1250.0 1012.5 578.0 1828.0 0.50 64.1 48.8 27.2 91.3
90 1340.0 1075.0 648.0 1988.0 0.50 64.5 48.9 28.8 93.3
95 1430.0 1137.5 722.0 2152.0 0.50 64.9 48.9 30.4 95.3
100 1520.0 1200.0 800.0 2320.0 0.50 65.3 49.0 32.0 97.3
110 1700.0 1325.0 968.0 2668.0 0.50 65.9 49.1 35.2 101.1
120 1880.0 1450.0 1152.0 3032.0 0.50 66.4 49.2 38.4 104.8
130 2060.0 1575.0 1352.0 3412.0 0.50 66.8 49.2 41.6 108.4
140 2240.0 1700.0 1568.0 3808.0 0.50 67.2 49.3 44.8 112.0
150 2420.0 1825.0 1800.0 4220.0 0.50 67.5 49.3 48.0 115.5
160 2600.0 1950.0 2048.0 4648.0 0.50 67.8 49.4 51.2 119.0
170 2780.0 2075.0 2312.0 5092.0 0.50 68.0 49.4 54.4 122.4
180 2960.0 2200.0 2592.0 5552.0 0.50 68.3 49.4 57.6 125.9
190 3140.0 2325.0 2888.0 6028.0 0.50 68.5 49.5 60.8 129.3
200 3320.0 2450.0 3200.0 6520.0 0.50 68.6 49.5 64.0 132.6




JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-1

The analysis of bridges and structures is a mixture of science and
engineering judgement. In most cases, simple models with conservative
assumptions can be used to arrive at the design forces for various
elements. For example, for straight beam bridges with small skews,
beam line models with approximate distribution factors can be used to
arrive at the design moments, shears and reactions. For more complex
structures or for situations where refinement offers significant benefits, a
more refined analysis (e.g., grid or 3-D) might be justified. Situations
where this might be appropriate include, curved bridges, bridges with
large skews, or when evaluating the critical element of a bridge with
marginal live load capacity.

In all but the most complex bridges, time-dependent behavior will not be
modeled. The impacts of creep, shrinkage, and relaxation will be
accounted for by using code prescribed equations for these effects. While
time-dependent material effects are not modeled, designers and
evaluators of continuous post-tensioned structures should include
secondary moments due to post-tensioning in their analysis.

Satisfying force equilibrium and identifying a load path to adequately
transfer the loads to the foundations is the primary analysis goal for
designers.

The remainder of this section contains guidance on a variety of topics.
Topics include computer programs, load distribution, load rating,
substructure fixity, and lastly, LRFD exceptions.


Engineering software and spreadsheets play a large role in the design of
bridges. The Bridge Office evaluates software and develops spreadsheets
to assist office personnel. This process does not remove the
responsibility of the designer to verify (through hand calculations, other
programs, past experience, etc) that results are accurate. The
Automation Engineer maintains a list of spreadsheets and programs that
may be used by in-house designers.

Programs used by consultants must be able to replicate the results of the
design examples given in this manual to verify program compliance.
Portions of programs not giving similar results will require hand
computations to demonstrate conformance. Mn/DOT does not require
that the name, version, and release date of the software used for the
design be identified in the contract documents. However, as part of the
consultant’s QA/QC program, software must be verified per the above
requirements.
4. STRUCTURAL
ANALYSI S AND
EVALUATI ON
4.1 Computer
Programs
[ 4.4]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-2

The LRFD Specifications encourage the use of either refined or
approximate methods of analysis. An approximate method of analysis
can be utilized to determine the lateral live-load distribution to individual
girders for typical highway bridges. Lateral live-load distribution factors
are dependent on multiple characteristics of each bridge. There are
specific ranges of applicability for the use of approximate methods of
analysis. Extending the application of such approximate methods beyond
the limits requires sound and reasonable judgement. Otherwise refined
analytical methods should be used.


Deck, Wearing Course, Future Wearing Surface, Railing, Barriers,
and Medians
For beam bridges the dead load of the deck is distributed to the beams
based on their respective tributary widths. Superimposed dead loads,
with the exception of sidewalk loads, (wearing course, future wearing
surface, railings, barriers, and medians) are to be distributed equally to
all beam lines.

For concrete slab bridges (reinforced or post-tensioned) the weight of the
barrier loads should be distributed to the edge strip. For design of the
interior strip, the weight of the barriers should be distributed across the
entire width of the slab and combined with other superimposed dead
loads.

Sidewalks
Distribute sidewalk loads to the beams by simple distribution.

Miscellaneous Loads - Conduits, Sign Structure,etc.
Conduit loads supported by hangers attached to the deck should be
distributed equally to all beams. Sign structures, architectural treatment
panels, and sound walls, whose load acts entirely outside the exterior
beam, should be assumed to be carried by the exterior beam.


Equations and tables for live load distribution factors are provided in the
LRFD Specifications. For typical beam bridges distribution factors are
provided for: Interior beam flexure (single lane, multiple lanes, and
fatigue), Interior beam shear (single lane, multiple lanes, and fatigue).
The lever rule and distribution formulas should be used to determine the
amount of live load carried by the exterior beam. LRFD C4.6.2.2.2d
provides a formula for computation of an additional distribution factor for
bridges that have diaphragms or cross-frames. Use of the rigid cross-
4.2 Load
Distribution
4.2.1 Dead Load
Distribution
4.2.2 Live Load
Distribution
[ 4.6.2]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-3

section or pile equation distribution factor is not required for design of
exterior beams.


Unlike the Standard Specifications, the live load distribution factors for
beam bridges are dependent on the stiffness of the components that
make up the cross section [LRFD Equation 4.6.2.2.1-1]. Theoretically,
the distribution factor changes for each change in cross section.
However, this is more refinement than is necessary. For simple span
structures a single live load distribution factor (computed at midspan)
may be used. For continuous structures a single distribution factor may
be used for each positive moment region and for each negative moment
region. For bridges with consistent geometry (same number of beam
lines in each span, etc.) the largest positive moment distribution factor
may be used for all positive moment locations. Similarly, the largest
negative moment distribution factor may be used for all negative
moment regions.

For skewed superstructures, use the LLDF for end shear throughout the
length of the girder.


Design concrete slabs and timber decks using a one-foot wide
longitudinal strip. The LRFD Specifications provide equations for
distribution factors that result in equivalent strip widths, E, that are
assumed to carry one lane of traffic. Convert the equivalent strip width
to a live load distribution factor for the unit strip by taking the reciprocal
of the width.
LLDF = 1/E


Unlike the Standard Specifications, no reduction in sidewalk pedestrian
live load intensity based on span length and sidewalk width is provided in
the LRFD Specifications.

Consider two loading cases when designing a beam bridge with a
sidewalk:
1) Use a pedestrian live load on the sidewalk equal to 0.075 ksf and
apply it in conjunction with a vehicular live load in the traffic lanes
adjacent to the sidewalk.
2) Place vehicular live load on the sidewalk and in adjacent traffic
lanes with no pedestrian live load on the sidewalk. For this load
4.2.2.1 Steel and
Prestressed
Concrete Beams
4.2.2.2 Slab Spans
and Timber Decks
4.2.3 Sidewalk
Pedestrian Live
Load
[ 3.6.1.6]
[ 4.6.2.3]



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-4

case, assume dead load, including sidewalk, is carried equally by
all beams.

Note that bridges designed for only bicycle or pedestrian traffic use a
slightly higher pedestrian live load (0.085 ksf) than that used for
sidewalks on vehicular bridges.

Also, design pedestrian bridges for a maintenance vehicle live load
equivalent to an H-5 truck for deck widths between 6-10 feet, and an
H-10 truck for wider decks. Use of the dynamic load allowance is not
required with the maintenance vehicle.


The bridge load rating determines the safe load carrying capacity.
Ratings are calculated for a new bridge and are recalculated throughout
the bridge’s life as changes occur.

Unlike design where only one benchmark or level of safety is used, two
different levels have historically been used for load rating. These rating
levels are referred to as the “inventory rating” and “operating rating”.
The inventory rating corresponds to the factors of safety or levels of
reliability associated with new bridge designs. The operating rating
corresponds to slightly relaxed safety factors or reliability indices and is
used for infrequent, regulated loads. Calculations for overload permit
evaluations and for bridge weight postings are made at the operating
level.

Bridge Ratings are done according to the AASHTO Manual for Condition
Evaluation of Bridges. (Much of this document defers to the AASHTO
Standard Design Specifications for Highway Bridges.) New bridge ratings
are made using LFD methods.

The Design Data block on the front sheet of a set of bridge plans should
contain the HS Operating Rating for the bridge.

When the bridge plan is to the point where all the essential information
for the superstructure is shown, the plan should be sent to the Bridge
Rating Unit. They will calculate the operating rating for the bridge.

Bridges designed for the local road system are generally prepared by the
local agency and/or their consultants. It is the responsibility of the local
agency to assure that ratings are calculated and reported to the Bridge
Management Unit.
4.3 Load Rating
4.2.4 Pedestrian
Bridge Live Load



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-5

The rating software in use by the Bridge Rating Unit does not rate the
following types of bridges:
• post-tensioned continuous concrete, both segmental and non-
segmental
• curved steel
• arches
• rigid frames
• continuous trusses
• suspension and cable stayed bridges.

For these bridges, the designer should compute the rating in accordance
with the following guidelines:

Do not include allowances for future dead loads, such as a future wearing
surface. Rate an interior beam under traffic. Use the same lateral dead
and live load distribution used for design. The Load Factor Method is
preferred.

In addition to rating, a provision is needed to evaluate trucks that apply
for overload permits. If the design software will accept custom truck
configurations, the Standard MnDOT Overload Permit Trucks should be
run. Attached are diagrams for these trucks. For this report the lowest
or critical rating factor should be reported for each truck as illustrated in
the attached example.

If custom trucks cannot be run, influence lines should be developed for
the critical locations of negative and positive moment (and shear if
critical). Additional information needed at each of these locations is the
moment (or shear) capacity, dead load effects, secondary prestress
effects, and the capacity remaining for live load and impact. These
should all be equated to the width of one beam spacing. State the load
factors, capacity reduction factors, and live load distribution that were
applied.

A sample of a completed rating report using the standard permit truck
method is attached. Completed reports should be given to the Bridge
Rating Engineer. The complete submittal should include plan sheets
necessary to convey the essential information used in the rating
including the general plan and elevation, the deck cross-section, the
framing plan, and the beam elevation.

Any questions about this procedure should be directed to the Bridge
Rating Engineer.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-6
















































JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-7



































JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-8

The overall fixity of the bridge should be examined in detail for bridges
on steep grades, moderate to severe curvature, or when the columns are
tall or slender. The following guidelines for providing fixity at bearings
should be followed.

For short bridges on steep grades, the down hill abutment should be
fixed. For longer bridges the flexibility of each pier and its bearings need
to be considered to determine the appropriate substructure units to fix.

If pier flexibility and geometry permit, a minimum of two fixed piers per
expansion unit should be used. For very flexible piers, such as pile bents
or slender columns, the expansion bearings may be redundant (the pier
may move before the bearings begin to slide).

For typical prestressed I-beam bridges with two sets of bearings on each
pier (per beam line), sufficient anchorage to the pier is provided by using
one line of bearings with anchor rods at a fixed pier. For river piers and
for spans over 145 feet designers should fix both sets of bearings.


For redundant structures, the distribution of internal forces is dependent
on member stiffnesses. Engineering judgement needs to be exercised
when assigning member properties and boundary conditions to determine
the internal forces of members.

Often a simplified method can be used to arrive at a solution. For
example, instead of setting up a continuous beam model, design
moments in pile bent pier caps can be determined in the following
manner: Positive moment requirements can be determined by assuming
simple spans between the supporting piles. The required negative
moment capacity can be computed assuming a propped cantilever for the
outside spans and fixed/fixed boundary conditions for the interior spans.


The LRFD Specifications are comprehensive. In addition to an updated
design methodology, the new specifications also include information that
has not been included in the Standard Specifications. For example, the
LRFD Specifications contain guidance for vessel impact loads that
previously were contained in the Guide Specification and Commentary for
Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridges. However, not all AASHTO
design guidance has been incorporated in the LRFD Specifications. A few
special topics have not yet been incorporated into the new specification.
Information on these topics is given below.
4.4 Substructure
Fixity
4.5 Structural
Models
4.6 LRFD
Exceptions



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-9

The commentary to Article 1.1 of the LRFD Specifications states that
curved girder bridges are not covered and were not part of the calibration
database used in assembling the specifications. The definition of what
constitutes a curved bridge is not presented in the LRFD Code. This can
be found in the scope section of the 2002 AASHTO Document Guide
Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges. Ignore curvature
effects when computing primary bending moments for structures with the
characteristics detailed in Table 1.4a of the Guide Specification.


When rehabilitating older existing bridges, it is often not economically
feasible to design the rehabilitated structure to meet all current design
code requirements, including live load capacity. To help establish
uniform procedures for use on bridge renovation projects, Mn/DOT
developed “Bridge Improvement and Replacement Guidelines”. These
guidelines are updated at two year intervals and provide specific
information such as; minimum roadway widths, live load requirements,
minimum railing standards and other criteria that must be incorporated
into the design of a renovated structure. The designer should refer to
the guidelines for specific information regarding live load requirements.

The bridge designer will also receive a copy of a “Bridge Repair
Recommendation” for each bridge in a proposed renovation project. The
Mn/DOT Regional Bridge Construction Engineer prepares the
recommendation in accordance with the aforementioned guidelines, and
specifies all of the necessary modifications to be included in the bridge
repair project.


Railroad bridges are to be designed in accordance with the most current
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association
(AREMA) Specifications.

Designers should be aware that often times railroads have specific
criteria for structural design of items carrying their tracks or in the
vicinity of their tracks. The criteria varies from railroad to railroad. For
example, the Duluth Mesabe & Iron Range Railway has a special live
load. Other railroads have specific loading criteria and geometric limits
for excavations near their tracks.
4.6.1 Curved
Bridges
4.6.2
Rehabilitation
Proj ects
4.6.3 Railroad
Bridges & Bridges
or Structures Near
Railroads
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-1
5. CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
5.1 Materials
5.1.1 Concrete
Reinforced and prestressed concrete are used extensively in bridge
projects. In addition to general design guidance and information on
detailing practices, this section contains three design examples: a three-
span reinforced concrete slab superstructure, a 72 inch pretensioned
I-beam, and a three-span post-tensioned concrete slab superstructure.
For most projects, conventional materials should be specified. Standard
materials are described in two locations: Mn/DOT’s Standard
Specifications for Construction (Mn/DOT Spec.) and Bridge Special
Provisions.
If multiple types of concrete or reinforcement are to be used in a project,
it is the designer’s responsibility to clearly show on the plans the amount
of each material to be provided and where it is to be placed.
Mn/DOT Spec. 2461 identifies and describes concrete mix types. Based
on their strength, location of application, and durability properties,
different mixes are used for various structural concrete components.
Table 5.1.1.1 identifies the concrete mix types to be used in various
locations of the state for decks, slabs, railings, medians, and sidewalks.
The four or five characters used to identify a concrete mix provide
information on the properties of the mix. The first character designates
the type of concrete (with or without air entrainment requirements). The
second character identifies the grade of concrete. Each letter is
associated with a different cement-void ratio. The third character in the
label is the upper limit for the slump in inches. The fourth character
identifies the coarse aggregate gradation. The fifth character, if present,
identifies the type of coarse aggregate to be used.
The various concrete types used throughout the state are a result of the
different aggregates that are available in the region (a consequence of
the region’s geology).
Table 5.1.1.2 identifies the standard Mn/DOT concrete mixes to be used
for various bridge components. In general, the standard concrete design
strength is 4 ksi, and air entrained concretes are to be used for
components located above footings and pile caps to enhance durability.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-2
Table 5.1.1.1
Deck, Slab, Railing, Median, and Sidewalk
Concrete Mixes
Element
District
1 (NE)
and 4
District
1 (SW),
2, 3
and Metro
District
6, 7
and 8
Deck or Slab
(Without Wearing Course)
3Y33 3Y33 3Y33A
Deck or Slab
(With Wearing Course)
3Y36 3Y36 3Y36A
Railings, Medians, and
Sidewalks
3Y36A 3Y46 3Y46A
Table 5.1.1.2
Design Concrete Mix Summary
Location/Element Mn/DOT Mix Designation
Design Compressive
Strength (ksi)
Maximum Aggregate
Size (in)
Cofferdam seals 1X62 5.0 2
Fill from top of rock to bottom of footing for
spread footings, and cast-in-place concrete
piles
1C62 3.0 2
Drilled shafts
1X46
1Y46
5.0
4.0
3
/4
3
/4
Footings and pile caps 1A43 4.0 1
1
/2
Abutment stem and wingwalls
Pier columns and caps
3Y43 4.0 1
1
/2
Diaphragms
3Y43 (or same mix as
used in deck)
4.0 1
1
/2
Pretensioned superstructures
1W36, 3W36,
or special
5.0 – 9.0 at final
4.5 – 7.5 at initial
3
/4
Cast-in-place box girders 3U36 modified 6.0
3
/4
Deck, slabs, railings, medians,
and sidewalks
3Y33, 3Y33A, 3Y36,
3Y36A, 3Y46, or 3Y46A
4.0 1
1
/2 or
3
/4
Concrete wearing course 3U17A 4.0
5
/8
Pedestrian bridge deck or slab 3Y33, 3Y33A 4.0 1
1
/2
Precast box culverts, arches,
and 3-sided structures
3W36 5.0 or higher
3
/4
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-3
Reinforced Concrete Sections
Base concrete modulus of elasticity computations on a unit weight of
0.145 kcf. Use a unit weight of 0.150 kcf for dead load calculations.
For structural modeling (determining design forces and deflections), use
gross section properties or effective section properties. If the structure is
redundant and contains nonprismatic members, the structural model
should be constructed with nonprismatic elements.
For concrete elements with compressive strengths less than or equal to
6.0 ksi, use:
c
5 . 1
c c
f w 000 , 33 E ′ ⋅ ⋅ ·
For checks based on strength (design of reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement), use conventional strength methods (reinforcement
yielding, Whitney equivalent stress block, etc.).
For checks based on service loads (fatigue, crack control, etc.), use
cracked sections with reinforcing steel transformed to an equivalent
amount of concrete.
Prestressed Concrete Beams
When computing section properties, use a modular ratio of 1 for the
prestressing strands.
For beams fabricated with high-strength concrete (greater than 6.0 ksi),
the modulus of elasticity is to be computed with an equation (ACI 363)
different from that found in LRFD Article 5.4.2.4:
1000 f 1265 E
c c
+ ′ ⋅ · (where
c c
E and f′ are in ksi)
When computing dead loads, use a unit weight of 0.155 kcf.
Table 5.1.1.3 summarizes the concrete properties to use for analysis and
design:
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-4
5.1.2 Reinforcing
Steel
5.1.3
Reinforcement Bar
Couplers
5.1.4 Prestressing
Steel
Table 5.1.1.3
Concrete Properties
Parameter Equation/Value
Modulus of Elasticity
, , , , ksi
c
f
5 . 1
c
w 33000 ksi
c
E ′ ⋅ ⋅ ·
, , , , 1000 ksi
c
f 1265 ksi
c
E + ′ ⋅ ·
when ksi 6
c
f ≤ ′
when ksi 6
c
f > ′
Thermal Coefficient in
6
10 0 . 6
c
·

× · α /in/°F
Shrinkage Strain
in 0002 . 0
sh
· ε /in
in 0005 . 0
sh
· ε /in
at 28 days
at 1 year
Poisson's ratio 2 . 0 · ν
Reinforcing bars shall satisfy Mn/DOT Spec 3301. Grade 60 deformed
bars (black or epoxy coated) should be used in most circumstances. In
specialized situations and with the approval of the Bridge Design
Engineer, welding to reinforcement may be used. ASTM A706 bars must
be used for applications involving welding.
The modulus of elasticity for mild steel reinforcing (E
s
) is 29,000 ksi.
All reinforcement bars except those that are entirely embedded in
footings shall be epoxy coated.
Contractors select reinforcement bar couplers that meet the requirements
stated in the special provisions. In general, the connectors need to:
• Provide a capacity that is 125% of the nominal bar capacity.
• Be epoxy coated.
• Satisfy the fatigue testing requirements of NCHRP Project 10-35
(12 ksi)
Uncoated low-relaxation 7-wire strand or uncoated deformed, high-
strength bars are acceptable prestressing steels. Strands shall conform
to ASTM A416. Bars shall conform to ASTM A722.
The modulus of elasticity for prestressing steels is:
ksi 500 , 28 E
p
· for strands
ksi 000 , 30 E
p
· for bars
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-5
5.1.5
Post- tensioning
Hardware
5.2 Reinforcement
Details
5.2.1 Minimum
Clear Cover and
Clear Spacing
Standard 7-wire prestressing strand areas are:
3
/
8
" diameter strand: 0.085 in
2
/strand
1
/
2
" diameter strand: 0.153 in
2
/strand
0.6" diameter strand: 0.217 in
2
/strand
For post-tensioned concrete bridges, open ducts must be used for tendon
passageways through the superstructure. Longitudinal ducts are typically
made of galvanized steel tubing 3 to 4 inches in diameter and must be
sufficiently rigid to withstand the loads imposed upon them. Transverse
ducts may be made of corrugated plastic containing from 1 to 4 strands.
Because the transverse ducts are relatively close to the top of the deck
with heavy applications of corrosive de-icing chemicals, plastic ducts are
desirable.
Tendon anchorage devices are required at the ends of each duct.
Anchorages should be shown or indicated on the drawings. Detailing is
unnecessary because the post-tensioning supplier will provide these
details in the shop drawings for the post-tensioning system.
Practices for detailing a variety of reinforced concrete elements are
presented in this section. These include standard concrete cover and bar
spacing dimensions, plus a variety of specific design and detailing
instructions.
Reinforcing details are intended to provide a durable structure with
straightforward details. The details must be constructible, allowing steel
to be placed without undue effort and providing adequate space between
reinforcement to permit the placement of concrete.
The minimum clear cover dimension to reinforcement varies with the
location in the bridge. It varies with how the component is constructed
(precast, cast in forms, cast against earth) and the exposure the element
has to de-icing salts. In general, minimum covers increase as control
over concrete placement decreases and as the anticipated exposure to
de-icing salts increases.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-6
Foundations
Top Bars
• Minimum clear cover is 3 inches.
Bottom Bars, Spread Footing
• Minimum clear cover to the bottom concrete surface is
5 inches.
• Minimum clear cover to the side concrete surface is 3 inches.
Bottom Bars, Pile cap w/ pile embedded 1 foot
• Rest directly on top of trimmed pile.
Bottom Bars, Pile cap w/ pile embedded more than 1 foot
• Minimum clear cover is 3 inches.
Abutments and Piers
• Standard minimum clear cover for all bars is 2 inches (vertical and
horizontal).
• At rustications, the minimum horizontal clear cover varies with the
size of the recess. For recesses less than or equal to 1 inch in depth
and less than or equal to 1 inch in width, the minimum clear cover is
1.5 inches. For all other cases, the minimum clear cover is 2 inches.
• Minimum clear distance between reinforcement and anchor rods is
2 inches.
Decks and Slabs
Top Bars, Roadway Bridge Deck or Slab
• Minimum clear cover to the top concrete surface is 3 inches.
• Minimum horizontal clear cover is 2 inches.
Top Bars, Pedestrian Bridge Deck
• Minimum clear cover to the top concrete surface is 2 inches.
Bottom Bars, Deck
• Minimum clear cover to the bottom concrete surface is 1 inch.
• Minimum horizontal clear cover from the end of the bar to the face
of the concrete element is 4 inches.
• Minimum horizontal clear cover from the side of a bar to the face
of the concrete element is 2 inches.
Bottom Bars, Slab
• Minimum clear cover to the bottom concrete surface is 1.5 inches.
• Minimum horizontal clear cover from the end of the bar to the face
of the concrete element is 4 inches.
• Minimum horizontal clear cover from the side of a bar to the face
of the concrete element is 2 inches.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-7
5.2.2 Reinforcing
Bar Lists
For numbering of reinforcing bars, the first character is a unique alpha
character for the given structural element. The first two digits of the bar
mark indicate the bar size. (These digits are based on metric bar sizes.
Reinforcing steel mills have converted their operations to stamp bars with
metric identifying marks. To simplify construction inspection procedures,
bar marks are based on metric bar sizes.) The last two digits are the
bar’s unique sequential number in the bar list for that substructure or
superstructure unit. A suffix “E” indicates the bar is epoxy coated.
For example, an A1903E bar could be decoded as follows:
A – 19 – 03 – E
Epoxy coated bar
Bar number 3 for this structural unit
Size of bar is #19
Abutment
The cross-sectional areas, diameters, and weights of standard reinforcing
bars are provided in Table 5.2.2.1.
Table 5.2.2.1
Reinforcing Steel Sizes and Properties
Metric Bar Size
U.S. Customary
Bar Size
Area of Bar
(in
2
)
Diameter of Bar
(in)
Weight of Bar
(lb/ft)
#10 #3 0.11 0.375 0.376
#13 #4 0.20 0.500 0.668
#16 #5 0.31 0.625 1.043
#19 #6 0.44 0.750 1.502
#22 #7 0.60 0.875 2.044
#25 #8 0.79 1.000 2.670
#29 #9 1.00 1.128 3.400
#32 #10 1.27 1.270 4.303
#36 #11 1.56 1.410 5.313
#43 #14 2.25 1.693 7.65
#57 #18 4.00 2.257 13.60
Table 5.2.2.2 lists the reinforcing steel area provided (per foot) for
different sized bars with different center to center bar spacings.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-8
Table 5.2.2.2
Average Area per Foot Width Provided by Various Bar Spacings
(in
2
/ft)
Spacing of Bars in Inches
B
a
r

S
i
z
e
N
u
m
b
e
r
N
o
m
i
n
a
l
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
(
i
n
)
3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
10 0.375 0.44 0.38 0.33 0.29 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.19 0.17 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.11
13 0.500 0.80 0.69 0.60 0.53 0.48 0.44 0.40 0.34 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.20
16 0.625 1.24 1.06 0.93 0.83 0.74 0.68 0.62 0.53 0.47 0.41 0.37 0.34 0.31
19 0.750 1.76 1.51 1.32 1.17 1.06 0.96 0.88 0.75 0.66 0.59 0.53 0.48 0.44
22 0.875 2.40 2.06 1.80 1.60 1.44 1.31 1.20 1.03 0.90 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.60
25 1.000 3.16 2.71 2.37 2.11 1.90 1.72 1.58 1.35 1.19 1.05 0.95 0.86 0.79
29 1.128 4.00 3.43 3.00 2.67 2.40 2.18 2.00 1.71 1.50 1.33 1.20 1.09 1.00
32 1.270 --- 4.35 3.81 3.39 3.05 2.77 2.54 2.18 1.91 1.69 1.52 1.39 1.27
36 1.410 --- --- 4.68 4.16 3.74 3.40 3.12 2.67 2.34 2.08 1.87 1.70 1.56
* Per LRFD 5.10.3.1.1, the minimum clear distance between
bars in a layer shall be the greatest of:
1) 1.5 times the nominal diameter of the bar
2) 1.5 times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate **
3) 1.5 inches
** Per 2000 Mn/DOT Standard Specifications for Construction
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-9
The weight of spiral reinforcement on a per foot basis is provided in Table
5.2.2.3. The standard spiral reinforcement is
1
/
2
inch diameter with a
3 inch pitch. When selecting the size of round columns, use outside
dimensions that are consistent with cover requirements and standard
spiral outside diameters.
Figure 5.2.2.1 contains design tables that list assorted development
lengths for 60 ksi reinforcement in 4 ksi concrete.
Figure 5.2.2.2 contains tension lap splice design tables. Knowing the size
of bar, the location of the bar, and the class of splice, designers can
readily find the appropriate lap length. The tables are based on 60 ksi
epoxy coated reinforcement and 4 ksi concrete.
Figure 5.2.2.3 contains graphics that illustrate acceptable methods for
anchoring or lapping stirrup reinforcement. Open stirrups must have the
“open” end anchored in the compression side of the member. This
anchorage consists of development of the bar or hook prior to reaching a
depth of
d
/
2
or placing the hooks around longitudinal reinforcement.
Detail closed double stirrups with a Class C lap.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-10
Table 5.2.2.3
Weight of Spiral Reinforcement
WEIGHTS IN POUNDS PER FOOT OF HEIGHT
3
/8" DIA. ROD
1
/2" DIA. ROD
O.D.
SPIRAL
(in) 6" PITCH
(lb/ft)
F
(lb)
3" PITCH
(lb/ft)
F
(lb)
24 4.72 7.1 16.79 12.60
26 5.12 7.7 18.19 13.65
28 5.51 8.3 19.59 14.70
30 5.91 8.9 20.99 15.75
32 6.30 9.5 22.38 16.80
34 6.69 10.1 23.78 17.85
36 7.09 10.7 25.18 18.90
38 7.48 11.2 26.58 20.00
40 7.87 11.8 27.98 21.00
42 8.27 12.4 29.38 22.00
44 8.66 13.0 30.78 23.10
46 9.06 13.6 32.18 24.10
48 9.45 14.2 33.58 25.20
50 9.84 14.8 34.98 26.20
52 10.24 15.4 36.38 27.30
54 10.63 15.9 37.77 28.30
56 11.02 16.5 39.17 29.40
58 11.42 17.1 40.57 30.40
60 11.81 17.7 41.97 31.50
62 12.21 18.3 43.37 32.50
64 12.60 18.9 44.77 33.60
66 12.99 19.5 46.17 34.60
68 13.39 20.1 47.57 35.70
For more complete coverage, see CRSI Design Handbook.
Total weight = (wt. per ft x height) + F
F = weight to add for finishing
(this includes 1
1
/2 turns at the top and 1
1
/2 turns at the bottom of spiral)
For additional information see Mn/DOT 2472 and AASHTO LRFD 5.10.6.2
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-11
Figure 5.2.2.1
Reinforcement Data
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-12
Figure 5.2.2.2
Reinforcement Data
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-13
Figure 5.2.2.3
Reinforcement Data
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-14
5.2.3 General
Reinforcement
Practices
5.2.4
Reinforcement Bar
Couplers
5.2.5 Adhesive
Anchors
Reinforcement practices follow those shown by the Concrete Reinforcing
Steel Institute (C.R.S.I.) in the Manual of Standard Practice. These
practices include:
1) For bent bars, omit the last length dimension on reinforcement bar
details.
2) Use standard length bars for all but the last bar in long bar runs.
3) Use a maximum length of 60 feet for #13 deck or slab bars and
40 feet for other applications.
4) Use a maximum length of 60 feet for bars #16 and larger.
5) Recognize that bar cutting and bending tolerances are t1 inch for bars
and that this tolerance is important for long straight bars that do not
have lap splices to provide dimensional flexibility.
6) Reinforcement bars longer than 60 feet or larger than #36 are
available only on special order, and should be avoided. Designers
should check with the Bridge Design Engineer before using special
order sizes or lengths.
Reinforcement bar couplers are expensive compared to conventional lap
splices. Where lap splices cannot be readily used (bridge widening
projects, for example), couplers should be considered. Where possible,
reinforcement bar couplers should be staggered to distribute the
additional stiffness of the couplers.
Similar to bar couplers, adhesive anchors are expensive. Adhesive
anchors are typically used to attach secondary structural members to
new concrete or primary structural members to existing (old) concrete. A
typical use is to attach a metal rail to a concrete base.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-15
5.2.6 Shrinkage
and Temperature
Reinforcement
[ 5.10.8]
Slabs and Decks
Curves illustrating the necessary reinforcing for slabs and decks to satisfy
LRFD 5.10.8.2 are provided in Figure 5.2.6.1.
Example
For a slab 24" thick: Use #16 bars @ 14" or use #13 bars @ 9" to
meet temperature and shrinkage requirements.
Figure 5.2.6.1
SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE
REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS AND DECKS
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48
MEMBER THICKNESS (inches)
M
A
X
I
M
U
M

S
P
A
C
I
N
G

(
i
n
c
h
e
s
)
#13
#16
#19
PER AASHTO LRFD 5.10.8.2 CONCRETE
COMPONENTS LESS THAN 48 INCHES THICK
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-16
Members Other than Slabs and Decks
Curves illustrating the necessary reinforcing for members other than
slabs and decks to satisfy LRFD 5.10.8.2 are provided in Figure 5.2.6.2.
Example
For a wall 26" thick: Use #13 bars @ 10" to meet temperature and
shrinkage requirements.
Figure 5.2.6.2
Mass Concrete
Note that the current LRFD 5.10.8.3 mass concrete provisions (for
members whose least dimension exceeds 48 inches) have been found to
be confusing. Therefore, in lieu of LRFD 5.10.8.3, use #19 bars spaced
at 12 inches for members over 48 inches thick.
SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT
FOR MEMBERS OTHER THAN SLABS AND DECKS
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48
MEMBER THICKNESS (inches)
M
A
X
I
M
U
M

S
P
A
C
I
N
G

(
i
n
c
h
e
s
)
#13
#16
#19
PER AASHTO LRFD 5.10.8.2 CONCRETE
COMPONENTS LESS THAN 48 INCHES THICK
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-17
5.3 Concrete Slabs
5.3.1 Geometry
5.3.2
Design/ Analysis
In many bridge engineering documents the terms “concrete slab” and
“concrete deck” are used interchangeably. Within this manual, “concrete
slab” will refer to a superstructure type without supporting beam
elements. In most cases, the primary reinforcement for slabs is parallel
to the centerline of roadway. Likewise, within this manual “concrete
decks” will refer to the superstructure element placed on top of beams or
girders. In most cases, the primary reinforcement for a concrete deck is
transverse to the centerline of roadway. Practices for concrete decks are
described in Section 9 of this manual.
The maximum span lengths for concrete slabs are as follows:
Number of Spans Without Haunches With Haunches
1 30 ft 40 ft
2 40 ft 50 ft
3 or 4 50 ft 60 ft
End spans should be approximately 80% of the center span length to
balance moments and prevent uplift.
LRFD Table 2.5.2.6.3-1 provides guidance for recommended minimum
structure depth as a function of span length for slab superstructures
without haunches.
When haunches are required, use linear haunches in accordance with the
following:
Minimum slab depth at pier =
1
]
1

¸
+

30
10 S
33 . 1
Minimum slab depth in non-haunched area =
1
]
1

¸
+

30
10 S
8 . 0
Minimum haunch length L = S 15 . 0 ⋅
(where S is the length of longest span)
Skew can be ignored for slab bridges with skew angles of 20° or less.
• Place transverse reinforcement parallel to substructures.
For slab bridges with skew angles between 20° and 45°
• Perform a two-dimensional plate analysis.
• Place transverse reinforcement normal to the bridge centerline.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-18
5.3.4
Reinforcement
Layout
5.3.3 Exterior Strip
[ LRFD 4.6.2.1.4b]
Slab type bridges are not allowed for bridges with skew angles greater
than 45°.
Slab bridges curved in plan may be designed as if straight. Designers
should consider and investigate the need for providing additional
reinforcement in the portion of the slab outside of chord lines connecting
substructure units.
Do not include the concrete wearing course in section properties when
performing strength and serviceability checks. This will ensure that the
slab has adequate capacity if traffic is carried on the bridge during
operations associated with milling off the old wearing course and the
placement of a new wearing course. An exception to this is when
checking the top reinforcement in the negative moment region for
flexural crack control.
Determine reinforcement bar cutoff points based on strength,
serviceability, and minimum reinforcement requirements.
Check one-way shear in slab bridges. Assume that the live load is
distributed over the entire width of the superstructure. Load all lanes
and use the appropriate multiple presence factor.
Outside edges of slab bridges contain the exterior strip or edge beam. At
a minimum, the exterior strip reinforcement must match that of the
interior portions of the bridge. Use an exterior strip width of 72 inches.
Special consideration for the design of edge beams is required for bridges
with sidewalks. Separately poured sidewalks may be considered to act
compositely with the slab when adequate means of shear transfer at the
interface is provided.
Use the following guidelines for layout of reinforcement in a simple span
slab bridge (see example in Figure 5.3.4.1):
Interior strip reinforcement
• Top longitudinal – 1 spacing, 1 bar size
• Bottom longitudinal – 2 spacings, 1 bar size
Exterior strip reinforcement
• Top longitudinal – 1 spacing, 1 bar size
• Bottom longitudinal – 2 spacings, 1 bar size
Transverse reinforcement – 1 spacing, 1 bar size
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-19
Use the following guidelines for layout of reinforcement in a continuous
slab bridge:
Option 1 (see example in Figure 5.3.4.2):
Interior strip reinforcement
• Top longitudinal – 2 spacings, 1 bar size
• Bottom longitudinal – 2 spacings, 1 bar size
Exterior strip reinforcement
• Top longitudinal – 2 spacings, 1 bar size
• Bottom longitudinal – 2 spacings, 1 bar size
Transverse reinforcement – 1 spacing, 1 bar size
Option 2 (see example in Figure 5.3.4.3):
Interior strip reinforcement
• Top longitudinal – 2 spacings, 2 bar sizes
• Bottom longitudinal – 2 spacings, 2 bar sizes
Exterior strip reinforcement
• Top longitudinal – 2 spacings, 2 bar sizes
• Bottom longitudinal – 2 spacings, 2 bar sizes
Transverse reinforcement – 1 spacing, 1 bar size
Figure 5.3.4.1
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-20
Figure 5.3.4.2
Figure 5.3.4.3
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-21
5.3.5 Camber and
Deflections
[ 5.7.3.6.2]
5.4 Pretensioned
Concrete
To simplify placement, detail reinforcement such that top bars are
positioned over bottom bars where possible. For example, if the design
requires bottom longitudinal bars spaced on 10 inch centers, top
longitudinal bars might be spaced on 10 inch centers in positive moment
regions and 5 inch centers in negative moment regions.
Extend railing dowel bars to the bottom layer of slab reinforcement and
provide a horizontal leg for ease of placement.
In order to obtain the best rideability over the life of the structure,
camber concrete slab bridges for the immediate dead load deflection plus
one half of the long-term deflection. Use gross section properties for
dead load deflection calculations and a long-term creep multiplier of 4.0.
Railings, sidewalks, medians, and wearing courses are not placed while
the slab is supported on falsework. Assume that only the slab carries the
dead load of these elements.
Check live load deflections using the effective moment of inertia. The
effective moment of inertia may be approximated as one half of the gross
moment of inertia. The maximum live load deflection is
L
/
800
for vehicular
bridges that do not carry pedestrians and
L
/
1000
for vehicular bridges that
carry pedestrians.
Consider the concrete wearing course to be functioning compositely with
the slab for live load deflection. Assume the riding surface has lost
1
/
2
inch of thickness due to wear.
Use a live load distribution factor equal to the number of lanes times the
multiple presence factor and divide by the width of the slab for the
deflection check.
The details of pretensioned concrete beams are presented on standard
Bridge Details Part II sheets incorporated into a set of plans. Prepare a
separate sheet for each type of beam in the project. Beams are identical
if they have the same cross-section, strand layout, concrete strengths,
and a similar length. To simplify fabrication and construction, try to
minimize the number of beam types incorporated into a project. Design
exterior beams with a strength equal to or greater than the interior
beams.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-22
5.4.1 Geometry
Provide a minimum stool of 1
1
/
2
inches. For dead load computations
assume an average stool height of 2
1
/
2
inches. Deck cross slopes,
horizontal curves, and vertical curves all impact the stool height.
There are several Bridge Office practices regarding the type and location
of diaphragms or cross frames for prestressed beam bridges:
1) Design prestressed I-beam bridges without continuity over the piers,
except in the following situations:
a) Bridge is over water with pile bent piers supported by unstable
soils such as fat clay.
b) Bridge is over water with pile bent piers at risk for large ice or
debris loading and pier does not have an encasement wall.
2) Intermediate diaphragms are not required for 14RB, 18RB, 22RB, and
27M beams. For all other beam sizes, the following applies.
Intermediate diaphragms are not required for single spans of 45'-0"
or less. Provide one intermediate diaphragm at the midspan for
spans between 45'-0" to 90'-0". Provide two evenly spaced
intermediate diaphragms for spans greater than 90'-0". For spans
over traffic, place additional diaphragms in the fascia bay approached
by traffic to provide bracing against impact from over-height traffic
loads. For two-lane roadways, place one diaphragm approximately
over each shoulder. For additional lanes, space additional
diaphragms at intervals of about 25'-0" over the roadway.
3) Figure 5.4.1.1 illustrates the typical layout of intermediate
diaphragms at piers for bridges without continuity over the piers.
Locate the centerline of bearing 7
1
/
2
inches from the end of the beam.
At piers, provide 2 inches of clearance between the ends of beams.
Provide 3 inches clearance for structures with three or more spans. Note
that the fabrication length tolerance for pretensioned I-beams is t
1
/
8
" per
10 feet of length. It may be necessary to cope beam flanges at piers for
bridges with tight horizontal curves or at skewed abutments.
For bridges on significant grades , , % 3 ≥ the sloped length of the beam
will be significantly longer than the horizontal length between
substructure units. If the sloped length is
1
/
2
inch or more than the
horizontal length, identify the sloped length dimension on the beam detail
plan sheets.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-23
Figure 5.4.1.1
Typical Diaphragm Layout at Piers for Prestressed Concrete Beam Bridge
With Continuous Deck Over Piers
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-24
5.4.3
Design/ Analysis
5.4.2 Stress Limits
[ 5.9.3] [ 5.9.4]
Similar to the Standard Specifications, the LRFD Specifications identify
service load stress limits for different elements and locations.
For typical prestressed beams, check tension and compression service
load stresses at two stages. The first stage is when the prestress force is
transferred to the beams in the fabricator’s yard. The second stage is
after all losses have occurred and the beam is in the fully constructed
bridge.
Design pretensioned beams with a maximum tension at transfer (after
initial losses) of:
ksi 2 . 0 f 0948 . 0
ci
≤ ′ ⋅ (where
ci
f′ is in ksi)
Design pretensioned beams with a maximum tension after all losses of:
c
f 19 . 0 ′ ⋅ (where
c
f′ is in ksi)
Use the “detailed” method provided in LRFD Article 5.9.5 to compute
prestress losses.
Design all pretensioned beams using uncoated low relaxation strands and
epoxy coated mild reinforcement. Both
1
/
2
inch (
2
s
in 153 . 0 A · ) and
0.6 inch (
2
s
in 217 . 0 A · ) diameter strands are acceptable sizes for use
in pretensioned beams. Fabricators prefer
1
/
2
inch strands, but use 0.6
inch diameter strands when a beam line can be eliminated.
At the time of prestress transfer (initial), the minimum required concrete
strength (
ci
f′ ) is 4.5 ksi and the maximum is limited to 7.5 ksi. At the
termination of the curing period (final), the minimum concrete strength
(
c
f′ ) is 5 ksi and the maximum strength is 9 ksi. Higher initial or final
strengths may be used with approval from the Bridge Design Engineer.
An initial concrete strength greater than 7 ksi may add cost to the beam.
The fabricator cannot remove the beam from the bed until a cylinder
break indicates the concrete has reached its specified initial strength.
With strengths higher than 7 ksi, the fabricator may have to leave the
beam in the bed longer than the normal 16-18 hours or add increased
amounts of superplastizer and cement, thereby increasing the cost of the
beam.
If possible, the initial concrete strength should be 0.5 to 1.0 ksi lower
than the final concrete strength. Since concrete naturally gains strength
with age, the final strength of the beam will be more efficiently utilized.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-25
If the calculated initial or final strengths differ by more than 0.3 ksi from
those used in the analysis, reanalyze the beam with the new values.
Reanalysis is needed because changes to the concrete strengths
ci
f′ and
c
f′ affect the concrete modulus, which affects the prestress losses and the
composite beam section modulus.
Straight strands must be arranged in a 2 inch grid pattern. See standard
beam sheets for possible strand locations. Arrange draped strands in a
2 inch grid pattern independent of the straight strands. Use draped
strands to reduce the initial required strength
ci
f′ at the end of the beam.
Straight strands may be placed in the draped area at 2 inches from the
bottom of the beam. Draped strands must start at 3 inches minimum
from the bottom at the hold-downs and 3 inches minimum from the top
at the end of the beam. Straight strands should be used in place of
draped strands whenever possible.
Limit the number of draped strands at each hold-down point, such that
the maximum hold-down force is less than or equal to 25 kips.
Fabricators are permitted to provide multiple hold-down points within the
t1 foot tolerance provided on the standard beam plan sheets. The
maximum allowable hold-down force for a single draped strand is
6 kips/strand. Center the hold-downs around Span Points 0.4 and 0.6.
Ensure that adequate shear and bursting reinforcement is provided in the
ends of beams. The maximum size for stirrup bars is #16. Based on the
concrete mix used for prestressed beams, the minimum stirrup spacing is
2
1
/
2
inches. If the required amount of reinforcement cannot be provided
within
h
/
4
of the end of the beam, provide the remainder at a 2
1
/
2
inch
spacing.
The following guidance is provided to designers to evaluate initial and
final stresses to optimize their designs:
Final Stresses
Midpoint Strength at Bottom of Beam
If tension stress is greater than
c
f 19 . 0 ′ ⋅ (0.569 ksi for 9 ksi
concrete), lower the stress by:
1) Add 2 strands to the bottom row of straight and move the
draped strands up 1 inch at midpoint (bottom row of draped at
4 inches).
2) Add 2 strands to the second row of straight and move the
draped strands up 2 inches at midpoint (bottom row of draped
at 6 inches) or add 2 draped strands (bottom row of draped at
4 inches).
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-26
3) Continue to add strands as stated above until 6 straight and 4
draped have been added. If the tension stress is still greater
than 0.569 ksi, consider adding another line of beams to the
bridge. If the tension stress is less than 0.569 ksi, two strands
(either straight or draped) may be removed and the beam
reanalyzed. If the stress becomes greater than 0.569 ksi,
return to the original number of strands.
Initial Stresses
Midpoint Strength at Bottom of Beam
If the required initial strength is greater than 7.5 ksi:
1) Move the center of gravity of the strands up at midpoint of the
beam until either the final concrete strength becomes 9.0 ksi
or the initial strength is 0.5 to 1.0 ksi lower than the final
strength.
2) Remove 2 strands (preferably draped) from the beam and
reanalyze. Keep in mind that changes will affect the required
final strength. If the removing of strands increases the final
concrete strength above 9.0 ksi, do not remove the strands
but consider other changes in the strand pattern.
End Strength at Bottom of Beam
If the required initial strength is greater than 7.5 ksi and greater
than that calculated at the midpoint:
1) Strands may be draped to decrease the required strength.
Keep in mind that changes to strand locations at the end of the
beam may affect the mid-beam stresses.
2) If the initial strength is lower than calculated at the midpoint,
draped strands may be placed straight thereby decreasing the
hold-down force and the number of draped strands required.
Keep in mind that changes may affect the mid-beam stresses.
End Strength at Top of Beam
If the required initial strength is greater than 7.5 ksi, raise the
center of gravity of the strands at the end of the beam. This can
be accomplished by draping strands that were previously straight
or increasing the height of the draped strands.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-27
5.4.4 Detailing/
Reinforcement
5.4.5 Camber and
Deflection
Midpoint Strength at Top of Beam
If the required initial strength is greater than calculated at the
bottom end or midpoint:
1) The center of gravity of the strands may be moved higher at
the center.
2) The number of strands may be reduced to decrease the
required strength.
Identify the beam type on the beam sheet by depth in inches and length
rounded to the next highest foot. In the superstructure quantities list,
identify the beam type by depth. For example, a 45M beam, 72'-4" long
would be “45M-73” on the beam sheet and “45M” in the quantities list.
Group beams of similar lengths with the same strand pattern into one
type on a beam sheet. The pay item quantity will be the total length of
beams (of each height) in feet.
On the framing plan, show the beam and diaphragm spacing, staging,
type of diaphragms, centerline of piers, centerline of abutment and pier
bearings, working points, beam marks (B1, B2 etc.), the “X” end of
beams, and the type and location of bearings. One end of each beam is
labeled the “X” end after fabrication. This is used during erection to
ensure that the beams are properly placed. Many times diaphragm
inserts are not symmetric and beams can only be placed one way.
The standard beam sheets contain a camber diagram where designers
are to provide camber information. Knowing the deflection values
associated with prestressing and different dead load components, camber
values can be obtained. PCI multipliers are used to transfer the prestress
and selfweight deflections at transfer of prestress to the deflections at the
time of erection. A multiplier of 1.80 is used for the prestress deflection
component. A multiplier of 1.85 is used for the selfweight of the
member. No multiplier is used for diaphragm dead loads, deck and stool
dead loads or parapet and median dead loads.
The “Initial Total Camber” is the camber of the beam at the time of
erection after the diaphragms are in place. The “Est. Dead Load
Deflection” is the sum of deflections associated with the placement of the
deck, railings, sidewalks, and stool. Do not include the weight of the
future wearing surface when computing the dead load deflection.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-28
5.4.6 Standard
I - Beams
5.4.7 Rectangular
Beams
Seven I-beam sections are available for use in Minnesota. These sections
range in depth from 27 inches to 81 inches. Identical top and bottom
flange dimensions are used for each section. All sections have a 6 inch
thick web. Figure 5.4.6.1 identifies the section properties for standard
I-beam shapes. Figure 5.4.6.2 contains preliminary design guidance on
beam size and spacing for various span lengths.
Solid rectangular prestressed beams may be used on short span bridges.
These units are most appropriate for short span structures requiring a
low profile or where construction of falsework for a slab structure would
be difficult or unwanted. Figure 5.4.6.1 lists the section properties for
standard Mn/DOT rectangular beams. Figure 5.4.6.2 contains beam
spacing/span curves for different cross sections.



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-29


DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAM CHART:

2004 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 3
rd
Edition.

HL-93 Live Load

Beam Concrete: ksi 0 . 9 f
c
= ′ ksi 5 . 7 f
ci
= ′ 155 . 0 w
bm
= kips/ft

ksi 1000 f 1265 E
c c
+ ′ =
Deck Concrete: ksi 0 . 4 f
c
= ′ ksi 3644 E
c
= 150 . 0 w
c
= kips/ft

0.6" diameter low relaxation strands, ksi 500 , 28 E
s
=
ksi 270 f
pu
= with initial pull of
pu
f 75 . 0

Simple supports with six beams and deck without wearing course.
Deck carries two F-Rails with no sidewalk or median, skew = 0 degrees.

Effective deck thickness is total deck thickness minus
1
/
2
" of wear.

1
1
/
2
" stool height used for composite beam section properties.
2
1
/
2
" average stool height used for dead load calculations.

Rail dead load applied equally to all beams.
Dead load includes 0.020 ksf future wearing course.

Refined losses are used.

Service Concrete Tensile Stress Limits:
After Initial Losses:
ksi 2 . 0 f 094 . 0
ci
≤ ′
After All Losses: c
f 19 . 0 ′



Beam Properties
h AREA W I
B
S
c
A
BEAM
(in)
SHAPE
(in
2
) (lb/ft) (in) (in
4
) (in
3
) (in
2
)
14RB 14 Rect. 364 392 7.00 5,945 849 312
18RB 18 Rect. 468 504 9.00 12,640 1,404 364
22RB 22 Rect. 572 616 11.00 23,070 2,097 416
27M 27 I-Beam 516 555 13.59 43,080 3,170 296
36M 36 I-Beam 570 614 17.96 93,530 5,208 323
45M 45 I-Beam 624 672 22.34 167,050 7,478 350
54M 54 I-Beam 678 730 26.75 265,830 9,938 377
63M 63 I-Beam 732 788 31.17 392,060 12,580 404
72M 72 I-Beam 786 846 35.60 547,920 15,390 431
81M 81 I-Beam 840 904 40.04 735,620 18,370 458
Based on 155 pounds per cubic foot.
Based on a 9" slab with
1
/
2
" of wear and 1
1
/
2
" stool.
Figure 5.4.6.1
Precast Prestressed Concrete Beam Data




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-30


Figure 5.4.6.2
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAM CHART
(Chart is for preliminary use only. See Figure 5.4.6.1 for design assumptions.)
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@5.1
44@6.0
42@5.2
44@5.3
42@4.9
40@4.6
40@5.1
38@4.8
40@4.8
40@5.6
36@4.2
36@4.5
36@5.3
38@5.1
34@4.2
34@4.9
34@5.6
32@4.8
34@5.1
32@4.9
32@5.7
30@5.1
30@5.5
28@6.6
28@6.6
28@6.6
28@6.6
28@6.6
26@5.6
26@5.6
26@5.6
26@5.6
26@5.6
20@4.2
20@4.2
20@4.4
20@4.4
20@4.4
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
BEAM SPACING (FEET)
S
P
A
N

L
E
N
G
T
H

(
F
E
E
T
)
DESIGN CRITERIA
HL-93 LOADING f 'c = 9.0 ksi f 'ci = 7.5 ksi
0.6" φ STRANDS MAX. INITIAL PULL ≤ 2000 kips
NUMBERS ADJACENT TO THE POINTS ON THE GRAPH
REPRESENT AN APPROXIMATE DESIGN NUMBER OF
STRANDS AND CENTER OF GRAVITY.
81M
72M
63M
54M
45M
36M
27M
22RB
18RB
14RB
SHIPPING
VERIFY
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-31
5.4.8
Double-Tee Beams
Pretensioned double-tees are used only on short span bridges on
state-aid projects. The primary advantage of a double-tee superstructure
is that formwork is not required. The sections are placed adjacent to
each other on the substructure units. A bituminous topping is typically
placed on top of the units to provide drainage and a smooth riding
surface. Shear transfer from one unit to an adjacent unit requires an
intermittently welded connection between the top flanges of the units.
Design Criteria
General
• Dimensions and details are per Bridge Details Part II
Figures 5-397.525 and 5-397.526.
• Maximum bridge width of 32 feet with 2 design lanes.
• AASHTO LRFD superstructure type “i”.
• Beams are assumed connected along the longitudinal joint to
prevent relative displacement.
• Bearing width is 12 inches. Centerline of bearing is located
6 inches from the girder end.
Loading
• Beams are designed for a 140 lb/ft
3
bituminous wearing surface,
3" for exterior girders and 5" for interior girders.
• No provision is made for future overlay or additional superimposed
dead load.
• Exterior girder is designed for full barrier load (Type-F rail,
440 lb/ft).
• A midspan concrete diaphragm is included on girders 40' or
longer.
Materials
• Maximum compressive strengths: ksi 7 f
c
· ′ , ksi 5 f
ci
· ′

1
/
2
" diameter low relaxation strand, ksi 270 f
pu
·
• Unit weight of concrete = 0.150 kcf
• Concrete elastic modulus , ,
c
5 . 1
f 150 . 0 000 , 33 ′ ·
Rating
• The operating rating factor is taken as:
, , , ,
LL
DL n
M factor on distributi LL impact 1
M M 7 . 0
⋅ ⋅ +
− ⋅ φ ⋅
• Live load distribution factors and impact are per AASHTO Standard
Specifications. Live load distribution is equivalent for interior and
exterior girders.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-32
Prestressing
• Initial camber is due to prestressing and selfweight of girder at
erection (1.5 multiplier included). DL deflection is due to barrier
and overlay loading.
• Single-point draped strands are draped at the beam centerline.
Two-point draped strands are draped at 5 (t1) feet each side of
beam centerline.
• The hold-down force is limited to 25 kips, with a maximum of
12 strands at each hold-down point.
Standard Mn/DOT double-tees are available in 6 or 8 foot widths. Each
width is available in a 22 inch or 30 inch deep double-tee. Properties for
double-tees are presented in Figure 5.4.8.1.
Table 5.4.8.1 and Table 5.4.8.2 list the details for standard double-tee
designs for span lengths between 20 and 64 feet.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-33
Figure 5.4.8.1
Prestressed Concrete Double- Tee Beams
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-34
Table 5.4.8.1
22- 6 and 22- 8 Double-Tee Design Tables
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-35
Table 5.4.8.2
30- 6 and 30- 8 Double-Tee Design Tables
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-36
5.5
Post-Tensioned
Concrete
5.5.1 PT Slab
Bridges
5.5.2
PT I - Girders
5.5.3 PT Precast or
Cast- I n- Place Box
Girders
5.6 Concrete
Finishes and
Coatings
Post-tensioned (PT) concrete structures have their prestressing steel
stressed after the concrete has been placed and partially cured.
Post-tensioned concrete bridges are specialty structures. Poor detailing
and poor construction practices can greatly reduce the service life of
these structures. Designers should follow current practices
recommended by the American Segmental Bridge Institute (ASBI) and
the Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI).
Design segmental box girders for zero tension under service loads.
Post-tensioned concrete slab bridges are used for projects requiring
spans longer than those efficiently accommodated with conventionally
reinforced concrete slabs. The drawback to post-tensioned slabs is that
they are more complex to design and construct. Elastic shortening and
secondary bending moments due to post-tensioning are important design
parameters for post-tensioned slab bridges. During construction a
number of additional components are involved. They include the
installation of post-tensioning ducts and anchorages, the pushing or
pulling of strands through the ducts, the jacking of tendons, and grouting
operations.
Post-tensioned I-girder bridges are rarely used in Minnesota.
The depth of box girders should preferably be a minimum of
1
/
18
of the
maximum span length.
Place vertical webs of box girders monolithic with the bottom slab.
The finish or coating to be used on concrete elements will usually be
determined when the Preliminary Bridge Plan is assembled. In general,
provide a finish or coating consistent with the guidance given in the
Aesthetic Guidelines for Bridge Design Manual.
A wide variety of surface finishes for concrete are used on bridge
projects. These range from plain concrete to rubbed concrete to painted
surfaces to form liners and stains. Plain concrete and rubbed concrete
finishes are described in the Mn/DOT Spec. 2401. Painted and
architectural surfaces must be described in the special provisions.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-37
5.7 Design
Examples
Specify graffiti protection for concrete elements with a coating system
that has more than one color.
Three design examples complete Section 5. The examples consist of a
three-span reinforced concrete slab superstructure, a prestressed I-beam
superstructure, and a three-span post-tensioned slab superstructure.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-38
[ This Page Intentionally Left Blank ]
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-39
5.7.1 Three- Span
Haunched
Reinforced
Concrete Slab
This example illustrates the design of a haunched reinforced concrete
slab bridge. The three continuous spans are 44'-0", 55'-0", and 44'-0" in
length. The roadway width is 44'-0" with Mn/DOT Type F barrier railings
for a total out-to-out width of 47'-4". The bridge is skewed 10 degrees. A
plan view and typical sections of the bridge are shown in Figures 5.7.1.1
and 5.7.1.2.
After determining live load distribution factors, dead and live loads are
computed at span tenth points. Using Strength I, Service I, and Fatigue
design moments the flexural reinforcement is sized. This is accomplished
by:
• Providing adequate steel for strength
• Verifying that crack control checks are satisfied
• Checking fatigue stresses in the reinforcement
• Checking that the section isn’t over-reinforced
• Verifying that minimum reinforcement checks are satisfied
After the primary longitudinal reinforcement is designed, the shear
capacity of the section is checked. Lastly, distribution and shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement is sized.
Material and design parameters used in this example are:
Concrete Strength at 28 Days, ksi 0 . 4 f
c
· ′
Concrete Unit Weight, kcf 150 . 0 w
c
· (dead loads)
kcf 145 . 0 w
c
· (modulus)
Reinforcing Bars:
Yield Strength, ksi 60 f
y
·
Modulus of Elasticity, ksi 000 , 29 E
s
·
Weight of Future Wearing Surface = 20 psf
For simplicity, the wearing course is assumed to extend from out-to-out
of deck, and a 0.439 kip/ft barrier weight is used for the “F” rail.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-40
Figure 5.7.1.1
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-41
Figure 5.7.1.2
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-42
A. Determine Slab
Depths
B. Determine
I nterior Live Load
Strip Width
[ 4.6.2.3]
[ 3.6.1.1.1]
[ Eqn. 4.6.2.3-1]
MnDOT’s practice is to use linear haunches, with the haunch length equal
to 15 % of the longest span.
Haunch Length ft 25 . 8 55 15 . 0 · ⋅ · Use 8.5 ft
The minimum slab depth at midspan (
min
h ) is also determined with the
length of the longest span (S):
, , , ,
ft 73 . 1
30
10 55
80 . 0
30
10 S
80 . 0 ·
+
⋅ ·
+
⋅ ft 75 . 1 h Use
min
·
The depth of the slab required at the pier (
max
h ) is determined with an
equation based on the length of the longest span:
, , , ,
ft 88 . 2
30
10 55
33 . 1
30
10 S
33 . 1 ·
+
⋅ ·
+
⋅ ft 00 . 3 h Use
max
·
The slab depth (h) includes the 2 inch wearing course.
The LRFD Specifications contain equations to determine the strip width
that carries a lane of live load. Slab designs are performed on a strip one
foot wide. The strip widths found with the LRFD equations are inverted
to arrive at the live load distribution factor for a 1 foot wide strip (LLDF).
For interior strips multiple equations are evaluated to determine whether
one or multiple live load lanes govern.
Flexure – One Lane Loaded
Multiple Presence Factors have been incorporated into the LRFD
equations per LRFD C3.6.1.1.2.
Equivalent strip width (in),
1 1
W L 0 . 5 0 . 10 E ⋅ ⋅ + ·
Where:
1
L is the modified span length.
It is equal to the span length, but can be no greater than 60.
1
W is the modified bridge width.
It is the minimum bridge width, but can be no greater than 30.
For the 44 ft side spans:
7 . 191 30 44 0 . 5 0 . 10 E · ⋅ ⋅ + · in/lane
Therefore 063 . 0
12
7 . 191
1
LLDF
SL
·

,
_

¸
¸
· lanes/ft Governs
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-43
[ Eqn. 4.6.2.3-2]
For the 55 ft center span:
1 . 213 30 55 0 . 5 0 . 10 E · ⋅ ⋅ + · in/lane
Therefore 056 . 0
12
1 . 213
1
LLDF
SL
·

,
_

¸
¸
· lanes/ft
Flexure – Fatigue Loading
Divide the one lane LLDF by 1.2 to remove the Multiple Presence Factor
For the 44 ft side spans:
052 . 0
2 . 1
063 . 0
LLDF
FAT
· · lanes/ft Governs
For the 55 ft center span:
047 . 0
2 . 1
056 . 0
LLDF
FAT
· · lanes/ft
Flexure – Multiple Lanes Loaded
Equivalent strip width (in),
L
1 1
N
W 12
W L 44 . 1 0 . 84 E

≤ ⋅ ⋅ + ·
1
L = 44 ft or 55 ft
1
W = 47.33 ft
W is the actual bridge width = 47.33 ft
7 . 3
12
44
N
L
· · Use 3
The upper limit on the equivalent strip width is:
3 . 189
3
33 . 47 0 . 12
N
W 0 . 12
L
·

·

in/lane
For the 44 ft side spans:
3 . 189 6 . 149 33 . 47 44 44 . 1 0 . 84 E ≤ · ⋅ ⋅ + · in/lane
Therefore the 080 . 0
12
6 . 149
1
LLDF
ML
·

,
_

¸
¸
· lanes/ft Governs
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-44
[ Eqn. 4.6.2.3-3]
C. Determine
Exterior Live Load
Strip Width
[ 4.6.2.1.4]
[ 2.5.2.6.2]
For the 55 ft center span:
3 . 189 5 . 157 33 . 47 55 44 . 1 0 . 84 E ≤ · ⋅ ⋅ + · in/lane
Therefore the 076 . 0
12
5 . 157
1
LLDF
ML
·

,
_

¸
¸
· lanes/ft
To simplify the process of arriving at design forces, the maximum
distribution factor (0.080 lanes/ft) will be used for all locations.
Shear and Deflection
All design lanes should be loaded and the entire slab assumed to resist
the loads.
3 N
L
· 85 . 0 m · % 33 IM ·
Dynamic load allowance (IM) is applied only to the truck portion of the
live load. The distribution factor for the lane portion of the live load is
the same as that used for the shear checks:
, , , ,
, ,
054 . 0
33 . 47
85 . 0 3
width deck
MPF lanes of #
LLDF
s
·

·

·

lanes/ft
The distribution factor for the truck portion is:
, , , , 072 . 0 33 . 0 1 054 . 0 IM 1 LLDF
s
· + ⋅ · + ⋅

lanes/ft
Reduction for Skew
, , 006 . 1 10 tan 25 . 0 05 . 1 tan 25 . 0 05 . 1 r · ° ⋅ − · θ ⋅ − · No Reduction
The exterior strip is assumed to carry one wheel line and a tributary
portion of lane load.
Check if the equivalent strip is less than the maximum width of
72 inches.

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
2
strip smallest
12 barrier) of inside to edge from (Distance E
in 0 . 72 9 . 106
2
7 . 149
12 20 > · + + · Use 72.0 in
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-45
D. Resistance
Factors and Load
Modifiers
[ 5.5.4.2.1]
[ 1.3.3- 1.3.5]
E. Select
Applicable Load
Combinations and
Load Factors
[ 3.4.1]
Compute the distribution factor associated with one truck wheel line:
, , , , , , , , 12 / 72 2
2 . 1 1
12 / E lines/lane wheel 2
MPF line wheel 1
LLDF
EXTT


·


·
100 . 0 · lanes/ft
Compute the distribution factor associated with lane load on a 72 inch
wide exterior strip:
, , , , 12 / 72
2 . 1
10
12 / 20 12 / 72
width strip exterior
MPF
width load ft 10
loaded width deck
LLDF
EXTL

,
_

¸
¸ −
·

,
_

¸
¸
·
087 . 0 · lanes/ft
For simplicity, the larger value (0.100 lanes/ft) is used for both load
types when assembling design forces.
The following resistance factors will be used for this example:
90 . 0 · φ for flexure and tension
90 . 0 · φ for shear and torsion
The following load modifiers will be used for this example:
Strength Service Fatigue
Ductility
D
η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Redundancy
R
η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Importance
I
η 1.0 n/a n/a
I R D
η ⋅ η ⋅ η · η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Three load combinations will be considered for the design example.
STRENGTH I - Will be considered with a standard HL-93 loading.
, , , , ¦ } IM LL 75 . 1 DC 25 . 1 0 . 1 U + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
SERVICE I - Will be used primarily for crack control checks.
, , , , IM LL 0 . 1 DC 0 . 1 U + ⋅ + ⋅ ·
FATIGUE - Will be used to evaluate the reinforcing steel.
, , IM LL 75 . 0 U + ⋅ ·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-46
F. Calculate Live
Load Force Effects
[ 3.6.1]
G. Calculate Force
Effects from Other
Loads
The LRFD Specifications contain several live load components that are
combined and scaled to generate design live loads. The components
include: HL-93 design truck, lane loading, tandem axles, a truck train,
and a fatigue truck with fixed axle spacings.
For this example the following combinations will be investigated:
Design Truck + Design Lane
Design Tandem + Design Lane
0.90 (Truck Train + Design Lane) (Neg. Moment Regions)
Fatigue Truck
The dynamic load allowance (IM) has the following values:
IM = 15% when evaluating fatigue and fracture.
IM = 33% when evaluating all other limit states.
It is not applied to the lane live load.
The dead load from the barriers is conservatively assumed to be fully
carried by both interior and exterior strips. Since the slab thickness
varies, the load effect due to the slab is kept separate.
Interior Strip (1'-0" Wide)
Slab, wearing course, and barrier dead loads
, ,
, ,
019 . 0 h 150 . 0
33 . 47
439 . 0 2
h 150 . 0 0 . 1 W
DC
+ ⋅ ·

+ ⋅ ⋅ · (kip/ft)
Future wearing surface
, , 020 . 0 020 . 0 0 . 1 W
DW
· ⋅ · (kip/ft)
(included with DC loads in load tables)
Exterior Strip (1'-0" Wide)
Slab, wearing course, and barrier dead loads
, , 073 . 0 h 150 . 0
6
439 . 0
h 150 . 0 0 . 1 W
DC
⋅ ⋅ · + ⋅ ⋅ · (kip/ft)
Future wearing surface
, ,
014 . 0
0 . 6
020 . 0 67 . 1 0 . 6
W
DW
·
⋅ −
· (kip/ft)
(included with DC loads in load tables)
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-47
H. Summary of
Analysis Results
From this point forward, the design of an interior strip (subject to dead
and live loads) will be presented. The design procedure for the exterior
strip is similar. A computer analysis was performed with a three-span
continuous beam model. The model included the stiffening effect of the
haunches.
Bending moment summaries obtained at different span locations are
presented in Tables 5.7.1.1 through 5.7.1.4. These tables also contain
truck live load deflections and dead load deflections due to slab
selfweight, wearing course, and two barriers. Shear information is
presented in Tables 5.7.1.5 through 5.7.1.7.
Loads and deflections that appear later in the example are identified with
bold numbers.
Table 5.7.1.1
Moment Summary – One Lane
Span
Point
Lane
(kip-ft)
Truck
(kip-ft)
Tandem
(kip-ft)
Truck Tr
(kip-ft)
+ Fatigue
(kip-ft)
- Fatigue
(kip-ft)
1.0 0 0 0 - 0 0
1.1 50 194 178 - 140 -25
1.2 87 316 299 - 233 -49
1.3 112 373 368 - 285 -74
1.4 124 390 388 - 301 -98
1.5 124 374 374 - 285 -123
1.6 112 333 329 - 243 -147
1.7 -87 244/-254 -204 -253 187 -172
1.8 -104 -289 -233 -292 119 -196
1.9 -149 -325 -263 -337 63 -254
2.0 -221 -378 -292 -383 70 -382
2.1 -129 -267 -229 -284 44 -223
2.2 -75 157/-226 -193 -226 131 -145
2.3 78 284/-187 288 - 223 -118
2.4 107 360 350 - 275 -91
2.5 117 378 368 - 274 -64
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-48
Table 5.7.1.2
Moment Summary – Interior Strip (per foot width)
Span
Point
DC
M
(kip-ft)
* Truck
+ Lane
(kip-ft)
* Tandem
+ Lane
(kip-ft)
* .9 (Truck Tr
+ Lane)
(kip-ft)
1.0 0 0 0 -
1.1 17.2 25 23 -
1.2 28.9 41 39 -
1.3 34.3 49 48 -
1.4 34.3 51 51 -
1.5 28.9 50 50 -
1.6 17.1 44 44 -
1.7 -1.1 33/-34 34/-29 -31
1.8 -23.6 -39 -33 -35
1.9 -53.6 -47 -40 -43
2.0 -90.9 -58 -49 -53
2.1 -48.2 -39 -35 -37
2.2 -16.0 21/-30 24/-27 -27
2.3 7.5 37/-25 37/-22 -
2.4 20.4 47 46 -
2.5 25.7 50 49 -
* Includes Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) and 0.080 Distribution Factor.
Table 5.7.1.3
Moment Summary – Exterior Strip (per foot width)
Span
Point
DC
M
(kip-ft)
* Truck
+ Lane
(kip-ft)
* Tandem
+ Lane
(kip-ft)
* 0.9 (Truck Tr
+ Lane)
(kip-ft)
1.0 0 0 0 -
1.1 20.0 31 29 -
1.2 33.3 51 49 -
1.3 40.6 61 60 -
1.4 40.6 64 64 -
1.5 33.3 62 62 -
1.6 19.8 56 55 -
1.7 -1.0 42/-42 43/-36 -38
1.8 -28.1 -49 -41 -44
1.9 -62.5 -58 -50 -54
2.0 -105.1 -72 -61 -66
2.1 -55.2 -48 -43 -46
2.2 -18.7 27/-38 30/-33 -34
2.3 8.3 46 46 -
2.4 24.0 59 57 -
2.5 29.2 62 61 -
*Includes Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) and 0.100 Distribution Factor.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-49
Table 5.7.1.4
Moment Load Combinations and Deflections
Service I Strength I
Span
Point
Interior
(kip-ft)/ft
Exterior
(kip-ft)/ft
Interior
(kip-ft)/ft
Exterior
(kip-ft)/ft
*
Lane
LL
Deflection
(in)
*
Truck
LL
Deflection
(in)
**
Dead
Ld
Deflection
(in)
1.0 0 0 0 0 0.000 0.000 0.000
1.1 42 51 65 79 0.047 0.172 0.089
1.2 70 84 107 130 0.087 0.310 0.162
1.3 83 101 128 157 0.118 0.414 0.209
1.4 86 105 133 163 0.137 0.466 0.224
1.5 79 95 123 150 0.141 .0475 0.208
1.6 62 75 99 122 0.131 0.430 0.166
1.7 32/-35 42/-43 58/-61 74/-76 0.108 0.344 0.110
1.8 -63 -77 -98 -121 0.076 0.242 0.056
1.9 -100 -121 -148 -180 0.038 0.120 0.019
2.0 -149 -178 -215 -258 0.000 0.000 0.000
2.1 -87 -104 -128 -154 0.046 0.156 0.002
2.2 8/-46 11/-56 17/-73 29/-89 0.072 0.328 0.031
2.3 44/-18 54 74/-34 91 0.138 0.500 0.085
2.4 67 83 108 133 0.167 0.586 0.130
2.5 75 91 119 145 0.178 0.653 0.147
* Based on ·
effective
I
1
/2 gross
I . Includes LL distribution factor.
**Includes selfweight, wearing course, and barriers.
Table 5.7.1.5
Shear Summary – One Lane
Span
Point
Lane
(kips)
Truck
(kips)
Tandem
(kips)
1.0 12.7 52.8 47.0
1.1 10.3 44.1 40.4
1.2 7.8 35.8 34.0
1.3 5.9 28.2 27.8
1.4 5.8 21.1 22.8
1.5 7.3 27.6 28.5
1.6 9.2 34.9 33.9
1.7 11.4 42.3 38.6
1.8 13.9 49.3 42.6
1.9 16.4 55.6 46.0
2.0 19.9 61.2 48.8
2.1 16.6 54.4 45.0
2.2 13.4 46.9 40.4
2.3 10.6 38.8 35.0
2.4 8.2 30.5 29.0
2.5 6.2 22.4 22.7
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-50
Table 5.7.1.6
Shear Summary (per foot width)
Span
Point
DC
V
(kips)
* Truck + Lane
(kips)
* Tandem + Lane
(kips)
1.0 4.6 4.5 4.1
1.1 3.3 3.7 3.5
1.2 2.0 3.0 2.9
1.3 0.7 2.3 2.3
1.4 0.7 1.8 2.0
1.5 2.0 2.4 2.4
1.6 3.3 3.0 2.9
1.7 4.7 3.7 3.4
1.8 6.0 4.3 3.8
1.9 7.5 4.9 4.2
2.0 9.5 5.5 4.6
2.1 6.7 4.8 4.1
2.2 5.0 4.1 3.6
2.3 3.3 3.4 3.1
2.4 1.7 2.6 2.5
2.5 0.0 1.9 2.0
* Includes Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) and 0.054 Distribution Factor.
Table 5.7.1.7
Shear Summary – Load Combinations
Span
Point
SERVICE I
(kips)
STRENGTH I
(kips)
1.0 9.1 13.6
1.1 7.0 10.6
1.2 5.0 7.7
1.3 3.0 5.0
1.4 2.7 4.3
1.5 4.4 6.8
1.6 6.3 9.4
1.7 8.4 12.3
1.8 10.3 15.0
1.9 12.4 17.9
2.0 15.0 21.4
2.1 11.5 16.8
2.2 9.1 13.4
2.3 6.7 10.0
2.4 4.3 6.7
2.5 2.0 3.4
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-51
I . Live Load
Deflection
[ 2.5.2.6]
[ 3.6.1.3.2]
J . Shear in Slab
[ 5.13.3.6]
[ 5.8.2.9]
To prevent serviceability problems, a limit is placed on the maximum live
load deflections. The limit is:
800
Span
I LL
· ∆
+
Spans 1 and 3 in 66 . 0
800
12 44
·

·
Span 2 in 83 . 0
800
12 55
·

·
Use the design truck alone or design lane load plus 25% of truck load.
Using the Table 5.7.1.1 live load deflection values, the following
maximum live load deflections were obtained:
Midspans 1 and 3
Truck: 0.475 in < 0.66 in
Lane + 25% Truck: 0.141 + 0.25 (0.475) = 0.260 in < 0.66 in
Midspan 2
Truck: 0.653 in < 0.83 in
Lane + 25% Truck: 0.178 + 0.25 (0.653) = 0.341 in < 0.66 in
n n r
V 9 . 0 V V · ⋅ φ ·
Check the one-way shear capacity of the slab.
Critical Section
Shear should be checked at all sections. In many cases the governing
location is at the abutment, a pier, or at the start of the haunch.
Calculations for the shear check at the start of the linear haunch for the
side span (Span Point 1.81) follow.
The effective shear depth
v
d is the distance between the internal tension
and compression force components to resist flexure, which is unkown at
this point in the design.
But the shear depth need not be less than
, , in 30 . 15 0 . 17 9 . 0 d 9 . 0
e
· ⋅ · ⋅
or
, , in 68 . 13 0 . 19 72 . 0 h 72 . 0 · ⋅ · ⋅
Use in 30 . 15 d
v
·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-52
[ 5.8.3.3]
The shear loads at adjacent span points are interpolated to determine the
shear at Span Point 1.81:
, , kips 3 . 15 kips 0 . 15 kips 9 . 17
8 . 1 9 . 1
8 . 1 81 . 1
kips 0 . 15 V
U
· − ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ ·
Nominal Shear Resistance
The nominal shear resistance is the sum of the contributions from the
concrete and steel.
s c n
V V V + ·
It can be no more than:
kips 6 . 183 30 . 15 12 0 . 4 25 . 0 d b f 25 . 0 V
v v c n
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅ ≤
To simplify the calculation for the concrete contribution, assume 0 . 2 · β .
If shear reinforcement is found necessary, the designer should first try
thickening the slab to eliminate the need for shear reinforcement. If
shear reinforcement must be used, the appropriate β and θ values
should be used for the shear design.
kips 2 . 23 30 . 15 12 0 . 4 0 . 2 0316 . 0 d b f 0.0316 V
v v c c
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅ β ⋅ ·
Without shear reinforcement:
, ,
0
s
sin cot cot d f A
V
v y v
s
·
α ⋅ α + θ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
·
The nominal shear capacity of the slab is:
kips 6 . 183 kips 2 . 23 0 2 . 23 V
n
< · + · OK
Check if the shear resistance is greater than the shear demand:
, , kips 3 . 15 kips 9 . 20 2 . 23 90 . 0 V V
n r
> · ⋅ · ⋅ φ · OK
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-53
K. Design Positive
Moment
Reinforcement
[ 5.7.2.2]
[ 5.7.3.2]
Determine the required area of flexural reinforcement to satisfy the
Strength I Load Combination.
Flexural Resistance
Assume a rectangular stress distribution and solve for the required area
of reinforcing based on
u
M and d.
For ksi 0 . 4 f
c
· ′ , 85 . 0
1
· β

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ φ · ⋅ φ ·
2
a
d f A M M
y s n u
b f 85 . 0
f A
a
c
y s
⋅ ′ ⋅

·

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ′ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ φ ·
b f 7 . 1
f A
d f A M
c
y s
y s u
, ,
,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
12
1
12 4 7 . 1
60 A
d 60 A 90 . 0 M
s
s u
0 M A d 5 . 4 A 309 . 3
u s
2
s
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
618 . 6
M 236 . 13 d 25 . 20 d 5 . 4
A
u
2
s
⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅
·
The “d” value used in positive moment regions does not include the
2 inch wearing course.
, , in 00 . 17 0 . 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 2 21 d
int
· ⋅ − − − ·
, , in 94 . 16 128 . 1 5 . 0 5 . 1 2 21 d
ext
· ⋅ − − − ·
Trial reinforcement information for Span Points 1.4 and 2.5 are provided
in the following table. After evaluating the areas of steel required, a
layout based on a 5 inch base dimension was selected.
Trial Bottom Longitudinal Reinforcement
Interior Strip Exterior Strip
Span
Point
u
M d
s
A
(req)
Trial
Bars
s
A
(prov)
u
M d
s
A
(req)
Trial
Bars
s
A
(prov)
1.4 133 17.00 1.89 #25 @ 5 1.90 163 16.94 2.38 #29 @ 5 2.40
2.5 119 17.00 1.68 #25 @ 5 1.90 145 16.94 2.09 #29 @ 5 2.40
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-54
[ 5.7.3.4]
[ 5.4.2.4 & 5.7.1]
Crack Control
To ensure that cracking is limited to small cracks that are well
distributed, a limit is placed on the service load stress in the reinforcing
steel. LRFD Equation 5.7.3.4-1 defines the maximum stress permitted:
y
3
c
sa s
f 6 . 0
A d
z
f f ⋅ ≤

· ≤
At Span Point 1.4 the Service I positive moment is 86 kip-ft.
The stress in the reinforcement is found using a cracked section analysis
with the trial reinforcement. To simplify the calculations, the section is
assumed to be singly reinforced.
, ,
96 . 7
0 . 4 145 . 0 000 , 33
000 , 29
E
E
n
5 . 1
c
s
·
⋅ ⋅
· · Use n = 8
, ,
2
s
in 2 . 15 90 . 1 8 A n · ⋅ · ⋅
Determine the location of the neutral axis:
, , x d A n
2
x
x b
s
− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
, ,
, , x 0 . 17 2 . 15
2
x 12
2
− ⋅ ·

solving, x = 5.42 in
Determine the lever arm between service load flexural force components.
in 2 . 15
3
42 . 5
0 . 17
3
x
d d j · − · − · ⋅
Compute the stress in the reinforcement.
, ,
ksi 7 . 35
2 . 15 90 . 1
12 86
d j A
M
f
s
s
·


·
⋅ ⋅
·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-55
[ 5.5.3]
[ Table 3.4.1- 1]
[ 3.6.2.1]
For 130 z · kips/in, in 00 . 2 d
c
· (1.5 in +
1
/
2
of #25 bar) and #25 bars
spaced at 5 inches.
2 c
in 0 . 2
1
5 2 2
N
b d 2
A ·
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
ksi 7 . 35 ksi 36 f 6 . 0 ksi 0 . 38
0 . 20 2
130
A d
z
f
y
3 3
c
sa
> · ⋅ > ·

·

· OK
Fatigue
The stress range in the reinforcement is computed and compared against
code limits to ensure adequate fatigue resistance is provided.
U = 0.75 (LL + IM)
IM = 15%
At Span Point 1.4 the one lane fatigue moments are:
Maximum positive moment = 301 kip-ft
Maximum negative moment = -98 kip-ft
Multiplying the one lane moments by the appropriate load factor,
dynamic load allowance, and distribution factor results in the following
fatigue moments:
Fatigue , , 5 . 13 052 . 0 15 . 1 75 . 0 301 M LL
max
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · kip-ft
Fatigue , , 4 . 4 052 . 0 15 . 1 75 . 0 98 M LL
min
− · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · kip-ft
The unfactored dead load moment at Span Point 1.4 is 34.3 kip-ft.
The moments on the cross section when fatigue loading is applied are:
Maximum moment = 34.3 + 13.5 = 47.8 kip-ft
Minimum moment = 34.3 – 4.4 = 29.9 kip-ft
Plugging these moments into the equation used to compute the stress in
the reinforcement for crack control results in:
For the maximum moment:
, ,
ksi 9 . 19
2 . 15 90 . 1
12 8 . 47
d j A
M
f
s
s
·


·
⋅ ⋅
·
For the minimum moment:
, ,
ksi 4 . 12
2 . 15 90 . 1
12 9 . 29
d j A
M
f
s
s
·


·
⋅ ⋅
·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-56
[ 5.5.3.2]
[ 5.7.3.3.1]
[ 5.7.3.3.2]
The stress range in the reinforcement (
f
f ) is the difference between the
two stresses
, , ksi 5 . 7 4 . 12 9 . 19 f
f
· − ·
The maximum stress range permitted is based on the minimum stress in
the bar and the deformation pattern of the reinforcement.
, , , , ksi 3 . 19 3 . 0 8 4 . 12 033 21
h
r
8 f 33 . 0 21 f
min (max) f
· ⋅ + ⋅ − · ⋅ + ⋅ − ·
ksi 5 . 7 3 . 19 > · OK
Check Maximum Reinforcement
To ensure the cross section isn’t over-reinforced, the depth of the section
in compression is compared to the distance to the tension reinforcement.
If the ratio of these dimensions is less than 0.42 the check is satisfied.
The depth of the Whitney stress block is:
in 79 . 2
12 0 . 4 85 . 0
60 90 . 1
b f 85 . 0
f A
a
c
y s
·
⋅ ⋅

·
⋅ ′ ⋅

·
The depth of the section in compression is:
in 28 . 3
85 . 0
79 . 2 a
c
1
· ·
β
·
42 . 0 19 . 0
0 . 17
28 . 3
d
c
< · · OK
Check Minimum Reinforcement
To prevent a brittle failure, adequate flexural reinforcement needs to be
placed in the cross section. For this check, the thickness of the slab
including the wearing course is used to be conservative.
ksi 48 . 0 4 24 . 0 f 24 . 0 f
c r
· ⋅ · ′ ⋅ ·
in 0 . 21 t ·
, ,
4 3 3
g
in 9261 21 12
12
1
t b
12
1
I · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
in 5 . 10 y
t
·
, ,
3 . 35
12 5 . 10
9261 48 . 0
I f
M
t
g r
cr
·


·
γ

· kip-ft
4 . 42 M 2 . 1
cr
· kip-ft
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-57
[ 5.11.1.2.1]
[ 5.11.1.2.2]

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ φ ·
2
a
d f A M
y s r
, , , ,
12
1
2
79 . 2
0 . 17 60 90 . 1 9 . 0 M
r

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
4 . 133 M
r
· kip-ft 4 . 42 M 2 . 1
cr
· > kip-ft OK
Use #25 bars at 5 inches at Span Point 1.4
Bar Cutoff Location
Determine the location where the 5 inch spacing can be increased to
10 inches. Assume that the bars will be dropped in non-haunched
regions of the span. The moment capacity of #25 bars at 10 inches
(
2
s
in 95 . 0 A · ) for positive flexure is:

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ φ ·
2
a
d f A M
y s r
, , , ,
, ,
, , , , , ,
7 . 69
12
1
12 4 85 . 0 2
60 95 . 0
0 . 17 60 95 . 0 9 . 0 M
r
· ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · kip-ft
For the interior strip, the positive bending moments are:
Span Point
I Strength
M (kip-ft)/ft
I Service
M (kip-ft)/ft
1.6 99 62
1.7 58 32
2.2 17 8
2.3 74 44
Knowing that span points are 4.4 feet apart in Span 1 and 5.5 feet apart
in Span 2, the drop point locations which meet the positive Strength I
bending moment of 69.7 kip-ft can be found.
For Span 1, interpolate between Span Points 1.6 and 1.7:
67 . 1 1 . 0
58 99
7 . 69 99
6 . 1 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 14.5 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
For Span 2, interpolate between Span Points 2.2 and 2.3:
29 . 2 1 . 0
17 74
17 7 . 69
2 . 2 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 15.9 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
The reinforcement must also meet the serviceability requirements at the
theoretical drop point. Determine the drip point location based on the
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-58
[ 5.7.3.4]
crack control requirements and compare with the drop points based on
strength to see which ones govern.
For #25 bars @ 10", (
2
s
in 95 . 0 A · ), 130 z · kips/in, and in 00 . 2 d
c
· ,
compute the allowable stress:
2 c
in 0 . 40
1
10 00 . 2 2
N
b d 2
A ·
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
ksi 2 . 30
0 . 40 00 . 2
130
A d
z
f
3 3
c
sa
·

·

·
Next, determine neutral axis:
2
s
in 60 . 7 95 . 0 8 A n · ⋅ · ⋅
, , x d A n
2
x
x b
s
− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
, , x 00 . 17 60 . 7
2
x 12
2
− ⋅ ·

solving, x=4.05 in
Then in 65 . 15
3
05 . 4
00 . 17
3
x
d d j · − · − · ⋅
Actual stress at drop point
d j A
M
f
s
drop
s
⋅ ⋅
·
Set actual stress
s
f equal to the allowable stress
sa
f and solve for the
moment
drop
M at the drop point:
sa
s
drop
f
d j A
M
·
⋅ ⋅
4 . 37
12
1
65 . 15 95 . 0 2 . 30 d j A f M
s sa drop
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · kip-ft
Interpolate to determine span point location of drop point:
For Span 1:
68 . 1 1 . 0
32 62
4 . 37 62
6 . 1 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 14.1 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
For Span 2:
28 . 2 1 . 0
8 44
8 4 . 37
2 . 2 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 15.4 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-59
[ 5.8.3.5]
Therefore, the drop point locations based on crack control govern the bar
cutoff locations.
By inspection, the fatigue stress range check and the minimum
reinforcement check are satisfied.
Due to the uncertainty associated with the design moments, the
reinforcement cannot be terminated at the theoretical drop point. It
must be carried beyond the theoretical point by the greater of: the depth
of the member, 15 times the nominal diameter of the bar, or
1
/
20
of the
clear span.
The required extension
1 ext
L for Span 1 is:
in 0 . 17 d L
1 ext
· ·
or
in 0 . 15 00 . 1 15 d 15 L
b 1 ext
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
or
, , in 4 . 26 12 44
20
1
L
1 ext
· ⋅ ⋅ · GOVERNS
The required extension
2 ext
L for Span 2 is:
, , in 0 . 33 12 55
20
1
L
2 ext
· ⋅ ⋅ ·
Adding the extension length to the theoretical distance from the pier at
which the bars can be dropped results in the following cutoff locations:
For Span 1: ft 9 . 11
12
4 . 26
1 . 14 · − Use 11'-6"
For Span 2: ft 7 . 12
12
0 . 33
4 . 15 · − Use 12'-6"
By continuing half of the reinforcement for the entire length of the
bridge, LRFD Article 5.11.1.2.2 is satisfied.
Check Longitudinal Reinforcement
Check the minimum longitudinal reinforcement requirements at the
abutments, assuming that a diagonal crack would start at the inside edge
of the bearing area.
The slab sits on a 2'-10" wide integral abutment.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-60
L. Design Negative
Moment
Reinforcement
[ 5.7.2.2]
[ 5.7.3.2]
For ° · θ 45 determine the length from the end of the slab,
crack
L , at
which a diagonal crack will intersect the bottom longitudinal
reinforcement (#25 bars @ 5"):
, , in 00 . 36 ft 00 . 3 45 cot
12
00 . 2
83 . 2 L
crack
· · °
,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
From Figure 5.2.2.2 of this manual, the development length for #25 bars
@ 5" with 1.5" cover is:
·
25 d
l 3'-9" · 45"
Then the tensile resistance of the longitudinal bars at the crack location
, ,
25 d
c
s y r
cover end L
A f T
l

· ⋅ ·
, ,
kips 3 . 82
0 . 45
5 . 3 ~ 0 . 36
90 . 1 60 ·
,
_

¸
¸ −
⋅ ⋅ ·
The force to be resisted is:
θ

,
_

¸
¸
− −
φ
· cot V V 5 . 0
V
T
p s
u
°
,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ − · 45 cot 0 0 5 . 0
9 . 0
6 . 13
kips 3 . 82 kips 1 . 15 < · OK
Note that LRFD C5.8.3.5 states that
u
V may be taken at θ cot d 5 . 0
v
or
v
d away from the face of support. For simplicity, the value for
u
V at the
abutment centerline of bearing was used in the equation above.
Determine the required area of flexural reinforcement to satisfy the
Strength I Load Combination.
Flexural Resistance
Assume a rectangular stress distribution and solve for the required area
of reinforcing based on
u
M and d.
Use the same general equation developed for the positive moment
reinforcement.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-61
[ 5.7.3.4]
618 . 6
M 23 . 13 d 25 . 20 d 5 . 4
A
u
2
s
⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅
·
, , in 50 . 32 0 . 1 5 . 0 3 36 d
int
· ⋅ − − ·
, , in 44 . 32 128 . 1 5 . 0 3 36 d
ext
· ⋅ − − ·
The required area of steel and trial reinforcement is presented in the
following table.
Trial Top Longitudinal Reinforcement
Interior Strip Exterior Strip
Span Point
u
M d
s
A
(req)
Trial
Bars
s
A
(prov)
u
M d
s
A
(req)
Trial
Bars
s
A
(prov)
2.0 -215 32.50 1.52 #25 @ 5 1.90 -258 32.44 1.84 #29 @ 5 2.40
Crack Control
At Span Point 2.0 the Service I moment is –149 kip-ft
Similar to the positive moment sections, the stress in the reinforcement
is found using a cracked section analysis with the trial reinforcement. For
this check, the section is assumed to be singly reinforced.
, ,
2
s
in 2 . 15 90 . 1 8 A n · ⋅ · ⋅
Determine the location of the neutral axis:
, , x d A n
2
x
x b
s
− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
, ,
, , x 5 . 32 2 . 15
2
x 12
2
− ⋅ ·

solving, x=7.90 in
Determine the lever arm between service load flexural force components.
in 9 . 29
3
90 . 7
5 . 32
3
x
d d j · − · − · ⋅
Compute the stress in the reinforcement.
, ,
ksi 5 . 31
9 . 29 90 . 1
12 149
d j A
M
f
s
s
·


·
⋅ ⋅
·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-62
[ 5.5.3]
[ Table 3.4.1- 1]
[ 3.6.2.1]
For 130 z · kips/in, in 50 . 2 d
c
· (2.0 in maximum +
1
/
2
of #25 bar) and
#25 bars spaced at 5 inches, compute the allowable stress:
2 c
s
in 0 . 25
1
5 5 . 2 2
N
b d 2
A ·
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
ksi 36 f 6 . 0 ksi 8 . 32
0 . 25 5 . 2
130
A d
z
f
y
3 3
c
sa
· ⋅ < ·

·

·
ksi 5 . 31 8 . 32 f
sa
> · OK
Fatigue
The stress range in the reinforcement is computed and compared against
code limits to ensure adequate fatigue resistance is provided.
U = 0.75 (LL + IM)
IM = 15%
At Span Point 2.0 the one lane fatigue moments are:
Maximum positive moment = 70 kip-ft
Maximum negative moment = -382 kip-ft
Multiplying the one lane moments by the appropriate load factor,
dynamic load allowance, and distribution factor results in the following
fatigue moments:
Fatigue , , 1 . 3 052 . 0 15 . 1 75 . 0 70 M LL
max
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · kip-ft
Fatigue , , 1 . 17 052 . 0 15 . 1 75 . 0 382 M LL
min
− · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · kip-ft
The unfactored dead load moment at Span Point 2.0 is –90.9 kip-ft.
The moments on the cross section when fatigue loading is applied are:
Maximum moment = -90.9 + 3.1 = -87.8 kip-ft
Minimum moment = -90.9 – 17.1 = -108.0 kip-ft
Plugging these moments into the equation used to compute the stress in
the reinforcement for crack control results in:
For the maximum moment:
, ,
ksi 6 . 18
9 . 29 90 . 1
12 8 . 87
d j A
M
f
s
s
·


·
⋅ ⋅
·
For the minimum moment:
, ,
ksi 8 . 22
9 . 29 90 . 1
12 0 . 108
d j A
M
f
s
s
·


·
⋅ ⋅
·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-63
[ 5.5.3.2]
[ 5.7.3.3.1]
[ 5.7.3.3.2]
The stress range in the reinforcement , ,
f
f is the difference between the
two stresses.
, , ksi 2 . 4 6 . 18 8 . 22 f
f
· − ·
The maximum stress range permitted is based on the minimum stress in
the bar and the deformation pattern of the reinforcement.
, , , , 3 . 0 8 6 . 18 33 . 0 21
h
r
8 f 33 . 0 21 f
min (max) f
⋅ + ⋅ − · ⋅ + ⋅ − ·
ksi 2 . 4 ksi 3 . 17 > · OK
Check Maximum Reinforcement
The depth of the Whitney stress block is:
in 79 . 2
12 0 . 4 85 . 0
60 90 . 1
b f 85 . 0
f A
a
c
y s
·
⋅ ⋅

·
⋅ ′ ⋅

·
The depth of the section in compression is:
in 28 . 3
85 . 0
79 . 2 a
c
1
· ·
β
·
42 . 0 10 . 0
5 . 32
28 . 3
d
c
< · · OK
Check Minimum Reinforcement
To prevent a brittle failure, adequate flexural reinforcement needs to be
placed in the cross section.
ksi 48 . 0 f
r
·
, ,
4 3 3
g
in 656 , 46 36 12
12
1
t b
12
1
I · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
in 0 . 18 y
t
·
, ,
7 . 103
12 0 . 18
656 , 46 48 . 0
y
I f
M
t
g r
cr
·


·

· kip-ft
4 . 124 M 2 . 1
cr
· kip-ft

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ φ ·
2
a
d f A M
y s r
, , , ,
12
1
2
79 . 2
5 . 32 60 90 . 1 9 . 0 M
r

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
9 . 265 · kip-ft 4 . 124 M 2 . 1
cr
· > kip-ft OK
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-64
[ 5.11.1.2.1]
[ 5.11.1.2.3]
Use #25 bars at 5 inches at Span Point 2.0
Bar Cutoff Location
Determine the location where the 5 inch spacing can be increased to
10 inches. Assume that the bars will be dropped in non-haunched
regions of the span. The moment capacity of #25 bars at 10 inches
, ,
2
s
in 95 . 0 A · for negative flexure is:

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ φ ·
2
a
d f A M
y s r
, , , ,
, ,
, , , , , ,
0 . 136
12
1
12 4 85 . 0 2
60 95 . 0
50 . 32 60 95 . 0 9 . 0 · ⋅
1
]
1

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · kip-ft
For the interior strip, the negative bending moments are:
Span Point
I Strength
M (kip-ft)/ft
I Service
M (kip-ft)/ft
1.8 -98 -63
1.9 -148 -100
2.0 -215 -149
2.1 -128 -87
2.2 -73 -46
Knowing that span points are 4.4 feet apart in Span 1 and 5.5 feet apart
in Span 2, the drop point locations which meet the Strength I negative
bending moment of 136.0 kip-ft can be found.
For Span 1, interpolate between Span Points 1.8 and 1.9:
88 . 1 1 . 0
98 148
98 0 . 136
8 . 1 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 5.3 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
For Span 2, interpolate between Span Points 2.0 and 2.1:
09 . 2 1 . 0
128 215
0 . 136 215
0 . 2 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 5.0 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
The reinforcement must also meet the serviceability requirements at the
theoretical drop point. Determine the drip point location based on the
crack control requirements and compare with the drop points based on
strength to see which ones govern.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-65
[ 5.7.3.4] For #25 bars @ 10", (
2
s
in 95 . 0 A · ), 130 z · kips/in, and in 50 . 2 d
c
· ,
compute the allowable stress:
2 c
in 0 . 50
1
10 50 . 2 2
N
b d 2
A ·
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
ksi 0 . 26
0 . 50 50 . 2
130
A d
z
f
3 3
c
sa
·

·

·
Next, determine neutral axis:
2
s
in 60 . 7 95 . 0 8 A n · ⋅ · ⋅
, , x d A n
2
x
x b
s
− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
, , x 50 . 32 60 . 7
2
x 12
2
− ⋅ ·

solving, x=5.81 in
Then in 56 . 30
3
81 . 5
50 . 32
3
x
d d j · − · − · ⋅
Actual stress at drop point
d j A
M
f
s
drop
s
⋅ ⋅
·
Set actual stress
s
f equal to the allowable stress
sa
f and solve for the
moment
drop
M at the drop point:
sa
s
drop
f
d j A
M
·
⋅ ⋅
9 . 62
12
1
56 . 30 95 . 0 0 . 26 d j A f M
s sa drop
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · kip-ft
Interpolate to determine span point location of drop point:
For Span 1:
9 . 62 M
drop
· kip-ft 63 ≅ kip-ft, which is at Span Point 1.8 or 8.8 ft
from Pier 1 centerline.
For Span 2:
16 . 2 1 . 0
46 87
9 . 62 87
1 . 2 · ⋅
,
_

¸
¸


+ or 8.8 ft from Pier 1 centerline.
Therefore, the drop point locations based on crack control govern the bar
cutoff locations.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-66
M. Distribution
Reinforcement
[ 5.14.4.1]
By inspection, the fatigue stress range check and the minimum
reinforcement check are satisfied.
Due to the uncertainty associated with the design moments, the
reinforcement cannot be terminated at the theoretical drop point. It
must be carried beyond the theoretical point by the greater of: the depth
of the member, 15 times the nominal diameter of the bar, or
1
/
20
of the
clear span.
The required extension
1 ext
L for Span 1 is:
, , in 5 . 17 0 . 1 5 . 0 3 21 d L
1 ext
· ⋅ − − · ·
or
in 0 . 15 00 . 1 15 d 15 L
b 1 ext
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
or
, , in 4 . 26 12 44
20
1
L
1 ext
· ⋅ ⋅ · GOVERNS
The required extension
2 ext
L for Span 2 is:
, , in 0 . 33 12 55
20
1
L
2 ext
· ⋅ ⋅ ·
Adding the extension length to the theoretical distance from the pier at
which the bars can be dropped results in the following cutoff locations:
For Span 1: ft 0 . 11
12
4 . 26
8 . 8 · + Use 11'-0"
For Span 2: ft 55 . 11
12
0 . 33
8 . 8 · + Use 12'-0"
By continuing half of the reinforcement for the entire length of the
bridge, LRFD Article 5.11.1.2.3 is satisfied.
The amount of transverse reinforcement may be taken as a percentage of
the main reinforcement required:
% 50
L
100

% 1 . 15
44
100
·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-67
N. Shrinkage and
Temperature
Reinforcement
[ 5.10.8]
P. Final
Reinforcement
Layout
O. Dead Load
Camber
[ 5.7.3.6.2]
For the interior strip, the maximum reinforcement is #25 bars at 5 inches
(1.90 in
2
/ft). The required transverse reinforcement for load distribution
is:
, ,
2
in 29 . 0 90 . 1 151 . 0 · ⋅ /ft
Use #16 @ 12",
2
s
in 31 . 0 A · /ft for bottom transverse reinforcement.
Adequate reinforcement needs to be provided in the slab to ensure that
cracks from shrinkage and temperature changes are small and well
distributed.
Temperature
, , , ,
2
y
g
s
in 46 . 0
60
21 12
11 . 0
f
A
11 . 0 A ·
1
]
1

¸

⋅ · ⋅ ≥ /ft
(total in each direction, distributed to both faces)
For each face, Min , ,
2
s
in 23 . 0 46 . 0
2
1
A · ⋅ · /ft
Use #16 @ 12",
2
s
in 31 . 0 A · /ft for transverse reinforcement.
The total weight of the superstructure is used for dead load deflections.
The gross moment of inertia is used and a computer analysis is used to
obtain instantaneous deflections. A longtime deflection multiplier of 4.0
is used in conjunction with the gross moment of inertia. The slab is
cambered upward an amount equal to the immediate deflection +
1
/
2
of
the long-term deflection. A camber diagram for the interior strip is
shown below:
Instantaneous +
1
/
2
Long-term Camber
Figure 5.7.1.3 contains a plan view and Figure 5.7.1.4 contains a cross
section that illustrates the reinforcement for the slab. As one would
expect, the figures show that the exterior strips contain more reinforcing
steel than the interior of the slab.
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-68
Figure 5.7.1.3
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-69
Figure 5.7.1.4
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-70
[ This Page Intentionally Left Blank ]
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-71
5.7.2 Prestressed
I - Beam Design
Example
This example illustrates the design of a pretensioned I-Beam for a two
span bridge without skew. The 130'-0" spans are supported with
Mn/DOT 72" beams. Mn/DOT standard details and drawings for
diaphragms (B406, B812), railings (Fig. 5-397.117), and beams (Fig. 5-
397.517) are to be used with this example. This example contains the
design of a typical interior beam at the critical sections in positive flexure,
shear, and deflection. The superstructure consists of six beams spaced
at 9'-0" centers. A typical transverse superstructure section is provided
in Figure 5.7.2.1. A framing plan is provided in Figure 5.7.2.2. The
roadway section is composed of two 12' traffic lanes and two 12'
shoulders. A Type F railing is provided on each side of the bridge and a
9" composite concrete deck is used. End diaphragms (B812) are used at
each end of the bridge and interior diaphragms (B406) are used at the
interior third points and at the pier.
Figure 5.7.2.1
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-72
Figure 5.7.2.2
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-73
A. Materials
B. Determine
Cross-Section
Properties for a
Typical I nterior
Beam
[ 4.6.2.6.1]
The modulus of elasticity for high strength concrete suggested by ACI
Committee 363 is used for the beam concrete. The composite deck is
assumed to have a unit weight of 0.150 kcf for dead load computations
and 0.145 kcf for elastic modulus computations. The beam concrete is
assumed to have a unit weight of 0.155 kcf for dead load computations.
The material and geometric parameters used in the example are shown
in Table 5.7.2.1:
Table 5.7.2.1
Material Properties
Material Parameter Prestressed Beam Deck
ci
f′ at transfer 7 ksi ---
c
f at 28 days 8.0 ksi 4 ksi
ci
E at transfer
, , 1000
ci
f 1265 + ′ ⋅
ksi 4347 ·
---
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
c
E at 28 days
, , 1000
c
f 1265 + ′ ⋅
ksi 4578 ·
, ,
c
f
5 . 1
145 . 0 000 , 33 ′ ⋅ ⋅
ksi 3644 ·
y
f for rebar 60 ksi 60 ksi
pu
f for strand 270 ksi ---
s
E for rebar 29,000 ksi 29,000 ksi
p
E for strand 28,500 ksi ---
S
t
e
e
l
Strand type
0.6 inch diameter
270 ksi, low relaxation
---
The beams are designed to act compositely with the deck on simple
spans. The deck consists of a 7 inch thick concrete slab with a 2 inch
wearing course. For simplicity and in order to be conservative, the
beams are designed assuming the full 9 inches of thickness is placed in a
single pour. A
1
/
2
inch of wear is assumed. A thickness of 8
1
/
2
inches is
used for composite section properties. The haunch or stool is assumed to
have an average thickness of 2
1
/
2
inches for dead load computations and
1
1
/
2
inches for section property computations.
The effective flange width,
e
b , is the smallest of:
1)
1
/
4
x Effective Span Length in 0 . 390 12 130
4
1
· ⋅ ⋅ ·
2) 12 x Slab Thickness +
1
/
2
Top Flange Width
in 0 . 117
2
30
5 . 8 12 · + ⋅ ·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-74
C. Shear Forces
and Bending
Moments
3) Average Beam Spacing = 108.0 in GOVERNS
The modular ratio of the deck concrete to the beam concrete is:
796 . 0
4578
3644
E
E
n
cbeam
cdeck
· · ·
This results in a transformed effective flange width of:
, , in 0 . 86 0 . 108 796 . 0 b
etrans
· ⋅ ·
Properties for an interior beam are given in Table 5.7.2.2.
Table 5.7.2.2
Cross-Section Properties
Parameter Non-composite Section Composite Section
Height of section, h 72 in 82.0 in
Deck thickness --- 8.5 in
Average stool thickness ---
1.5 in (section properties)
2.5 in (dead load)
Effective flange width,
e
b ---
108.0 in (deck concrete)
86.0 in (beam concrete)
Area, A 786 in
2
1553 in
2
Moment of inertia, I 547,920 in
4
1,235,000 in
4
Centroidal axis height, y 35.60 in 56.29 in
Bottom section modulus,
b
S 15,390 in
3
21,940 in
3
Top section modulus,
t
S 15,050 in
3
48,040 in
3
(beam concrete)
60,350 in
3
(deck concrete)
Top of prestressed beam 15,050 in
3
78,610 in
3
Three load combinations will be considered; Strength I, Service I, and
Service III. As a result of the simple span configuration, only maximum
p
γ values need to be considered.
Load effects related to settlement, thermal effects, water load, or stream
pressure will not be considered.
Assume that traffic can be positioned anywhere between the barriers.
Number of design lanes = 4
12
48
width lane design
barriers between distance
· ·
OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-75
[ 3.6.2]
[ 4.6.2.2]
[ 4.6.2.2.2]
Dynamic load allowance % 33 IM ·
1. Determine Live Load Distribution Factors
Designers should note that the approximate distribution factor equations
include the multiple presence factors.
Distribution Factor for Moment – Interior Beams
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 lists the common deck superstructure types for
which approximate live load distribution equations have been assembled.
The cross section for this design example is Type (k). To ensure that the
approximate distribution equations can be used, several parameters need
to be checked.
1) ft 0 . 16 ft 0 . 9 spacing beam ft 5 . 3 ≤ · ≤ OK
2) in 0 . 12 in 5 . 8 thickness slab in 5 . 3 ≤ · ≤ OK
3) ft 240 ft 130 length span ft 20 ≤ · ≤ OK
4) 6 beams of number 4 · ≤ OK
The distribution factor equations use a K
g
factor that is defined in LRFD
Article 4.6.2.2.1.
256 . 1
3644
4578
E
E
deck c
beam c
· · · η
, , , , in 15 . 42 60 . 35 75 . 77 centroid beam centroid deck e
g
· − · − ·
, , ¦ } , , ¦ } 442 . 2 15 . 42 786 920 , 547 256 . 1 e A I K
2 2
g g
· ⋅ + ⋅ · ⋅ + ⋅ η · x 10
6
One design lane loaded:
1 . 0
3
s
3 . 0 4 . 0
t L 12
K
L
S
14
S
06 . 0 gM

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
1 . 0
3
6
3 . 0 4 . 0
5 . 8 130 12
10 x 442 . 2
130
90
14
0 . 9
06 . 0 gM

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
473 . 0 gM · lanes/beam



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-76

[ 4.6.2.2.2d]
Two or more design lanes loaded:
1 . 0
3
s
g
2 . 0 6 . 0
t L 12
K
L
S
5 . 9
S
075 . 0 gM
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 . 0
3
6
2 . 0 6 . 0
5 . 8 130 12
10 x 442 . 2
130
90
5 . 9
0 . 9
075 . 0 gM
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
+ =
698 . 0 gM = lanes/beam

Distribution Factor for Moment - Exterior Beams
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 contains the approximate distribution factor
equations for exterior beams. Type (k) cross-sections have a deck
dimension check to ensure that the approximate equations are valid.

The distance from the inside face of barrier to the centerline of the fascia
beam is defined as
e
d . For the example this distance is:
( ) ft 50 . 1 0 . 9 5 . 2 24 d
e
= − − =

The check to use the approximate equations is:
ft 5 . 5 ft 50 . 1 d ft 0 . 1
e
≤ = ≤ − OK

One design lane loaded:


Figure 5.7.2.3



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-77

[ 4.6.2.2.2e]
[ 4.6.2.2.3]
[ 4.6.2.2.3a]
[ 4.6.2.2.3b]
Use the lever rule to determine the live load distribution factor for one
lane.

The fascia beam live load distribution factor is found by summing
reactions about the first interior beam:
lanes 5 . 0 W W
2 1
= =
|
.
|

\
| ⋅ + ⋅
⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅ + ⋅
⋅ =
0 . 9
5 . 2 5 . 0 5 . 8 5 . 0
2 . 1
S
L W L W
2 . 1 gM
2 2 1 1

733 . 0 gM = lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:
The distribution factor is equal to the factor “e” multiplied by the interior
girder distribution factor for two or more lanes
ft 5 . 1 5 . 22 0 . 24 d
e
= − =
935 . 0
1 . 9
5 . 1
77 . 0
1 . 9
d
77 . 0 e
e
= |
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
653 . 0 698 . 0 935 . 0 g e gM
int
= ⋅ = ⋅ = lanes/beam

Skew Factor
No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero.

Distribution Factor for Shear – Interior Beams
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a-1 can be used.

One design lane loaded:
720 . 0
0 . 25
0 . 9
36 . 0
0 . 25
S
36 . 0 gV = |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ = lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:
884 . 0
35
0 . 9
12
0 . 9
2 . 0
35
S
12
S
2 . 0 gV
2 2
= |
.
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
+ = lanes/beam

Distribution Factor for Shear – Exterior Beams
One Design Lane Loaded:
Use the lever rule, which results in the same factor that was computed
for flexure and is equal to 0.733 lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:
750 . 0
10
5 . 1
6 . 0
10
d
6 . 0 e
e
= |
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-78

[ 4.6.2.2.3c]
[ 2.5.2.6.2]
[ Table 3.6.1.1.2- 1]
[ 1.3.3 – 1.3.5]
The exterior beam shear distribution factor for two or more design lanes
is determined by modifying the interior distribution factor:
663 . 0 884 . 0 750 . 0 g e gV
int
= ⋅ = ⋅ = lanes/beam

Skew Factor
No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero.

Distribution Factor for Deflection
The distribution factor for checking live load deflections assumes that the
entire cross section participates in resisting the live load. The minimum
Multiple Presence Factor (MPF) used by Mn/DOT when checking live load
deflection is 0.85. The deflection distribution factor is:
( ) ( )
( )
567 . 0
6
85 . 0 4
lines beam of #
MPF lanes of #
gD =

=

= lanes/beam

Table 5.7.2.3 contains a summary of the live load distribution factors.

Table 5.7.2.3
Distribution Factor Summary (lanes per beam)
Loading Flexure Shear
One Design Lane 0.473 0.720
Two or More Design Lanes 0.698 0.884
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

B
e
a
m

Deflection 0.567 -
One Design Lane 0.733 0.733
Two or More Design Lanes 0.653 0.663
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

B
e
a
m

Deflection 0.567 -

2. Load Modifiers
The following load modifiers will be used for this example:
Strength Service Fatigue
Ductility
D
η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Redundancy
R
η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Importance
I
η 1.0 n/a n/a

I R D
η ⋅ η ⋅ η = η 1.0 1.0 1.0




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-79

3. Dead and Live Load Summary
Beam Selfweight ( ) ( ) kip/ft 846 . 0 kip/ft 155 . 0 144 / 786
3
= ⋅ =
Stool Weight ( ) ( ) ( ) kip/ft 078 . 0 kip/ft 150 . 0 ft 208 . 0 ft 5 . 2
3
= ⋅ ⋅ =
Deck Weight ( ) ( ) ( ) kip/ft 013 . 1 kip/ft 150 . 0 ft 75 . 0 ft 0 . 9
3
= ⋅ ⋅ =
Future Wearing Surface ( ) ( ) ( ) kip/ft 160 . 0 6 / 1 ft 48 kip/ft 020 . 0
2
= ⋅ ⋅ =
Barrier Weight ( ) ( ) kip/ft 146 . 0 6 / 1 kip/ft 439 . 0 2 = ⋅ ⋅ =
Diaphragm Weight ( ) ( ) ( ) | | 0149 . 0 0103 . 0 2 0 . 9 + ⋅ ⋅ ≅
( ) ( ) kip 561 . 0 490 . 0
12
5 . 0
12
17
17 . 4 2 = ⋅ |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ +

The bending moments and shears for the dead and live loads were
obtained with a line girder model of the bridge. They are summarized in
Tables 5.7.2.4 and 5.7.2.5.

Table 5.7.2.4
Shear Force Summary (kips/beam)
Load Type/Combination
Brg
CL
(0.0')
Brg
Face
(0.63')
Trans
Point
(2.38')
Critical
Shear
Point
(5.8')
0.1
Span
Point
(13.0')
Strand
Dev
Point
(13.6')
0.2
Span
Point
(26.0')
0.3
Span
Point
(39.0')
0.4
Span
Point
(52.0')
0.5
Span
Point
(65.0')
Selfweight 55 54 53 50 44 44 33 22 11 0
Stool 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 0
Deck 66 65 63 60 53 52 40 26 13 0
FWS 10 10 10 9 8 8 6 4 2 0
Barrier 9 9 9 9 8 8 6 4 2 0
Diaphragms 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
D
e
a
d

L
o
a
d
s

Total 146 144 141 134 118 113 89 59 29 0

Uniform Lane 37 36 35 34 30 30 24 18 13 9
Truck with DLA 79 78 77 75 70 70 62 53 45 36
L
i
v
e

L
o
a
d
s

Total 116 114 112 109 100 100 86 71 58 45

Strength I Load Comb
) LL 75 . 1 DL 25 . 1 ( ⋅ + ⋅
386 380 372 358 323 316 262 198 138 79
Service I Load Comb
) LL 00 . 1 DL 00 . 1 ( ⋅ + ⋅
262 258 253 243 218 213 175 130 87 45
Service III Load Comb
) LL 80 . 0 DL 00 . 1 ( ⋅ + ⋅
239 235 231 221 198 193 158 116 75 36




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-80

D. Design
Prestressing
Table 5.7.2.5
Bending Moment Summary (kip-ft/beam)
Load Type/Combination
Brg
CL
(0.0')
Brg
Face
(0.63')
Trans
Point
(2.38')
Critical
Shear
Point
(5.8')
0.1
Span
Point
(13.0')
Strand
Dev
Point
(13.6')
0.2
Span
Point
(26.0')
0.3
Span
Point
(39.0')
0.4
Span
Point*
(52.0')
0.5
Span
Point
(65.0')
Selfweight 0 34 128 305 643 670 1144 1501 1716 1787
Stool 0 3 12 28 59 62 105 138 158 165
Deck 0 41 154 365 770 802 1370 1798 2054 2140
Diaphragms 0 0 1 3 7 8 15 22 24 24
D
C
1

Total DC1 0 78 297 701 1479 1542 2634 3459 3952 4116
Barrier 0 6 22 53 111 116 197 259 296 308
FWS 0 7 24 58 122 127 216 284 324 338
D
C
2

Total DC2 0 13 46 111 233 243 413 543 620 646
D
e
a
d

L
o
a
d
s

Total (DC1+DC2) 0 91 343 812 1712 1785 3047 4002 4572 4762

Uniform Lane 0 18 68 161 340 354 604 793 906 944
Truck with DLA 0 39 145 343 719 749 1265 1638 1857 1912
L
i
v
e

L
o
a
d
s

Total 0 57 213 504 1059 1103 1869 2431 2763 2856

Strength I - Load Comb
) LL 75 . 1 DL 25 . 1 ( ⋅ + ⋅
0 214 802 1897 3993 4162 7080 9257 10,550 10,951
Service I - Load Comb
) LL 00 . 1 DL 00 . 1 ( ⋅ + ⋅
0 148 556 1316 2771 2888 4916 6433 7335 7618
Service III – Load Comb
) LL 80 . 0 DL 00 . 1 ( ⋅ + ⋅
0 137 513 1215 2559 2667 4542 5947 6782 7047
* Drape point for strands.


Typically the tension at the bottom of the beam at midspan dictates the
required level of prestressing.

1. Estimate Required Prestress
Use the Service III load combination

Bottom of beam stress:
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
cb
LL
cb
2 DC
gb
1 DC
S
8 . 0 M
S
M
S
M

ksi 81 . 4
940 , 21
8 . 0 12 2856
940 , 21
12 646
390 , 15
12 4116
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅ ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
=




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-81

As a starting point, the total prestress losses will be assumed to be 30%.
This results in an effective prestress of
( ) ksi 8 . 141 70 . 0 270 75 . 0 30 . 0 1 f 75 . 0 f
pu pe
= ⋅ ⋅ = − ⋅ ⋅ =

Strands are typically placed on a 2" grid. The bottom flange of a 72"
beam can hold a maximum of 48 strands. The centroid of a 48 strand
pattern would be
( ) ( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸
γ ⋅ Σ
=
strands of # total
strands of strands of #
y
str

( ) ( ) ( )
in 79 . 5
48
15 13 11 9 7 5 3 2 8 4 6 4 2 10
=
(
¸
(

¸
+ + + + + + ⋅ + ⋅ + + + ⋅
=

Using the centroid of this group as an estimate of the strand pattern
eccentricity results in
in 81 . 29 79 . 5 60 . 35 79 . 5 y e
g 48
= − = − =

The area of a 0.6" diameter 7-wire strand is
2
in 217 . 0

The axial compression produced by the prestressing strands is
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 . 141 217 . 0 strands of # f A P
pe s
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =

The internal moment produced by the prestressing strands is
( ) 81 . 29 8 . 141 217 . 0 strands of # e f A M
48 pe s s / p
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =

The allowable tension after losses ksi 54 . 0 8 19 . 0 f 19 . 0
c
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅ =

This moment and the axial compression from the prestress must reduce
the bottom flange tension from 4.81 ksi tension to a tension of 0.54 ksi
or
Required ksi 27 . 4 54 . 0 81 . 4 f
pe
= − =
Using the fact that
S
M
A
P
f
pe
+ =
One can estimate the required number of strands:



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-82

( ) ( )
strands 2 . 43
8 . 141 217 . 0
390 , 15
81 . 29
786
1
27 . 4
8 . 141 217 . 0
S
81 . 29
A
1
27 . 4
gb g
=
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

Try a strand pattern with 44 strands.

After reviewing Bridge Details Part II Figure 5-397.517, a 44 strand
draped strand pattern was selected. Also, the drape points were chosen
to be at 0.40L = 52.0 ft from the centerline of bearing locations. The
trial strand pattern is shown in Figure 5.7.2.4.

The properties of this strand pattern at midspan are:
( ) ( )
in 27 . 5
44
13 11 9 8 7 5 3 2 6 4 2 10
y
strand
=
(
¸
(

¸
+ + + + + + ⋅ + + + ⋅
=
in 33 . 30 27 . 5 60 . 35 y y e
strand b strand
= − = − =

Section Modulus at the strand pattern centroid is
3
strand
g
gps
in 065 , 18
33 . 30
920 , 547
e
I
S = = =



Figure 5.7.2.4




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-83

[ 5.9.5]
[ 5.9.5.4.4b]
[ 5.9.5.2.3]
[ 5.9.5.4.2]
[ 5.9.5.4.3]
2. Prestress Losses
Prestress losses are computed using the refined method.

Initial Relaxation Loss
Assume that the prestress is transferred 18 hours after stressing
days 75 . 0
24
18
t = =
ksi 50 . 202 270 75 . 0 f 75 . 0 f
pu pj
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
( )
pj
p
pj
1 pR
f 55 . 0
f
f
40
t 24 log
f ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅

= ∆
γ

( )
ksi 80 . 1 50 . 202 55 . 0
270 9 . 0
50 . 202
40
75 . 0 24 log
f
1 pR
= ⋅ |
.
|

\
|




= ∆

Elastic Shortening Loss
Use the alternative equation presented in the LRFD C5.9.5.2.3a.
( )
( )
p
ci g g
g
2
m g ps
g g m g
2
m g pbt ps
pES
E
E I A
A e I A
A M e A e I f A
f
+ +
− + ⋅
= ∆
( ) ( )
2
ps
in 55 . 9 217 . 0 44 area strand strands of # A = ⋅ = ⋅ =
ksi 70 . 200 80 . 1 50 . 202 f f f
1 pR pj pbt
= − = ∆ − =
in 33 . 30 e e
strand m
= =
( ) ( )
6
p
ci g g
in 764 , 687 , 65
500 , 28
4347 920 , 547 786
E
E I A
= =
( ) | ( ) ( )|
6 2
g
2
m g ps
in 748 , 137 , 12 786 33 . 30 920 , 547 55 . 9 A e I A = + = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ksi 73 . 24
764 , 687 , 65 748 , 137 , 12
786 12 1787 33 . 30 748 , 137 , 12 70 . 200
f
pES
=
+
− ⋅
= ∆

Shrinkage Loss
Use an average humidity for Minnesota of 73%.
( ) ( ) ksi 05 . 6 73 150 . 0 0 . 17 H 150 . 0 0 . 17 f
pSR
= ⋅ − = ⋅ − = ∆

Creep Loss
Non-composite dead load moment excluding selfweight
( ) 2329 1787 4116 M
SW 1 DC
= − =

kip-ft




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-84

[ 5.9.5.4.4c]
[ 5.9.5.1]
[ 5.9.4.1]
Composite dead load moment, 646 M
2 DC
= kip-ft
|
|
.
|

\
| + −
⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ = ∆

cg
strand g cg
2 DC
g
strand
SW 1 DC cdp
I
e y y
M
I
e
M f
|
|
.
|

\
| + −
⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
000 , 235 , 1
33 . 30 60 . 35 29 . 56
12 . 646
920 , 547
33 . 30
12 . 2329
ksi 87 . 1 =
gps
sw
gps
strand i
g
i
cgp
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f −

+ =
( ) ( ) ( ) kips 1681 55 . 9 73 . 24 80 . 1 50 . 202 A f f f P
ps pES 1 pR pj i
= − − = ∆ − ∆ − =
( ) ( )
ksi 77 . 3
18065
12 1787
065 , 18
33 . 30 1681
786
1681
f
cgp
= − + =
( ) ( ) ksi 15 . 32 87 . 1 7 77 . 3 12 f 7 f 12 f
cdp cgp pCR
= ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆

Relaxation Loss After Transfer
( ) | |
pCR pSR pES 2 pR
f f 2 . 0 f 4 . 0 20 30 . 0 f ∆ + ∆ ⋅ − ∆ ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆
( ) | | ksi 74 . 0 15 . 32 05 . 6 2 . 0 73 . 24 4 . 0 20 30 . 0 = + ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ =

Total Losses
ksi 67 . 63 74 . 0 15 . 32 05 . 6 73 . 24 f f f f TL
2 pR pCR pSR pES
= + + + = ∆ + ∆ + ∆ + ∆ = ∆
ksi 83 . 138 67 . 63 50 . 202 TL f f
pj pe
= − = ∆ − =
prestress loss percentage % 4 . 31 100
50 . 202
67 . 63
100
f
TL
pj
= ⋅ = ⋅

=

3. Stresses at Transfer (compression +, tension -)
Stress Limits for P/S Concrete at Release
Compression in the concrete is limited to:
ksi 20 . 4 0 . 7 60 . 0 f 60 . 0
ci
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅

Tension in the concrete is limited to:
The minimum of ksi 25 . 0 0 . 7 0948 . 0 f 0948 . 0
ci
− = ⋅ − = ′ ⋅ −
or ksi 20 . 0 −
Tension limit = -0.20 ksi




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-85

Check Release Stresses at Drape Point (0.40 Point of Span)
985 , 50 33 . 30 1681 e P
strand i
= ⋅ = ⋅ kip-in
Top stress due to P/S
|
|
.
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
050 , 15
985 , 50
786
1681
S
e P
A
P
gt
strand i
g
i

ksi 25 . 1 − =
Bottom Stress due to P/S
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
390 , 15
985 , 50
786
1681
S
e P
A
P
gb
strand i
g
i

ksi 45 . 5 =
Selfweight moment at drape point 1716 M
40 . 0 sw
= = kip-ft
Top stress due to selfweight ksi 37 . 1
050 , 15
12 1716
S
M
gt
40 . 0 sw
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Bottom stress due to selfweight ksi 34 . 1
390 , 15
12 1716
S
M
gb
40 . 0 sw
− =
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Top stress at drape point ksi 20 . 0 ksi 12 . 0 37 . 1 25 . 1 − < = + − = OK
Bottom stress at drape point ksi 20 . 4 ksi 11 . 4 34 . 1 45 . 5 < = − = OK

Check Release Stresses at End of Beam
The strands need to be draped to raise the eccentricity of the prestress
force and limit the potential for cracking the top of the beams.

Centroid of strand pattern at the end of the beams:
( ) ( )
in 0 . 20
44
67 65 63 61 59 57 8 2 6 4 2 10
y
strand
=
(
¸
(

¸
+ + + + + + ⋅ + + + ⋅
=

The eccentricity of the strand pattern is:
in 60 . 15 00 . 20 60 . 35 y y e
strand b strand
= − = − =

The internal prestress moment is:
224 , 26 60 . 15 1681 e P
strand i
= ⋅ = ⋅ kip-in

Top stress at end
|
|
.
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
050 , 15
224 , 26
786
1681
S
e P
A
P
gt
strand i
g
i

ksi 20 . 0 ksi 40 . 0 − < = OK





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-86

[ 5.9.4.2]
Bottom stress at end
|
|
.
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
390 , 15
224 , 26
786
1681
S
e P
A
P
gb
strand i
g
i

ksi 20 . 4 ksi 84 . 3 < = OK

For simplicity, the stresses were checked at the end of the beam
assuming the full prestress force was effective. The check could have
been made at the transfer point (60 strand diameters away from the end
of the beam).

4. Stresses at Service Loads (compression +, tension -)
Stress Limits for P/S Concrete After All Losses
Compression in the concrete is limited to (Service I Load Combination):
ksi 60 . 3 0 . 8 45 . 0 f 45 . 0
c
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅
(for prestress and permanent loads)
Check the bottom stress at end of beam and the top stress at
midspan against this limit.

ksi 20 . 3 0 . 8 40 . 0 f 40 . 0
c
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅
(for live load and
1
/
2
of prestress and permanent loads)
Check the top stress at midspan against this limit.

ksi 80 . 4 0 . 8 0 . 1 60 . 0 f Q 60 . 0
c w
= ⋅ ⋅ = ′ ⋅ ⋅
(for live load, prestress, permanent loads, and transient loads)
Check the top stress at midspan against this limit.

Tension in the concrete is limited to (Service III Load Combination):
ksi 54 . 0 0 . 8 19 . 0 f 19 . 0
c
− = ⋅ − = ′ ⋅ −
Check the bottom stress at midspan against this limit.

Check Stresses at Midspan After Losses:
Let kips 1326 83 . 138 55 . 9 f A P
pe ps e
= ⋅ = ⋅ =

Bottom stress
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
gb
strand e
g
e
cb
LL
cb
2 DC
gb
1 DC
S
e P
A
P
S
8 . 0 M
S
M
S
M

|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
− |
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅ ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
=
390 , 15
33 . 30 1326
786
1326
940 , 21
8 . 0 12 2856
940 , 21
12 646
390 , 15
12 4116

ksi 54 . 0 ksi 51 . 0 − < − = OK




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-87

[ 5.5.4]
Top stress due to all loads
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
gtc
LL 2 DC
gt
1 DC
gt
strand e
g
e
S
M M
S
M
S
e P
A
P

( )
(
¸
(

¸
⋅ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
− |
.
|

\
|
=
610 , 78
12 2856 646
050 , 15
12 4116
050 , 15
33 . 30 1326
786
1326

ksi 80 . 4 ksi 83 . 2 < = OK

By inspection, top stress due to prestress and permanent loads is less
than 3.60 ksi. Also by inspection, top stress due to live load plus
1
/
2
prestress and permanent loads is less than 3.20 ksi.

Check the Compression Stresses at End of Beam After Losses
Bottom flange stress due to prestress and permanent loads
ksi 60 . 3 ksi 03 . 3
390 , 15
60 . 15 1326
786
1326
S
e P
A
P
strand e
g
e
< =

+ =

+ OK

5. Flexure – Strength Limit State
Resistance factors at the strength limit state are:
00 . 1 = φ for flexure and tension
90 . 0 = φ for shear and torsion
00 . 1 = φ for tension in steel in anchorage zones

Strength I design moment is 10,951 kip-ft at midspan.

Check for rectangular beam behavior by comparing the tensile capacity of
the strands and the compression capacity of the deck.

Tensile strength of 44 strands is: kips 2578 270 217 . 0 44 = ⋅ ⋅

Maximum compressive force generated by the deck is
kips 3121 5 . 8 108 0 . 4 85 . 0 t b f 85 . 0
s c
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅

The strands have less capacity than the deck, so assume a rectangular
cross section.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-88

[ 5.7.3.1.1]
[ 5.7.3.1.1- 4]
[ 5.7.3.3.1]
From previous calculations, distance to strand centroid from bottom of
the beam is:
in 27 . 5 y
strand
=
280 . 0
270
243
04 . 1 2
f
f
04 . 1 2 k
pu
py
= |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ =
( )
strand p
y deck stool height beam d − + + =
in 73 . 76 27 . 5 5 . 8 5 . 1 72 = − + + =
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ β ⋅ ′ ⋅

=
p
pu
ps 1 c
pu ps
d
f
A k b f 85 . 0
f A
c
in 02 . 8
73 . 76
270
55 . 9 28 . 0 108 85 . 0 0 . 4 85 . 0
270 55 . 9
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=
ksi 10 . 262
73 . 76
02 . 8
28 . 0 1 270
d
c
k 1 f f
p
pu ps
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ − = =
in 82 . 6 02 . 8 85 . 0 c a
1
= ⋅ = ⋅ β =

Internal lever arm between compression and tension flexural force
components:
in 32 . 73
2
82 . 6
73 . 76
2
a
d
p
= − = −
524 , 18 32 . 73 10 . 262 55 . 9 32 . 73 f A M
ps ps n
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = kip-in
294 , 15 = kip-ft
294 , 15 294 , 15 0 . 1 M
n
= ⋅ = φ kip-ft 951 , 10 M
u
= > kip-ft OK

6. Limits of Reinforcement
Maximum Reinforcement
The depth of the flexural compressive block is compared to the depth of
the steel centroid to verify adequate ductility.
42 . 0 10 . 0
73 . 76
02 . 8
d
c
p
< = = OK




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-89

[ 5.7.3.3.2]
E. Design
Reinforcement for
Shear

[ 5.8]
Minimum Reinforcement
ksi 68 . 0 0 . 8 24 . 0 f 24 . 0 f
c r
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅ =
gb
strand e
g
e
peb
S
e P
A
P
f

+ =
ksi 30 . 4
390 , 15
33 . 30 1326
786
1326
=

+ =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ − ⋅ + = 1
S
S
M S f f M
gb
cgb
1 DC cgb peb r cr

( ) ( ) 240 , 88 1
390 , 15
940 , 21
12 4116 940 , 21 30 . 4 68 . 0 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ + = kip-in
7353 = kip-ft
294 , 15 8824 7353 2 . 1 M 2 . 1
cr
< = ⋅ = ⋅ kip-ft provided OK


1. Vertical Shear Design
Determine
v
d and Critical Section for Shear
Begin by assuming a theta angle of 26 degrees. If the theta angle ends
up flatter, the critical section will move towards midspan and the shear
demand will reduce.

Begin by determining the effective shear depth
v
d at the critical section
for shear.
2
a
d d
p v
− =

The effective shear depth is no less than:
( ) in 04 . 59 5 . 8 5 . 1 72 72 . 0 h 72 . 0 d
v
= + + ⋅ = ⋅ ≥

The internal face is assumed to be at the inside edge of the 15 inch sole
plate. The critical section will be at least 66.54 inches ( ) 2 / 15 04 . 59 + or
5.55 feet away from the centerline of bearing. Find the centroid of the
prestressing strands at this location:

The centroid of the prestressing strands is at:
( )
drape end end
v
d @ str
y y
span 40 . 0
. ft 55 . 5
y y − ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|

− =
( ) in 43 . 18 27 . 5 20
130 40 . 0
55 . 5
20 = − ⋅ |
.
|

\
|

− =




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-90

With this approximation to the strand centroid,
p
d can be computed:
( ) in 57 . 63 43 . 18 5 . 8 5 . 1 72 y h d
v
d @ str p
= − + + = − =

From the flexural strength computations, a = 6.82 in
in 16 . 60
2
82 . 6
57 . 63
2
a
d d
p v
= − = − =

But the effective shear depth
v
d need not be less than
in 04 . 59 h 72 . 0 d
v
= ⋅ ≥
or
p e v
d 9 . 0 d 9 . 0 d = ≥ ( ) in 21 . 57 57 . 63 9 . 0 = =

Therefore take in 16 . 60 d
v
=

Based on the assumed θ , the critical section location is:
( ) ( ) ( ) 26 cot 16 . 60 5 . 0 5 . 7 cot d 5 . 0 5 . 7 d
v critv
⋅ ⋅ + = θ ⋅ ⋅ + =
ft 8 . 5 in 17 . 69 = = GOVERNS
or
in 63 . 67 16 . 60 5 . 7 d 5 . 7 d
v critv
= + = + =

Determine Shear Stress
From Table 5.7.2.4 the Strength I design shear at 5.8 ft is
kips 358 V
u
=

The amount of force carried by the draped strands at their effective
prestress level is:
kips 5 . 361 83 . 138 217 . 0 12 P
d 12
= ⋅ ⋅ =

The inclination of the draped strands is:
( )
rees deg 887 . 4
63 . 52
12 / 8 62
arctan =
(
¸
(

¸

= φ

The vertical prestress component is:
( ) ( ) kips 8 . 30 887 . 4 sin 5 . 361 sin P V
d 12 p
= ⋅ = φ ⋅ =

Compute maximum shear capacity of the section
kips 7 . 752 8 . 30 0 . 6 16 . 60 0 . 8 25 . 0 V b d f 25 . 0 V
p v v c n
= + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = + ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅ =



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-91

The maximum design shear the section can have is:
kips 358 kips 4 . 677 7 . 752 90 . 0 V
n v
>> = ⋅ = ⋅ φ

Compute the shear stress on the section:
ksi 017 . 1
16 . 60 6 90 . 0
8 . 30 90 . 0 358
d b
V V
v
v v v
p v u
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ −
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ φ
− φ −
=

The ratio of the shear stress to the compressive strength is:
127 . 0
0 . 8
017 . 1
f
v
c
= =



Determine Longitudinal Strain
x
ε
Assume that minimum transverse reinforcement will be provided in the
cross section.

First, determine
ps
A . Note that
ps
A computed here is different than the
ps
A computed earlier. This
ps
A includes only the area of prestressing
steel found on the flexural tension side of the member. Near the end of
the beam,
ps
A must also be reduced for development.

Development length
d
l is:
b pe ps d
d f
3
2
f K |
.
|

\
|
− = l
( ) ( ) in 8 . 162 6 . 0 83 . 138
3
2
10 . 262 6 . 1 =
(
¸
(

¸

− =

Transfer length
tr
l is:
( ) in 0 . 36 6 . 0 60 d 60
b tr
= = ⋅ = l

At the critical section in 14 . 69 d
critv
= from the beam end, the strand
development fraction
|
|
.
|

\
|



+ =
pu
pe
tr d
tr critv
pu
pe
dev
f
f
1
d
f
f
F
l l
l

641 . 0
270
83 . 138
1
0 . 36 8 . 162
0 . 36 14 . 69
270
83 . 138
= |
.
|

\
|



+ =




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-92

[ 5.8.3.4.3]
The flexural tension side of the member is defined as:
in 0 . 41
2
0 . 82
2
h
comp
= =

At
critv
d none of the draped strands fall on the flexural tension side.
Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( )
dev ps
F area strand str. straight # A =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
in 451 . 4 641 . 0 217 . 0 32 = =

Use equation 5.8.3.4.2-1 to compute the strain:
( ) ( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅
⋅ − θ ⋅ − ⋅ +
= ε
ps p
po ps p u
v
u
x
A E 2
f A cot V V 5 . 0
d
M

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ +
=
451 . 4 500 , 28 2
270 70 . 0 451 . 4 26 cot 8 . 30 358 5 . 0
16 . 60
12 . 1897

000502 . 0
707 , 253
4 . 127
− =
|
|
.
|

\
| −
=

Because the value is negative, equation three should be investigated with
the additional concrete term:
From Figure 5.4.6.1,
2
c
in 431 A =
( ) ( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
⋅ − θ ⋅ − ⋅ +
= ε
ps p
po ps p u
v
u
x
A E Ac Ec 2
f A cot V V 5 . 0
d
M

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ +
=
451 . 4 500 , 28 431 4578 2
270 70 . 0 451 . 4 26 cot 8 . 30 358 5 . 0
16 . 60
12 . 1897

000030 . 0
943 , 199 , 4
4 . 127
− =
|
|
.
|

\
| −
=

With the strain and shear stress to
c
f′ ratio determined, interpolate to
find β and θ in LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.2-1.
θ = 23.2 degrees
β = 2.90




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-93

[ 5.8.4]
Since the original assumption for θ (26 degrees) does not match the
computed angle, do an iteration assuming 2 . 23 = θ degrees. Because
new angle is flatter than original assumption, do not revise location of
critical section for shear (conservative).

For 2 . 23 = θ degrees, 000019 . 0
x
− = ε

Then with 126 . 0
f
v
c
=

and 000019 . 0
x
− = ε , interpolate to get:
4 . 23 = θ degrees (close enough to assumed angle)
89 . 2 = β

Compute the concrete contribution:
kips 2 . 93 16 . 60 6 8 896 . 2 0316 . 0 d b f 0316 . 0 V
v v c c
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅ β ⋅ =

The required steel contribution is:
kips 8 . 273 8 . 30 2 . 93
90 . 0
358
V V
V
V V V V
p c
v
u
p c n s
= − − = − −
φ
= − − =

Find the required spacing of double leg #13 stirrups:
( )
( )
in 2 . 12
8 . 273
4 . 23 cot 16 . 60 60 20 . 0 2
V
cot d f A
s
s
v y v
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
θ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

Provide double leg stirrups at a 12 inch spacing at the end of the beam.
ft / in 040 A
2
v
= kips 9 . 277 V
s
=

Other sections are investigated similarly.

2. Interface Shear Transfer
Top flange width in 30 b
v
=

The Strength I vertical shear at the critical shear section due to all
superimposed loads is:
( ) ( ) 3 . 213 109 75 . 1 9 9 25 . 1 V
u
= + + =

Interface shear force is:
55 . 3
16 . 60
3 . 213
2
a
d
V
d
V
V
p
u
e
u
h
= =

= = kip/in



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-94

[ Eng. 5.8.4.1- 4]
Required nominal interface design shear is:
94 . 3
90 . 0
55 . 3 V
V
v
h
n
= =
φ
= kip/in

The interface area per 1 inch length of beam is:
2
cv
in 0 . 30 1 30 A = ⋅ = /in

The upper limits on nominal interface shear are:
kip/in 94 . 3 kip/in 0 . 24 0 . 30 4 2 . 0 A f 2 . 0
cv c
> = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ′ ⋅ OK
and
kip/in 94 . 3 kip/in 0 . 24 0 . 30 8 . 0 A 8 . 0
cv
> = ⋅ = ⋅ OK

Determine the amount of interface shear carried by cohesion. A note on
the Bridge Details II Fig. 5-397.517 requires the top flanges of the beam
to be roughened. Consequently use a cohesion (c) of 0.100 ksi and a
friction factor ( µ) of 1.0.

The nominal interface shear resistance is:
( )
c vf cv n
P f A A c V + γ µ + =
kip 0 . 0 P
c
=

Substitute and solve for required interface shear steel:
( )
2
y
cv
vf
in 016 . 0
60 0 . 1
0 . 30 1 . 0 94 . 3
f
A c V
A =


=
⋅ µ

= /in
2
in 19 . 0 = /ft

The minimum shear steel that needs to be provided is:
2
y
v
min vf
in 025 . 0
60
30 05 . 0
f
b 05 . 0
A =

=

= /in
2
in 30 . 0 = /ft

The minimum requirement controls.

Vertical shear reinforcement
2
v
in 40 . 0 A = /ft
2
in 30 . 0 > /ft at the critical
section for shear. Therefore, no additional reinforcement is required for
interface shear.

Other sections are investigated similarly.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-95

[ 5.8.3.5]
F. Design
Pretensioned
Anchorage Zone
Reinforcement
[ 5.10.10.1]
3. Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
Check a diagonal section with a crack starting at the inside edge of the
bearing sole plate.

Straight strands cross the crack at:
sole plate ( ) ( ) in 82 . 24 4 . 23 cot 25 . 4 15 cot y
32
= ⋅ + = θ ⋅ +

The transfer length for 0.6" strands is:
in 36 6 . 0 60 d 60
s
= ⋅ = ⋅

Interpolate to find the tensile capacity of the straight strands at the
crack:
kips 6 . 664
36
82 . 24
217 . 0 32 83 . 138
length transfer
crack to length
A f T
ps pe r
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =

The force to carry is:
( ) θ ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ −
ϕ
= cot V V 5 . 0
V
T
p s
v
u

( ) 4 . 23 cot 8 . 30 9 . 277 5 . 0
90 . 0
358
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ − =
kips 6 . 664 kips 9 . 526 < = OK


Bursting Reinforcement
To prevent cracking in the beam end due to the transfer of the
prestressing force from the strands to the concrete, bursting steel needs
to be provided in the anchorage zone.

Use a load factor of 1.0 and lateral force component of 4% to determine
the required amount of steel.

The factored design bursting force is:
kips 2 . 67 1681 04 . 0 0 . 1 P 04 . 0 0 . 1 P
i b
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =

The amount of resisting reinforcement is determined using a steel stress
s
f of 20 ksi:
2
s
b
s
in 36 . 3
20
2 . 67
f
P
A = = =




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-96

[ 5.10.10.2]
G. Determine
Camber and
Deflection
[ 2.5.2.6.2]
[ 3.6.1.3.2]
[ 5.7.3.6.2]
This steel should be located at the end of the beam within a distance of:
in 0 . 18
4
72
4
h
= =

The number of #16 double legged stirrups necessary to provide this area
is:
4 . 5
31 . 0 2
36 . 3
A 2
A
b
s
=

=



The first set of stirrups is located 2 inches from the end of the beam.
Provide six sets of #16 stirrups spaced at 3 inch centers.
( ) in 18 in 17 3 5 2 < = ⋅ +

Confinement Reinforcement
Reinforcement is required at the ends of the beam to confine the
prestressing steel in the bottom flange. G1303E and G1607E bars (see
Figure 5.7.2.5) will be placed at a maximum spacing of 6 inches out to
1.5d from the ends of the beam. For simplicity in detailing and ease of
tying the reinforcement, space the vertical shear reinforcement with the
confinement reinforcement in this area.
( ) in 0 . 108 72 5 . 1 d 5 . 1 = =


Camber Due to Prestressing and Dead Load Deflection
Using the PCI handbook (Figure 4.10.13 of the 3
rd
Edition), the camber
due to prestress can be found. The centroid of the prestressing has an
eccentricity
mid
e of 30.33 inches at midspan. At the end of the beams
the eccentricity
e
e is 15.60 inches. E is the initial concrete modulus
(4347 ksi),
o
P equals the prestress force just after transfer (1681 kips).
The drape points are at 0.4 of the span. The span length is 130.0 feet.
Using the equation for the two point depressed strand pattern:
in 73 . 14 60 . 15 33 . 30 e e e
e mid
= − = − = ′
|
|
.
|

\
|


+ = ∆
6
a
8
L
EI
e P
EI 8
L e P
2 2
o
2
e o
ps

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅


+

=
6
12 130 4 . 0
8
12 130
920 , 547 4347
73 . 14 1681
920 , 547 4347 8
12 130 60 . 15 1681
2 2 2

in 84 . 5 =




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-97

Downward deflection due to selfweight
( )
in 28 . 2
920 , 547 4347 384
12 130
12
846 . 0
5
I E 384
L w 5
4
4
sw
=
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
= ∆

Camber at release in 56 . 3 28 . 2 84 . 5
sw ps rel
= − = ∆ − ∆ = ∆

To estimate camber at the time of erection the deflection components are
multiplied by standard PCI handbook multipliers. (See Figure 4.6.3 of
the 3
rd
Edition.) They are:
Release to Erection Multipliers:
Prestress = 1.80
Selfweight = 1.85

Camber and selfweight deflection values at erection are:
Prestress: in 51 . 10 84 . 5 80 . 1 = ⋅
Selfweight: ( ) in 22 . 4 28 . 2 85 . 1 − = − ⋅
Diaphragm DL: in 03 . 0 −
Deck and stool DL: in 84 . 2 −
Parapet: in 17 . 0 −

The values to be placed in the camber diagram on the beam plan sheet
are arrived at by combining the values above.
“Initial Total Camber”
in 26 . 6 03 . 0 22 . 4 51 . 10 = − − say 6
1
/
4
in

“Est. Dead Load Deflection”
in 01 . 3 17 . 0 84 . 2 = + say 3 in

“Est. Residual Camber”
6
1
/
4
– 3 = 3
1
/
4
in

Live Load Deflection
The deflection of the bridge is checked when subjected to live load and
compared against the limiting values of
L
/
800
for vehicle only bridges and
L
/
1000
for bridges with bicycle or pedestrian traffic.

Deflection due to lane load is:
( )
in 73 . 0
000 , 235 , 1 4578 384
12 130
12
64 . 0
5
I E 384
L w 5
4
4
lane
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
= ∆



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-98

H. Detailing I tems
Deflection due to a truck with dynamic load allowance is found using
hand computations or computer tools to be:
in 46 . 1
truck
= ∆

Two deflections are computed and compared to the limiting values; that
of the truck alone and that of the lane load plus 25% of the truck. Both
deflections need to be adjusted with the distribution factor for deflection.
in 83 . 0 46 . 1 567 . 0 DF
truck 1
= ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ = ∆


( ) ( ) in 62 . 0 46 . 1 25 . 0 73 . 0 567 . 0 25 . 0 DF
truck lane 2
= ⋅ + ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ + ∆ ⋅ = ∆



There is no bicycle or pedestrian traffic on the bridge, the deflection limit
is:
2 1
or than in 95 . 1
800
12 130
800
L
∆ ∆ >> =

= OK


Approximate weight of each beam is:
tons 5 . 55
kips 2
ton 1
ft
kips 155 . 0
/ft in 144
in 786
ft 25 . 131 y A L
3 2 2
2
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

Initial prestress force at jacking is:
kips 1933 270 75 . 0 217 . 0 44 = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

Figure 5.7.2.5 shows the detailed beam sheet for the bridge.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-99



Figure 5.7.2.5



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-100
















[ This Page Intentionally Left Blank ]




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-101

5.7.3 Three- Span
Haunched Post-
Tensioned Concrete
Slab Design
Example
A. Material and
Design Parameters



[ 5.4.2.4]


[ Table 5.4.4.1- 1]


[ 5.4.4.2]


[ 5.4.3.2]
This example illustrates the design of a haunched post-tensioned
concrete slab bridge. The three continuous spans are 55'-0", 70'-0", and
55'-0" in length. The roadway width is 44'-0" with Mn/DOT Type F
barrier railings for a total out-to-out width of 47'-4". A plan view and
typical sections of the bridge are shown in Figures 5.7.3.1 and 5.7.3.2.

After computing the dead and live loads, a preliminary tendon profile is
developed. Prestress losses for the preliminary layout are computed for
anchor set, friction, elastic shortening, creep, shrinkage, and relaxation.
Subsequently, the load combinations are assembled (with the secondary
post-tensioning force effects included). Flexural and shear strength
checks are performed, after which deflection and camber calculations are
assembled. Lastly, the design of the anchorage zone is performed.

Single ended jacking is assumed for the design. The construction
documents will require that the jacked end and the dead ends alternate.
With the tendons stressed at alternating ends, the results for the friction
losses and anchor set losses for tendons stressed at opposite ends will be
averaged to obtain losses for a “typical” tendon.


The following material and design parameters are used in this example:

Table 5.7.3.1
Design Parameters
Material Parameter Value
Compressive Strength at Transfer,
ci
f′ 4.5 ksi
Compressive Strength at 28 days,
c
f′ 5.0 ksi
Modulus of Elasticity at Transfer,
ci
E 3865 ksi
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

Modulus of Elasticity at 28 days,
c
E 4074 ksi
7-wire Strand 0.60 in dia., low-lax
Area of one Strand 0.217 in
2

Tensile Strength,
pu
f 270.0 ksi
Yield Strength,
py
f 243.0 ksi
P
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
i
n
g

Modulus of Elasticity,
p
E 28,500 ksi
Yield Strength,
y
F 60 ksi S
t
e
e
l

R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

R
e
b
a
r

Modulus of Elasticity,
s
E 29,000 ksi

Additional Dead Loads
Future Wearing Surface ksf 020 . 0 =
Type F Barriers, 439 . 0 w = kip/ft/barrier



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-102


Figure 5.7.3.1
Bridge Layout



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-103

Figure 5.7.3.2
Transverse and Longitudinal Sections



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-104

B. Haunch Length
and Minimum
Recommended Slab
Depth
[ 2.5.2.6.3]
C. Live Load Strip
Widths and
Distribution Factors
[ 4.6.2.3]
[ 3.6.1.1.1]
MnDOT’s standard design practice is to use linear haunches, with a
haunch length of 15% of the length of the longest span in the continuous
system.

Haunch Length:
ft 5 . 10 70 15 . 0 = ⋅ Use 10.5 ft

The depth of the slab at midspan can be estimated with:
( ) ( ) ft 80 . 1 70 027 . 0 95 . 0 L 027 . 0 95 . 0 = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ Use 1.83 ft

A trial depth of the slab at the piers can be found with:
( ) ( ) ft 39 . 2 80 . 1
3
4
depth slab midspan
3
4
= ⋅ = ⋅ Use 2.50 ft


The equations in the LRFD Specifications are arranged to determine the
width of slab that resists a particular live load. To simplify the design
process (which is based on a 1 foot wide design strip) the resultant
widths are rearranged to determine the fraction of lane load carried by a
1 foot wide strip of slab.

Distribution Factor for Flexure – One Lane Loaded
The equation used to find the width of slab resisting one lane of live
loading is:
1 1
W L 0 . 5 0 . 10 E ⋅ ⋅ + =

Where:
1
L is the modified span length (the smaller of the actual span length
and 60 feet)
1
W is the modified bridge width (the smaller of the actual width and
30 feet)

Substituting in values for the side and main spans produces:
55 ft Spans:
1 . 213 30 55 0 . 5 0 . 10 E
s
= ⋅ ⋅ + = in/lane
056 . 0
1
12
1 . 213
1
E
1
s
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
= lanes/ft




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-105

70 ft Span:
1 . 222 30 60 0 . 5 0 . 10 E
s
= ⋅ ⋅ + = in/lane
054 . 0
1
12
1 . 222
1
E
1
s
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
= lanes/ft

Distribution Factor for Flexure – Multiple Lanes Loaded
A similar procedure is used to determine the width of slab that carries
multiple lanes of live load. The general equation is:
L
1 1
N
W 0 . 12
W L 44 . 1 0 . 84 E

≤ ⋅ ⋅ + =
Where:
1
L is the modified span length (smaller of the span length and
60 ft)
1
W is the modified bridge width (smaller of the bridge width and
60 ft)
W is the physical edge-to-edge width of the bridge (47.33 ft)
L
N is the number of design lanes:
7 . 3
12
44
N
L
= = Use 3

Substituting values into the equations for the side and main spans
produces:
55 ft Spans:
3 . 189
3
33 . 47 0 . 12
5 . 157 33 . 47 55 44 . 1 0 . 84 E
m
=

≤ = ⋅ ⋅ + = in/lane
076 . 0
1
12
5 . 157
1
E
1
m
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
= lanes/ft

70 ft Span:
3 . 189
3
33 . 47 0 . 12
7 . 160 33 . 47 60 44 . 1 0 . 84 E
m
=

≤ = ⋅ ⋅ + = in/lane
075 . 0
1
12
7 . 160
1
E
1
m
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
= lanes/ft

Distribution Factor for Shear
The shear check is performed with a single distribution factor where all
design lanes are loaded and the entire slab is assumed to participate in
carrying the load.
( ) 054 . 0
33 . 47
85 . 0
3
width deck
MPF
lanes of # E
v
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ = |
.
|

\
|
⋅ = lanes/ft




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-106

[ 2.5.2.6.2]
D. Edge Beam
Width and
Distribution Factor
[ 4.6.2.1.4]
Distribution Factor for Deflection
Deflection computations should be based on the same distribution factor
calculated for shear forces:
054 . 0 E E
v
= =

lanes/ft


The exterior strip is assumed to carry one wheel line and a tributary
portion of lane live load.

Check if the equivalent strip is less than the maximum width of
72 inches.
( )
( )
2
width strip
0 . 12 barrier of face inside to slab of edge E + + =
in 0 . 72 in 7 . 110
2
4 . 157
12 20 E > = + + = Use 72.0 in

Compute the distribution factor associated with one truck wheel line:
( )
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸



=
12 / E lines/lane wheel 2
MPF line wheel 1
LLDF
EXTT

( )
( )
100 . 0
12 / 72 2
2 . 1 1
=
(
¸
(

¸



= lanes/ft

Compute the distribution factor associated with lane load on a 72 inch
wide exterior strip. Subtract the gutter line to edge of deck distance to
obtain the deck width loaded:
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ |
.
|

\
|
=
width strip exterior
MPF
width load ft. 10
loaded width deck
LLDF
EXTL

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ |
.
|

\
| −
=
12 / 72
2 . 1
10
12 / 20 12 / 72
LLDF
EXTL
lanes/ft

For simplicity, the larger value (0.100 lanes/ft) is used for both load
types when assembling design forces for the exterior strip.

Table 5.7.3.2 summarizes the distribution factors for the different force
components.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-107

E. Load
Combinations, Load
Factors, and Load
Modifiers
[ 3.4.1]
[ 1.3.3- 1.3.5]
[ 5.5.3.1]
Table 5.7.3.2
Distribution Factor Summary
Force Component Width Type of Loading
Span
(ft)
Distribution Factor
(lanes/ft)
55 0.056
One Lane
70 0.054
55 0.076
Interior Strip
Multiple Lanes
70 0.075
Flexure
Exterior Strip One Lane 55 & 70 0.100
Shear Slab Width Multiple Lanes 55 & 70 0.054
Deflections Slab Width Multiple Lanes 55 & 70 0.054

The following load modifiers will be used for this example:
Strength Service Fatigue
Ductility
D
η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Redundancy
R
η 1.0 1.0 1.0
Importance
I
η 1.0 n/a n/a

I R D
η ⋅ η ⋅ η = η 1.0 1.0 1.0


The load combinations considered for the design example are identified
below:

STRENGTH I – Used to ensure adequate strength under normal vehicular
use.
( ) | | IM LL 75 . 1 DW 25 . 1 DC 25 . 1 0 . 1 U + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

SERVICE I – Used for compression checks in prestressed concrete.
( ) ( ) IM LL 0 . 1 DW DC 0 . 1 U + ⋅ + + ⋅ =

SERVICE III – Used for tension checks in prestressed concrete for crack
control purposes.
( ) ( ) IM LL 8 . 0 DW DC 0 . 1 U + ⋅ + + ⋅ =

FATIGUE – No fatigue check is necessary for fully prestressed sections.





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-108

F. Live Loads
[ 3.6.1]
[ 3.6.2]
G. Dead Loads
The HL-93 live load components used for this example are:
Design Truck
Design Lane
Design Tandem
Truck Train

The live load components are combined in the following manner:
Design Truck + Design Lane
Design Tandem + Design Lane
0.90 (Truck Train + Design Lane) (Neg. Moment Regions)


Dynamic Load Allowance
The dynamic load allowance, (IM) for truck and tandem live loads is
33% for all applicable limit states and load combinations.


Interior Strip (1'-0" Width)
The 2 inch wearing course is included in the slab depth (h) used to
determine the dead loads ( )
DC
w . It is not considered part of the
structural section resisting loads.
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+ ⋅ ⋅ =
width deck
w 2
h w width w
barrier
c DC

( ) 019 . 0 h 150 . 0
47.33
439 . 0 2
h 150 . 0 0 . 1 + ⋅ = |
.
|

\
| ⋅
+ ⋅ ⋅ = kip/ft

For design simplicity the dead load associated with the future wearing
surface (0.020 ksf) is combined with the other DC loads.
039 . 0 h 150 . 0 020 . 0 019 . 0 h 150 . 0 w
DC
+ ⋅ = + + ⋅ = kip/ft

Edge Strip (1'-0" Width)
For the design of the edge strip, it is conservatively assumed that the
dead load of one barrier is carried by each edge strip.
073 . 0 h 150 . 0
0 . 6
439 . 0
h 150 . 0 w
DC
+ ⋅ = |
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅ = kip/ft

The future wearing surface load is:
014 . 0
0 . 6
67 . 1 0 . 6
120 . 0 w
DW
= |
.
|

\
| −
⋅ = kip/ft




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-109

H. Structural
Analysis Model and
Resultant Loads
The combined dead load is:
087 . 0 h 150 . 0 w 073 . 0 h 150 . 0 w
DW DC
+ ⋅ = + + ⋅ = kip/ft


The dead and live loads were applied to a continuous beam model with
gross section properties. Nonprismatic properties were used to account
for the presence of the linear haunches near the piers. The results of the
analysis are presented in Tables 5.7.3.3 and 5.7.3.4.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-110

Table 5.7.3.3
Moment Load Components (kip-ft)
Dead Load (per ft) Live Load (per lane)*
Lane Truck Tandem Truck Train
Span
Point
Interior Strip
DC
M
Exterior Strip
DC
M
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Min.
1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
1.1 31 35 78 -20 263 -47 227 -36 -
1.2 51 59 136 -39 433 -94 384 -71 -
1.3 62 71 175 -59 519 -140 475 -107 -
1.4 62 71 195 -78 552 -187 507 -142 -
1.5 52 59 196 -98 534 -234 492 -178 -
1.6 31 36 177 -118 476 -281 437 -213 -
1.7 1 1 138 -137 359 -327 345 -249 -286
1.8 -40 -46 83 -159 204 -374 228 -284 -380
1.9 -92 -105 52 -225 116 -421 97 -320 -516
2.0 -155 -177 46 -335 129 -468 102 -355 -698
2.1 -78 -89 42 -190 77 -335 118 -265 -483
2.2 -20 -23 71 -109 246 -284 268 -224 -303
2.3 22 25 133 -93 416 -232 392 -183 -
2.4 47 53 181 -93 520 -180 472 -143 -
2.5 55 63 196 -93 545 -129 496 -102 -
* Values do not include dynamic load allowance.

Table 5.7.3.4
Shear Load Components (kips)
Live Load (per lane)*
Lane Truck Tandem
Span
Point
Dead Load
(per ft)
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
1.0 6.5 15.9 -3.6 56.7 -8.5 47.7 -6.5
1.1 4.7 12.6 -3.8 47.8 -8.5 41.2 -6.5
1.2 2.8 9.8 -4.5 39.4 -8.5 34.9 -10.5
1.3 0.9 7.4 -5.6 31.4 -14.1 28.8 -16.8
1.4 -0.9 5.4 -7.1 24.1 -22.0 23.0 -22.8
1.5 -2.8 3.8 -9.1 17.4 -29.6 17.7 -28.5
1.6 -4.6 2.6 -11.4 11.6 -37.6 12.8 -33.7
1.7 -6.5 1.8 -14.1 6.5 -45.2 8.5 -38.5
1.8 -8.3 1.2 -17.0 2.3 -52.1 4.9 -42.6
1.9 -10.4 0.9 -20.3 2.3 -58.2 1.9 -46.0
2.0 12.4 25.1 -2.7 64 -63.6 49 -49
2.1 9.6 20.7 -2.8 57.4 -7.4 45.2 -5.8
2.2 7.1 16.8 -3.3 49.9 -7.4 40.7 -6.6
2.3 4.7 13.2 -4.3 41.7 -10.2 35.3 -11.6
2.4 2.4 10.2 -5.7 33.3 -17.1 29.4 -17.2
2.5 0.0 7.7 -7.7 24.9 -24.9 23.3 -23.3
* Values do not include dynamic load allowance.



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-111

I . Develop
Preliminary Tendon
Profile
Begin by determining the eccentricity of the tendon at primary locations
and calculating the dead load and live load moments. Preliminary runs
with assumed prestress losses are used to determine an appropriate
tendon area or tendon force per foot. The prestress needs to provide
zero tension stress in the slab at the service limit state. For this
example, a 12 strand (0.6 inch diameter) tendon is found to be
appropriate when spaced at 2'-5".

A handful of suppliers provide post-tensioning products in the U.S.
Catalogs from the suppliers should be reviewed to ensure that standard
tendons and ducts are used. LRFD Article 5.4.6.2 places maximum and
minimum limits on the size of ducts based on the size of the tendon and
the least concrete dimension of the member.

The tendon low points for the side spans will be placed at Span Points 1.4
and 3.6 (22 ft away from the abutment end of the span). The tendon low
point for the center span will be placed at midspan (Span Point 2.5). The
tendon high points will be located over the piers at Span Points 2.0 and
3.0. The tendon will be at the centroid of the gross cross section at each
end of the structure (Span Points 1.0 and 4.0). See Figure 5.7.3.3 for a
sketch of the proposed tendon profile and tendon centroid locations at
high and low points of the tendon profile.

Critical points of the tendon geometry are calculated as:
top
d at Span Point 1.0 = 11.00 in
top
d at Span Points 1.4 and 2.5 = 22 - 1.5 - 0.625 - 2.25 = 17.63 in
top
d at Span Points 2.0 = 3 + 0.625 + 2.25 = 5.88 in




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-112



Figure 5.7.3.3
Tendon Profile and Centroid Locations



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-113

Tendon Equations
The tendon profile can be defined with a series of parabolas where for
each parabola:
c x b x a y
2
+ ⋅ + ⋅ =

With the section depth varying along the slab, use the top of the slab as
the datum for defining the parabolic curves. The tendon profile is
described with three parabolas; one describing the positive moment
region of the side spans, a second describing the negative moment
regions over the piers, and lastly a third parabola describing the positive
moment region of the center span. Using the constraints:
y= 11.00 inches at x = 0 feet
y = 17.63 inches at x = 22 feet
Slope = 0 at x = 22 feet

The equation for the parabola for the positive moment regions of the side
spans is found to be:
( ) ( ) 00 . 11 x 6023 . 0 x 01369 . 0 y
2
+ ⋅ + ⋅ − = (x in feet, y in inches)

Knowing that the y-coordinate and the slope for the tendon profile needs
to be consistent at the location where parabolas meet, the second and
third parabolas can be found.

Set the origin for the second parabola to be at Span Point 2.0. The
following constraints can be used to determine the constants for the
parabola:
y = 5.875 inches at x = 0 feet
Slope = 0 at x = 0 feet
y at the end of the curve matches that of the 1
st
parabola
Slope at the end of the curve matches that of the 1
st
parabola

The location where the 1
st
and 2
nd
parabolas meet was found by changing
the length of the 2
nd
parabola until the y value and slope matched that of
the 1
st
parabola. The parabolas satisfy the criteria if they meet at a point
7.00 feet away from the pier (Span Point 1.873). The equation for the
2nd parabola is:
( ) ( ) 875 . 5 x 0 x 05092 . 0 y
2
+ ⋅ + ⋅ = (x in feet, y in inches)




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-114

With the 2
nd
parabola defined, the same procedure can be used to
determine the constants for the 3
rd
parabola. With x = 0 at Span Point
2.5, the constants are:
y = 17.625 inches at x = 0 feet
Slope = 0 at x = 0 feet
y at the end of the curve matches that of the 2
nd
parabola
Slope at the end of the curve matches that of the 2
nd
parabola

After iterating the length of the 3
rd
parabola, the location where the y
values and slopes match for the 2
nd
and 3
rd
parabolas is at a location
7.00 feet away from the pier (Span Point 2.1). The equation for the 2
nd

parabola is:
( ) ( ) 625 . 17 x 0 x 0118 . 0 y
2
+ ⋅ + ⋅ − = (x in feet, y in inches)

Tendon Geometry
The tendon profile information for different points along the bridge are
presented in Table 5.7.3.5. The equations presented above are in mixed
units with the y values in inches and the x values in feet. To arrive at the
tendon slopes in radians, the equation constants were divided by 12.





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-115

Table 5.7.3.5
Tendon Geometry
S
p
a
n

P
o
i
n
t

D
e
p
t
h

o
f

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
i
n
)

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

C
e
n
t
r
o
i
d

(
i
n
)

*

T
e
n
d
o
n

C
e
n
t
r
o
i
d

(
i
n
)

T
e
n
d
o
n

E
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y

(
i
n
)

T
e
n
d
o
n

S
l
o
p
e

(
r
a
d
i
a
n
s
)

C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

L
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

T
e
n
d
o
n

(
f
t
)

C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

A
n
g
l
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

(
r
a
d
i
a
n
s
)

1.0/4.0 22.00 11.00 11.00 0.00 +/- 0.050 0.000/180.094 0.000/0.559
1.1/3.9 22.00 11.00 13.90 -2.90 +/- 0.038 5.505/174.588 0.013/0.546
1.2/3.8 22.00 11.00 15.97 -4.97 +/- 0.025 11.008/169.086 0.025/0.534
1.3/3.7 22.00 11.00 17.21 -6.21 +/- 0.013 16.509/163.585 0.038/0.521
1.4/3.6 22.00 11.00 17.63 -6.63 0.000 22.009/158.084 0.050/0.508
1.5/3.5 22.00 11.00 17.21 -6.21 -/+ 0.013 27.509/152.584 0.063/0.496
1.6/3.4 22.00 11.00 15.97 -4.97 -/+ 0.025 33.010/147.083 0.075/0.483
1.7/3.3 22.00 11.00 13.90 -2.90 -/+ 0.038 38.513/141.581 0.088/0.471
1.8/3.2 22.96 11.48 11.00 0.48 -/+ 0.050 44.018/136.075 0.100/0.458
1.873/3.127 25.52 12.76 8.37 4.39 -/+ 0.059 48.024/132.069 0.110/0.449
1.9/3.1 26.48 13.24 7.42 5.82 -/+ 0.047 49.527/130.567 0.122/0.436
2.0/3.0 30.00 15.00 5.88 9.13 0.000 55.029/125.065 0.169/0.390
2.1/2.9 25.52 12.76 8.37 4.39 +/- 0.059 62.033/118.061 0.224/0.334
2.2/2.8 22.00 11.00 12.42 -1.42 +/- 0.041 69.041/111.053 0.238/0.321
2.3/2.7 22.00 11.00 15.31 -4.31 +/- 0.028 76.045/104.049 0.252/0.307
2.4/2.6 22.00 11.00 17.05 -6.05 +/- 0.014 83.047/97.047 0.266/0.293
2.5 22.00 11.00 17.63 -6.63 0.000 90.047 0.279
* Measured from top of structural slab.





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-116

J . I nitial Prestress
Losses
[ 5.9.5.2.2]
[ 5.9.5.2.1]
Calculate the prestress losses due to friction, anchor set, and elastic
shortening.

Friction Losses
An exponential equation is used to determine the friction losses at
different tendon locations.
( )
| |
α ⋅ µ + ⋅ −
− ⋅ = ∆
x K
pj pF
e 1 f f
where:
pj
f = stress in prestressing steel at jacking (ksi)
x = length of prestressing tendon between any two points (ft)
K = wobble coefficient from LRFD Table 5.9.5.2.2b-1 Use 0.0002
µ = coefficient of friction from LRFD Table 5.9.5.2.2b-1 Use 0.25
α = absolute value of angular change of prestressing path
between two points (radians)

The friction coefficients assume that the strands are installed in rigid
galvanized ducts.

The ratio of the force in the tendon to the force at any location after
friction losses (Friction Factor) is summarized in Table 5.7.3.6.

Anchor Set Losses
The release of the tensioning jack from the PT tendon is accomplished by
engaging strand wedges in the permanent anchor plate. A small
shortening displacement in the tendon is necessary to seat the wedges.
During construction, the tendon displacement is dependent on the jacking
equipment used (some jacks can power seat wedges, others cannot).
For design, a typical seating displacement is assumed (a standard value
is 0.375 inches). The effective tension in the post-tensioning tendons at
the jacking end is reduced due to the shortening of the tendon. This
localized loss in tendon stress is called anchor set. The effect of anchor
set is represented in Figure 5.7.3.4.





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-117













Figure 5.7.3.4


Assume the anchor set is 0.375 inches and use the friction losses at the
dead end of the tendon to compute “d”. Assume the tendons are
stressed to 80% of GUTS (Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile Strength):
ksi 0 . 216 0 . 270 80 . 0 f 80 . 0 f
pu jack
= ⋅ = ⋅ =

The jacking stress at the dead end after friction losses is:
( ) ksi 2 . 181 839 . 0 0 . 216 factor friction f f
jack L
= ⋅ = ⋅ =

“d” represents the friction loss between the two end points:
ksi 8 . 34 2 . 181 0 . 216 f f d
L jack
= − = − =

With “L” and “d” determined, the slope of the friction loss line is known.
The increase in stress in the tendon as one moves away from the jacking
end is assumed to have the same slope. With that assumption, the
relationship between stress loss at the anchor and the location where the
anchor loss dissipates can be found:
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
| ∆
=
d
L
2
X
f


The change in stress due to anchor set is found with Hooke’s law:
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ = ε ⋅ =

= σ
X 12
E E
2
L f





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-118

[ 5.9.5.2.3]
Which can be substituted into the earlier equation:
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
d
L
X 12
E X
L


Which leads to:
4609
8 . 34 12
094 . 180 375 . 0 500 , 28
d 12
L E
X
L 2
=

⋅ ⋅
=

⋅ ∆ ⋅
=
and
ft 9 . 67 X =

Which, when put into the Hooke’s law, determines the change in stress
due to anchor set:
ksi 2 . 26
9 . 67 6
375 . 0 500 , 28
X 6
E
X 12
E
2
L L
f
=


=
|
|
.
|

\
|

∆ ⋅
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

∆ ⋅
⋅ = ∆

The stress at the anchor is:
ksi 8 . 189 2 . 26 0 . 216 f f
f jack anchor
= − = ∆ − =

The stress in the tendon between the anchor and point “X” can be found
with interpolation.


Elastic Shortening Losses
Elastic shortening losses for post-tensioned structures vary with the
number of tendons used and the jacking processes followed. The LRFD
Specifications provide a straightforward equation to estimate the
prestress losses associated with elastic shortening for design.
cgp
ci
p
pES
f
E
E
25 . 0 f ⋅ ⋅ = ∆

The concrete stress at the height of the tendon when the slab is
subjected to only dead load and prestress forces is computed for Span
Point 2.5 in Section N and found to be:
I
e M
I
e P
A
P
f
DL
2
T T
cgp



+ =
( )
ksi 1 . 1
650 , 10
63 . 6 12 8 . 19 52
650 , 10
63 . 6 1 . 211
264
1 . 211
2
=
⋅ ⋅ +


+ =
ksi 0 . 2 1 . 1
3865
500 , 28
25 . 0 f
pES
= ⋅ ⋅ = ∆



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-119

K. Secondary Post-
Tensioning Forces
The linear haunches complicate the analysis of the slab superstructure.
The nonprismatic section, combined with the parabolic tendon profiles
prevent an easy hand method from being used to determine the
secondary moments associated with post-tensioning a continuous
superstructure. A 1 foot wide design strip was modeled and analyzed in
a prestressed concrete beam analysis program to determine secondary
post-tensioning forces.


The tensioning of the tendon redistributes the dead load reactions of the
superstructure. For the design example the redistribution was an
increase in the abutment reaction of 0.87 kips and a corresponding
reduction in the pier reactions of 0.87 kips. This implies that the positive
moment regions of the tendon profile introduced slightly more curvature
into the superstructure than the negative moment regions. The
secondary moments associated with the redistribution amount to a
linearly increasing positive moment in the side spans (0.0 kip-ft at the
abutments and 47.9 kip-ft at the piers). The secondary moment in the
center span is a constant positive value of 47.9 kip-ft.

Table 5.7.3.6 summarizes the stresses in the tendon at tenth point span
point locations. Losses associated with friction, anchor set, elastic
shortening, shrinkage, creep, and relaxation (see Part N of this example
for calculation of Shrinkage, Creep, and Relaxation losses) are presented.
Initial and final tendon stresses are also presented.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-120

Table 5.7.3.6
Tendon Stresses (ksi)
S
p
a
n

P
o
i
n
t

F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r

J
a
c
k
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

A
n
c
h
o
r

S
e
t

L
o
s
s

N
e
t

S
t
r
e
s
s

R
e
v
e
r
s
e
d

N
e
t

S
t
r
e
s
s

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

T
e
n
d
o
n

S
t
r
e
s
s

E
l
a
s
t
i
c

S
h
o
r
t
e
n
i
n
g

L
o
s
s

I
n
i
t
i
a
l

T
e
n
d
o
n

S
t
r
e
s
s

S
h
r
i
n
k
a
g
e

L
o
s
s

C
r
e
e
p

L
o
s
s

R
e
l
a
x
a
t
i
o
n

L
o
s
s

F
i
n
a
l

T
e
n
d
o
n

S
t
r
e
s
s

1.0 1.000 216.0 26.2 189.8 181.2 185.5 2.0 183.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 161.3
1.1 0.996 215.1 24.1 191.0 182.0 186.5 2.0 184.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 162.3
1.2 0.992 214.2 22.0 192.2 182.7 187.5 2.0 185.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 163.3
1.3 0.987 213.3 19.8 193.4 183.5 188.5 2.0 186.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 164.3
1.4 0.983 212.4 17.7 194.7 184.3 189.5 2.0 187.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 165.3
1.5 0.979 211.5 15.6 195.9 185.1 190.5 2.0 188.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 166.3
1.6 0.975 210.6 13.5 197.1 185.9 191.5 2.0 189.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 167.3
1.7 0.971 209.7 11.3 198.3 186.7 192.5 2.0 190.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 168.3
1.8 0.967 208.8 9.2 199.6 187.5 193.5 2.0 191.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 169.3
1.9 0.960 207.4 7.1 200.3 188.7 194.5 2.0 192.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 170.3
2.0 0.948 204.8 5.0 199.8 191.1 195.5 2.0 193.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 171.3
2.1 0.934 201.7 2.3 199.4 194.0 196.7 2.0 194.7 4.5 13.0 4.7 172.5
2.2 0.929 200.7 0.0 200.7 195.0 197.9 2.0 195.9 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.7
2.3 0.925 199.8 0.0 199.8 195.9 197.8 2.0 195.8 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.6
2.4 0.920 198.8 0.0 198.8 196.9 197.8 2.0 195.8 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.6
2.5 0.916 197.8 0.0 197.8 197.8 197.8 2.0 195.8 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.6
2.6 0.911 196.9 0.0 196.9 198.8 197.8 2.0 195.8 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.6
2.7 0.907 195.9 0.0 195.9 199.8 197.8 2.0 195.8 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.6
2.8 0.903 195.0 0.0 195.0 200.7 197.9 2.0 195.9 4.5 13.0 4.7 173.7
2.9 0.898 194.0 0.0 194.0 199.4 196.7 2.0 194.7 4.5 13.0 4.7 172.5
3.0 0.885 191.1 0.0 191.1 199.8 195.5 2.0 193.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 171.3
3.1 0.874 188.7 0.0 188.7 200.3 194.5 2.0 192.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 170.3
3.2 0.868 187.4 0.0 187.4 199.6 193.5 2.0 191.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 169.3
3.3 0.864 186.7 0.0 186.7 198.3 192.5 2.0 190.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 168.3
3.4 0.860 185.9 0.0 185.9 197.1 191.5 2.0 189.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 167.3
3.5 0.857 185.1 0.0 185.1 195.9 190.5 2.0 188.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 166.3
3.6 0.853 184.3 0.0 184.3 194.7 189.5 2.0 187.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 165.3
3.7 0.850 183.5 0.0 183.5 193.4 188.5 2.0 186.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 164.3
3.8 0.846 182.7 0.0 182.7 192.2 187.5 2.0 185.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 163.3
3.9 0.842 182.0 0.0 182.0 191.0 186.5 2.0 184.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 162.3
4.0 0.839 181.2 0.0 181.2 189.8 185.5 2.0 183.5 4.5 13.0 4.7 161.3





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-121

L. Check Stress
Limits on
Prestressing
Strands
[ Table 5.9.3- 1]
Stress Limits for Prestressing Strands:
Prior to seating ksi 7 . 218 f 90 . 0 f
py s
= ⋅ ≤
At anchorages after anchor set ksi 0 . 189 f 70 . 0 f
pu s
= ⋅ ≤
End of seating zone after anchor set ksi 8 . 199 f 74 . 0 f
pu s
= ⋅ ≤
At service limit after losses ksi 4 . 194 f 80 . 0 f
py s
= ⋅ ≤

A review of the values in Table 5.7.3.6 indicates that none of the stress
limits are exceeded.

Summary of Analysis Results
From this point forward, the design of an interior strip at points of
maximum positive and negative moment subject to dead and live loads
will be presented. The design procedure for the edge strip is similar. A
summary of bending moments obtained at different locations along the
superstructure for a 1 foot wide design strip is presented in
Table 5.7.3.7. The analysis results are symmetric about midspan of the
center span.

Table 5.7.3.7
Interior Strip Moment Summary (per foot)
* Truck
+ Lane
(kip-ft)
* Tandem + Lane
(kip-ft)
Span
Point
DC
M
(kip-ft)
PT Secondary
Moments
(kip-ft)
Max. Min. Max. Min.
* 0.9 (Truck Tr
+ Lane)
(kip-ft)
1.0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 -
1.1 31 4.8 32.5 -6.3 28.9 -5.2 -
1.2 51 9.6 54.1 -12.5 49.2 -10.1 -
1.3 62 14.4 65.8 -18.6 61.3 -15.3 -
1.4 62 19.1 70.6 -24.8 66.1 -20.3 -
1.5 52 23.9 68.9 -31.1 64.6 -25.4 -
1.6 31 28.7 61.6 -37.4 57.6 -30.5 -
1.7 1 33.5 46.8 -43.5 45.4 -35.6 -35.4
1.8 -40 38.3 26.9 -49.9 29.4 -40.8 -45.4
1.9 -92 43.1 15.7 -59.7 13.8 -49.5 -62.3
2.0 -155 47.9 16.5 -72.8 13.8 -61.3 -86.4
2.1 -78 47.9 11.0 -48.3 15.1 -41.2 -56.9
2.2 -20 47.9 30.3 -37.0 32.5 -30.9 -35.0
2.3 22 47.9 52.2 -30.5 49.7 -25.6 -
2.4 47 47.9 66.3 -25.3 61.5 -21.5 -
2.5 55 47.9 70.0 -20.1 65.0 -17.4 -
* Includes dynamic load allowance.





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-122

M. Check Stress
Limits on Concrete
[ 5.9.4]
The service limit state stresses at each of the critical locations are
evaluated using the general equation (compression +, tension -):
S
M
S
M
A
P
f
S P
+ + =
where
P
M is the total prestress moment and M
S
is the service moment.
The stress limits are:
At Transfer
Tension ksi 0 f
t
=
Compression ksi 7 . 2 f 60 . 0 f
ci c
= ′ ≤

At Final
Tension ksi 0 f
t
=
Compression
IM LL PT DC + + + ksi 0 . 3 f 60 . 0 f
c c
= ′ ≤
PT DC + ksi 25 . 2 f 45 . 0 f
c c
= ′ ≤
1
/
2
( ) IM LL PT DC + + + ksi 0 . 2 f 40 . 0 f
c c
= ′ ≤

Check Location 1.0 (Interior Strip)
Unfactored DC and PT Secondary Moment 0 = kip-ft
Tendon stress at transfer ksi 5 . 183 =
Tendon stress at final ( ) ksi 7 . 159 270 80 . 0 11 . 0 5 . 183 = ⋅ ⋅ − =
(assumes 11% long term losses)
Area of strand per foot
( )
2
in 078 . 1
42 . 2
217 . 0 12
= = /ft
Prestress force at transfer: kips 8 . 197 078 . 1 5 . 183 P
i
= ⋅ =
Prestress force at final: kips 2 . 172 078 . 1 7 . 159 P
f
= ⋅ =
Prestress eccentricity: in 0 e =
Concrete area:
2
in 264 22 12 A = ⋅ =
Concrete section modulus:
3
2
in 968
6
22 12
S =

=

Check the stress in the concrete. Because the dead and live load
moment and the prestress eccentricity are all equal to zero, the top and
bottom fiber concrete stress is the same:
At transfer: ksi 7 . 2 ksi 75 . 0
264
8 . 197
A
P
f f
i
t b
< = = = = OK
At final: ksi 0 . 2 ksi 65 . 0
264
2 . 172
A
P
f f
f
t b
< = = = = OK




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-123

Check Location 1.4 (Interior Strip)
Unfactored DC and PT Secondary Moment:
1 . 81 1 . 19 62 M
PT DC
= + =
+
kip-ft
Service I Moment: 7 . 151 6 . 70 1 . 19 62 M
SI
= + + = kip-ft
Service III Moment: ( ) 6 . 137 6 . 70 8 . 0 1 . 19 62 M
SIII
= ⋅ + + = kip-ft
Tendon stress at transfer ksi 5 . 187 =
Tendon stress at final ( ) ksi 7 . 163 270 80 . 0 11 . 0 5 . 187 = ⋅ ⋅ − =
(assumes 11% long term losses)
Area of strand per foot
( )
2
in 078 . 1
42 . 2
217 . 0 12
= = /ft
Prestress force at transfer: kips 1 . 202 078 . 1 5 . 187 P
i
= ⋅ =
Prestress force at final: kips 5 . 176 078 . 1 7 . 163 P
f
= ⋅ =
Prestress eccentricity: in 63 . 6 e =
Concrete area:
2
in 264 22 12 A = ⋅ =
Concrete section modulus:
3
2
in 968
6
22 12
S =

=

Check the bottom fiber stress at transfer:
968
12 1 . 81
968
63 . 6 1 . 202
264
1 . 202
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
PT DC i i
b



+ = −

+ =
+

ksi 7 . 2 ksi 14 . 1 < = OK

Check the bottom fiber stress at final:
968
12 6 . 137
968
63 . 6 5 . 176
264
5 . 176
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
SIII f f
b



+ = −

+ =
ksi 0 ksi 17 . 0 > = OK

Check the top fiber stress at transfer:
968
12 1 . 81
968
63 . 6 1 . 202
264
1 . 202
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
PT DC i i
t

+

− = +

− =
+

ksi 0 ksi 39 . 0 > = OK

Check the top fiber compressive stress at final:
For DC + PT + LL + IM,
968
12 7 . 151
968
63 . 6 5 . 176
264
5 . 176
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
SI f f
t

+

− = +

+ =
ksi 0 . 3 ksi 34 . 1 < = OK
By inspection, the compressive stresses due to DC + PT and
1
/
2
(DC + PT) + LL + IM are less than the allowables.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-124

Check Location 2.0 (Interior Strip)
Unfactored DC and PT Secondary Moment:
1 . 107 9 . 47 155 M
PT DC
− = + − =
+
kip-ft
Service I Moment: 5 . 193 4 . 86 9 . 47 155 M
SI
− = − + − = kip-ft
Service III Moment: ( ) 2 . 176 4 . 86 8 . 0 9 . 47 155 M
SIII
− = − ⋅ + + − = kip-ft
Tendon stress at transfer ksi 5 . 193 =
Tendon stress at final ( ) ksi 7 . 169 270 80 . 0 11 . 0 5 . 193 = ⋅ ⋅ − =
(assumes 11% long term losses)
Area of strand per foot
( )
2
in 078 . 1
42 . 2
217 . 0 12
= = /ft
Prestress force at transfer: kips 6 . 208 078 . 1 5 . 193 P
i
= ⋅ =
Prestress force at final: kips 9 . 182 078 . 1 7 . 169 P
f
= ⋅ =
Prestress eccentricity: in 13 . 9 e =
Concrete area:
2
in 360 30 12 A = ⋅ =
Concrete section modulus:
3
2
in 1800
6
30 12
S =

=

Check the top fiber stress at transfer:
1800
12 1 . 107
1800
13 . 9 6 . 208
360
6 . 208
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
PT DC i i
t



+ = −

+ =
+

ksi 7 . 2 ksi 92 . 0 < = OK

Check the top fiber stress at final:
1800
12 2 . 176
1800
13 . 9 9 . 182
360
9 . 182
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
SIII f f
t



+ = −

+ =
ksi 0 ksi 26 . 0 > = OK

Check the bottom fiber stress at transfer:
1800
12 1 . 107
1800
13 . 8 6 . 208
360
6 . 208
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
PT DC i i
b

+

− = +

− =
+

ksi 0 ksi 23 . 0 > = OK

Check the bottom fiber compressive stress at final:
For DC + PT + LL + IM,
1800
12 5 . 193
1800
13 . 9 9 . 182
360
9 . 182
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
SI f f
b

+

− = +

+ =
ksi 0 . 3 ksi 87 . 0 < = OK
By inspection, the compressive stresses due to DC + PT and
1
/
2
(DC + PT) + LL + IM are less than the allowables.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-125

Check Location 2.5 (Interior Strip)
Unfactored DC and PT Secondary Moment:
9 . 102 9 . 47 55 M
PT DC
= + =
+
kip-ft
Service I Moment: 9 . 172 0 . 70 9 . 47 55 M
SI
= + + = kip-ft
Service III Moment: ( ) 9 . 158 0 . 70 8 . 0 9 . 47 55 M
SIII
= ⋅ + + = kip-ft
Tendon stress at transfer ksi 8 . 195 =
Tendon stress at final ( ) ksi 0 . 172 270 80 . 0 11 . 0 8 . 195 = ⋅ ⋅ − =
(assumes 11% long term losses)
Area of strand per foot
( )
2
in 078 . 1
42 . 2
217 . 0 12
= = /ft
Prestress force at transfer: kips 1 . 211 078 . 1 8 . 195 P
i
= ⋅ =
Prestress force at final: kips 4 . 185 078 . 1 0 . 172 P
f
= ⋅ =
Prestress eccentricity: in 63 . 6 e =
Concrete area:
2
in 264 22 12 A = ⋅ =
Concrete section modulus:
3
2
in 968
6
22 12
S =

=

Check the bottom fiber stress at transfer:
968
12 9 . 102
968
63 . 6 1 . 211
264
1 . 211
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
PT DC i i
b



+ = −

+ =
+

ksi 7 . 2 ksi 97 . 0 < = OK

Check the bottom fiber stress at final:
968
12 9 . 158
968
63 . 6 4 . 185
264
4 . 185
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
SIII f f
b



+ = −

+ =
ksi 0 ksi 002 . 0 > = OK

Check the top fiber stress at transfer:
968
12 9 . 102
968
63 . 6 1 . 211
264
1 . 211
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
PT DC i i
t

+

− = +

− =
+

ksi 0 ksi 63 . 0 > = OK

Check the top fiber compressive stress at final:
For DC + PT + LL + IM,
968
12 9 . 172
968
63 . 6 4 . 185
264
4 . 185
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
SI f f
t

+

− = +

+ =
ksi 0 . 3 ksi 58 . 1 < = OK
By inspection, the compressive stresses due to DC + PT and
1
/
2
(DC + PT) + LL + IM are less than the allowables.




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-126

N. Time-
Dependent Losses
( Refined Method)
[ 5.9.5.4]
[ 5.9.5.4.2]
[ 5.9.5.4.3]
[ 5.9.5.4.4]
Use Location 2.5 to calculate losses due to shrinkage, creep and
relaxation because the highest effective prestressing force occurs at this
location. This will result in conservative values for creep and relaxation
losses.

Shrinkage
( ) H 125 . 0 5 . 13 f
pSR
⋅ − =
relative H = humidity (use 73%)
( ) | | ksi 5 . 4 73 125 . 0 5 . 13 f
pSR
= ⋅ − =

Creep
The moment associated with the wear course and barriers for a 1 foot
wide section of slab is 4 kip-ft.
cdp cgp pCR
f 0 . 7 f 0 . 12 f ∆ ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆
ksi 1 . 1 f
cgp
= (calculated earlier in Part J)
( )
ksi 030 . 0
650 , 10
63 . 6 12 4
I
e M
f
DW
cdp
=
⋅ ⋅
=

= ∆
( ) ( ) ksi 0 . 13 030 . 0 0 . 7 1 . 1 0 . 12 f
pCR
= ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆

Relaxation
For low-relaxation strands:
| ( )|
pCR pSR pES pF 2 pR
f f 2 . 0 f 4 . 0 f 3 . 0 0 . 20 30 . 0 f 30 . 0 ∆ + ∆ ⋅ − ∆ ⋅ − ∆ ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆ ⋅

If the friction losses are such that the tendon stresses after jacking are
above
pu
f 70 . 0 ⋅ , then
pF
f ∆ is assumed equal to zero.
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 0 . 13 5 . 4 2 . 0 0 . 2 4 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 . 20 30 . 0 + ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ =
ksi 7 . 4 =

Total Losses
Total time-dependent losses ksi 2 . 22 7 . 4 0 . 13 5 . 4 = + + =
(10.3% of
pu
f 80 . 0 ⋅ )

The computed losses of 10.3% are approximately the same as those
assumed in the stress checks (11%). If the computed losses are
significantly different from the assumed, designers will need to
recalculate the stresses based on a new assumed loss and iterate until
the computed and assumed losses converge.



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-127

O. I nvestigate
Strength Limit
State – Flexure
[ 5.7.3.3.2]
[ 5.4.2.6]
[ 5.7.3.2]
[ 5.7.3.1.1]
The flexural strength of the slab needs to be sufficient to carry factored
loads associated with the strength limit state and also satisfy the
maximum and minimum reinforcement checks.

Check Location 1.4 (Interior Strip)
Compute the Strength I design moment for a 1 foot wide strip of slab:
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 220 6 . 70 75 . 1 1 . 19 00 . 1 62 25 . 1 0 . 1 M
u
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft

Determine the theoretical cracking moment for the cross section (
cr
M ).

To compute the maximum cracking moment, use the prestress force at
transfer (202.1 kips).

Solve for the moment that produces
r
f at the bottom of the section:
( ) S f f M
PTS r cr
⋅ + =

The assumed rupture or cracking stress for concrete is:
ksi 537 . 0 0 . 5 24 . 0 f 24 . 0 f
c r
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅ =

The stress due to prestressing (including secondary moments) is:
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f
ondary sec
PTS


+ =
ksi 913 . 1
968
12 1 . 19
968
63 . 6 1 . 202
264
1 . 202
=



+ =

The cracking moment is:
2372 M
cr
= kip-in 198 = kip-ft
238 M 2 . 1
cr
= kip-ft

Compute the capacity neglecting any benefit from mild steel. Use the
equations for bonded tendons:
28 . 0 k = (LRFD Table C5.7.3.1.1-1)
in 625 . 17 625 . 6 00 . 11 d
p
= + =
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ β ⋅ ′ ⋅

=
p
pu
ps 1 c
pu ps
d
f
A k b f 85 . 0
f A
c



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-128

[ 5.7.3.2]
in 41 . 6
625 . 17
270
078 . 1 28 . 0 12 80 . 0 0 . 5 85 . 0
270 78 . 10
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=
ksi 5 . 242
625 . 17
41 . 6
28 . 0 1 270
d
c
k 1 f f
p
pu ps
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
in 13 . 5 41 . 6 80 . 0 c a
1
= ⋅ = ⋅ β =

The flexural resistance can be computed as:
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ φ = ⋅ φ
2
13 . 5
625 . 17 5 . 242 078 . 1 0 . 1
2
a
d f A M
p ps ps n

3937 = kip-in 328 = kip-ft
which is greater than
cr
M 2 . 1 ⋅ (238 kip-ft) and
u
M (220 kip-ft)

Check Location 2.0 (Interior Strip)
Using the moments given in Table 5.7.3.7:
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 393 4 . 86 75 . 1 9 . 47 00 . 1 155 25 . 1 0 . 1 M
u
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft

Solve for the moment that produces
r
f at the bottom of the section:
S
M
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f f
cr
ondary sec
r b
− +

+ = =
1800
M
1800
12 9 . 47
1800
13 . 9 6 . 208
360
6 . 208
537 . 0
cr


+

+ = −
4489 M
cr
= kip-in 374 = kip-ft
449 M 2 . 1
cr
= ⋅ kip-ft

Compute the capacity neglecting any benefit from mild steel.
28 . 0 k = (LRFD Table C5.7.3.1-1)
in 13 . 24 13 . 9 00 . 15 d
p
= + =
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ β ⋅ ′ ⋅

=
p
pu
ps 1 c
pu ps
d
f
A k b f 85 . 0
f A
c
in 59 . 6
13 . 24
270
078 . 1 28 . 0 12 80 . 0 0 . 5 85 . 0
270 078 . 1
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-129

[ 5.7.3.2]
ksi 4 . 249
13 . 24
59 . 6
28 . 0 1 270
d
c
k 1 f f
p
pu ps
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
in 27 . 5 59 . 6 80 . 0 c a
1
= ⋅ = ⋅ β =

The flexural resistance can be computed as:
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ φ = ⋅ φ
2
27 . 5
13 . 24 4 . 249 078 . 1 0 . 1
2
a
d f A M
p ps ps n

5779 = kip-in 482 = kip-ft
which is greater than
cr
M 2 . 1 ⋅ (449 kip-ft) and
u
M (393 kip-ft).

Check Location 2.5 (Interior Strip)
Using the moments given in Table 5.7.3.7:
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 239 70 75 . 1 9 . 47 00 . 1 55 25 . 1 0 . 1 M
u
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft

Solve for the moment that produces
r
f at the bottom of the section:
S
M
S
M
S
e P
A
P
f f
cr
ondary sec
r b
− +

+ = =
968
M
968
12 9 . 47
968
63 . 6 1 . 211
264
1 . 211
537 . 0
cr


+

+ = −
2119 M
cr
= kip-in 177 = kip-ft
212 M 2 . 1
cr
= ⋅ kip-ft

Compute the capacity neglecting any benefit from mild steel.
28 . 0 k = (LRFD Table C5.7.3.1-1)
in 625 . 17 625 . 6 00 . 11 d
p
= + =
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ β ⋅ ′ ⋅

=
p
pu
ps 1 c
pu ps
d
f
A k b f 85 . 0
f A
c
in 41 . 6
625 . 17
270
078 . 1 28 . 0 12 80 . 0 0 . 5 85 . 0
270 078 . 1
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=
ksi 5 . 242
625 . 17
41 . 6
28 . 0 1 270
d
c
k 1 f f
p
pu ps
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅ =
in 13 . 5 41 . 6 80 . 0 c a
1
= ⋅ = ⋅ β =



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-130

[ 5.7.3.3.1]
The flexural resistance can be computed as:
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ φ = ⋅ φ
2
13 . 5
625 . 17 5 . 242 078 . 1 0 . 1
2
a
d f A M
p ps ps n

3937 = kip-in 328 = kip-ft
which is greater than
u
M (239 kip-ft) and
cr
M 2 . 1 ⋅ (212 kip-ft).

Check Principal Stresses
[Future manual content]

Check Maximum Reinforcement
The maximum amount of reinforcement permitted in a section is based
on the ratio of the depth of the section in compression compared to the
depth of the distance to the tension reinforcement from the compression
side of the section. The ratio can be no more than 0.42. When
calculating “d”, do not include the wearing course.

For Span Point 1.4:
36 . 0
625 . 17
41 . 6
d
c
= = OK

For Span Point 2.0:
27 . 0
13 . 24
59 . 6
d
c
= = OK

For Span Point 2.5:
36 . 0
625 . 17
41 . 6
d
c
= = OK





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-131

P. Shear
[ 5.13.3.6]
The shear force components for a typical 1 foot wide strip of slab are
summarized in Table 5.7.3.8.

Table 5.7.3.8
Shear Summary (per foot)
* Truck + Lane
(kips)
* Tandem + Lane
(kips) Span
Point
DC
V
(kips)
PT Secondary Shear
(kips)
Max Min Max Min
1.0 6.5 0.87 4.9 -0.8 4.3 -0.7
1.1 4.7 0.87 4.1 -0.8 3.6 -0.7
1.2 2.8 0.87 3.4 -0.8 3.0 -1.0
1.3 0.9 0.87 2.7 -1.3 2.5 -1.5
1.4 -0.9 0.87 2.0 -2.0 1.9 -2.0
1.5 -2.8 0.87 1.5 -2.6 1.5 -2.5
1.6 -4.6 0.87 1.0 -3.3 1.1 -3.0
1.7 -6.5 0.87 0.6 -4.0 0.7 -3.5
1.8 -8.3 0.87 0.2 -4.7 0.4 -4.0
1.9 -10.4 0.87 0.2 -5.3 0.2 -4.4
2.0 12.4 0.0 6.0 -4.7 4.9 -3.7
2.1 9.6 0.0 5.2 -0.7 4.4 -0.6
2.2 7.1 0.0 4.5 -0.7 3.8 -0.7
2.3 4.7 0.0 3.7 -1.0 3.3 -1.1
2.4 2.4 0.0 2.9 -1.5 2.7 -1.5
2.5 0.0 0.0 2.2 -2.2 2.1 -2.1
* Includes dynamic load allowance.

The LRFD Specifications do not require that a shear check be performed,
however Mn/DOT design practice is to do so.

To minimize the effort associated with the shear check, conservatively
check the largest design shear force on a non-haunch portion of the slab.
If the check is satisfied, all sections of the slab can be considered
adequate. If the check is not satisfied additional investigation is
necessary.

The Strength I design shear at Span Point 2.0 is:
( ) ( ) ( ) kips 0 . 26 0 . 6 75 . 1 0 . 0 00 . 1 4 . 12 25 . 1 V
u
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =

Investigate LRFD Equation 5.8.3.4.2-2. No axial load is applied. Neglect
any mild flexural reinforcement and any beneficial vertical prestressing
effect. As a starting point, assume θ is equal to 30 degrees.



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-132

[ Eqn. 5.8.3.4.2- 4]
Q. Minimum
Longitudinal
Reinforcement
[ 5.8.3.5]
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ + ⋅
⋅ − θ ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ +
= ε
ps p s s
po ps p u u
v
u
x
A E A E
f A cot V V 5 . 0 N 5 . 0
d
M


Use the
u
M and
v
d from Span Point 1.4
( )
078 . 1 500 , 28 0 000 , 29
270 7 . 0 078 . 1 30 cot 26 5 . 0 0 5 . 0
84 . 15
12 220
x
⋅ + ⋅
⋅ ⋅ − ° ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ +

= ε
000244 . 0 − =

Determine the crack spacing parameter next. Use
v
d for
x
s
3 . 10
63 . 0 5 . 1
38 . 1
84 . 15
63 . 0 a
38 . 1
s s
g
x xe
=
+
⋅ =
+
⋅ =

With the strain and crack parameters determined, refer to Table
5.8.3.4.2-2 to determine the appropriate β and θ values for use in
computing the shear capacity of the concrete. Use the values in the cell
for 15 s
xe
< and 20 . 0
x
− < ε ( 34 . 5 = β and ° = θ 5 . 29 ).

The required nominal shear capacity is:
kips 9 . 28
9 . 0
0 . 26 V
V
v
u
n
= =
φ
=

The shear capacity of the concrete is:
84 . 15 12 0 . 5 34 . 5 0316 . 0 d b f 0316 . 0 V
v v c c
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅ β ⋅ =
kips 9 . 28 7 . 71 84 . 15 12 0 . 5 34 . 5 0316 . 0 >> = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =


[Future manual content]









OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-133

R. Distribution
Reinforcement
[ 5.14.4.1]
S. Shrinkage and
Temperature
Reinforcement
[ 5.10.8.2]
T. Deformations
[ 2.5.2.6]
The minimum amount of transverse reinforcement in a horizontal plane
shall be taken as a percentage of the main reinforcement:
% 50
60
f
L
100 pe
≤ ⋅

For Spans 1 and 3
% 38
60
3 . 170
55
100
= ⋅

Interior Strip: Maximum positive moment
Positive moment prestressing
2
in 078 . 1 = /ft
Transverse reinforcement ( )
2
in 41 . 0 078 . 1 38 . 0 = ⋅ = /ft

Use #19 @ 12",
2
s
in 44 . 0 A = /ft


Using an average thickness of 26 inches, the required temperature steel
is:
2
y
g
s
in 57 . 0
60
26 12
11 . 0
f
A
11 . 0 A = |
.
|

\
| ⋅
⋅ = ⋅ ≥ /ft each direction, both faces

Half should be placed in each face:
( )
2
s
in 29 . 0 57 . 0
2
1
A = ⋅ = /ft each direction

Use #16 @ 12",
2
s
in 31 . 0 A = /ft


Dead Load Deflection Plus Prestress Camber
The total weight of the superstructure is used for dead load deflections.
The gross moment of inertias are used and a computer analysis is run to
obtain instantaneous deflections. The results of the computer analysis,
(dead load deflections and camber due to prestress) are presented below.
Using the long-term multipliers (from Section 4.6 of the PCI Handbook
with composite topping), the long-term deflections are calculated as:





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-134

[ 2.5.2.6.2]
[ 3.6.1.3.2]


∆ at release
(Spans 1 and 3)
(in)
∆ at release
(Span 2)
(in)
Multiplier
∆ final
(Spans 1 and 3)
(in)
∆ final
(Span 2)
(in)
Prestress +0.92 0.73 2.20 2.02 1.61
DC
W -0.46 -0.50 2.40 -1.10 -1.20
Total 0.46 0.23 0.92 0.41

With a net upward deflection in all spans, the slab is cambered
downward. The camber is equal to the camber at release plus
1
/
2
of the
long-term camber.

Spans 1 and 3:
( ) in 92 . 0 92 . 0
2
1
46 . 0 = ⋅ + Round down and use
7
/
8
in

Span 2:
( ) in 43 . 0 41 . 0
2
1
23 . 0 = ⋅ + Round down and use
3
/
8
in

Total Camber



Live Load Deflections
Allowable
800
Span
I LL
= ∆
+

in 83 . 0
800
12 55
=

= (Span 1 and 3)
in 05 . 1
800
12 70
=

= (Span 2)

Two live load cases are evaluated as part of the live load deflection
check. One is the design truck alone. The other is lane load combined
with 25% of the truck load deflection.

A computer analysis (based on gross nonprismatic section properties)
had the following deflections for a full lane of live load:




OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-135

U. Anchorage Zone
[ 5.10.9]
[ 5.10.9.6.2]
Spans 1 and 3:
Truck deflection: 6.24 in/lane
Lane deflection: 2.59 in/lane

Truck check:
( ) ( ) ⋅ ∆ ⋅ + =
truck
IM 1 (distribution factor)
in 83 . 0 45 . 0 054 . 0 24 . 6 33 . 1 < = ⋅ ⋅ = OK

Lane/truck check:
( ) ( ) ⋅ ∆ + ∆ ⋅ + ⋅ =
lane truck
IM 1 25 . 0 (distribution factor)
( ) ( ) in 83 . 0 25 . 0 054 . 0 59 . 2 24 . 6 33 . 1 25 . 0 < = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = OK

Span 2:
Truck deflection: 8.83 in/lane
Lane deflection: 3.60 in/lane

Truck check:
( ) ( ) ⋅ ∆ ⋅ + =
truck
IM 1 (distribution factor)
in 05 . 1 63 . 0 054 . 0 83 . 8 33 . 1 < = ⋅ ⋅ = OK

Lane/truck check:
( ) ( ) ⋅ ∆ + ∆ ⋅ + ⋅ =
lane truck
IM 1 25 . 0 (distribution factor)
( ) ( ) in 05 . 1 35 . 0 054 . 0 60 . 3 83 . 8 33 . 1 25 . 0 < = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = OK


Anchorages are designed at the strength limit state for the factored
jacking force.

Due to the simplicity of the geometry of the anchorage and the lack of
substantial deviation in the force flow path, the approximate procedure
described in LRFD Article 5.10.9.6 is used.

For a 12- 0.6" diameter strand tendon, use a square anchorage plate
with a side dimension of 12.875 inches (a and b). Assume a duct outer
diameter of 6.25 inches.

General Zone Compressive Stresses
Determine the allowable concrete compressive stress from:
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ + ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
t
1
b
1
1 A
K P 6 . 0
f
eff
c b
u
ca
l





OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-136

[ 3.4.3.2]
[ 5.10.9.3.1]

Figure 5.7.3.5
Anchorage Dimensions

Determine the value for K based on the spacing of the tendons and the
size of the anchorage plate.
75 . 25 a 2 29 s = ⋅ > = Use K = 1

The jacking force is:
( ) ( )
strand jack
A strands of # stress jacking P ⋅ ⋅ =
kips 562 217 . 0 12 216 = ⋅ ⋅ =

The factored tendon force for anchorage design is:
( ) kips 4 . 674 562 2 . 1 P
u
= ⋅ =
in 875 . 12 b
eff
=
( ) in 81 . 14 875 . 12 15 . 1 b 15 . 1
eff c
= ⋅ = ⋅ = l
in 22 t =
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
eff b
in 1 . 135
4
25 . 6
875 . 12
4
D
b a A =
⋅ π
− =
⋅ π
− ⋅ =
ksi 03 . 2
22
1
875 . 12
1
81 . 14 1 1 . 135
0 . 1 4 . 674 6 . 0
f
ca
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ + ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=

The factored concrete compressive strength for the general zone shall not
exceed
ci
f 7 . 0 ′ ⋅ φ ⋅ .
80 . 0 = φ for compression in anchorage zones
( ) ksi 52 . 2 5 . 4 8 . 0 7 . 0 f 7 . 0 f
ci ca
= ⋅ ⋅ = ′ ⋅ φ ⋅ ≤

Therefore, use ksi 03 . 2 f
ca
=

Determine the compressive stress at a distance equal to the plate’s
smaller dimension. Assume the load distributes at an angle of 30°.



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-137

[ 5.10.9.6.3]
( )
4
D
a 30 tan 2 a A
2
2
e
⋅ π
− ⋅ ° ⋅ + =
( )
2
2
2
in 739
4
25 . 6
875 . 12 577 . 0 2 875 . 12 =
⋅ π
− ⋅ ⋅ + =
ksi 03 . 2 f ksi 90 . 0
739
4 . 674
A
P
f
ca
e
u
e
= < = = = OK

General Zone Bursting Force
The tendon slope at the ends of the superstructure from Table 5.7.3.5 is
0.050 radians (3 degrees).

The bursting forces in the anchorage is calculated as:
α ⋅ ⋅ + |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ = sin P 5 . 0
h
a
1 P 25 . 0 T
u u burst

( ) ( ) kips 5 . 87 052 . 0 4 . 674 5 . 0
22
875 . 12
1 4 . 674 25 . 0 = ⋅ ⋅ + |
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ =
( ) ( ) α ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ = sin e 5 e 2 h 5 . 0 d
burst
(for this example, e = 0)
( ) in 11 22 5 . 0 = ⋅ =

Using 00 . 1 = φ for tension in steel in anchorage zones, then
( ) ksi 60 60 0 . 1 f = ⋅ = ⋅ φ
γ
:
s
A req’d =
2
in 46 . 1
60
5 . 87
= (spaced within in 5 . 27 d 5 . 2
burst
= ⋅ )

Use 4 - #16 closed stirrups spaced at 6 inches (refer to Figure 5.7.3.6).
( ) 2 31 . 0 4 A
s
⋅ ⋅ = legs/stirrup
2
in 46 . 1 48 . 2 > = OK

Figure 5.7.3.6
Bursting Force Reinforcing



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-138

[ 5.10.9.3.2]
V. Summary of
Final Design
General Zone Edge Tension Forces
Edge tension forces are the tensile forces in the anchorage zone acting
close to the transverse edge (spalling forces) and longitudinal edges
(longitudinal edge tension forces). For the case of a concentrically loaded
anchorage zone, the longitudinal edge tension forces are insignificant,
and the magnitude of the design spalling force may be taken as 2% of
the total post-tensioning force.
Spalling Force ( ) kips 5 . 13 4 . 674 02 . 0 = ⋅ =
Using ( ) ksi 60 60 0 . 1 f
y
= ⋅ = ⋅ φ :
s
A req’d
2
in 22 . 0
60
5 . 13
= =

Use 2- #16 bars,
2
s
in 62 . 0 A =


A summary of the primary reinforcement for the slab is provided in Figure
5.7.3.7. A typical transverse half section is illustrated for the midspan
section and for the section over the piers.



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-139



Figure 5.7.3.7



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 5-140
















[ This Page Intentionally Left Blank ]


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-1
Structural steel, in the form of rolled steel beams or welded plate girders,
is used for bridge superstructures. In rare instances integral pier caps or
substructures will be designed using steel. This section is intended to
provide general design guidance and information on detailing practices.
In addition, a design example for a two-span plate girder superstructure
is included.


Structural Steels
Steel bridges are fabricated and constructed with steel elements that are
produced at two different types of steel mills; shape mills and plate mills.
In addition to different products, the grades of steel available from each
type of mill differ slightly.

Shape mills produce bars, angles, tubes, pipes, channels, “W” sections
(wide flange), “S” sections (American Standard), and piling that satisfy a
variety of material specifications. Standard mill lengths available for
these sections range from 30 to 60 feet. With sufficient quantities and
sufficient lead time, longer lengths may be available. AISC’s “Modern
Steel Construction” yearly January issue provides information on different
shapes available domestically from various mills. The designer shall
check the availability of shapes before specifying their use in a structure.

Plate mills produce flat sections that are used to fabricate plate girders,
connections, gusset plates, etc. Plate steel is also produced in a number
of different material specifications. Larger plate mills have a width
limitation of 150 inches. The maximum available plate length varies by
mill and cross-sectional dimensions of the plate.

The LRFD Specifications identify a number of steels that can be
incorporated into bridge structures. They are identified in Tables 6.4.1-1
and 6.4.2-1 of the LRFD Specifications with both AASHTO and ASTM
designations. Weathering steels have a “W” appended to the grade
designation (e.g. 50W, 70W, 100W). Designers should note that the
AASHTO and ASTM designations are not identical.

The AASHTO Specifications require additional tests (Charpy testing) to
verify the toughness of the material. Mn/DOT Spec 3308 requires this
testing be conducted for steel incorporated into major structural
components. Mn/DOT Spec 2471.2 lists the specification numbers for
standard structural metals used in bridge projects. Structural steel of
primary members shall satisfy the toughness requirements for Zone 3.

6. STEEL
STRUCTURES
6.1 Materials

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-2
Shape sections, other than pipe and tubing, are typically available in 36,
50, or 50W grades. Steel plate is available in 36, 50, and 50W grades.
High Performance Steel (HPS) is available in Grades HPS50W and
HPS70W. The typical steels for Mn/DOT bridge designs are Grade 50W
and HPS70W. Hybrid sections are often the most cost effective. The
bottom flange in positive moment regions and both flanges near piers
would utilize HPS70W, all other steel would be 50W.

Additional information regarding steel shapes and plates may be found in
“Properties of Bridge Steels”, Vol. I, Chapter 3, Highway Structures
Design Handbook, May 1994.

Bolts, Nuts, and Washers
For most steel bridge applications ASTM A325 high strength bolts per
Mn/DOT 3391.2B should be used. The LRFD specifications also include
ASTM A490 high strength bolts. Due to reduced availability and higher
cost, A490 bolts should not be used without first consulting the Bridge
Design Engineer. A490 bolts cannot be sold with plating, galvanizing, or
mechanical zinc coating, so their use as field bolts is problematic.

For applications where strength is not the primary design consideration,
ASTM A307 bolts per MnDOT Spec 3391.2A may be used. See Mn/DOT
Spec 3391 for additional information on fasteners.

Additional fastener information may be found in “Mechanical Fasteners
for Steel Bridges”, Vol. I, Chapter 4A, Highway Structures Design
Handbook, April 1996.

Dimensional and weight information for bolts, nuts, and washers is
provided in Appendix Figures 6.1 through 6.5.

Shear Connectors (Stud Welded Fasteners)
The material requirements for shear connectors are listed in Mn/DOT
Spec 3391. They shall satisfy ASTM material requirements, have a yield
strength of 50 ksi, and an ultimate tensile strength of 60 ksi.

Welds
A variety of welding processes and materials are available to fabricators
for different weld types. In most cases, designers need not concern
themselves with the welding process selected by the fabricator.

Typically, only fillet welds and full penetration welds are permitted.
Designs using partial penetration weld details should only be used with

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-3
approval from the Fabrication Methods Engineer. Weld designs should be
based on E70 filler material.

With the exception of pile splices, shear connectors, and railroad ballast
plate splices, field welding is not used or permitted. Additional
information on welding can be obtained from the Structural Metals or
Fabrication Methods Units of the Bridge Office.

Additional references are the ANSI/AASHTO/AWS “Bridge Welding Code -
D1.5”, and “Welding of Steel Bridges”, Vol. I, Chap 15, Highway
Structures Design Handbook.

Appendix Figures 6.6 through 6.8 contain information on the proper
construction of weld symbols and the proper application of the symbols to
different types of details.

Bearings
Steel plates used in the fabrication of bearings shall be Grade 36 or 50W.
Bearings made from castings shall satisfy ASTM A148, GR. 80-40.


Designers should provide simple details that are easily fabricated and do
not sacrifice the integrity of the bridge. Details that trap water or
produce an environment that is conducive to corrosion should be
avoided. In addition, details with inadequate clearances are difficult to
fabricate and erect.

The equipment used to weld and bolt steel pieces together requires room
to operate. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains tables with
minimum clearances for bolted connections. Figure 6.2.1 describes
typical minimum clearances that should be provided for welded
components.

6.2 General
Dimensions and
Details
AI SC LRFD 3
rd

Edition, Table
7- 3a]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-4

Figure 6.2.1

Structural steel plans and details should clearly describe the material to
be used for each structural steel component. Even for projects where
structural steel is paid for on a lump sum basis, informational quantities
should be provided in the plan set to quantify the amounts of different
steels incorporated into the project. This is particularly true for projects
with fracture critical members. Fracture critical members are fabricated
to a higher quality standard to reduce the potential for defects being
incorporated into the work and thus are more expensive. Designers
should not specify members as fracture critical unless necessary and
appropriate.

As a Rule-of-Thumb for the preliminary design of continuous structures,
try a steel section depth of 0.033·L. In no case should the steel section
be less than 0.0285·L. Typically a member taller than the minimum will
be the most efficient. The most efficient depth of girder will vary with
span and girder spacing. For large structures a web depth study should
be performed to arrive at the optimal girder height.

Plans should also show the type of weld to be used for each splice and
connection. The welding code (AWS-D1.5) specifies the minimum size of
fillet welds. In most cases, the minimum fillet weld size will have
adequate capacity for the application and no size needs to be provided
[ 2.5.2.6.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-5
within the details. However, if the minimum weld size does not have
adequate capacity, the size of the weld should be identified in the details.

Welding is used in many locations during the fabrication of plate girders.
It is used to connect:
• Web plates to flange plates
• stiffeners and connection plates to web plates
• stiffeners and connection plates to compression flanges and tab
plates

Figure 6.2.2 identifies the locations of these welds and the appropriate
fatigue category to be used for checking live load stress ranges.



Figure 6.2.2

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-6
Locate field splices at or near points of dead load contraflexure. Identify
“Area A” on the beam or girder plan sheets. “Area A” is the portion of
top flange that is in tension due to total dead load. Identifying the
tension flange is important for a number of reasons:
• A bolted tab plate connection must be used to connect stiffeners
or connection plates to tension flanges. A fillet weld is normally
used for the connection to the compression flange. See Details
B402 (bolted diaphragms), B407 (cross frame diaphragms), B408
(cross frame diaphragms for curved bridge), and B410 (bolted
stiffener to flange connection).
• During construction, the contractor may request that an item
(e.g., formwork, screed machine support) be attached to a girder.
Welding to the tension flange of primary members is not
permitted.

The LRFD Specifications do not explicitly give a maximum diaphragm
spacing as was previously given in the Standard Specifications. The
spacing of diaphragms used for bracing is used to determine allowable
compressive stresses.

In general the diaphragm spacing in the positive moment area should be
based on the maximum allowed for the bracing of the top compression
flange during the construction of the deck; typically 25 to 30 feet. In the
negative moment area, the allowable stress in the bottom compression
flange is based on the diaphragm spacing. The spacing in negative
moment regions is usually 15 to 20 feet.

All connection details for lateral wind bracing systems shall be bolted.

Limit the segment length to top flange width ratio to 85 for stability
during shipping and erection.

Structural steel is to be protected by painting in the seven county metro
area and all grade separation structures over public roads on the trunk
highway system. All other steel bridges will be reviewed during the
preliminary design process to identify those that should be painted.
Preferred practice is to have the primer applied in the fabrication shop
and the intermediate and top or finish coat applied in the field.

For box pier caps and tub girders access holes and manholes through
diaphragms should be as large as possible and located for ease of
passage. The minimum opening is 2’-0” x 2’-6”. Provide an access door
near each end of box piers for inspection purposes. Locate the door for
ladder access off the roadway, if possible, and hinge the door to swing
[ C6.10.3.2.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-7
away from traffic. Access doors should be placed in the side of the box
where protected from runoff by the superstructure and in the bottom of
the box where exposed. Use Detail B942 for door. Door frames should
be bolted to box.

Where single conduits pass through steel diaphragms and require a
passage hole with a diameter greater than three inches, the opening
should be reinforced with a section of pipe or curved steel plate.

The framing plan for a steel superstructure should identify the following
items:
• beam spacing
• distance between diaphragms along each beam
• type of diaphragms used in different locations
• centerline of bearing at piers and abutments
• working line and working points
• beam marks (B1, B2, etc.)
• type and location of bearings
• optionally, the location of intermediate stiffeners can be presented
without dimensions.

The plate girder details should identify plate sizes, length of plate
segments, location of “Area A”, spacing of shear studs, sole plate size,
bearing and intermediate stiffener size, connection plate size, splice
location and type, a table showing top of field splice elevations, and all
pertinent notes. Standard notes are contained in an appendix to Section
2 (Appendix 2-H).


In general, structural steel superstructures are shallower and lighter than
concrete superstructures. In addition to long span and specialty
structures, steel superstructures should be considered where foundations
are expensive or where a change in superstructure height has significant
cost implications on the approaches.

Girders should be designed to be composite with the concrete deck
throughout the entire girder length. Provide shear connectors, in the
form of shear studs, in both positive and negative moment areas and
over field splices.

Stools are used with steel superstructures to provide a construction
tolerance for the profile of the deck. The stool should have vertical edges
that are flush with the edges of the top flange. For plate girders the stool
is defined as the distance between the bottom of the deck and the top of
6.3 General
Design Philosophy

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-8
the web. For rolled beams the stool height is defined as the distance
between the bottom of the deck and the top of the top flange. The
minimum height or thickness for the concrete portion of the stool is 1½
inches. The minimum should be provided at the edge of the flange
taking into account the cross slope of the deck. At field splices check
that the top plates do not penetrate the bottom of the deck. Figure 6.3.1
illustrates the definition of stool heights for rolled beams and plate
girders.


Figure 6.3.1

Structural steel quantities are computed by finding the weight of steel
beams or girders, diaphragms, cross frames, and all other plates (e.g.,
sole and gusset plates). When computing structural steel quantities
designers should increase the calculated weight by 1½% to account for
the weight of steel for welds, and bolt stick-through.

Provide adequate spacing between butt and field splices and stiffener
connections. Typically 2’-0” will provide adequate clearance.

During design, it may be assumed that the dead load of the steel beam
or girder is 15% larger than that computed using only the flanges and
web. This is a reasonable estimate for the weight of stiffeners,
diaphragms or cross frames and connections.

When sizing stiffeners and connection plates, use a limited number of
thicknesses. To permit two lines of bolts, connection plates must be a
minimum of ½” x 7½”.


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-9
Railroad bridges designed in accordance with the AREMA Specifications
may have slightly different criteria for high strength bolts, pin bolts, and
welding. Check with the railroad in question for specific criteria.

Provide bent plate diaphragms (detail B402) for the following cases:
• rolled beam superstructures
• plate girders with depths less than 40 inches
• beam depth to lateral spacing ratio less than 0.40

In other cases cross-frame diaphragms (Detail B407) should be used.

Provide
7
/
8
” diameter stud connectors that extend above the bottom mat
of deck reinforcement. Studs must be applied in the field after girder
erection.


Fatigue cracks are generally classified as either load induced or
displacement induced. Load and stress limits are placed on members to
minimize load induced fatigue cracks from forming. Proper detailing
practices are used to prevent displacement induced fatigue cracks.
Designers should check connections for fatigue resistance.

For all Trunk Highway bridges, check details for an infinite fatigue life
level regardless of ADT level.

Detailing practices that prevent displacement induced fatigue cracks from
forming include coping stiffeners and terminating welds slightly before
reaching the end of an element. Top and bottom transverse stiffeners
are typically coped 1½ inches from face of web and 2½ inches from face
of flange (See Detail B411.).

To ensure that bridges are constructed with a proper vertical profile, the
deflections associated with selfweight, deck placement, and composite
superstructure dead loads should be presented in the plan set. The dead
load deflection should be split into two categories: selfweight (including
diaphragms) and dead load due to deck and all superimposed loads
(excluding FWS). These deflections should be displayed in feet with a
precision of three decimal places.

Live load deflection shall be limited to L/800 for typical bridges and
L/1000 for bridges carrying pedestrians. Calculate the live load
distribution for deflection by taking the number of lanes times the
multiple presence factor and divide by the number of beams. The
6.3.1 Shear
Connectors
[ 6.10.7.4.1]
6.3.2 Fatigue
6.3.3 Deflections
[ 6.10.8.1.1] [ 6.10.8.1.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-10
multiple presence factor used with this calculation should not be less than
0.85.

For most steel bridges camber will be fabricated into the beam to offset
the deflections due to applied dead loads. The cambered member is
fabricated with a profile opposite of that caused by dead load deflection.

For rolled beams introducing camber can be a relatively expensive
operation. It is usually accomplished with cold bending and/or with heat
straightening techniques. Rolled beams for bridges should be cambered
if the dead load deflection exceeds the maximum mill tolerance for
camber as stated in ASTM A6. If the deflection is less, state that the
beam should be placed “natural camber up”.

Plate girders shall always be cambered. This is accomplished without
mechanical means or heat straightening techniques. Vertical cambers
are introduced by cutting the web plates with the desired profile.
Horizontal curvature is introduced by cutting flange plates with the
proper horizontal shape. During fabrication, the web and flanges are
attached to each other to produce a member with the proper geometric
characteristics.

Girders should be cambered for anticipated dead load deflections, vertical
curve, and residual camber. Do not include the deflection due to future
wearing surface (FWS). Residual camber should be provided to eliminate
the appearance of a sag in a span. Only provide residual camber on
girders with straight grades and lengths in excess of 75 feet. Use
approximately 1½ inches of residual camber for a 100 foot span.
Increase or decrease the residual camber by
1
/
8
inch for each 10 foot
change in span length. Use a maximum residual camber of 2½ inches.
Reduce the residual camber by the amount that is required for crest
vertical curvature.

The stool height for girders should be constant throughout the length of
the girder for girders without residual camber. For girders where residual
camber needs to be used, the stool height will vary. For these situations,
the stool height will have its largest value at substructure locations and
smaller values near midspan. In no case can the thickness of concrete in
the stool be less than 1½ inches.

Camber information should be included in the plans and presented in
fractions of an inch (
1
/
8
inch precision). Use a table and schematic detail
to convey the information. Within the schematic detail, label the
horizontal reference line, chord lines connecting field piece ends, and the
6.3.4 Camber

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-11
camber curve. Provide tabularized information at field splices, support
points, and at intermediate points along the length of field pieces. Each
field piece should be defined by at least five points that are uniformly
spaced at intervals less than or equal to 25 feet. Define points of
maximum camber. Figure 6.3.4.1 contains a sample camber diagram
and table.


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-12

Figure 6.3.4.1, Sample Camber Diagram and Table

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-13
Rolled beams may be difficult to obtain in lengths over 90 feet. Check
with the Fabrication Methods Unit prior to incorporating beams with
lengths over 90 feet into a design.

Bridges that use rolled beams should use sections with a flange width of
at least 14 inches. This will allow 4 lines of bolts to be used in the design
of field splices.


Select plate thicknesses in
1
/
16
inch increments for thicknesses up to 1
inch. For thicknesses between 1 and 3 inches use
1
/
8
inch increments.
For thicknesses between 3 and 4 inches use
1
/
4
inch increments.

In general, additional web thickness increases shear capacity. An
increase in web height or flange area increases moment capacity and
reduces live load deflections.

In general, follow these guidelines in plate size selection for plate girders:

Flanges
For plate girder flanges, the minimum size is ¾” x 14”. The 14-inch
flange permits 4 lines of bolts for field splices.

The width of the flange should not change at a butt splice. The change in
flange area at butt weld splices should not exceed 100%. In general it is
economical to provide a butt splice if 800 lbs. or more of steel can be
saved.

In negative moment areas, select equal top and bottom plate sizes.
Where practical, the bottom flange should be kept a constant width over
the entire girder length. Top flanges should be kept a constant width
within each field piece. If changing the top flange width at a field splice,
do not taper the flange width. Where flanges need to be tapered in width
use a 24-inch radius for the taper detail. When changing the flange
width and thickness at a butt splice, first taper the width and then taper
the thickness.

When thick fill plates are required, additional rows of bolts will be
required to transfer the force to the member.

Web
For web plates the minimum thickness is ½ inch. The ½ inch web reduces
the potential for warping during fabrication. Select maximum web height
while still meeting clearance requirements.
6.4 Rolled Beams
6.5 Plate Girders
[ 6.13.6.1.5]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-14
For continuous structures the web should be sized to be
1
/
16
th of an inch
thinner than a web which requires no stiffeners for shear. To eliminate
the need for thin filler plates in web field splices, constant thickness web
designs should be used.

Longitudinal stiffeners should only be considered for girders over 84
inches deep. The stiffeners should be terminated at a low stress point
with a fatigue resistant detail. Generally, longitudinal stiffeners should be
continuous through transverse and bearing stiffeners.

Girders using High Performance Steel (HPS) (Fy = 70 ksi), can be an
economical alternate to girders using 50 ksi steel. Typically, a hybrid
design that utilizes HPS steel for the bottom flange in positive moment
areas and both flanges in negative moment areas is most economical.


The LRFD Specifications do not cover the design of curved bridges.
Curved bridges should be designed in accordance with the 2003 AASHTO
Guide Specification for Horizontally Curved Steel Bridges.

Curved plate girder bridges usually have wider flanges and radial lines of
diaphragms. Generally, the radial lines of diaphragms extend across the
entire width of bridge. Occasionally, diaphragms may need to be
discontinued near the obtuse corner of skewed substructures.

For preliminary sizing and spacing of girders use a straight line girder
analysis and limit the maximum bending stress to 0.85 · Fy. Using this
spacing, develop your framing plan, including location of all diaphragms.
Review the framing plan with the Design Unit Leader and the Bridge
Design Engineer before proceeding with analysis.

Hybrid girders are not allowed on curved structures.

Theoretically, flange and web sizes could be different for each girder.
The designer must consider economic benefits associated with grouping
plate sizes where applicable.

Diaphragms are considered primary structural members in curved
bridges. They are to be designed for the required forces and moments
determined by analysis. Intermediate diaphragms may be either cross
frame or bent plate type (Detail B408 or B402). The diaphragm to
stiffener to beam connections may be designed for the applied loads, not
the capacity of the member. Assume details for diaphragms are fatigue
Category B.
6.6 Curved Girders
6.5.1 High
Performance Steel
Girders

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-15
For shipping purposes, the length between field splices should be limited
to 100 feet when the offset from the chord connecting the ends is
between 3 and 6 feet. A shipping length of 145 feet can be used when
the offset is less than 3 feet. Check with the Fabrication Methods
Engineer for specific situations.

For unusual circumstances, consider requiring the contractor to use
erection shoring. Prior to using this design assumption, discuss the
project with the Bridge Design Engineer and the Regional Bridge
Construction Engineer.


Box or tub girders are rarely used in Minnesota. They typically are
trapezoidal in shape. Usually they have two top flanges, two webs, and a
single, wide bottom flange. The top flanges have shear connectors
attached to them that are used to develop composite action with a cast-
in-place deck. Once the deck is in place the closed shape of the cross
section is effective in carrying torsional loads in addition to flexural loads.

Ensure that the structure has adequate capacity prior to the development
of composite action with the deck. The lateral bracing system for the top
flanges must be considered during construction.


Bolted connections are used to attach different member segments
together at field splices. Welded shop splices are used to vary the
properties of a girder or to construct a field piece with a length greater
than that available with standard mill plate.

All connection details for lateral bracing systems, including gusset plate
connections to the web, should be bolted. Details should be checked to
ensure that there are no bolting access or assembly problems, including
fixed bearing anchor rods.

Most structural connections or splices should be detailed with
7
/
8
inch
diameter A325 bolts. The standard bolt pattern is a 3-inch grid with 1
1
/
2
inch edge distances. The detailed drawings should include the
standard plan note concerning field splice elevations.

The change in flange area at bolted splices should not exceed 100%. The
splice plates should be of the same steel as the elements being
connected. The minimum thickness of splice plates is
5
/
16
inches.

6.7 Box or Tub
Girders
6.8 Bolted
Connections and
Splices

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-16
Bolted field splices should be designed as slip-critical connections.
Assume that the threads are included in the shear plane and that a Class
B surface coating or condition is available for slip resistance (Slip
Coefficient 0.50).


This example illustrates the design of a two-span welded plate girder
bridge with a 20 degree skew and is on a constant grade of 1.5%. The
304’-0” long bridge has two equal spans of 152’-0”. Mn/DOT standard
details and drawings for diaphragms (B402 and B407) and railings (Fig.
5-397.117) should be referenced when reviewing this example.
Specifically, this example illustrates the detail design of a typical interior
girder at the critical sections in flexure (positive and negative) and shear
for AASHTO HL-93 loading. Design of the stiffeners, end diaphragm,
shear connectors, and field splice is included. Fatigue is also checked at
critical locations.

The superstructure consists of five girders spaced at 11’-4” centers.
Girders are designed to act compositely with a 9½ inch deck. A
1
/
2
inch
of wear is assumed and a deck thickness of 9 inches is used for
composite section properties. To simplify dead load computation the
wearing course is assumed to extend from outside of barrier to outside of
barrier.

The top flange thickness usually varies along the length of the girder. As
the top flange thickness varies along the girder line, the thickness of
concrete in the stool changes as well. For dead load purposes the
concrete portion of the stool is assumed to have a uniform thickness of
3
3
/
8
inches. This is arrived at by subtracting the thinnest top flange from
the thickest top flange and adding 1½ inches. For section property
computations, a concrete stool thickness of 1½ inches will be used. The
composite deck is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.150 kcf for dead
load computations and 0.145 kcf for elastic modulus computations.

The following material and geometric parameters are used in this
example:

Concrete (deck and overlay)
Dead load unit weight = wc = 0.150 kcf
Compressive strength = f’c = 4 ksi
Elastic modulus = Ec = 3644 ksi

Steel
Dead load unit weight = wst = 0.490 kcf
6.9 Two- Span
Plate Girder
Design Example
A.1 Materials

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-17
Yield strength = Fy = 50 ksi
Tensile strength = Fu = 70 ksi
Elastic modulus = Es = 29,000 ksi

Composite Section Properties
Short-term modular ratio = n = 8
Long-term modular ratio = 3·n = 24

The geometry for the example is presented in Figures 6.9.1 through
6.9.4. Overall geometry (Figures 6.9.1 and 6.9.2) is presented in this
section. Girder geometry (Figures 6.9.3 and 6.9.4) is presented in the
next section where section properties are assembled.

A typical section for the bridge is shown in Figure 6.9.1. The deck is
supported on five lines of girders. The girders are spaced on 11’-4”
centers and the roadway is 48’-0” wide (two 12’-0” traffic lanes and two
12'-0" shoulders.) A Type “F” railing is provided on each side of the
bridge.

The framing of the superstructure is presented in Figure 6.9.2. The
structure has a 20 degree skew. Due to the span arrangement (2-span,
152’-0”/152’-0”), only a half-framing plan is provided. Rolled beam end-
diaphragms are located at the abutments. Cross-frame diaphragms are
located at other locations.


Figure 6.9.1
[ 6.10.3.1.1b]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-18


Figure 6.9.2

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-19
The minimum depth of the steel girder is prescribed in LRFD Table
2.5.2.6.3-1 “Traditional Minimum Depth of Constant Depth
Superstructures”. For continuous span, steel I-beam structures the
depth of the I-beam or girder can be no less than 0.027 L. Mn/DOT uses
a preliminary depth of 0.033·L.

Substituting 152 feet for L in the minimum depth ratios results in a
minimum girder height of 49 inches (LRFD) to 61 inches (Mn/DOT).

A member deeper than the minimum is usually the most economical.
Adequate clearance is assumed available for the example and a slightly
deeper section will be tried. Try a design with a 66 inch deep web.

Preliminary web and flange plate sizes for the girder are shown in Figure
6.9.3. The girder is symmetric about the pier with a
7
/
8
” x 18” top
flange and a
7
/
8
” x 20” bottom flange in the positive moment region. In
the negative moment region, both flanges are 1
3
/
8
” x 20” near the field
splice and 2
3
/
4
” x 20” over the pier. For the web, a
5
/
8
inch plate
thickness is used throughout.

The non-composite section properties of the girder are provided in Table
6.9.1.

Table 6.9.1 Non-Composite Section Properties
Parameter Positive Section
*Negative
Section 1
**Negative
Section 2
d (in) 67.75 68.75 71.50
A (in2) 74.50 96.25 151.25
I (in4) 52,106 77,399 145,024
yt (in) 34.66 34.38 35.75
yb (in) 33.09 34.38 35.75
St (in3) 1503 2252 4057
Sb (in3) 1575 2252 4057
* Negative Section 1 is from the field splice to the shop splice.
** Negative Section 2 is the section over the pier.

A.2 Determine
Cross- Section
Properties
[ 2.5.2.6.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-20



Figure 6.9.3
P
r
e
l
i
m
i
n
a
r
y

B
e
a
m

L
a
y
o
u
t


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-21
Positive Moment Section Properties
The width of deck assumed to act compositely with the girder and resist
external loads is the smallest of three values: 1) ¼ of the effective span
length, 2) 12 times the deck thickness plus ½ of the top flange width, or
3) the average spacing of adjacent beams. For section property
computations the deck thickness is reduced by ½ inch to account for
wear.
1) 319
1
12
4
152
7 . 0 = ⋅ ⋅ in

2) 117 18
2
1
9 12 = ⋅ + ⋅ in

3) 11’-4” = 136 in

For this example, the controlling value is 117 inches. Using the modular
ratios provided earlier (n=8, 3·n=24) results in a transformed deck width
of 14.63 inches for transient, short-term loads (n=8) and 4.88 inches for
permanent, long-term loads (n=24). The concrete stool or haunch has
an assumed thickness of 1½ inches for section property computations.
Section B of Figure 6.9.4 contains a girder cross section with the primary
dimensions for section property computations identified.

Negative Moment Section Properties
For negative moment regions, the section assumed effective in resisting
external loads is the steel girder section plus the reinforcement within an
effective width of the slab.

In negative moment regions, the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the deck
is approximately 1% of the area of the deck. Two thirds of this steel is to
be placed in the top mat of reinforcement. After referring to standard
Mn/DOT deck reinforcing details, a top mat with 20-#19 bars and a
bottom mat with 14-#16 bars is found to be satisfactory.

The top mat is located 3.63 inches from the top of the deck (based on 3
inches clear) and the bottom mat is located 1.94 inches from the bottom
(based on 1 inch clear). See Section C, Figure 6.9.4.

[ 4.6.2.6]
[ 6.10.3.1.1b]
[ 6.10.3.1.1c]
[ 6.10.3.7]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-22



Figure 6.9.4


Table 6.9.2 contains composite girder section properties.

Table 6.9.2 Composite Section Properties
Parameter
Positive Section
N 3N
Positive
Section
for
Negative
Moment*
Negative
Section
1**
Negative
Section 2
****
Ac (in2) 209.50 119.50 87.6 109.39 164.38
Ic (in4) 131,943 98,515 70,371 96,048 165,867
Ycg (in) 19.04 29.90 39.10 40.06 42.93
Ytbeam
(in)
8.54 19.40
28.60
29.56 32.43
Ybbeam
(in)
59.21 48.35
39.15
39.19 39.07
Stbeam
(in3)
15,443 5079
2460
3250 5114
Sbbeam
(in3)
2229 2037
1798
2451 4246
* Positive Section for Negative Moment is used for splice design.
** Negative Section 1 is from the field splice to the flange butt splice.
*** Negative Section 2 is the section over the pier.

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-23
The following load multipliers will be used for this example.

η
D
= 1.00

η
R
= 1.00

η
I
= 1.00

The load combinations which will be considered for the design
example are identified below:

STRENGTH I - Standard HL-93 loading will be used. Primary applications
include:
• maximum bottom flange stress in positive moment location
• maximum top and bottom flange stress in negative moment
locations
Mu = 1.25 DC + 1.75 LL

SERVICE II - Corresponds to the overload provisions in the AASHTO
Standard Specifications pertaining to yield control and to slip-critical
connections.
Mu = 1.0 (DC) + 1.3 LL

FATIGUE - .Checks to limit the potential for fatigue cracks to form in a
structure.
Mu = 0.75 LLrange

CONSTRUCTION LOAD COMBINATION
During erection, the girder will need to resist stresses associated with the
steel section alone. In addition, the need for diaphragms or cross-frames
will be determined at this stage.

Mu = 1.25 DCtemp + 1.5 LLtemp

Due to the continuous configuration, maximum and minimum

(
γ
p)

load
factor values will be used.

Assume that traffic can be positioned anywhere between the “F” rail
barriers.
Number of design lanes = =
12
48
4 lanes

B. Select Load
Modifiers
[ 1.3.3- 1.3.5]
C. Select
Applicable Load
Combinations and
Load Factors
[ 3.4.1]
D. Calculate Live
Load Force Effects
[ 3.6.1] [ 3.6.2]
[ 4.6.2.2]
[ 3.4.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-24
IM = 15% when evaluating fatigue and fracture
IM = 33% when evaluating all other limit states

a. Interior Beams with Concrete Decks
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 lists common deck superstructure types that have
approximate live load distribution equations.

A Type (a) superstructure describes the structural system used in this
example (cast-in-place concrete deck on steel beam supporting
components). Per LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1, the approximate distribution
equations can be used if a number of geometric parameters are within
the range of values used to arrive at the approximate equations. For a
Type (a) superstructure, the geometric constraints are:

Type (a) Cross Section Range of Applicability Limits for Flexure
Parameter Design Example Minimum Maximum
Beam Spacing
(S)
11.33’ 3.5’ 16.0’
Slab Thickness
(ts)
9.0” 4.5” 12”
Number of
Beams (Nb)
5 4 -
Span Length (L) 152’ 20’ 240’

In addition to S, ts, and L, the distribution equations for live load moment
area also based on Kg. Kg is a longitudinal stiffness parameter defined in
LRFD Equation 4.6.2.2.1-1.
) e A I ( n K
2
g g
⋅ + ⋅ =
where n is the modular ratio, I is the noncomposite girder moment of
inertia, A is the noncomposite area of the girder and eg is the distance
between the centers of gravity of the noncomposite girder and the deck.

a.1 Positive Moment Region
For the positive moment region
I = 52,106 in4
A = 74.50 in2
ts = 9.0 in
yt = 34.66 in

66 . 34
2
0 . 9
50 . 1 y
2
t
stool concrete e
t
s
g
+ + = + + = = 40.66 in

) 66 . 40 50 . 74 106 , 52 ( 8 K
2
g
⋅ + ⋅ = = 1.402 x 106 in4

[ 4.6.2.2.1]
[ C4.6.2.2.1- 1]
Dynamic Load
Allowance
Distribution
Factors for
Moments
[ 4.6.2.2.2b]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-25
One design lane loaded:
Distribution factor for moment

0.1
3
s
g
0.3 0.4
) (t L 12
K
L
S
14
S
0.06 gM
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


0.1
3
6
0.3 0.4
(9) 152 12
1.402x10
152
11.33
14
11.33
0.06
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

= 0.484 lanes/girder

Fatigue
The design fatigue truck is a single lane vehicle, that does not include the
multiple presence factor. The tabulated approximate distribution factor
equations for moment include the multiple presence factors.
Consequently, when a designer is considering fatigue, the distribution
factor determined with the approximate equation for a single lane should
be divided by 1.20.

Distribution factor for fatigue moments
0.403
1.2
0.484
M g
f
= = lanes/girder

Two or more design lanes loaded
Distribution factor for moment

0.1
3
s
g
0.2 0.6
) (t L 12
K
L
S
9.5
S
0.075 gM
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


0.1
3
6
0.2 0.6
(9) 152 12
1.402x10
152
11.33
9.5
11.33
0.075
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

= 0.740 lanes/girder

a.2 Negative Moment Region
The noncomposite section properties vary along the girder. The differing
I, A, and yt values impact the Kg term.

For the negative moment section over the pier
I = 145,024 in4
A = 151.25 in2
ts = 9.0 in
yt = 35.75 in

75 . 35
2
0 . 9
50 . 1 y
2
t
stool concrete e
t
s
g
+ + = + + = = 41.75 in
[ 3.6.1.1.2]
[ 3.6.1.4]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.2b- 1]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.2b- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-26

) 75 . 41 25 . 151 024 , 145 ( 8 K
2
g
⋅ + ⋅ = = 3.269 x 106 in4

One design lane loaded
Distribution factor for moment
0.1
3
s
g
0.3 0.4
) (t L 12
K
L
S
14
S
0.06 M g
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


0.1
3
6
0.3 0.4
(9) 152 12
3.269x10
152
11.33
14
11.33
0.06
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

= 0.521 lanes/girder

Fatigue
Distribution factor for fatigue moment
0.434
1.2
0.521
gM
f
= = lanes/girder

Two or more design lanes loaded
Distribution factor for moment
0.1
3
s
g
0.2 0.6
) (t L 12
K
L
S
9.5
S
0.075 M g
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


0.1
3
6
0.2 0.6
(9) 152 12
3.269x10
152
11.33
9.5
11.33
0.075
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

= 0.799 lanes/girder

b. Exterior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 contains the approximate distribution factor equations
for exterior beams. Check the value of de to ensure that the
approximate distribution equations are valid.
de = distance from centerline of exterior girder to the gutterline
(see Figure 6.9.5)

de = 3.00 – 1.67 = 1.33 ft

which is greater than -1.0’ and less than 5.5’. The approximate equation
for two or more design lanes loaded can be used.

One design lane loaded
Use the lever rule and refer to Figure 6.9.5.

[ 4.6.2.2.2d]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.2b- 1]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.2b- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-27
Exterior beam reaction or distribution factor is:
1.2
11.33
.67)] 6 (11.33 0.67) [(11.33 0.5
gM ⋅
(
¸
(

¸
− + − ⋅
=
= 0.811 lanes/girder

Fatigue
Distribution factor for fatigue moment
1.2
0.811
gM
f
= = 0.676 lanes/girder



Figure 6.9.5


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-28
Two or more design lanes loaded:
The distribution factor is equal to the factor "e" multiplied by the interior
girder distribution factor for two or more lanes loaded.

erior int
gM e gM ⋅ =

where

1 . 9
33 . 1
77 . 0
1 . 9
d
77 . 0 e
e
+ = + = = 0.916

which leads to:
740 . 0 916 . 0 gM ⋅ = = 0.678 lanes/girder for positive moment

799 . 0 916 . 0 gM ⋅ = = 0.732 lanes/girder for negative moment

Skewed Bridges
The framing plan is skewed 20 degrees. There is no modification to the
moments for skew until the skew angle is 30 degrees or greater.

a. Interior Beams
Similar to flexure, in order to use the simplified distribution equations for
shear, geometric values for the bridge need to be within specific limits.

Type (a) Cross Section Range of Applicability Limits for Shear
Parameter Design Example Minimum Maximum
Beam Spacing (S) 11.33’ 3.5’ 16.0’
Slab Thickness
(ts)
9.0” 4.5” 12”
Number of Beams
(Nb)
5 4 -
Span Length (L) 152’ 20’ 240’
Pos. Mom. Long.
Stiffness (Kg)
1.402x106 10,000 7.0x106
Neg. Mom. Long.
Stiffness (Kg)
3.269x106 10,000 7.0x106

All parameters for the design example are within permissible limits. The
simplified equations for shear distribution can be used (Table 4.6.2.2.3a-
1 is used).

One Design Lane Loaded

25
33 . 11
36 . 0
25
S
0.36 gV + = + = = 0.813 lanes/girder
[ 4.6.2.2.2e]
[ 4.6.2.2.3a]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.2d- 1]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.3a- 1]
Distribution Factor
for Shear
[ Table
4.6.2.2.3a- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-29
Two or More Design Lanes Loaded
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
− + =
35
11.33
-
12
33 . 11
2 . 0
35
S
12
S
0.2 gV
2
= 1.039 lanes/girder

b. Exterior Beams
One Design Lane Loaded
Use the lever rule, which results in the same factor that was computed
for flexure.

gV = 0.811 lanes/girder

Two or more design lanes loaded
e 0.733
10
33 . 1
6 . 0
10
d
0.6
e
= + = + =

The exterior shear distribution factor for multiple lanes loaded is the
product of “e” and the interior girder factor.

1.039 0.733 gV e V g
erior int
⋅ = ⋅ = = 0.762 lanes/girder

c. Skewed Bridges
There is a modification to the shear at the obtuse corners for bridges with
skewed lines of support. This example has a skew angle of 20 degrees.

Type (a) Cross Sections
Range of Applicability Limits for Skew Correction (Shear)
Parameter Design Example Minimum Maximum
Skew Angle (θ) 20 degrees 0 degrees 60 degrees
Beam Spacing
(S)
11.33’ 3.5’ 16.0’
Number of
Beams (Nb)
5 4 -
Span Length (L) 152’ 20’ 240’

) tan(
K
ts L 12
0.2 1.0 CF
0.3
g
3
θ ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ + =

(20) tan
1.402x10
9 152 12
0.2 1.0 CF
0.3
6
3

|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ + =

= 1.07 lanes/girder at the abutment

[ 4.6.2.2.3b]
[ 4.6.2.2.3c]
[ Table
4.6.2.2.3c- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-30
(20) tan
3.269x10
9 152 12
0.2 1.0 CF
0.3
6
3

|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
⋅ + =

= 1.06 lanes/girder at the pier

For simplicity, only the larger correction factor will be used to modify the
live load distribution factors for shear. The adjusted shear distribution
factors are:

Interior Girders
One design lane loaded = 0.813 x 1.07 = 0.870 lanes/girder

Two or more design lanes loaded =
1.039 x 1.07 = 1.112 lanes/girder

Exterior Girders
One design lane loaded = 0.811 x 1.07 = 0.868 lanes/girder

Two design lanes loaded
0.762 x 1.07 = 0.815 lanes/girder

Fatigue Shear
Interior Girder = 725 . 0
2 . 1
870 . 0
gV
f
= = lanes/girder

Exterior Girder = 723 . 0
2 . 1
868 . 0
gV
f
= = lanes/girder


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-31

Table 6.9.3 – Distribution Factor Summary (lanes/girder)
Girder/Force Component One Lane
Multiple
Lane
Control
+ Moment 0.484 0.740 0.740
- Moment 0.521 0.799 0.799
Shear 0.870 1.112 1.112
+ Fatigue
Moment
0.403 - 0.403
-Fatigue
Moment
0.434 - 0.434
Interior
Girder
Fatigue Shear 0.725 - 0.725
+ Moment 0.811 0.678 0.811
- Moment 0.811 0.732 0.811
Shear 0.868 0.815 0.868
+ Fatigue
Moment
0.676 - 0.676
-Fatigue
Moment
0.676 - 0.676
Exterior
Girder
Fatigue Shear 0.723 - 0.723

Axial loads generated as a result of creep, shrinkage, and thermal
movements will not be considered for the design of the girders. These
loads are considered in the bearing and substructure design examples.

From this point forward only the design of an interior girder subject to
dead load and HL-93 live loads will be presented.

The unfactored bending moments and shear forces at different locations
along the girder are presented in Tables 6.9.5 through 6.9.12. Moments
and shears due to noncomposite loads (DC1 loads) are applied to a
continuous beam model with varying noncomposite section properties
(see Table 6.9.1). Moments and shears for DC2 loads are based on a
composite continuous beam model consisting of the steel girder plus the
concrete deck where a modular ratio of 3·n is used for the section
properties. Moments and shears for live loads are based on a composite
continuous beam model consisting of the steel girder plus the concrete
deck with a modular ratio of n. Table 6.9.4 presents the areas and
moments of inertias for the negative moment regions. The n and 3n
composite section properties for the positive moment regions are
provided in Table 6.9.2.


Summary of
Governing
Distribution
Factors
E. Calculate Force
Effects

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-32

Table 6.9.4 – Properties for DC2 and LL Moment Determination
Parameter
DC2 Negative Section
(3n)
Field Splice
Pier
LL Negative Section (n)
Field Splice
Pier
Ac (in2) 141.38 196.38 232.75 286.62
Ic (in4) 127,450 205,514 169,431 259,858

DC1 consists of the following loads: girder selfweight, concrete deck and
form loads. A 15% detail factor (based on the self weight of the girder)
is used to account for the dead load of connection and cross frame
elements. A 0.10 ksf load is considered during construction to account
for the weight of deck formwork.
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ ⋅ =
pier over - k/ft 0.592
section negative - k/ft 0.377
section positive - k/ft 0.292
) 15 . 1 ( 490 . 0
144
A
w
beam
beam


| |
k/ft 1.41 0.15
12
18
12
3.375
12
(9.5)
11.33
0.150 Stool Area Deck Area w
deck
= ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
⋅ + =


0.113 11.33 10 0 . 0 w
forms
= ⋅ = k/ft

A 0.20 ksf temporary construction live loading is also considered. It is
assumed to be acting full length on a single span concurrent with wet
concrete placement. In Table 6.9.6, DCtemp consists of girder
selfweight, form load and one span of concrete

DC2 consists of long-term dead loads, barrier and future wearing surface
(FWS). The load factor for FWS would be 1.5 (DW in Table 3.4.1-1) and
for the barriers would be 1.25 (DC). Mn/DOT uses a FWS of 0.020 ksf
with a 1.25 load factor.
k/ft 0.227 11.33 ksf 0.020 w
k/ft 0.175
5
2
k/ft 0.438 w
fws
girders
barriers
barrier
= ⋅ =
= ⋅ =


The splice plate is located 108 feet from the abutment bearing,
approximately 0.71 of the span. This location was chosen as the nearest
even foot along the span to the dead load inflection point during the
initial sizing. During the design iteration, this dead load inflection point
moved to approximately 0.68 of the span. The splice location for the
example will remain at the assumed location of 0.71 of the span.


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-33
All of the DC1 loads presented in the example include the 0.010 ksf load
associated with the formwork. This increases the strength design loads
by 2% but greatly simplifies the calculations. The load is applied to the
noncomposite section but is removed from the composite section. The
actual stresses are also dependent on the pour sequence for the deck.

In the following tables, Girder Point 0.0 is the centerline of bearing at the
abutment. Girder Point 1.0 is centerline of bearing at the pier. Due to
the symmetry of the span arrangement, for most loads only data for
Girder Points 0.0 to 1.0 is provided. However, due to the unsymmetric
loading considered during construction, values are provided for both
spans in Table 6.9.6.

Table 6.9.5 – Dead Load Bending Moments (unfactored)
DC1 Moment (K-FT) DC2 Moment (K-FT)
Girder
Point Girder
Slab
and
Stool
Forms TOTAL Barrier FWS TOTAL
0.1 198 954 77 1229 122 158 280
0.2 329 1582 127 2038 204 264 468
0.3 393 1884 151 2428 245 317 562
0.4 390 1860 150 2400 246 318 564
0.5 320 1511 121 1952 206 267 473
0.6 182 836 67 1085 125 163 288
0.7 -23 -165 -13 -201 5 6 11
0.71 * -47 -283 -23 -353 -10 -12 -22
0.8 -303 -1492 -120 -1915 -157 -203 -360
0.882
**
-598 -2823 -227 -3648 -319 -413 -732
0.895**
*
-650 -3054 -245 -3949 -347 -450 -797
0.9 -671 -3144 -253 -4068 -358 -464 -822
1.0 -1159 -5122 -412 -6693 -600 -778 -1378
* Field Splice
** Flange Butt Splice
*** First cross-frame off pier


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-34

For this design example, the constructibility checks in LRFD Article
6.10.3.2 use the loads provided in the following table (Table 6.9.6).

Table 6.9.6 – Construction Load Bending Moments (unfactored)
DCtemp Moment (K-FT)
Girder
Point Girder
Slab and
Stool Forms Total
LLtemp
Moment
(K-FT)
0.1 198 1210 77 1485 194
0.2 329 2094 127 2550 337
0.3 393 2652 151 3196 426
0.4 390 2885 150 3425 464
0.5 320 2792 121 3233 449
0.6 182 2373 67 2622 381
0.7 -23 1628 -13 1592 262
0.8 -303 557 -120 134 90
0.9 -671 -839 -253 -1763 -135
1.0 -1159 -2561 -412 -4132 -412
1.1 -671 -2305 -253 -3229 -371
1.2 -303 -2049 -120 -2472 -329
1.3 -23 -1793 -13 -1829 -288
1.4 182 -1537 67 -1288 -247
1.5 320 -1281 121 -840 -206
1.6 390 -1024 150 -484 -165
1.7 393 -768 151 -224 -124
1.8 329 -512 127 -56 -82
1.9 198 -256 77 19 -41

The truck train generated the controlling negative bending moment over
the pier. The distance between trucks in the train is variable but can be
no less than 50 feet. The largest moment was obtained when the
distance between the last axle of the first truck and the first axle of the
second truck was 119 feet.

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-35
Table 6.9.7 contains positive and negative live load moments due to
truck, lane, and truck train loading.

Table 6.9.8 lists the extreme positive and negative bending moments at
various girder points when the fixed axle fatigue truck is run across the
structural model.

Table 6.9.7 – Live Load Design Moments Per Lane (unfactored)
Girder
Point
Truck
Pos
Mom
(K-
FT)
Lane
Pos
Mom
(K-
FT)
Truck
Neg
Mom
(K-
FT)
Lane
Neg
Mom
(K-
FT)
Truck
Train
(K-
FT)
Positive*
Mom
(K-FT)
Negative**
Mom
(K-FT)
0.1 867 558 -124 -109 1711 -274
0.2 1457 967 -246 -218 2905 -545
0.3 1796 1228 -369 -326 3617 -817
0.4 1923 1340 -492 -435 3898 -1089
0.5 1863 1305 -615 -543 3783 -1361
0.6 1642 1123 -738 -652 3307 -1634
0.7 1278 792 -860 -761 -1199 2492 -2120
0.71 1234 749 -873 -772 -1217 2390 -2152
0.8 816 342 -983 -898 -1370 1427 -2448
0.882 396 111 -1083
-
1255
-1534 638 -2966
0.895 348 87 -1100
-
1335
-1626 550 -3148
0.9 329 78 -1106
-
1369
-1664 516 -3224
1.0 0 0 -1230
-
2174
-2459 0 -4900
*Positive Moment = [1.33 x Truck] + Lane
**Negative Moment = maximum of [1.33 x Truck]+Lane
or 0.9 x ([1.33 x Truck Train]+Lane)


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-36

Table 6.9.8 – Live Load Fatigue Moments Per Lane (unfactored)
Girder Point
Truck Positive
Moment
(K-FT)
Truck Negative
Moment
(K-FT)
Fatigue Moment
Range
(K-FT)
0.1 788 -119 1043
0.2 1307 -236 1774
0.3 1625 -354 2276
0.4 1715 -472 2515
0.5 1654 -590 2581
0.6 1469 -708 2504
0.7 1126 -826 2245
0.71 1084 -838 2210
0.8 667 -943 1852
0.882 306 -1039 1547
0.895 268 -1055 1521
0.9 253 -1061 1511
1.0 0 -1180 1357
*Moment Range = 1.15 x [Positive Moment – Negative Moment]

Table 6.9.9 presents the unfactored dead load shear forces at different
girder locations for different load components.


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-37

Table 6.9.9 – Dead Load Shear (unfactored)
DC1 Shear (K) DC2 Shear (K)
Girder
Point Girder
Deck
and
Stool
Forms TOTAL Barrier FWS TOTAL
0.0 -15 -73 -6 -94 -9 -12 -21
0.1 -11 -52 -4 -67 -7 -9 -16
0.2 -6 -31 -2 -39 -4 -5 -9
0.3 -2 -9 -1 -12 -1 -2 -3
0.4 2 12 1 15 1 2 3
0.5 7 34 3 44 4 5 9
0.6 11 55 4 70 7 9 16
0.7 16 77 6 99 9 12 21
0.71 * 16 79 6 101 10 12 22
0.8 21 98 8 127 12 15 27
0.842*
*
25 110 9 144 14 17 31
0.895*
**
27 118 10 155 14 19 33
0.9 28 119 10 157 15 19 34
1.0 37 141 11 189 17 22 39
* Field Splice
** First transverse stiffener
*** First cross-frame

Table 6.9.10 contains the dead load reactions at Girder Points 0.0 and
1.0. The reactions at Girder Point 1.0 are larger than the shear at Girder
point 1.0 because the reaction includes the load from both spans.

Table 6.9.10 – Dead Load Reactions (unfactored)
Girder Point DC1 Reaction (KIPS) DC2 Reaction (KIPS)
0.0 95 22
1.0 378 79


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-38
Table 6.9.11 contains the live load shear extremes for various live load
components: truck and lane. Per LRFD Article 3.6.1.3.1, truck train
loading is not to be used for shear.

Table 6.9.11 – Live Load Shear Per Lane (unfactored)
Girder
Point
Truck
Positive
Shear
(K)
Lane
Positive
Shear
(K)
Truck
Negative
Shear
(K)
Lane
Negative
Shear
(K)
Positive*
Shear
(K)
Negative*
Shear (K)
0.0 66 42 -8 -7 130 -18
0.1 57 32 -8 -8 108 -19
0.2 48 25 -13 -10 89 -27
0.3 39 18 -22 -13 70 -42
0.4 31 13 -31 -17 54 -58
0.5 24 8 -39 -23 40 -75
0.6 17 5 -47 -29 28 -92
0.7 11 3 -54 -36 18 -108
0.71 10 2 -55 -37 15 -110
0.8 6 1 -60 -45 9 -125
0.842 4 1 -63 -50 6 -134
0.895 2 0 -65 -53 3 -139
0.9 2 0 -65 -54 3 -140
1.0 0 0 -70 -63 0 -156
* = [1.33 x Truck] + Lane

Table 6.9.12 presents the live load reactions at the abutment (Girder
Point 0.0) and the pier (Girder Point 1.0). Similar to the dead load
reactions presented in Table 6.9.10, at the pier one can not simply take
the shear values to arrive at the reactions. The adjacent span influences
the magnitude of the reaction. Per LRFD Article 3.6.1.3.1 the truck train
loading needs to be considered for reactions at interior supports.

Table 6.9.12 – Live Load Reactions (unfactored)
Girder Point
HL-93 Truck + Lane
Reaction
(KIPS)
HL-93 Truck Train + Lane
Reaction
(KIPS)
0.0 130 -
1.0 221 273

The checks in this example begin with the strength checks on the
preliminary layout. Designers should be aware that deflections may
control the design. The deflection checks for this example are presented
in Section M.

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-39
At the strength limit state the girder is designed to carry factored dead
and live loads. The resisting section in the positive moment regions is the
composite section. In the negative moment regions, resistance is
provided by the girder plus deck reinforcement composite section.


a. Maximum Positive Design Moment
At 0.4 (60.8’) from each end, the maximum design positive flexure is:
Mu = 1.25·(2400+564) + 1.75·(3898)· 0.740
= 3705 + 5048 = 8753 kip-ft

b. Maximum Negative Design Moment
At the pier, the maximum design negative flexure is:
Mu = 1.25·(-6693-1378) + 1.75·(-4900)·0.799
= -10,089 – 6851 = -16,940 kip-ft

a. General Proportions
To ensure that the section functions as an “I” section, the LRFD
specifications contain requirements on the proportions of the web,
flanges, and overall cross section.

The general proportions check is the following:
9 . 0
I
I
1 . 0
y
yc
≤ ≤
where Iyc is the moment of inertia of the compression flange about a
vertical axis, and Iy is the moment of inertia of the girder about a vertical
axis.

For the typical positive moment section this becomes:

3
yc
18 875 . 0
12
1
I ⋅ ⋅ = = 425.3 in4

20 875 . 0
12
1
625 . 0 66
12
1
18 875 . 0
12
1
I
3 3
y
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = = 1009.9 in4

42 . 0
9 . 1009
3 . 425
I
I
y
yc
= = OK

For the negative moment section over the pier this becomes:

3
yc
20 75 . 2
12
1
I ⋅ ⋅ = = 1833.3 in4


3 3 3
y
20 75 . 2
12
1
625 . 0 66
12
1
20 75 . 2
12
1
I ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = = 3668 in4

[ 6.10.2.1]
G.1 Determine
Maximum Design
Moments
F. I - Sections in
Flexure –
I nvestigate The
Strength Limit
State
G.2 Code Checks

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-40
50 . 0
3668
3 . 1833
I
I
y
yc
= = OK

b. Web Slenderness
To ensure that lateral web deflections are not excessive, the following
check needs to be satisfied for webs without longitudinal stiffeners.
200
f
E
6.77
t
D 2
c w
c
≤ ⋅ ≤



where, Dc is the depth of the web in compression in the elastic range, tw
is the thickness of the web, E is the modulus of the web steel and fc is
the stress in the compression flange due to the factored loading under
investigation.

f
t d
t
f
c
f
c
f
c
D − ⋅
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
=

Section properties are from Tables 6.9.1 and 6.9.2, the moments are
from Tables 6.9.5 and 6.9.7 for the 0.4 Girder Point and the LL
Distribution factor is from Table 6.9.3. Start with the sum of the
compression stresses:
23.95
1503
12 2400 1.25
f
DC1
=
⋅ ⋅
= ksi

1.67
5079
12 564 25 . 1
f
DC2
=
⋅ ⋅
= ksi

92 . 3
15,443
12 0.74 3898 1.75
f
IM LL
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
+
ksi

Combining these terms produces:
29.54 92 . 3 1.67 23.95
IM LL
f
2 DC
f
1 DC
f
c
f = + + =
+
+ + = ksi

Next compute the sum of the tension flange stresses:
22.86
1575
12 2400 1.25
DC1
f =
⋅ ⋅
= ksi

15 . 4
2037
12 564 25 . 1
DC2
f =
⋅ ⋅
= ksi

18 . 27
2229
12 0.74 3898 1.75
IM LL
f =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
+
ksi

Combining these terms produces:
19 . 54 18 . 27 .15 4 22.86
IM LL
f
2 DC
f
1 DC
f
t
f = + + =
+
+ + = ksi

75 . 67 875 . 0 66 875 . 0 d = + + = in
[ 6.10.2.2]
[ C6.10.3.1.4a]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-41
tf = 0.875 in

Substituting back into the equation produces:
02 . 23 875 . 0 75 . 67
19 . 54 54 . 29
54 . 29
f
t d
t
f
c
f
c
f
c
D = − ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

+
= − ⋅
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
= in

The upper limit for the check is:
1 . 212
29.54
29,000
6.77
f
E
6.77
c
= ⋅ = ⋅ > 200, Use 200

The web slenderness check with values inserted becomes:
OK ; 00 2 .7 73
0.625
23.02 2
t
D 2
w
c
≤ =

=



Table 6.9.13A – Web Slenderness Check Along the Girder – Unfactored
Moments
Moments
Girder Point
DC1 (K-FT) DC2 (K-FT) LL+IM (K-FT)
0.1 1229 280 1711
0.2 2038 468 2905
0.3 2428 562 3617
0.4 2400 564 3898
0.5 1952 473 3783
0.6 1085 288 3307
0.7 -201 11 2492
0.8 -1915 -360 -2448
0.9 -4068 -822 -3224
1.0 -6693 -1378 -4900

Table 6.9.13B – Web Slenderness Check Along the Girder – Section
Properties
Girder
Point
Sc
(in3)
Sc3n
(in3)
Scn
(in3)
St
(in3)
St3n
(in3)
Stn
(in3)
tf (in)
0.1 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.2 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.3 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.4 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.5 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.6 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.7 1503 5079 15,443 1575 2037 2229 0.875
0.8 2252 2451 2451 2252 3250 3250 1.38
0.9 4057 4246 4246 4057 5114 5114 2.75
1.0 4057 4246 4246 4057 5114 5114 2.75


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-42
Table 6.9.13C – Web Slenderness Check Along the Girder – Results
Girder
Point
Dc
(IN)
2Dc/tw
c
f
E
77 . 6
Limit Check is
0.1 23.89 76.46 299.4 200.0 OK
0.2 23.76 76.03 232.2 200.0 OK
0.3 23.51 75.24 212.2 200.0 OK
0.4 23.02 73.67 212.1 200.0 OK
0.5 21.98 70.35 232.1 200.0 OK
0.6 19.24 61.58 297.6 200.0 OK
0.7 1.37 4.40 1577.5 200.0 OK
0.8 34.48 110.3 208.8 200.0 OK
0.9 34.62 110.8 208.1 200.0 OK
1.0 34.57 110.6 164.7 164.7 OK

c. Flange Proportions
For the compression flange, a check is made to ensure that the web is
adequately restrained by the flange to control web bend buckling. The
width of the compression flange must be equal to at least 30 percent of
the depth of the web in compression.

c f
D 0.3 b ⋅ ≥

where Dc is the same value computed in Table 6.9.13

Table 6.9.14 – Compression Flange Proportion Check
Girder Point Dc (IN)
0.3 x Dc
(IN)
bf (IN)
Check
0.1* 23.89 7.17 18 OK
0.2 23.76 7.13 18 OK
0.3 23.51 7.05 18 OK
0.4 23.02 6.91 18 OK
0.5 21.98 6.60 18 OK
0.6 19.24 5.77 18 OK
0.7 1.37 0.41 18 OK
0.8 34.48 10.34 20 OK
0.9 34.62 10.39 20 OK
1.0** 34.57 10.37 20 OK
* - controlling case for 18” flange
** - controlling case for 20” flange

For the tension flange, a simple check with flange width and flange
thickness is made to ensure that the flange will not distort excessively
during fabrication. The check also provides a measure of safety that the
flange has good proportions in the event of a stress reversal.
[ 6.10.2.3]
[ 6.10.2.3- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-43
12.0
t 2
b
f
f




where bf and tf of the tension flange are provided in Figure 6.9.3. Table
6.9.15 contains the results of the check for all of the Girder Points.

Table 6.9.15 – Tension Flange Proportion Check
Girder Point bf (IN) tf (IN) bf/2·tf
Check
12
f
t 2
f
b



0.1 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.2 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.3 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.4 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.5 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.6 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.7 20 0.875 11.43 OK
0.8 20 1.375 7.27 OK
0.9 20 2.75 3.64 OK
1.0 20 2.75 3.64 OK

a. Categorization of Flexural Resistance
The procedure for evaluating the flexural strength of a girder in
accordance with the LRFD Specifications is quite involved. To clarify the
steps involved, a flow chart is included in the commentary to LRFD Article
6.10.4. Figure 6.9.6 contains a copy of the flow chart.

The girder cross section has a constant web height. It is considered a
constant depth section. It also utilizes Grade 50 steel, has no holes in
the tension flange, and the web does not contain longitudinal stiffeners.
Consequently we can enter the flow chart at the upper left box.

With the two-span continuous girder, the nominal flexural resistance for
the positive moment section is potentially impacted by the negative
moment section. Thus, determine first the compactness of the negative
section, then check what portion of 6.10.4.2.2 (if any) can be followed.

[ 6.10.2.3- 2]
G.3 Strength Limit
State – Flexural
Resistance
[ 6.10.4]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-44

Figure 6.9.6

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-45

b. Negative Moment Section Compact-Section Check
First check the following equation to determine if the web is compact:

y w
cp
F
E
3.76
t
D 2
⋅ ≤





Figure 6.9.7

Dcp is the depth of the web in compression at the plastic moment. The
location of the plastic neutral axis (PNA) can be determined with the
equations and figures contained in the Appendix to LRFD Section 6. The
figure in the appendix for Negative Bending Sections is provided in this
example as Figure 6.9.7.
Pt = Force in the top flange = 50·20·2.75 = 2750 kips

Pw = Force in the web = 50·66·0.625 = 2063 kips

Pc = Force in the bottom flange = 50·20·2.75 = 2750 kips

From Figure 6.9.4, Art = 8.84 in2 and Arb = 4.30 in2

Prt = Force in the top mat of rebar = 60·8.84 = 530.2 kips

Prb = Force in the bottom mat of rebar = 60·4.30 = 257.7 kips

With the force components known, the location of the plastic neutral axis
can be checked to see if it is located in the web or top flange of the
section. If the combined force in the web and bottom flange is greater
than the sum of the remaining force components the plastic neutral axis
is located in the web.

Pw + Pc = 2063 + 2750 = 4813 kips
[ 6.10.4.1.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-46

Pt + Prb + Prt = 2750 + 257.7 + 530.2 = 3538 kips

The plastic neutral axis is in the web.

The location of the plastic neutral axis can be found with the equation in
the appendix for Case I.
(
¸
(

¸

+
− −
⋅ =

1
P
P P P P
2
D
y
w
rt rb t c



(
¸
(

¸

+
− − −
⋅ = 1
2063
530.2 257.7 2750 2750
2
66
= 20.40 in

The depth of web in compression is the difference between D and y .
Dcp = D - y = 66.0 – 20.4 = 45.6 in

Returning to the web slenderness check in Article 6.10.4.1.2.
145.9
0.625
(45.6) 2
t
D 2
w
cp
=

=



The maximum value for a compact web with 50 ksi steel is:
90.6
50
29,000
3.76
F
E
3.76
y
= ⋅ = ⋅ < 145.9

Therefore, the web is not compact. Consequently, the section is
noncompact. Proceed down in the flow chart to the box with the heading
Article 6.10.4.1.4 and check the slenderness of the compression flange.
12
t 2
b
f
f




12 64 . 3
2.75 2
20
≤ =



The compression flange slenderness check is satisfied. Proceed to the
right in the flow chart to the box with the heading Article 6.10.4.1.9 and
determine the required bracing spacing for the bottom flange near the
pier.

y
t p b
F
E
r 1.76 L L ⋅ ⋅ = ≤

Lb is the length between compression flange brace points. If the flange
is not adequately braced, it may not be able to reach yield stress. rt is
the radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one third of the web
in compression.
[ Equation
6.10.4.1.4- 1]
[ Equation
6.10.4.1.9- 1]
[ Table A6.1- 2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-47
1834
12
0.625
3
34.42
12
20 2.75
I
3 3
rt
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ +

= in4

62 0.625
3
34.42
2.75 20 A
rt
= ⋅ + ⋅ = in2

in 5.43
62
1834
r
t
= =

Substitute rt into the equation to arrive at the lateral bracing limit for
plastic bending.
230
50
29,000
5.43 1.76 L
p
= ⋅ = in

From the framing plan, cross frames are located 16 feet away from the
centerline of the pier.
192 ft 16 L
b
= = in

This is less than Lp (230 inches), so adequate bracing is provided to
compute the flexural resistance of the section with the non-lateral
torsional buckling flexural resistance equations. Proceed to the right in
the flow chart to the box with the heading Article 6.10.4.2.4.

c. Negative Region Flexural Strength
Begin by checking the capacity of the compression flange.
cr h b n
F R R F ⋅ ⋅ =

where Rb is the load shedding factor, Rh is the hybrid factor, and the
equation for Fcr is provided in LRFD Article 6.10.4.2.4.
If
c
b
w
c
f
E
t
D 2
⋅ λ ≤

then Rb is 1.0.

If the inequality is not satisfied a more refined equation must be used to
evaluate Rb. Within the inequality, Dc is the depth of the web in
compression in the elastic range and fc is the stress in the compression
flange due to factored loading.
57 . 34 D
c
= in (from Table 6.9.13C)

= =
2
66
2
D
33 in


2
D
D
c
> therefore
b
λ = 4.64

[ 6.10.4.2.4]
[ 6.10.4.3.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-48
Now plug values into the inequality. First the left side:
=

=

625 . 0
57 . 34 2
t
D 2
w
c
110.6

Now compute fc
48.98 f
c
= (Table 6.9.13C)

The right side of the inequality becomes

98 . 48
000 , 29
64 . 4
f
E
c
b
⋅ = ⋅ λ = 112.9 > 110.6

Therefore, Rb = 1.0.

The cross section uses 50 ksi steel throughout, therefore Rh = 1.0

Now compute the maximum stress in the compression flange prior to
incorporating the Rb and Rh multipliers.
yc
w
c
2
f
f
cr
F
t
D 2
t 2
b
E 1.904
F ≤

|
|
.
|

\
|


=

398.0
110.1
(2.75) 2
20
(29,000) 1.904
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|


= ksi which is > 50 ksi, Fcr = 50 ksi

The maximum stress permitted in the compression flange can now be
computed.
Fn= (1)·(1)·(50) = 50.0 ksi

The compressive stress in the flange under factored loads has been
computed earlier as fc.
Fu = fc = 48.98 < 50.0 ksi

Therefore, the compression flange is okay.

Now check the tension flange.

The load shedding factor for the tension flange is:
Rb = 1.0

The cross section uses 50 ksi steel throughout, therefore
Rh = 1.0

The yield strength of the tension flange is 50 ksi (Fyt)

The maximum stress permitted in the tension flange is
[ 6.10.4.3.1a]
[ 6.10.4.2.4a]
[ 6.10.4.2.4b]
[ 6.10.4.3.2.b]
[ 6.10.4.3.1a]
[ 6.10.4.2.4b]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-49
Fn = (1)·(1)·(50) = 50 ksi

The tension stress in the top flange under factored loads is
12
5114
(0.799) (4900) 1.75
5114
(1378) 1.25
3892
(6693) 1.25
f
t

(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅
+

+

=
= 45.9 ksi

Fu = ft = 45.9 < 50.0 ksi

Therefore, the tension flange is okay.

The negative moment section has adequate flexural capacity.

d. Positive Moment Compact-Section Check
Now check the capacity of the positive moment section at the 0.4 Girder
Point. Return to the flow chart and enter it in the upper right hand
corner in the box with the heading Article 6.10.4.1.2. Check if the web is
compact. For the web to be compact the following inequality must be
satisfied:
y w
cp
F
E
3.76
t
D 2
⋅ ≤



To determine Dcp use Appendix A from Section 6. The figure for load
components for positive bending sections is presented in Figure 6.9.8.


Figure 6.9.8

[ 6.10.4.1.23]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-50
To simplify computations neglect the Prt and Prb terms.
Pc = Force in the top flange = 50·0.875·18 = 787.5 kips

Pw = Force in the web = 50·0.625·66 = 2063 kips

Pt = Force in the bottom flange = 50·0.875·20 = 875 kips

Ps = Force in the slab = 0.85·4·(9·117+1.5·18) = 3672 kips

Begin by checking Case I (PNA in the web of the girder).

2938 2063 875 P P
w t
= + = + kips

3672 5 . 787 P P
s c
+ = + = 4459.5 > 2938

Therefore the PNA is not in the web.

Try Case II (PNA in the top flange)
5 . 3725 5 . 787 2063 875 P P P
c w t
= + + = + + kips

3672 P
s
= < 3725.5 kips

Therefore the PNA is in the top flange. Use the equation in the appendix
to locate the position of the PNA in the top flange.

(
¸
(

¸

+
− +

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

+
− +

(
¸
(

¸

= 1
5 . 787
3672 875 2063
2
875 . 0
1
P
P P P
2
t
y
c
s t w c
=0.03 in

With the PNA located in the top flange the entire web is in tension. This
in turn implies that Dcp is zero and the inequality in Article 6.10.4.1.2 is
satisfied. For the positive moment section the web is compact.

The note on the flow chart for the asterisk states that for composite
sections in positive flexure, certain Articles are considered automatically
satisfied. Proceeding to the right from the box in the upper left-hand
corner we arrive at three boxes with asterisks. These boxes are
automatically satisfied. We proceed to the right and arrive at the box in
the upper right hand corner with the heading Article 6.10.4.2.1 or
6.10.4.2.2.

The span under consideration is continuous, with a negative flexural
region over the interior support that is noncompact. The LRFD
Specifications recognize the reduced capacity for load redistribution in
spans with noncompact sections. The positive flexural section is typically
not permitted to reach the plastic moment capacity (Mp) in such cases.

[ 6.10.4.2.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-51
Compute the capacity with the Approximate Method. This method
requires the computation of My. The procedure for determining My is
presented in Appendix A6.2 of the LRFD Specifications.

n
AD
n 3
2 DC
nc
1 DC
y
S
M
S
M
S
M
F + + =

Rearrange and solve for MAD, the additional moment required to reach
yield in a flange.

(
¸
(

¸

− − ⋅ =
n 3
2 DC
nc
1 DC
y n AD
S
M
S
M
F S M

The additional moment for the bottom flange is

(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ =
2037
12 564 25 . 1
1575
12 2400 25 . 1
50 2229 M
AD

= 51,244 k-in = 4270 k-ft

And the additional moment for top flange is

(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ =
5079
12 564 25 . 1
1503
12 2400 25 . 1
50 443 , 15 M
AD

= 376,534 k-in = 31,378 k-ft

A smaller additional moment is required to yield the bottom flange,
therefore MAD = 4270 k-ft
4270 564 25 . 1 2400 25 . 1 M M M M
AD 2 DC 1 DC y
+ ⋅ + ⋅ = + + = = 7975 k-ft

The nominal flexural resistance based on LRFD Equation 6.10.4.2.2a-3
can now be computed.
7975 1 3 . 1 M R 3 . 1 M
y h n
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = = 10,367 k-ft

The flexural resistance determined with Equation 3 can be no more than
the value computed for the case where the negative flexural section is
compact. The limiting value for this case is that computed with Equation
1 or 2. To determine which equation should be used, compute Dp and
D’.
03 . 0 5 . 1 9 y t t D
h s p
+ + = + + = = 10.53 in


5 . 7
5 . 1 9 75 . 67
7 . 0
5 . 7
t t d
' D
h s
+ +
⋅ =
+ +
⋅ β = = 7.3 in

Dp is greater than D’ and less than 5·D’, therefore Equation 2 is to be
used. Compute Mp using the Case II Equation in Appendix A6.1 Table
A6.1-1.
( ) | | | |
t t w w s s
2
c
2
c
c
p
d P d P d P y t y
t 2
P
M ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + − + ⋅

=

[ Equation
6.10.4.2.2a- 3]
[ Equation
6.10.4.2.2b- 2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-52

2
9
5 . 1 03 . 0
2
t
t y d
s
h s
+ + = + + = = 6.03 in


2
66
03 . 0 875 . 0
2
D
y t d
c w
+ − = + − = = 33.85 in

) 03 . 0 875 . 0 ( 66
2
875 . 0
) y t ( D
2
t
d
c
t
t
− + + = − + + = = 67.28 in

Substituting P, d, t, and y terms into the equation for Mp results in
( ) | |
| | 28 . 67 875 85 . 33 2063 03 . 6 3672
03 . 0 875 . 0 ) 03 . 0 (
875 . 0 2
5 . 787
M
2 2
p
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ +
− + ⋅

=

= 151,166 k-in = 12,597 k-ft

Use LRFD Equation 6.10.4.2.2a-2 to compute the limiting flexural
resistance for the positive moment region.

(
(
¸
(

¸


− ⋅
+
⋅ − ⋅
=
' D
D
4
M M 85 . 0
4
M 85 . 0 M 5
M
p p y y p
n


(
¸
(

¸


− ⋅
+
⋅ − ⋅
=
30 . 7
53 . 10
4
597 , 12 7975 85 . 0
4
7975 85 . 0 597 , 12 5
M
n

= 11,954 k-ft

The 11,954 k-ft value from equation 2 is more than the 10,367 k-ft value
obtained with Equation 3. Therefore the flexural resistance of the
positive moment section is 10,367 k-ft.
74 . 0 3898 75 . 1 ) 564 ( 25 . 1 ) 2400 ( 25 . 1 M
u
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
= 8753 < 10,367 k-ft

Therefore, the positive moment section has adequate flexural strength.

e. Constructibility
The capacity of the girders should be evaluated during construction, prior
to composite action carrying the loads. For this example, the check
consists of placing selfweight and formwork on both spans, while deck
dead loads and a 20 psf construction live load is placed on one span.

Load factors for this check are based on the values provided in LRFD
Article 3.4.2, where 1.25 is used on dead loads and 1.5 is used on live
loads. The factored construction moment for the positive moment
section is:

temp temp temp u
LL 5 . 1 DC 25 . 1 M ⋅ + ⋅ =
) 464 ( 50 . 1 ) 3425 ( 25 . 1 M
temp u
⋅ + ⋅ = = 4977 k-ft

[ 6.10.3.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-53
We return to the flow chart to evaluate the constructibility of the girder.
Enter the flow chart at the box in the lower left-hand column with the
heading Article 6.10.3.2.2.
The first check for constructibility is to ensure that the bending stress fcw
in the web is not too large.
ksi 50 F
t
D
k E 0.9
f
yw
2
w
cw
= ≤
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

⋅ α ⋅ ⋅


0.875 34.66
52,106
12 4977
t y
I
M
f
f
-
t
temp u
cw


= = = 38.72 ksi

Without longitudinal stiffeners in the web, α = 1.25
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
2
2
c
0.875 - 34.66
66
9
D
D
9.0 k 34.35

Substituting values into Equation 6.10.3.2.2-1 results in
ksi 50 ksi 5 . 100
625 . 0
66
35 . 34 1.25 29,000 0.9
2
≥ =
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅
, set the limit at 50 ksi

ksi 50 F 72 . 38 f
yw cw
= ≤ = , so the bending in the web is satisfactory.

Proceed up in the flow chart to the box with the heading of Article
6.10.4.1.4.

The top flange satisfies the aspect ratio inequality in Article 6.10.4.1.4.
12 29 . 10
875 . 0 2
18
t 2
b
f
f
≤ =

=



Proceed to the right in the flow chart to the box with the heading of
Article 6.10.4.1.9. Check if the bracing spacing is less than Lp. If so, the
non-lateral-torsional buckling equations are to be used to compute the
capacity of the section.

yc
t p
F
E
r 76 . 1 L ⋅ ⋅ =


12
0.625
3
0.875 - 34.66
12
18 0.875
I
3 3
rt
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ +

= = 425.5 in4
[ 6.10.3.2.2- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-54

0.625
3
0.875 - 34.66
.875 0 18 A
rt
⋅ + ⋅ = = 22.79 in2

in .32 4
22.79
425.5
r
t
= =

Substituting values into the equation for Lp produces:
50
000 , 29
32 . 4 76 . 1 L
p
⋅ ⋅ = = 183 in

From the framing plan, cross frames are spaced at 30 feet in the positive
moment region (Lb = 360 inches). Lb is greater than Lp. Therefore the
flexural resistance of the section is less than My and the lateral-torsional
buckling equations are used. Proceed down and to the right in the flow
chart to the box with the heading Article 6.10.4.2.5 or 6.10.4.2.6. Begin
by checking the following inequality to see if Equation 1 can be used:
y
b
w
c
F
E
t
D 2
⋅ λ ≤



The left side of the inequality is
1 . 108
625 . 0
) 875 . 0 66 . 34 ( 2
t
D 2
w
c
=
− ⋅
=



Over half the web is in compression (top flange smaller than bottom
flange), therefore λb = 4.64. The right side of the inequality becomes:
7 . 111
50
000 , 29
64 . 4
F
E
y
b
= ⋅ = λ ⋅ > 108.1

Therefore, the inequality is satisfied and equation can be used:
y h
2
b yc b
yc
h b n
M R
L
d
87 . 9
I
J
772 . 0
L
I
R C E 14 . 3 M ⋅ ≤
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

J is the Saint Venant torsional constant and can be found with:
3
t b t b t D
J
3
t t
3
f f
3
w
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
=
86 . 13
3
875 . 0 18 875 . 0 20 625 . 0 66
3 3 3
=
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= in4

The weak axis moment of inertia of the top flange is:
4
3
yc
in 425
12
875 . 0 18
I =

=

Rh = 1.0 and d = 67.75 in

[ 6.10.4.2.6]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-55
Due to the uncertainties associated with the construction loads, use a
moment gradient correction factor (Cb) of 1.00.

Substituting values into the moment equation produces:
2
n
360
75 . 67
87 . 9
425
86 . 13
772 . 0
360
425
0 . 1 0 . 1 000 , 29 14 . 3 M |
.
|

\
|
⋅ + |
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

810 , 65 = kip-in = 5484 kip-ft

Compute the yield moment (My) and substitute in values to arrive at the
maximum flexural resistance.
,150 75 1503 50 0 . 1 S F R M R
xc y h y h
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ kip-in = 6262 k-ft

Use Mn = 5484 kip-ft

The flexural resistance of 5484 k-ft is greater than the factored moment
of 4977 k-ft. Use a cross frame spacing of 30 feet.

Overload provisions in past AASHTO design specifications controlled the
amount of permanent deflection and the performance of slip-critical
connections. The Service II load combination is used in a similar fashion
for LRFD designs.
Service II = 1.00·(DC+DW)+1.3·LL

The narrative in LRFD Article 6.10.5.1 states that the web bending stress,
fcw, shall satisfy the LRFD Equation 6.10.3.2.2-1.
ksi 50 F
t
D
k E 0.9
f
yw
2
w
cw
= ≤
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ α ⋅ ⋅


12
0.875) - (8.54
131,943
0.74 (3898) 1.30
0.875) - (19.40
98,515
(564)
0.875) - (34.66
52,106
(2400)

S
gM (3898) 1.3
S
(564)
S
(2400)
f
) n ( web ) n 3 ( web (nc) web
cw

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅
+ + =
⋅ ⋅
+ + =


= 22.6 ksi

There are no longitudinal stiffeners in the web, 25 . 1 = α . To arrive at a
conservative k value use the Dc value of the noncomposite section
35 . 34
0.875 - 34.66
66
9
D
D
9.0 k
2
2
c
= |
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =

[ 6.10.5.1]
[ 6.10.3.2.2- 1]
H. I nvestigate the
Service Limit State
[ Equation
6.10.4.2.6a- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-56
Plug in the values to arrive at the limiting stress
ksi 5 . 100
625 . 0
66
35 . 34 1.25 29,000 0.9
2
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ ⋅


The upper limit is capped by the material strength of 50 ksi
fcw = 22.6 ksi ≤ 50 ksi, so the web bending stress is satisfactory.

For composite sections the stress in the flanges, ff, when subjected to
Service II load combinations must be less than 95 percent of the yield
strength of the flange. The noncompact web section over the pier limits
the stress in the flanges to Fy when evaluating strength load
combinations. The sections should readily pass this check due to the
smaller load factors associated with the Service II load combination.
ksi 47.5 F 0.95 f
y f
= ⋅ ≤

a. Positive Flexural Region
Top Flange
ksi 47.5 ksi 23.4 12
15,443
0.74 (3898) 1.3
5079
564
1503
2400
f
f
≤ = ⋅
(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅
+ + =

Bottom Flange
ksi 5 . 47 ksi .8 41 12
2229
0.74 (3898) 1.3
2037
564
1575
2400
f
f
≤ = ⋅
(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅
+ + =

b. Negative Flexural Region
Top Flange
ksi 47.5 ksi 35.0 12
5114
0.799 (4900) 1.3
5114
1378
4057
6693
f
f
≤ = ⋅
(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅
+ + =

Bottom Flange
ksi 47.5 ksi 38.1 12
4246
0.799 (4900) 1.3
4246
1378
4057
6693
f
f
≤ = ⋅
(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅
+ + =

Only details with fatigue resistance Category C or lower resistance need
to be evaluated during design. Details that are classified as Category B’
and above no longer need to be checked.

To improve the fatigue resistance of steel superstructures, Mn/DOT
attaches cross frame connection plates and transverse stiffeners to the
tension flange with a bolted connection.

[ 6.10.5.2]
H.1 Flange Stress
Limitations
I . I nvestigate the
Fatigue Limit State
[ 6.6.1.2.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-57

The HL-93 truck is used to generate the fatigue loads that are used to
evaluate different components of a design. For fatigue, the HL-93 truck
has a fixed rear axle spacing of 30 feet. In addition, a load factor of 0.75
is applied to calibrate the stresses to those observed in field studies. The
dynamic load allowance for fatigue loading is 15 percent. Distribution for
fatigue is equal to the one design lane loaded distribution, with the
multiple presence factor removed (if approximate equations are used for
one lane loaded).


resistance fatigue nominal F) (

range stress Load Live f) (
0.75 fatigue for factor load γ
F) ( f) ( γ
n
n
= ∆
= ∆
= =
∆ ≤ ∆ ⋅


The unfactored fatigue moments in Table 6.9.8 are multiplied by the
fatigue load factor (0.75) and the appropriate distribution factor to arrive
at the design moment ranges for fatigue. In Table 6.9.16 the stresses at
the top of the top flange are computed by dividing the design moment
range by the composite (n) section modulus.

For this example, the details with fatigue resistances less than B’ that
should be investigated for fatigue are: the shear studs attached to the
top flange and the web to connection plate/stiffener welds. Details
subject to stress ranges less than ½ the infinite life fatigue threshold are
assumed to have infinite life. The ½ factor accounts for the probability
that some vehicles larger than the HL-93 fatigue truck will cross the
bridge.

Designers should note that the fatigue distribution factor for the exterior
girder is significantly larger (0.676 versus 0.434) than that of the interior
girders.
[ 6.6.1.2.2]
I .1 Fatigue
Loading
[ 3.6.1.4]
I .2 Check Largest
Stress Range
Location

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-58

Table 6.9.16 – Fatigue Range (Truck Moments and Moment Range from
Table 6.9.8)
Fatigue
Loads Per Lane
Girder
Point
Truck
Positive
Moment
(K-FT)
Truck
Negative
Moment
(K-FT)
Moment*
Range
(K-FT)
Design**
Moment
Range
(K-FT)
Top
Stress
(KSI)
Bottom
Stress
(KSI)
0.1 788 -119 1043 315 0.24 1.70
0.2 1307 -236 1774 536 0.42 2.89
0.3 1625 -354 2276 688 0.53 3.70
0.4 1715 -472 2515 760 0.59 4.09
0.5 1654 -590 2581 780 0.61 4.20
0.6 1469 -708 2504 757 0.59 4.08
0.7 1126 -826 2245 679 0.53 3.66
0.71 1084 -838 2210 668 0.52 3.60
0.8 667 -943 1852 603 2.23 2.95
0.842 306 -1039 1547 504 1.86 2.47
0.895 268 -1055 1521 495 1.16 1.40
0.9 253 -1061 1511 492 1.15 1.39
1.0 0 -1180 1357 442 1.04 1.25
* Includes 15% Dynamic Load Allowance
**Girder Point 0.1 – 0.7: (Moment Range) x 0.75 x 0.403
Girder Point 0.71 – 1.0: (Moment Range) x 0.75 x 0.434

The top flange has welded shear studs that are a Category C detail.
Category C details have a constant amplitude fatigue threshold of 10.0
ksi. The shear connectors are attached to the top flange of the section.
From Table 6.9.16 the largest top flange stress range occurs at Girder
Point 0.71 (2.23 ksi). This value is below ½ of the constant amplitude
fatigue threshold (5.0 ksi). Therefore, the shear studs are assumed to
have an infinite fatigue life.

Mn/DOT Detail B411 provides the cope detail for stiffeners and
connection plates. The connection to the tension flange is with a bolted
tab plate which is a Category B detail which need not be evaluated. The
stiffeners and connection plates are welded to the web of the girder. Per
Detail B411 this weld terminates approximately 3 inches above or below
the tension flange. The weld between the stiffener and web is classified
as a C’ fatigue detail that requires investigation.

I .3 Top Flange
With Shear Studs

[ Table 6.6.1.2.3- 1]
[ Table 6.6.1.2.5- 3]
I .4 Stiffener To
Web Weld
[ Table 6.6.1.2.3- 1]
[ Table 6.6.1.2.5- 3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-59
The constant amplitude fatigue threshold for C’ details is 12.0 ksi and the
assumed infinite life fatigue threshold is 6.0 ksi. Reviewing Table 6.9.16
indicates that neither flange has a stress range over 4.20 ksi. The web
to stiffener welds are subject to a smaller stress range than the flanges.
By inspection, fatigue resistance is adequate.

Adequate resistance to load induced flexural fatigue is provided.

To control out-of-plane flexing of the web under repeated live loading the
following constraints are placed on webs.

Flexure Check
The following check compares the flange stress to a maximum value.
This assumes that the stress in the web due to flexure is approximately
the same as that found in the flange.
If
yw w
F
E k
95 . 0
t
D ⋅
⋅ ≤

the maximum compression flange stress (fcf) is Fyw (50 ksi). Otherwise
a more involved equation needs to be used. The value for “k” has been
previously computed as 34.35.
6 . 105
625 . 0
66
t
D
w
= =

6 . 105 1 . 134
50
000 , 29 35 . 34
95 . 0
F
E k
95 . 0
yw
> =

⋅ =



Therefore,
yw cf
F f ≤

The live load used for this check is twice that presented in Table 6.9.16.

In the positive moment region at the 0.4 Girder Point
ksi 50.0 ksi 7 . 21 12
15,443
760 2
5079
564
1503
2400
f
cf
≤ = ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =

In the negative moment region at the 1.0 Girder Point
ksi 50 ksi 7 . 28 12
4246
442 2
4246
1378
4057
6693
f
cf
≤ = ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =

Shear Check
The computations for the resistance of the web in shear is based on the
following equation:
yw cf
F ) C ( 58 . 0 v ⋅ ⋅ ≤

[ Equation
6.10.6.4- 1]
I .5 Fatigue
Requirements for
Web
[ 6.10.6.3]
[ 6.10.6.3- 1]
[ 6.10.6.2]
[ 6.10.6.4]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-60
Where vcf is the maximum elastic shear stress in the web due to
unfactored permanent load and fatigue loading. C is defined in LRFD
Article 6.10.7.3.3a. It is the ratio of shear buckling stress to shear yield
strength.

Assume an unstiffened web.
6 . 105
625 . 0
66
t
D
w
= =

5
66
5
5
D
d
5
5 k
2 2
o
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ =

32 . 74
50
0 . 5 000 , 29
38 . 1
F
k E
38 . 1
yw
=

⋅ =



395 . 0
50
0 . 5 000 , 29
625 . 0
66
52 . 1
F
k E
t
D
52 . 1
C
2
yw
2
w
=
(
¸
(

¸


(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
¸
(

¸



(
¸
(

¸

=

50 0.395 0.58 F (C) 0.58 v
yw cf
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ≤ 5 . 11 v
cf
≤ ksi

Table 6.9.17 – Shear Fatigue
Fatigue
(per lane, no impact) Girder
Point
DC1
Shear
(K)
DC2
Shear
(K)
Minimum
Shear (K)
Maximum
Shear (K)
Vcf*
(K)
vcf**
(KSI)
0.0 94 21 -8 61 181 4.4
0.1 67 16 -8 52 140 3.4
0.2 39 9 -9 43 95 2.3
0.3 12 3 -17 35 53 1.3
0.4 -15 -3 -27 26 -47 -1.2
0.5 -44 -9 -34 20 -90 -2.2
0.6 -70 -16 -42 14 -132 -3.2
0.7 -99 -21 -50 8 -174 -4.2
0.711 -101 -22 -50 8 -177 -4.3
0.8 -127 -27 -56 4 -215 -5.2
0.842 -144 -31 -61 2 -241 -5.9
0.895 -155 -33 -62 2 -255 -6.2
0.9 -157 -34 -62 2 -258 -6.3
1.0 -189 -39 -67 0 -301 -7.3
* DC1+DC2+(Maximum Shear or Minimum Shear) x 0.725 x 0.75 x 2.0
** Vcf / (66 x 0.625)

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-61
Based on an unstiffened web, the shear stresses at all girder points are
well below the 11.5 ksi permitted. The web satisfies the shear fatigue
checks. If stiffeners are added later, the resistance of the web will
increase and the check will still be satisfied.

Within the commentary to LRFD Article 6.10.7.1 a flow chart identifies
the steps for the shear design of I-sections. A copy of the flow chart is
provided below in Figure 6.9.9



Figure 6.9.9

The cross section is homogeneous or non-hybrid. Move down the flow
chart on the right hand side. Determine the maximum shear capacity of
the section with an unstiffened web and compare that to the required
shear resistance.

p n
V C V ⋅ =

1196 625 . 0 66 50 58 . 0 t D F 58 . 0 V
w yw p
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = kips

C is dependent on the web depth to thickness ratio.

J . Strength Limit
State Shear
Resistance
[ 6.10.7]
[ 6.10.7.2- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-62
6 . 105
625 . 0
66
t
D
w
= =

The appropriate equation for C is selected based on how slender the web
is:
3 . 74
50
5 000 , 29
38 . 1
F
k E
38 . 1
yw
=

⋅ =

⋅ < 105.6

Therefore,

| |
395 . 0
50
5 000 , 29
6 . 105
52 . 1
F
k E
t
D
52 . 1
C
2
yw
2
w
=
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ =
(
(
¸
(

¸



(
¸
(

¸

=

The capacity of the unstiffened web is:
473 1196 395 . 0 V
n
= ⋅ = kips

473 V V
n r
= ⋅ φ = kips

Assume the critical section for shear is at Girder Point 1.0. Based on
Tables 6.9.3, 6.9.9, and 6.9.11, the factored shear force over the pier is:
kips 589 304 285 1.112 156 1.75 ) 39 (189 1.25 V
u
= + = ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ = >
n
V ⋅ φ

The resistance of an unstiffened web is less than the demand of 589 kips;
therefore transverse stiffeners are required near the pier.

Check the handling requirements. The maximum D/tw ratio permitted is
150. The web for the design example has a D/tw ratio of 105.6;
Equation 1 is satisfied. Investigate Equation 2. The maximum
transverse stiffener spacing that satisfies the handling check is:
in 400
2
105.6
260
66
2
D/t
260
D
w
=
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ =
(
¸
(

¸



To satisfy LRFD Article 6.10.7.1, the maximum spacing of transverse
stiffeners is three times the depth of the web:
in 198 (66) 3 D 3 = ⋅ = ⋅

Where required, transverse stiffeners can be spaced no further apart
than 198 inches.

Go to Article 6.10.7.3.3b to determine the required shear stiffener
spacing for a noncompact section.

Try a 8 foot spacing for transverse stiffeners (a cross frame is located at
16 foot and 32 foot distances from Girder Point 1.0).
[ 6.10.7.3.2]
J .1 Pier Section
[ 6.10.7.3.3a- 7]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-63

Compute k for a stiffener spacing of 96 inches.
36 . 7
66
96
5
5
D
d
5
5 k
2 2
o
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ =

16 . 90
50
36 . 7 000 , 29
38 . 1
F
k E
38 . 1
yw
=

⋅ =

⋅ < 105.6

582 . 0
50
36 . 7 000 , 29
625 . 0
66
52 . 1
F
k E
t
D
52 . 1
C
2
yw
2
w
=
(
¸
(

¸


(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
¸
(

¸



(
¸
(

¸

=

For Girder Point 1.0, under factored loads, the compression flange has a
stress of 49.0 ksi, and a resistance of 50.0 ksi. Therefore, fu is greater
than 75 percent of Fy and LRFD Equation 6.10.7.3.3b-2 is used to arrive
at the resistance of the stiffened web. Begin by computing the “R” and
“Vp” parameters:
632 . 0
5 . 37 50
49 50
4 . 0 6 . 0
F 75 . 0 F
f F
4 . 0 6 . 0 R
y f r
u r
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸



⋅ + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ϕ ⋅ −

⋅ + =

kips 1196 625 . 0 66 50 58 . 0 t D F 58 . 0 V
w yw p
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

Substituting into Equation 2, one arrives at:

(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+
− ⋅
+ ⋅ ⋅ =
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+
− ⋅
+ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2
o
p n
66
96
1
) 582 . 0 1 ( 87 . 0
582 . 0 1196 632 . 0
D
d
1
) C 1 ( 87 . 0
C V R V
= 595 kips

However, Vn should also be larger than C·Vp = 0.582·1196 = 696 kips

The resistance of 696 kips is more than the demand of 589 kips. An 8
foot stiffener spacing works over the pier. Next, determine where
transverse stiffeners can be dropped.

At 24 feet away from the pier, the shear demand is:
Vu = 1.25·(144+31) + 1.75·(134)·1.112 = 480 kips
Which is slightly greater than the 473 kip resistance of the unstiffened
web.
[ 6.10.7.3.3b- 3]
[ 6.10.7.3.3b- 2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-64
The second cross-frame from the pier is the 0.789 point in the span. At
the 0.8 location the shear demand is:
436 112 . 1 ) 125 ( 75 . 1 ) 27 127 ( 25 . 1 V
8 . 0
= ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ = kips

Therefore, provide stiffeners or cross frame connection plates to at least
32 feet away from the pier.

Begin by checking if the unstiffened web has adequate capacity.

For an unstiffened web the shear buckling coefficient (k) is equal to 5.
This leads to a “C” coefficient of 0.395 when using LRFD Equation
6.10.7.3.3a-7. Knowing Vp and C, the shear resistance for the end panel
can be computed.
Vn = C·Vp = 0.395·1196 = 473 kips

At Girder Point 0.0 the shear demand is:
397 253 144 ) 112 . 1 ( ) 130 ( 75 . 1 ) 21 94 ( 25 . 1 V
u
= + = ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ = < 473 kips

The web has adequate capacity at the abutment without stiffeners.

It will be shown that
3
/
8
” x 5” stiffeners satisfy the code requirements for
transverse stiffeners, however, they are very thin. Ideally the size of the
stiffener should be coordinated with the cross frame connection plates.
Fabrication of the girder will be simplified if only one plate size and
thickness is welded to the web at non bearing locations. In addition,
transverse stiffeners and diaphragm connection plates should be detailed
with widths that are in quarter inch increments. This provides the
fabricator additional flexibility. They can either cut the stiffeners and
connection plates out of large mill plate or utilize standard flat bar stock.

Transverse stiffeners are required near the pier. Mn/DOT’s Bridge Detail
B411 (Stiffener Details) address the constraints placed on stiffeners in
LRFD Article 6.10.8.1.1.

The dimensions of transverse stiffeners are required to fall within
geometric constraints based on section depth, flange width, and
projecting element thickness.

Begin with the projecting width constraint:
inches 38 . 4
30
5 . 71
0 . 2
30
d
0 . 2 b
t
= + = + ≥

The constraint based on flange width is:
inches 0 . 5 20 25 . 0 b 25 . 0 b t 0 . 16
f t p
= ⋅ = ⋅ ≥ ≥ ⋅
[ 6.10.7.3.3c]
J .2 Abutment
Section
J .3 Transverse
Stiffener Design
[ 6.10.8.1]
[ 6.7.3]
[ 6.10.8.1.2- 1]
[ 6.10.8.1.2- 2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-65

Try a pair of 5-inch stiffeners. Each must be at least 3/8-inch thick, per
Mn/DOT Detail B402 or B407.

In addition to good aspect ratios, the stiffeners must also have adequate
area and moment of inertia. Check the minimum required moment of
inertia to comply with LRFD Article 6.10.8.1.3.
5 . 0 818 . 0 0 . 2
96
66
5 . 2 0 . 2
d
D
5 . 2 J
2
2
o
≥ − = −
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ = −
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ =

Therefore, J = 0.5.

The required stiffness of the stiffeners is:
Required 72 . 11 5 . 0 625 . 0 96 J t d I
3 3
w o t
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ≥ in4

The stiffeners inertia taken about the center of the web is:
Actual 5 . 37 625 . 10 375 . 0
12
1
I
3
t
= ⋅ ⋅ = > 11.72 in4

Adequate stiffness is provided. Check to see if the area satisfies Article
6.10.8.1.4. Begin by determining Fcr.
50 73 . 50
375 . 0
5
000 , 29 311 . 0
t
b
E 311 . 0
F
2 2
p
t
cr
≤ =
(
¸
(

¸


=
(
(
¸
(

¸


= ; Fcr = 50 ksi

2
w
cr
yw
r
u
w
s
t
F
F
18
V
V
) C 1 (
t
D
B 15 . 0 A ⋅ ⋅
(
(
¸
(

¸


(
¸
(

¸

⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ≥

With B = 1.0 for stiffener pairs:
8 . 4 625 . 0
50
50
18
696
589
) 582 . 0 1 (
625 . 0
66
0 . 1 15 . 0 A
2
s
− = ⋅ ⋅
(
¸
(

¸


(
¸
(

¸

⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ≥

The web provides adequate resistance, consequently, the required area
of the stiffeners is negative.


For welded plate girders, bearing stiffeners are needed at both the
abutments and piers.

Abutment Bearing
The reaction to be carried by the bearing stiffeners is:
kips 397 112 . 1 ) 130 ( 75 . 1 ) 21 94 ( 25 . 1 B
u
= ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ =
Similar to transverse stiffeners, there are constraints on the geometry of
bearing stiffeners.
J .4 Bearing
Stiffener Design
[ 6.10.8.2.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-66

For a first try, assume the resistance bearing stress is approximately 35
ksi for 50 ksi stiffeners. Approximately 11.3 square inches of bearing
stiffener is required. Assume half is placed on each side (5.65 square
inches). Further, assume that the bearing stiffeners extend almost to the
outside edges of the narrower flange, which is the top flange and 18
inches in width near the abutment. Try a ¾” x 8” (Area = 6 in
2
) bearing
stiffener on each side of the web.

Begin by checking the projecting width.
67 . 8
50
000 , 29
75 . 0 48 . 0
F
E
t 48 . 0 0 . 8 b
ys
p t
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ≤ = OK

The bearing resistance check is based on the net area of steel in contact
with the flange. Assuming a 1½ inch cope at the bottom of the stiffener
in accordance with the B411 detail.
488 50 ) 2 ) 5 . 1 0 . 8 ( 75 . 0 ( 0 . 1 F A B
ys pn b r
= ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ϕ = > 397 kips OK

The axial resistance of the bearing stiffener is found using the methods of
Article 6.9.2.1. Where restraint against buckling is provided in the plane
of the web and the effective length of the column is 75 percent of the
height of the web.

The stiffener will act like a column while supporting the bearing reaction.
The effective section consists of the stiffeners, plus 18·(thickness of the
girder web) (see Figure 6.9.10).

The area for this column is:
A = 0.75 · 8.0 · 2 + 11.25 · 0.625 = 19.03 in2

The moment of inertia about the girder web is:
4 . 287 625 . 16 75 . 0
12
1
625 . 0 5 . 10
12
1
I
3 3
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

The radius of gyration is:
886 . 3
03 . 19
4 . 287
A
I
r = = =

Check the width/thickness limits of Article 6.9.4.2
84 . 10
50
000 , 29
45 . 0
F
E
k 67 . 10
75 . 0
0 . 8
t
b
y
= ⋅ = ⋅ ≤ = = OK

[ Equation
6.10.8.2.3- 1]
[ 6.10.8.2.4b]
[ Equation
6.10.8.2.2- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-67


Figure 6.9.10
“Column” for Bearing Stiffener at Abutment


The effective length (KL) of the column is 0.75·D=0.75·66 = 49.5 inches.
Substitute values into the equation for λ.
0283 . 0
000 , 29
50
886 . 3
5 . 49
E
F
r
Kl
2
y
2
= ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

π ⋅
= ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

π ⋅
= λ

Use LRFD Equation 6.9.4.1-1 to arrive at the nominal compression
resistance.
kips 940 03 . 19 50 66 . 0 A F 66 . 0 P
0283 . 0
s y n
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =
λ


Multiply the nominal resistance by the resistance factor to arrive at the
factored compression resistance.
kips 846 940 90 . 0 P P
n c r
= ⋅ = ⋅ ϕ =

which is greater than the 397 kips required

[ 6.9.4.1- 3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-68
Therefore, use a pair of ¾” x 8” bearing stiffeners at the abutments.
Using the same design procedure, a pair of 1½” x 9” bearing stiffeners
are adequate to carry the factored pier reaction of 1103 kips.

LRFD Article 6.10.7.4.1 discusses the design of shear connectors.
Connectors are to be placed along the full length of the girder, including
negative moment regions, because the girder is designed as composite
for negative moment.

Shear connectors are designed to satisfy fatigue constraints after which a
strength check is performed. Assume that
7
/
8
inch diameter shear
connectors will be used.

The minimum transverse spacing for connectors is 4.0 stud diameters.
For
7
/
8
inch diameter studs, this translates into a minimum spacing of
3
1
/
2
inches. The minimum clear distance from a stud to the edge of a
flange is 1.0 inch. With a 18 inch top flange width, the maximum
number of stud spaces placed in a line across the flange is:

spaces 3 . 4
5 . 3
875 . 0 ) 1 ( 2 18
=
− ⋅ −


Five studs across the flange is permissible, but use 4 shear studs at each
location.

The pitch or longitudinal spacing of sets of 4 shear studs is dictated by
LRFD Equation 6.10.7.4.1b-1.
Max
Q V
I Z n
p
sr
r

⋅ ⋅


where p is the pitch of the studs, n is the number of studs provided at a
location, Zr is the fatigue resistance of an individual connector, I is the
short-term moment of inertia, and Q is the first moment of the deck area
or the rebar area about the neutral axis of the short-term composite
section.

The shear fatigue resistance of an individual connector is based on the
number of fatigue cycles anticipated. The resistance of a connector is
also no less than 2.75·d2. This lower value corresponds to the resistance
for a stud subjected to approximately 26,200,000 cycles. Assume that
the connectors on the center girder are being designed. Also assume
that both traffic lanes generate fatigue loadings in the center girder.
Using 1.5 cycles per truck passage and a 75-year design life, 26.2 million
cycles is achieved with only 320 trucks per day in each direction.
[ 6.10.7.4.2- 1]
K. I nvestigate the
Shear Connector
Design

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-69

6
10 x 28 . 26 75 320 365 2 5 . 1 N = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = cycles

744 . 2 N log 28 . 4 5 . 34 = ⋅ − = α

kips 10 . 2 ) 875 . 0 ( 744 . 2 d Z
2 2
r
= ⋅ = ⋅ α =

The inertia values are taken from Table 6.9.2. For the positive moment
region I = 131,943 in4 and for the negative moment region use an I of
96,048 in4 (value for the smaller negative moment section). Now
compute the “Q” values. For the positive moment region:
3
in 1914
2
9
1.5 8.54 9 117
8
1
2
s
t
stool
t
y
s
t b
n
1
Q = + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

And for the negative moment region.
248 . 4
30 . 4 84 . 8
94 . 1 30 . 4 37 . 5 84 . 8
d
avg _ r
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
⋅ + ⋅
= in from bottom of deck


| | | | | | | |
3
in 464
4.25 1.5 29.56 4.30 8.84
r_avg
d stool
t
y
rb
A
rt
A Q
=
+ + ⋅ + = + + ⋅ + =


Knowing n, Zr, I, and Q leaves the pitch to be a function of the fatigue
shear force range. For the positive moment region
Max
sr sr sr
r
V
1 . 579
1914 V
943 , 131 10 . 2 4
Q V
I Z n
p =

⋅ ⋅
=

⋅ ⋅


For the negative moment region the required pitch is
Max
sr sr sr
r
V
1739
464 V
048 , 96 10 . 2 4
Q V
I Z n
p =

⋅ ⋅
=

⋅ ⋅


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-70

Table 6.9.18 – Shear Connector Spacing Computations
Girder
Point
Negative
Shear
(K)
Positive
Shear
(K)
Fatigue*
Shear
gVf.
LL
Shear**
Range
(K)
Max P
(positive)
Max P
(negative)
Max
P
limit
(in)
l***
0.0 -8 61 0.725 43 13.4 - 24
0.1 -8 52 0.725 38 15.4 - 24
0.2 -9 43 0.725 33 17.8 - 24
0.3 -17 35 0.725 33 17.8 - 24
0.4 -27 26 0.725 33 17.5 - 24
0.5 -34 20 0.725 34 17.0 - 24
0.6 -42 14 0.725 35 16.5 - 24
0.7 -50 8 0.725 36 16.0 - 24
0.8 -56 4 0.725 38 - 46.4 24
0.9 -62 2 0.725 40 - 43.5 24
1.0 -67 0 0.725 42 - 41.5 24
* Interior Girder Distribution Factor
** [maximum-minimum]·1.15 · 0.75 · gVf
*** The maximum limit for spacing of shear connectors is 24 inches per
LRFD Article 6.10.7.4.1b

By inspection, the negative moment criteria is satisfied if sets of two
studs are placed on a 20 inch spacing.

To positively anchor the longitudinal reinforcment considered part of the
section in the negative moment region, additional studs need to be
placed in the vicinity of the dead load contraflexure points. The number
of additional studs, nac, required are:

r
sr r
ac
Z
f A
n



where Zr is the shear resistance of a single stud (2.10 kips), Ar is the
total area of longitudinal reinforcement within the effective flange width
in the negative moment area (13.14 in2) and fsr is the stress range in
the reinforcement. Using the composite section property information for
the smaller negative moment section contained in Table 6.9.2, the
section modulus for the rebar can be computed. The average height of
the rebar above the concrete stool is 4.25 inches.

| |
3
r
in 2720
4.25 1.5 29.56
96,048
S =
+ +
=

K.1 Determine
Anchor Studs at
Contraflexure
Points [ 6.10.7.4.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-71
The fatigue moment range at Girder Point 0.71 can be found in Table
6.9.8. It is 2210 k-ft. Multiplying by the load factor (0.75) and the
interior girder distribution factor of 0.725 results in a moment of
in - k 14,420 0.725 0.75 12 2210 M = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

The stress in the rebar is
ksi 30 . 5
2720
420 , 14
S
M
f
r
sr
= = =

Plugging values into the equation, results in
2 . 33
10 . 2
30 . 5 14 . 13
Z
f A
n
r
sr r
ac
=

=

= studs Use 9 sets of 4 studs

They need to be placed within a length equal to
1
/
3
of the effective width
of the deck on each side of the contraflexure point. The effective deck
width is 117 inches, two-thirds of which is 78 inches. Dividing this
dimension by 8 (for 9 sets of studs) results in a spacing of 9
3
/
4
inches.
Place 9 sets of 4 studs at 9 inch centers near the contraflexure point.

In addition to anchorage studs and fatigue studs, adequate studs need to
be provided to ensure that the cross sections can generate the flexural
resistance computed earlier.

For positive moment areas, the lesser of the capacity of the deck or the
capacity of the steel section need to be provided on each side of the point
of maximum positive moment. The capacity of the deck is
kips 3580 9 117 4 85 . 0 t b ' f 85 . 0 V
s c h
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

The capacity of the steel section is
| | kips 3725 875 . 0 18 875 . 0 20 625 . 0 66 50
t b F t b F t D F V
f f yc t t yt w yw h
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =


Provide resistance for 3580 kips on each side of the positive moment
peak location. The nominal resistance of a shear connector is

u sc c c sc n
F A E ' f A 5 . 0 Q ⋅ ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

kips 36 60 60 . 0 F A & kips 0 . 36 3605 4 60 . 0 5 . 0
u sc
= ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

Use a resistance of 36 kips for each shear stud at the strength limit state.
Each side of the positive moment peak requires
99.4
kips/stud 36
kips 3580
= shear studs, say 100 studs

K.2 Strength Limit
State [ 6.10.7.4.4]
[ 6.10.7.4.4c- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-72
For the negative moment region, each side of the pier must have
sufficient shear studs to develop the capacity of the longitudinal
reinforcement in the deck.
kips 788 60 14 . 13 F A V
yr r h
= ⋅ = ⋅ =

studs shear 22
kips/stud 36
kips 788
=

The final details for the shear studs need to satisfy all three constraints:
fatigue design, anchorage of negative reinforcement, and strength
design. After reviewing the constraints, the layout provided in Figure
6.9.13 satisfies all three constraints.

Several items need to be considered when locating and designing field
splices for steel girders. Typically, splices are located near inflection
points to minimize the flexural resistance required of the connection. In
addition, designers need to ensure that adequate clearance is provided to
transverse stiffeners, cross-frame connection plates, etc.

As a general rule, designers should limit the number of plate thicknesses
used in a splice. The splice used for this example has only three plate
thicknesses (
3
/
8
”,
1
/
2
”, and
5
/
8
”) used for the web splice plates, the flange
splice plates, and the fill plates.

The number of limit states and loading conditions to consider in the
design of a splice is significant. Construction, Service II (permanent
deflection), Fatigue, and Strength limit states should all be evaluated. In
most cases, the Strength Limit state will dictate the plate sizes and the
number of bolts. Fatigue will not be investigated. The bolted
connections used in the splice are Category B details. Per LRFD Article
6.6.1.2.3, only details with resistances below Category B require
investigation. For this example, the Strength I limit state governs the
design and only calculations related to this limit state are shown.

Typically, three splice plates are used for each flange and two splice
plates are used for the web. This permits all of the bolts to function in
double shear and minimizes the number of bolts required.

As the size of splice plates are considered, it is prudent to look at the
change in plate sizes on both sides of the splice. The thickness of fill
plates can be determined prior to any design of the connection. For this
example, the top flange on the left is
7
/
8
” x 18” and on the right is 1
3
/
8
” x
20”. The fill plate for the top flange splice will have a thickness of
1
/
2
”.
The web on both sides of the splice is
5
/
8
”. No fill plate will be necessary
L. I nvestigate
the Field Splice
Design

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-73
for the web. The bottom flange on the left is
7
/
8
” x 20”. The bottom
flange on the right is 1
3
/
8
” x 20”. A
1
/
2
” fill plate will be required for the
bottom flange splice. Using splice plates of a
1
/
2
” thickness, the number
of plate thicknesses required for the splice will be minimized.

The loads at the location of the splice are as follows:
Table 6.9.19 - Loads at Girder Point 0.71 (without load factors)
Component Moment (k-ft) Shear (k)
Girder -47 16
Deck and Stool -306 79
Barrier and FWS -22 22
Positive LL+I 0.744 · 2390 = 1769 1.112 ·15 = 16.7
Negative LL+I
0.799 · (-2152) = -
1719
1.112 · (-110) = -123
Positive Fatigue
0.403 · 1.15 · 1084 =
502
0.725 · 1.15 · 8 = 6.7
Negative Fatigue
0.433 · 1.15 · (-838) =
-417
0.725 · 1.15 · (-50) = -
41.7

The loads are applied to the noncomposite, short-term composite (n),
and long-term composite (3·n) cross sections. To arrive at design
stresses for the splice plates, the loads are applied to the appropriate
section. The stresses from the load components are then factored to
arrive at design stresses. Flange splices are based on mid-flange
stresses. Web splices can conservatively be based on mid-flange
stresses or can use the stresses at the top and bottom of the web. The
strength of the splice is based on the capacity of the smaller girder
framing into the connection. For this example, the positive moment
section is the smaller capacity member.


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-74

Table 6.9.20 - Section Properties for Splice Design
Section
Parameter
Noncomposite
Long-term
Composite
(3·n)
Short-term
Composite (n)
Neg Pos
Moment
Moment
Moment of Inertia
(in4)
52,106 70,371 70,371 131,943
yt (in) 34.66 28.6 28.6 8.54
yb (in) 33.09 39.15 39.15 59.21
Top Flange Thickness
(in)
0.875 0.875 0.875 0.875
Bottom Flange
Thickness (in)
0.875 0.875 0.875 0.875
Smid top flange (in3) 1523 2499 2499 16,284
Stop web (in3) 1542 2538 2538 17,214
Sbottom web (in3) 1617 1839 1839 2262
Smid bottom flange
(in3)
1596 1818 1818 2245
The design will be based on the resistance of bolts when the threads are
not excluded from the shear planes. Consequently, the assumed
capacity of the bolt to resist shear and slip are comparable. For
7
/
8

diameter A325 bolts the resistance to shear is 43.9 kips per bolt with two
shear planes (before fill plate reductions). The slip resistance required
for the Service II load combination, is 39.0 kips per bolt with two shear
planes.

Table 6.9.21 Flexural Stress Components (Negative LL+IM)
DC1 DC2 LL Strength I
Top Flange
(ksi)
2.78 0.11 8.26 18.06
Top of Web
(ksi)
2.75 0.10 8.13 17.79
Bottom of
Web (ksi)
-2.62 -0.14 -11.22 -23.09
Bottom
Flange (ksi)
-2.65 -0.15 -11.35 -23.36


Splices should be capable of resisting both positive and negative moment
live load conditions. Only the computations for the negative moment

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-75
case will be presented in this example. Reasons for this include: the
dead loads produce negative moments at the splice location, the positive
live load moments are smaller than the negative moments, and a smaller
composite structural section resists negative loads compared to positive
loads.

Top Flange Splice
Flange splices shall be designed to provide a minimum resistance design
stress of either:

2
yf
F
f
h
R
cf
f
cf
F
(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ φ ⋅ α +
=

or


yf
F
f
75 . 0 ⋅ φ ⋅ α ⋅

whichever is greater.

For Strength I loading, the top flange has a factored flange stress of
18.06 ksi.
03 . 34
2
50 1 1
1
06 . 18
cf
F =
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ ⋅ +
= ksi

or

50 . 37 50 1 1 75 . 0 = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ksi Controls

kips 591 875 . 0 18 5 . 37 t b 5 . 37 = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

In order to assume that the flange force is evenly distributed between
the outer and inner splice plates, the cross sectional areas of the plates
need to be approximately the same. In addition, the area of the outer
plate and the sum area of the inner plates each need to have a cross
sectional area which is approximately half that of the flange. Try an
outer splice plate that is
1
/
2
” x 18” (area = 9 in
2
). Try inner splice plates
that are
5
/
8
” x 7
1
/
2
” (area = 4.69 in
2
).

Now compute the resistance of a
7
/
8
” diameter A325 bolt. The fill plate
for the top flange is thicker than
1
/
4
inch. Consequently, the fillers need
to be extended or the capacity of the bolts reduced. For this example,
the capacity of the bolts will be reduced (using LRFD Equation
6.13.6.1.5-1). Assume the filler plate is as wide as the flange. Ap is the
smaller of:

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-76
| | 75 . 15 875 . 0 18 = ⋅ in2

| | | | 38 . 18 5 . 7
8
5
2 18
2
1
= ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ + ⋅ in
2

57 . 0
75 . 15
5 . 0 18
p
A
f
A
=

= = γ

73 . 0
) 57 . 0 2 1 (
) 57 . 0 1 (
) 2 1 (
) 1 (
R =
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ +
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

γ ⋅ +
γ +
=

The capacity of a
7
/
8
” diameter A325 bolt with threads in the shear plane
is:
kips 2 . 40 73 . 0 2 120 601 . 0 38 . 0 R N F A 38 . 0 R
s ub b n
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

The number of bolts required on the fill plate side of the connection is:
bolts 4 . 18
2 . 40 80 . 0
591
2 . 40
s
591
=

=
⋅ ϕ


Use five rows of four bolts on each side of the splice.

The top flange is a tension flange under negative moment live load.
Check yielding on the gross sections and fracture on the net sections.
The outer plate and the inner plates must each carry 295.5 kips (591/2).

Outer Splice Plate
Yielding on the gross section
kips 5 . 295 5 . 427 5 . 0 18 50 95 . 0 t b F
y y
≥ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ϕ

Fracture on the net section
1 ) 1 4 18 ( 5 . 0 65 80 . 0 U ) 1 4 b ( t
u
F
u
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ϕ
kips 5 . 295 364 ≥ =

Inner Splice Plates
Yielding on the gross section
kips 5 . 295 3 . 445 625 . 0 5 . 7 2 50 95 . 0 t b 2 F
y y
≥ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ϕ

Fracture on the net section
) 1 2 5 . 7 ( 2 625 . 0 65 80 . 0 ) 1 2 b ( 2 t F
u u
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ϕ
kips 5 . 295 8 . 357 ≥ =
[ 6.13.6.1.5- 1]
[ 6.8.2.1- 1]
[ 6.8.2.1- 2]
[ 6.8.2.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-77

Bolt Bearing
Check the bearing on the smaller flange plate (element carrying the
double shear load)
4 . 119 65 875 . 0 875 . 0 4 . 2
u
F t d 4 . 2
n
R = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = > 40.2 kips OK

Block Shear Check
Check block shear on a transverse section through the smaller flange
plate with the design force for the flange.
| | 47 . 12 875 . 0 9375 . 0 4 18
tn
A = ⋅ ⋅ − = in
2

4 . 648 47 . 12 65 80 . 0
tn
A
u
F
bs r
R = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ φ = > 591 kips OK

Bottom Flange Splice
The procedure for designing the splice of the bottom flange is the same
as the design of the top flange with one exception, it’s a compression
flange instead of tension flange. As a result, the sole check on the plates
is against yield of the gross area and
c
φ value of 0.90 is used as part of
the check.

Like the top flange, the splice plates for the bottom flange should be
balanced for the load to be shared equally between inner and outer
plates. Try an outer splice plate that is
1
/
2
” x 20” (area = 10 in
2
). Try
inner splice plates that are
5
/
8
” x 8
1
/
2
” (area = 5.31 in
2
).

Under Strength I loading the bottom flange has a factored flange stress
of 23.36 ksi.
kips 656 875 . 0 20 5 . 37 t b 5 . 37 = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

The resistance of a
7
/
8
” diameter A325 bolt in the bottom flange with a
1
/
2
” fill plate can now be determined. Again, assume the filler plate is as
wide as the flange.
57 . 0
875 . 0 20
5 . 0 20
A
A
p
f
=


= = γ

73 . 0
) 57 . 0 2 1 (
) 57 . 0 1 (
) 2 1 (
) 1 (
R =
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ +
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

γ ⋅ +
γ +
=

The capacity of a
7
/
8
” diameter A325 bolt with threads in the shear plane
is:
kips 2 . 40 73 . 0 2 120 601 . 0 38 . 0 R N F A 38 . 0 R
s ub b n
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

The number of bolts required on the fill plate side of the connection is:
[ Equation
6.13.4- 1]
[ Equation
6.13.2.9- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-78
bolts 4 . 20
2 . 40 80 . 0
656
2 . 40
656
s
=

=
⋅ ϕ


Use 5 sets of four bolts on each side of the splice.

Check compression yielding on the gross sections. The outer plate and
the inner plates must each carry 328 kips (656/2).

Outer Splice Plate
Yielding on the gross section
kips 328 450 5 . 0 20 50 90 . 0 t b F
y c
≥ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ϕ

Inner Splice Plates
Yielding on the gross section
kips 328 478 625 . 0 5 . 8 2 50 90 . 0 t b 2 F
y c
≥ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ϕ

Bolt Bearing
Check the bearing on the smaller flange plate (element carrying the
double shear load)
4 . 119 65 875 . 0 875 . 0 4 . 2
u
F t d 4 . 2
n
R = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = > 40.2 kips OK

Block Shear Check
Check block shear on a transverse section through the smaller flange
plate with the design force for the flange.
| | 22 . 14 875 . 0 9375 . 0 4 20
tn
A = ⋅ ⋅ − = in
2

4 . 739 22 . 14 65 80 . 0
tn
A
u
F
bs r
R = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ φ = > 656 kips OK

Web Splice
The web is designed to carry the entire factored vertical shear force. In
addition it must carry the moment due to the eccentricity of the shear
force and the flexural moment which the web was assumed to carry. The
flexural stresses in the web are resolved into flexural and axial
(horizontal) components about mid-depth of the web. This allows the
bolt group on each side of the splice to be designed for the vertical shear,
the moment associated with the eccentricity of the vertical shear, the
web flexural moment, and the resultant horizontal force in the web.

The vertical shear force to be carried is:
kips 362 ) 123 ( 75 . 1 ) 117 ( 25 . 1 V
u
= ⋅ + ⋅ =

The nominal shear resistance of the unstiffened web is 473 kips. The
design shear force is the average of the resistance and Vu.
[ Equation
6.13.4- 1]
[ Equation
6.13.2.9- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-79
kips 417
2
) 473 362 (
2
) V V (
V
r u
uw
=
+
=
+
=

Assume a horizontal bolt pitch of 3 inches and two vertical rows of bolts
on each side of the splice. The eccentricity of the shear is the distance
from the center of the bolt pattern to the center of the splice:
25 . 3
2
5 . 3
2
3
= +

The moment associated with the vertical shear is:
in - k 1370 421 .25 3 M
v
= ⋅ =

For factored loads the flexural stress at the top of the web is 17.8 ksi and
the stress at the bottom of the web is 23.1 ksi. Similar to the flanges,
the web is to be designed for a stress of 75 percent of yield or 37.5 ksi.
Assume that the Strength I loads are scaled up such that the bottom
stress becomes 37.5 ksi (scale factor of 1.624). Using the same scale
factor, the stress at the top of the web is 28.9 ksi.


28.9 ksi 33.2 ksi -4.3 ksi



= +


-37.5 ksi -33.2 ksi -4.3 ksi

The section modulus of the web is:

3
3
in 454
66/2
66 (0.625) 1/12
c
I
S =
⋅ ⋅
= =

The flexural moment carried by the web with a stress of 33.2 ksi is:
in - k 15,080 .2 33 454 σ S M
b
= ⋅ = ⋅ =

The horizontal force generated in the web with an axial stress of 4.3 ksi
is:
kips 178 625 . 0 66 3 . 4 t D H
w H
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ σ =

The design forces for the web splice are:
Vuw = 417 kips
Huw = 178 kips
Muw = 15,080 + 1370 = 16,450 k-in


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-80
The values for Muw and Huw can also be calculated using equations
C6.13.6.1.4b-1 & 2.

The vertical shear and the horizontal force are assumed to be resisted
equally by all bolts in the fastener group. The force carried by each of
the bolts to resist flexure is assumed to be proportional to its distance
from the center of the fastener group.

The force in each of the bolts can be found with the following equations
from Johnston, Lin, and Galambos’ Basic Steel Design text:


− = + =
2
i
A x
xm xp xA
r
y M
n
P
R R R



− = + =
2
i
A
y
ym yp yA
r
X M
n
P
R R R

2
yA
2
xA A
R R R + =
Assuming two vertical rows of bolts on each side of the splice and 21
bolts in each row. Try a horizontal pitch of 3 inches and a vertical pitch
of 3 inches. The bolts at the corners of the fastener group will be subject
to the largest forces. The coordinates at the corners are x= ±1
1
/
2
inches
and y= ±30 inches. Summing the square of lever arms to all of the bolts
results in a Σri2 value of 13,955.

Substituting values in the above equations produces
kips 60 . 39
955 , 13
) 30 ( 450 , 16
42
178
r
y M
n
H
R
2
i
A uw
xA
=
− ⋅
− =

− =



kips 86 . 11
955 , 13
) 5 . 1 ( 450 , 16
42
421
r
x M
n
P
R
2
i
A
y
yA
=
− ⋅
− =

− =



kips 9 . 43 3 . 41 86 . 11 60 . 39 R R R
2 2 2
yA
2
xA A
≤ = + = + =

No fill plates are used in the web splice, consequently the entire 43.9 kips
of capacity per bolt can be used.

The plates used in the web splice must have adequate resistance to carry
the vertical shear. Two
3
/
8
” thick plates are being used for the splice.
Assume the plates are 63 inches tall (20 · 3 + 2 · 1
1
/
2
)
Gross area of the plates:

2
g
in 25 . 47 375 . 0 2 63 A = ⋅ ⋅ =


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-81
Assumed vertical shear resistance:
421 1370 25 . 47 50 58 . 0 A F 58 . 0 V
g y n
≥ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =

Bolt Bearing
Check the bearing on the web plate
3 . 83 65 625 . 0 875 . 0 4 . 2
u
F t d 4 . 2
n
R = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = > 40.2 kips OK

The stress in the web splice plates should be below yield when subjected
to Muw and Huw.

Section modulus of the web splice plates is:
1 . 496
3
63 375 . 0
3
D t
2 / D
1
12
D t
2 S
2
2
sp w
sp
3
sp w
=

=

= ⋅

⋅ =

Knowing the section modulus and the area of the plates, the stress can
be computed:
ksi 50 0 . 37
1 . 496
450 , 16
25 . 47
178
S
M
A
H
uw
g
uw
≤ = + = + = σ

The assumed web splice details have adequate capacity. The field splice
is detailed in Figure 6.9.11.





















Figure 6.9.11

[ Equation
6.13.2.9- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-82
Consider with the Service I load combination. No sidewalk or bicycle
path is provided on the bridge, in accordance with Mn/DOT policy, the
live load deflection limit is L/800. The maximum deflection permitted for
this example is:
L/800 = 152·(12)/800 = 1.82 in

Two live loads are applied to the bridge and evaluated for the deflection
check. Take the larger of:
• Design Truck alone
• 25% of Design Truck + Lane Loading

When computing deflections a separate distribution factor is used. It is
simply the number of design lanes divided by the number of girders.
Mn/DOT practice is to use a multiple presence factor for deflections of no
less than 0.75 (See Section 3.4.2). For this example, the distribution
factor is:
0.60 75 . 0
5
4
Girders of Number
Lanes Design of Number
MPF
g = ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ = ∆
The maximum deflections (like the moments) are based on the composite
section, including the deck in the negative regions. Not including
dynamic load allowance, the maximum deflections for a full lane or truck
are:
∆truck = 1.56 inches and occurs at 0.46 of span

∆lane = 1.30 inches and occurs at 0.46 of span

Including the distribution factor and adding the dynamic load allowance
results in the following live load deflections:

Maximum truck deflection
| | 25 . 1 56 . 1 6 . 0 33 . 1 g IM 1
truck
= ⋅ ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ + = < 1.82 in, OK

Maximum lane and truck deflection
09 . 1 30 . 1 60 . 0 25 . 1 25 . 0 g 25 . 1 25 . 0
lane
= ⋅ + ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ ∆ + ⋅ = < 1.82, OK

To ensure that steel bridges have the proper profile after construction,
they are fabricated with camber. Camber is an adjustment to the vertical
profile of a bridge. As dead loads are applied to the bridge during
construction, the bridge deflects.

The girders for this example, when rotated from their sides to a vertical
position, would deflect 0.72 inches downward at the 0.4 span point.
When the other DC1 dead loads (deck, stool) are added to the bridge, an
additional 3.69 inches of downward deflection is estimated for the 0.4
[ 3.6.1.3.2]
[ 2.5.2.6.2]
M. I nvestigate
Deflection
N. Camber

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-83
span point. The addition of barriers would add an additional deflection of
0.25 inches downward at the same location. Summing these values
results in an anticipated deflection of 4.66 inches. Deflections at 10th
points along the span are provided for selfweight, other DC1 loads, and
DC2 loads in the top of Figure 6.9.12.

The bottom of Figure 6.9.12 contains the camber diagram. In addition to
the anticipated deflection, a residual camber is also provided. The
residual camber is provided to prevent the appearance of sag in the span.

The residual camber provided is based on the span length. Mn/DOT’s
policy is to use 1
1
/
2
inches of residual camber for a span of 100 feet. For
each additional 10 feet of span add
1
/
8
inch of residual camber is added.

The camber for the 0.4 girder point is computed as:
| | 1.5
8
1
10
100 Span
deflection load dead camber + ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

+ =

| | 81 . 6 5 . 1
8
1
10
100 152
25 . 69 . 3 72 . 0 = + ⋅
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + , say 7 inches


Figure 6.9.12


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-84
Figure 6.9.13 contains a half elevation of the girder that summarizes the
design.
Figure 6.9.13

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-85
The end diaphragm is used to support the end of the deck and to transfer
wind load to the supports. It also is required to carry jacking loads if the
bearings are replaced. Relative to the jacking loads and the dead and
live loads the wind loads for this example are relatively modest. The end
diaphragm will be designed for two load combinations, Strength I where
dead and live loads are carried on a simple noncomposite span, and
Strength I where dead loads and jacking loads are carried on simple span
as well.

The design simple span length will be the distance between girders
increased for the skew. See Figure 6.9.14.



Figure 6.9.14
Length of End Diaphragm

Assume that the end diaphragm carries its own self weight, the weight of
a two foot strip of deck, and the additional weight of the thickened deck
at the joint. For dead load purposes, assume the additional thickness is
4 inches and that it is 14 inches wide.

Assume 50 pounds per lineal foot for the weight of the beam and steel
connections.

O. End
Diaphragm
Design
Dead Loads

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-86
The assumed dead load per foot is:
346 . 0
12
4
12
14
12
5 . 9
2 150 . 0 050 . 0 w
d
=
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + = kips/ft

Dead load shear is:
kips 09 . 2
2
06 . 12 346 . 0
2
L w
d
=

=



Dead load moment is
6.29
8
12.06 0.346
8
L w
2 2
d
=

=

kip-ft

Consider two live load cases, one where the lane of traffic is centered
between the girders, and a second one where one of the truck wheels is
placed at the center of the diaphragm. The two cases are presented in
Figure 6.9.15. For Case 1, the live load is centered between the girders
and the shear force is:
kips 9 . 21
2
10
2 064 . 0 3 . 21 V = ⋅ ⋅ + =

This assumes two feet of lane load and includes dynamic load allowance
on the wheel load. The moment for this case is:
ft - k 59.2
8
12.06 2 0.064
2.67 21.3 M
2
=
⋅ ⋅
+ ⋅ ≈

For Case 2, assume that the left wheel is just to the right of the interior
girder. This will produce a conservative design shear. The shear force
for this case is:
| | kips 0 . 32 064 . 0 2 8
06 . 12
67 . 7
3 . 21
06 . 12
67 . 5
3 . 21 V = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + =

The moment for this case is:
| | ft - k .4 58
2
6
0.128 6 8 2 0.064
12.06
7.67
6 21.3
12.06
5.67
M
2
= ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ≈

The shear force in the end diaphragms during jacking can be estimated
from the abutment reactions for the DC1 and DC2 loads. Jacking forces
have a 1.3 load factor. Assume that two jacks are used to lift each
interior girder and that they placed two feet away from the center of the
girder to clear the bearings.
kips 74.8
2
21) (94 1.3
2
DC2) (DC1 1.3
V
jack
=
+ ⋅
=
+ ⋅
=

[ 3.4.3.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-87


Figure 6.9.15
Live Load placement on End Diaphragm

CASE 1:
CASE 2:

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-88
With each jack positioned two feet from the girder the moment in the end
diaphragm is:
ft - k 125 2 74.8
12.06
10.06
M
jack
= ⋅ ⋅ =

By inspection, the jacking operation governs the design of the end
diaphragm. Begin by sizing a rolled beam based on shear capacity.
Assume the rolled section will satisfy the slenderness ratio to permit Vp
or 58 percent of the yield stress to be used.

2
y
DL jack
in 2.65
50 0.58
2.1 74.8
F 0.58
V V
=

+
=

+
web area required

For the moment, assume that the rolled beam can reach My. The
required section modulus for the beam is:

| |
3
y
jack DL
required
in .5 31
50
12 6.3 125
F
M M
S =
⋅ +
=
+
=

After reviewing section properties in the AISC Manual of Steel
Construction try a W12x30 section. It has the following dimensions:

Table 6.9.22 - W12 x 30 Properties
Area (in2) A 8.79
Depth (in) D 12.34
Web Thickness (in) tw 0.26
Flange Width (in) bf 6.52
Flange Thickness (in) tf 0.440
Section Modulus (in3) S 38.6
Radius of Gyration (in) rt 1.73

Determine the nominal shear capacity with LRFD Article 6.10.7.2.
1 . 44
26 . 0
) 440 . 0 ( 2 34 . 12
t
D
w
=
⋅ −
=

1 . 44 2 . 59
50
5 000 , 29
1 . 1
Fy
k E
1 . 1 > =

⋅ =



Therefore, C = 1.0 and the shear capacity of the beam is:
| | 26 . 0 44 . 0 2 34 . 12 50 58 . 0 1 V C V
p n
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
= 86 > 74.8 kips required

The flow chart for I-Sections in flexure (LRFD Figure C6.10.4-1) is used
to determine the resistance of the section. The plastic capacity of the
section will not be used. Enter the flowchart at the box with the heading
Article 6.10.4.1.4 and check the flange slenderness ratio.


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-89
0 . 12 4 . 7
440 . 0 2
52 . 6
t 2
b
f
f
≤ =

=



Move to the right in the flow chart to the box with the heading Article
6.10.4.1.9 and check bracing of the compression flange.
3 . 73
50
000 , 29
73 . 1 76 . 1
F
E
r 76 . 1 L
yc
t p
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = in

The distance between the gusset plates is approximately 60 inches which
is less than Lp. Use a flexural resistance of My.
930 , 1 6 . 38 50 S F M
y y
= ⋅ = ⋅ = k-in = 160.8 k-ft > 125 k-ft required

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-90


Figure 6.1

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-91


Figure 6.2

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-92


Figure 6.3

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-93


Figure 6.4

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-94



Figure 6.5

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-95


Figure 6.6

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-96

Figure 6.7

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 6-97

Figure 6.8


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-1

Timber is used for several bridge applications. It is used as a primary
structural material on secondary roads (E.g., timber decks, pile caps,
and piles) and is often used for formwork and falsework on bridges with
cast-in-place concrete elements. This section provides general design
and detailing guidance for the LRFD design of timber decks and pile
caps. It concludes with two design examples; a spike-laminated timber
deck and a timber pile cap. Information on timber piles is provided in
Section 10 – Foundations. Design guidance for timber railings can be
found in Section 13. Information on timber incorporated into the design
of formwork and falsework can be found in the Mn/DOT Bridge
Construction Manual. The construction of timber bridges is governed by
Mn/DOT Spec. 2403, Timber Bridge Construction.


A variety of materials are incorporated into timber bridges, ranging from
treated solid and laminated wood members to steel fasteners and
hardware.


Structural timbers shall be visually graded West Coast Douglas Fir or
Southern (Yellow) Pine satisfying Mn/DOT Spec. 3426. Designs should
be based on Douglas Fir-Larch resistance values.

The LRFD nominal resistance values assume wet-use conditions and
treatment with preservatives. Table 8.1.1.1 lists typical base resistance
values.


Table 8.1.1.1 – Base Resistance and Modulus of Elasticity Values
Visually-Graded Sawn Lumber
Base Resistance (KSI) Structural Component
Species/Grade
Member
Size F
bo
F
to
F
vo
F
cpo
F
co
E
o

Douglas Fir-Larch
No.1 & Better
b= 2-4 in
d ≥ 2 in
3.20 2.30 0.30 1.10 2.95 1.60
Select Structural B&S* 4.50 2.80 0.25 1.10 2.40 1.60
Select Structural P&T** 4.20 2.95 0.25 1.10 2.45 1.60
*
Beam and Stringer Sizes
**
Post and Timber Sizes


All timber members, that become part of the permanent bridge
structure, should be treated with a preservative. Preservatives protect
8. WOOD
STRUCTURES
8.1.1 Wood
Products
[ Table 8.4.1.1.4- 1]
8.1 Materials

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-2

the timber against decay, insects and fire. Treatment also retards
weathering and checking.

For rough–sawn, full-sawn, or special sizes, the actual dimensions and
moisture content used in the design should be indicated in the contract
documents.

The design unit weight of timber components is 0.050 kcf.

The coefficient of thermal expansion of wood parallel to its fibers is
0.000002 inch/inch/°F. in LRFD Article 9.9.3.4.


Structural steel elements incorporated into timber bridges must satisfy
the strength and stability checks contained in Section 6 of the LRFD
Specifications. For durability, almost all steel elements incorporated into
timber bridges are galvanized.


Wood preservatives are broadly classified as oil-type or waterborne
preservatives.

Oil-Type Preservatives
The three oil-type preservatives used in bridge applications are creosote,
pentachlorophenol, and copper naphthenate. For bridge applications,
oil-type preservatives are used almost exclusively for treating structural
components. They provide good protection from decay. Because most
oil-type treatments can cause skin irritations, they should not be used
for applications that require repeated human or animal contact, such as
handrails.

Creosote
It is commonly used in bridge applications. The high level of
insoluables can result in excessive bleeding of the treatment from
the timber surface, which has raised environmental concerns. The
use of creosote is expected to decline because of the expense to
meet EPA requirements.

Pentachlorophenol
As a wood preservative penta is a highly effective biocide. Penta is
not paintable and should not be used in applications subject to
human or animal contact. Although penta is still widely used, the
presence of trace dioxins has led to increased pressure to ban this
preservative.
8.1.2 Fasteners
and Hardware
[ 9.9.3.4]
8.1.3 Wood
Preservatives

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-3

Copper Naphthenate
Its primary advantage is that it is considered an environmentally
safe preservative. The use of copper naphthenate has been limited
in the past because of its high cost.

Waterborne Preservatives
Waterborne preservatives are used most frequently for railings and
floors on pedestrian sidewalks or other areas that may receive human
contact. After drying, wood surfaces treated with these preservatives
can also be painted or stained. Of the numerous waterborne
preservatives, CCA, ACA, and CA are most commonly used in bridge
applications. Each of these preservatives is strongly bound to the wood,
thereby reducing the risk of chemical leaching.

CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate)
Generally used to treat Southern Pine, and other (easier to treat)
wood species. This product will eventually be phased out because of
the environmental concerns with arsenic.

ACA (Ammonialal Copper Arsenate)
Similar to CCA but used for refractory (difficult to treat) wood
species, such as Douglas Fir-Larch.

CA (Copper Azole)
This is a water based treatment without arsenic. Some timber
bridge suppliers are phasing out the use of CCA and ACA and using
CA waterborne preservatives.


Timber decks can be incorporated into a bridge in a number of different
ways. They can be the primary structural element that spans from
substructure unit to substructure unit or they can be secondary
members used to carry vehicle or pedestrian loads to other primary
members. The use of timber decks with other primary members is quite
limited but they may be used with timber trusses or with steel stringers.


Section 9 of the LRFD Specifications (Decks and Deck Systems) provides
information on the design and detailing of decks. Information specific to
wood decks is covered in Article 9.9.

Three types of timber decks are used in Minnesota; glulam panels,
stress-laminated decks, and nail or spike laminated decks. To prevent
movement of the deck panels in the completed structure, positive
8.2 Timber Bridge
Decks
8.2.1 General

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-4

attachment is required between the panels and the supporting
component.

Glue Laminated Decks
Glulam timber deck panels consist of a series of panels, prefabricated
with water-resistant adhesives, which are tightly abutted along their
edges. Spreader beams are used to ensure load distribution between
panels.

Stress Laminated Decks
Stress laminated decks consist of a series of wood laminations that are
placed edgewise and post-tensioned together, normal to the direction of
the lamination.

In stress laminated decks, with skew angles less than 25°, stressing bars
should be detailed parallel to the skew. For skew angles between 25°
and 45°, the bars should be detailed perpendicular to the laminations,
and in the end zones, the transverse prestressing bars should be fanned
in plan or arranged in a step pattern. Stress laminated decks should not
be used for skew angles exceeding 45º.

Nail or Spike Laminated Decks
Spike laminated decks consist of a series of lumber laminations that are
placed edgewise between supports and spiked together on their wide
face. The laminated deck is prefabricated at a plant and shipped to the
site. The connection between adjacent panels is a ship-lap joint. In
addition to ship-lap joints, spreader beams are used to ensure proper
load distribution between panels. Laminates are treated prior to panel
fabrication.

Spreader Beams
Spreader or transverse stiffener beams are attached to the underside of
glulam and spike laminated decks. This guidance is based on research
conducted by the University of Minnesota on “The Effect of Transverse
Stiffener Beams”. The distance between beams can not exceed 8.0 feet,
and the rigidity, EI, of each stiffener beam can not be less than 80,000
kip⋅in
2
. The spreader beams must be attached to each deck panel near
the panel edges and at intervals not exceeding 15.0 inches. Mn/DOT’s
standard spreader beam is a 6x12 member.

Bituminous Wearing Surface
The bituminous wearing course should have a minimum compacted
depth of 4 inches. For proper drainage, a cross slope of at least
0.02 ft/ft should be detailed.
[ 9.9.4.3.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-5

Timber decks should be laid out with panel widths that are multiples of 4
inches (typical deck laminate plan dimension). To facilitate shipping,
deck panels should be detailed with plan widths less than 7’-6”.


Designs should be based on wet use conditions (>16% moisture content
for glulam and >19% for other members).

The LRFD Specifications provide equations that define the width of deck
assumed to carry one lane of traffic (equivalent strip widths). Mn/DOT
designs are performed on a unit strip one foot wide. Manipulate the
code values (invert and multiply by 12) to determine distribution factors
on a per foot basis.

The span length is the clear distance between pile caps plus one-half the
width of one pile cap. The span length can not exceed the clear span
length plus the thickness of the deck.

The maximum span length for a given deck thickness is dependent on
several factors including: superstructure type, wood type, and live load
intensity. Table 8.2.3.1 provides typical deck thickness and span length
values for various superstructure configurations. Table 8.2.3.2 contains
typical span lengths for deck thicknesses ranging from 10 to 16 inches.


Table 8.2.3.1 – Typical Spans for Different Timber Deck Systems
Superstructure Type
Deck
Thickness (IN)
Span
Length (FT)
Sawn Lumber Deck Systems
Spike-Laminated 8-16 10-34
Stress-Laminated 8-16 10-34
Glulam Deck Systems
Longitudinal Panel 8-16 12-38
Stress-Laminated 9-24 10-60


Table 8.2.3.2 – Typical Span Lengths for Standard Deck
Thicknesses
Deck Thickness (IN) Effective Span Length (FT)
10 L ≤ 17
12 17 < L ≤ 25
14 25 < L ≤ 30
16 30 < L ≤ 36

8.2.2 Geometry
8.2.3 Design /
Analysis
[ 4.6.2.1.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-6

For stress-laminated and glulam decks made continuous over more than
150 feet, the effects of thermal expansion and contraction should be
investigated.

Shear effects can be neglected for the design of wood decks.

Load Distribution and Modeling
All spans are designed as simple spans. Check bending of deck using
size factor, if applicable. Also check horizontal shear and compression
perpendicular to the grain. Calculate the required spacing of drive
spikes at the ship-lap joint and check shear transfer between each
lamination.

Dead Load
The bituminous wearing surface dead load is assumed to have a unit
weight of 0.150 kcf. A 0.020 ksf dead load is to be included in all
designs in order to accommodate a possible future wearing surface.

Live Load
For timber structures with longitudinal flooring, the live load shall be
considered a point loading in the direction of the span. Normal to the
direction of the span, the wheel load shall be distributed over the width
of the tire plus twice the thickness of the floor. The width of the contact
area of a standard tire is defined in LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.5.


Metal plate connectors are used to attach deck panels to pile caps.
Detail no less than two metal tie-down plates per panel. The spacing of
the tie-downs along each support shall not exceed 3.0 ft.


Mn/DOT does not require wood decks to be fabricated with specific
camber values. During construction, the natural camber of the deck is
placed up to reduce the appearance of sag in a span.


Timber pile caps are used for timber deck bridges supported on cast-in-
place piles or timber piles.

8.2.4 Detailing
8.2.5 Camber /
Deflections
8.3 Timber Pile
Caps

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-7

The standard timber size for pile caps is 14x14. The largest pile cap
timbers available are 16x16. Designers should use a maximum length
of 25 feet for cap timbers. This constraint will often require a splice in
the pile cap. If a splice is necessary, it should be located over an
internal pile.


Design for a wet use condition (moisture content 19%+).

For design of the cap, assume that the railing weight is uniformly
distributed across the cap.

Use a horizontal shear modification factor (C
h
) equal to 1.33.

When analyzing pile caps use three different models. Use a:
1) a simply supported span in determining the positive bending
moment,
2) a fixed-fixed span in determining the negative bending moment,
3) a continuous beam (with a hinge to represent a splice) in
determining the shear forces and reactions.

The third model requires the live load to be placed at various locations
along the span to determine the critical member forces.


To prevent uplift and movements, pile caps must have positive
attachment to the piles (steel or timber).


Timber pile caps are not cambered.


Additional design information is available in the following references:
1) National Design Specifications – Wood Construction (NDS)
2) Timber Construction Manual (AITC)
3) Ritter, M.A., Timber Bridges, Design, Construction, Inspection
and Maintenance, EM7700-B. Forest Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1990
4) National Conference on Wood Transportation Structures (NCWTS)
8.4 Additional
References
8.3.1 Geometry
8.3.2 Design /
Analysis
8.3.3 Detailing
8.3.4 Camber /
Deflections

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-8




This example demonstrates the design of a longitudinally spike-
laminated timber bridge deck. There are no longitudinal girders in the
bridge, and it is noted that these bridge decks are usually reserved for
secondary roads with low truck traffic volumes. The deck panel span
under investigation is an “interior” strip of an intermediate span, which
spans from one pile cap to another pile cap - refer to Figure 8.5.1.1 for
general dimensions. In addition, Example 8.5.2 of this manual contains
the design of the accompanying timber pile cap.

A. Material and Design Parameters
The dimension annotations used throughout this design example are as
follows. The vertical thickness, or length, of a member is considered its
depth. The transverse and longitudinal measurements of a member are
considered its width and length, respectively. These dimension
annotations are not consistent with Figure 8.3.1 of the 2000 AASHTO
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

1. Pile Cap
Assumed width of pile cap member = b
cap
= 16 in
Assumed depth of pile cap member = d
cap
= 16 in

Mn/DOT uses these dimensions as actual, not nominal. The pile cap
dimension validity is checked in Example 8.2.3 of this manual.

2. Bituminous Wearing Course
Average depth of wearing course = d
avg
= 4 in
Depth of wearing course = d
ws
= (1.5 / 1.25) x d
avg
= 4.8 in ≈ 5.0 in
(Use 5-inches.)

Notice that the wearing course depth has been factored such that it can
be considered a DC load, instead of DW.

3. Curb and Railing [Glulam Rail (Type 1)]
Assumed width of timber curb = b
curb
= 12 in
Assumed depth of timber curb = d
curb
= 12 in
Assumed width of timber rail post = b
post
= 8 in
Assumed length of timber rail post = L
post
= 12 in
Assumed depth of timber rail post = d
post
= 34 in
Assumed width of timber rail = b
rail
= 12 in
Assumed depth of timber rail = d
rail
= 10.5 in

8.5.1
Longitudinally
Laminated Timber
Deck Design
Example
8.5 Design
Examples
[ Figure 8.3.1]
[ 8.4.1.1]
[ 9.9.8]
[ 3.4.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-9

Spacing between barrier posts = s
post
= 6 ft = 72 in (maximum)

The timber barrier design is not a part of this design example, but the
dimensions are used for weight considerations.

4. Deck Laminates / Planks
Assumed depth of timber deck panel laminates = d
plank
= 12 in
Assumed width of timber deck panel laminates or planks = b
plank
= 4 in

The standard Mn/DOT dimensions for visually-graded deck panel lumber
is 4 in X 12 in. These dimensions are used for dead loads and section
properties.

5. Span Lengths
Actual longitudinal length of deck panels, which is also the distance
between the centerlines of adjacent pile caps = L = 24.0 ft
Clear span length between pile caps = L
clr

ft 22.67
12
16
0 . 24 b L L
cap clr
= − = − =

Effective longitudinal span length of deck panels = L
e
ft 23.11
12
16
2
1
67 . 22 b
2
1
L L
cap clr e
= ⋅ + = ⋅ + =

Maximum effective longitudinal span length of deck panels = L
max
ft 23.67
12
12
67 . 22 d L L
plank clr max
= + = + =

L
e
= 23.11 ft ≤ L
max
= 23.67 ft (OK)

6. Unit Weights and Moisture Content
Type of deck panel wood material = Douglas Fir-Larch (No.1 & Better)
Unit weight of soft-wood = γ
DFL
= 0.050 kcf
Unit weight of bituminous wearing course = γ
ws
= 0.150 kcf

Moisture content of timber = MC = 19.0%
Mn/DOT designs for wet-use only - typically with a MC of 19%.

7. Douglas Fir-Larch Deck (No.1 & Better) Strength Properties
Base resistance of wood in flexure = F
bo
= 3.20 ksi
Base resistance in compression perpendicular to grain = F
cpo
=1.10 ksi
Modulus of elasticity = E
o
= 1600 ksi


[ 8.4.1.1, 9.9.2]
[ 8.4.1.1.2]
[ Table 8.4.1.1.4- 1]
[ 8.4.1.1.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-10


Figure 8.5.1.1 – Timber Deck Layout

For clarity, the timber curb/railing on the near side and the bituminous
wearing course have been excluded from Figure 8.5.1.1.


The bridge deck consists of 5 interconnected deck panels, which are
oriented parallel to traffic. The laminate planks of each panel will be
connected using horizontal spikes. The panels are attached to each other
using vertical spikes through ship lap joints and transverse stiffener
beams also called spreader beams. The deck panel depth and spreader
beam sizes are based on deflection limits as well as strength
considerations. The spreader beams enable the deck to act as a single
unit under deflection. In addition, each deck panel span is designed as a
simply supported unit.
Select the Basic
Configuration

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-11

1. Deck Panel Widths
The deck panel sizes are given to clarify the sketches contained
throughout this example.

Width of bridge deck panel #1 = b
1
= 7.33 ft
Width of bridge deck panel #2 = b
2
= 6.33 ft
Width of bridge deck panel #3 = b
3
= 6.67 ft
Width of bridge deck panel #4 = b
4
= 6.33 ft
Width of bridge deck panel #5 = b
5
= 7.33 ft
Overall width of bridge deck = b
bridge
= ∑(b
#
) = 34.0 ft

Width of each timber barrier = b
barrier
= 1 ft

Width of roadway = b
rd
= b
bridge
– 2 x b
barrier
= 34.0 – 2 x 1 = 32.0 ft

2. Spreader Beam Dimensions
Assumed width of spreader beams = b
spdr
= 6 in
Assumed depth of spreader beams = d
spdr
= 12 in

The standard size of the visually-graded spreader beam dimension
lumber is 6” X 12”, which gives the required rigidity. The spreader
beams will be investigated later in this example.


A. Dead Loads per Unit Strip (1 ft)
The units for the dead load results are given in kips per longitudinal foot
per foot transverse strip (klf/ft). These units could also be given as kips
per square foot.

Weight. of deck = w
deck
= γ
DFL
⋅ d
plank
= 0.050 x 12/12 = 0.050 klf/ft

Weight of wearing course = w
ws
= γ
ws
⋅d
ws
= 0.150x5/12 = 0.0625 klf/ft

Area of spreader beam = A
spdr
= d
spdr
⋅ b
spdr
= (12 x 6/12)/144= 0.5 ft
2


Spreader beam load = P
spdr
= γ
DFL
⋅A
spdr
= 0.050x0.5 = 0.025 kips/ft

Volume of timber curb per foot of bridge length = υ
curb
= 1728 in
3
/ft

Volume of rail post per foot of bridge length = υ
post

υ
post
= [b
post
x L
post
x d
post
] / s
post

υ
post
= [8 x 12 x 34] / 72 = 544 in
3
/ft

Volume of timber rail per foot of bridge length = υ
rail
= 1512 in
3
/ft
[ 9.9.6.3]
[ 9.9.4.3.1]
Determine Dead
and Live Load
Bending Moments

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-12

Volume of timber railing per longitudinal foot of bridge length = υ
barrier

υ
barrier
= υ
curb
+ υ
post
+ υ
rail

υ
barrier
= 1728 + 544 + 1512 = 3784 in
3
/ft = 2.19 ft
3
/ft

Linear weight of combined timber curbs/railings = w
barrier

klf 0.00644
34
19 . 2 050 . 0 2
b
2
w
bridge
barrier DFL
barrier
=
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅
=
υ γ


This linear weight result assumes that the curb/railing weight acts
uniformly over the entire deck.

B. Dead Load Bending Moments per Unit Strip (1 ft)
Maximum bending moment due to deck weight = M
deck

ft
ft kip
3.34
8
11 . 23 50
8
) L ( w
M
2 2
e deck
deck

=

=

=

Maximum bending moment due to wearing surface weight = M
ws

ft
ft kip
.17 4
8
11 . 23 0625 . 0
8
) L ( w
M
2 2
e ws
ws

=

=

=

Maximum bending moment due to spreader beam weight = M
spdr

ft
ft kip
0.20
3
11 . 23 25
3
L P
M
e spdr
spdr

=

=

=

Maximum bending moment due to curb/railing weight = M
barrier
ft
ft kip
0.43
8
11 . 23 44 . 6
8
) L ( w
M
2 2
e barrier
barrier

=

=

=

Maximum bending moment due to bridge component dead loads = M
dc

M
dc
= M
deck
+ M
ws
+ M
spdr
+ M
barrier
= 8.14 kip⋅ft/ft


C. Live Load Moments per Lane (12 ft)
The live load bending moment will be calculated per lane (12 ft) and
later converted to a per unit strip (1 ft) format.

[ AI SC 2
nd
4- 190]
[ 3.6.1.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-13

1. Design Truck Axle Loads
Point load of design truck axle = P
truck
= 32 kips

Maximum bending moment due to design truck axle load = M
truck

lane
ft kip
184.9
4
11 . 23 32
4
L P
M
e truck
truck

=

=

=

2. Design Tandem Axle Loads
Point load of design tandem axle = P
tandem
= 25 kips

Maximum bending moment due to design tandem axle loads = M
tandem
ft
ft kip
239 56 . 9 25 a P M
dem tan dem tan

= ⋅ = ⋅ =

3. Design Lane Loads
Uniform design lane load = w
lane
= 0.64 klf

Maximum bending moment due to design lane load = M
lane
ft
ft kip
42.8
8
11 . 23 64 . 0
8
) L ( w
M
2 2
e lane
lane

=

=

=

P
truck
= 32 kips
R
1
R
2
L
e
= 23.11 ft
½L
e
R
1
R
2
L
e
= 23.11 ft
w
lane
= 0.64 klf
Ptandem
Ptandem
a = 9.56 ft 4 ft b = 9.56 ft
[ 3.6.1.2.2]
[ AI SC 2
nd
4- 192]
[ 3.6.1.2.3]
[ AI SC 2
nd
4- 192]
[ 3.6.1.2.4]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-14

D. Live Load Equivalent Lane Strip Width
The live load bending moments, calculated above, will now be
distributed over the transverse equivalent lane distance (E
m
or E
s
).

Physical edge-to-edge bridge deck width = W = b
bridge
= 34.0 ft

L
e
= 23.11 ft ≤ 60 ft

Therefore, modified span length = L
1
= L
e
= 23.11 ft

Number of traffic lanes on the deck = NL
lanes 2 67 . 2
12
32
lane
ft
12
b
NL
rd
≅ = = =

1. Single Lane Loaded
W = b
bridge
= 34.0 ft > 30 ft

Therefore, the modified edge-to-edge bridge width for single lane load
case = W
1
= 30 ft

Equivalent lane strip width for single lane loaded = E
s

lane
ft
80 . 11
lane
in
65 . 141 11 . 23 30 5 10 L W 0 . 5 10 E
1 1 s
= = ⋅ ⋅ + = ⋅ ⋅ + =

2. Multiple Lanes Loaded
W = b
bridge
= 34.0 ft ≤ 60 ft

Therefore, the modified edge-to-edge bridge width for multiple lanes
loaded case = W
1
= 34.0 ft

CL of Bridge
P P
P
P
Lane 1 = 12 ft
Lane 2 = 12 ft
6 ft 6 ft 2 ft 2 ft 4 ft 4 ft
4 ft 4 ft
Es = equivalent strip width for single lane
Em = equivalent strip
id h for multiple lanes
l d d
[ 4.6.2.3]
[ 3.6.1.1.1]
[ 4.6.2.3- 1]
[ 4.6.2.3- 2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-15

Equivalent lane strip width for multiple lanes loaded = E
m
= lesser of
lane
ft
17
lane
in
204.0
2
0 . 34
12
NL
W
12 E
m
= = ⋅ = ⋅ =
lane
ft
10.36
lane
in
124.4 11 . 23 0 . 34 44 . 1 84 L W 44 . 1 84 E
1 1 m
= = ⋅ ⋅ + = ⋅ ⋅ + =

Use E
m
= 124.4 in/lane = 10.36 ft/lane


E. Modification of Live Bending Moment and Reactions
1. Multiple Presence Factors
The multiple presence factors cannot be used in conjunction with the
equivalent lane strip widths of 4.6.2.3. The multiple presence factors
have already been included in these equations.

2. Convert Live Load Bending Moments to Per Unit Strip
a. Single Lane Loaded Case
E
s
= 11.80 ft/lane

Maximum moment from one lane of design truck loads = M
truck(s)
ft
ft kip
15.7
80 . 11
1
9 . 184
E
1
M M
s
truck ) s ( truck

= ⋅ = ⋅ =

Maximum moment from one lane of design tandem loads = M
tandem(s)
ft
ft kip
20.25
80 . 11
1
0 . 239
E
1
M M
s
dem tan ) s ( dem tan

= ⋅ = ⋅ =

Maximum moment from one design lane load case = M
lane(s)
ft
ft kip
3.63
80 . 11
1
8 . 42
E
1
M M
s
lane ) s ( lane

= ⋅ = ⋅ =

b. Multiple Lanes Loaded Case
E
m
= 10.36 ft/lane

Maximum moment from two lanes of design truck loads = M
truck(m)
ft
ft kip
17.85
36 . 10
1
9 . 184
E
1
M M
m
truck ) m ( truck

= ⋅ = ⋅ =

Maximum moment from two lanes of design tandem loads = M
tandem(m)
ft
ft kip
23.1
36 . 10
1
0 . 239
E
1
M M
m
dem tan ) m ( dem tan

= ⋅ = ⋅ =

OR
[ 3.6.1.1.2, 4.6.2.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-16

Maximum moment from two design lane loads = M
lane(m)
ft
ft kip
4.13
36 . 10
1
8 . 42
E
1
M M
m
lane ) m ( lane

= ⋅ = ⋅ =


F. Summary of Unfactored Dead and Live Load Bending Moments
for a Unit Strip (1 ft) of Deck

Table 8.5.1.1 - Applied Bending Moments
Unfactored Load Case
Maximum Positive Bending Moment
(kip⋅ft/ft)
Dead Loads
Bridge Components (M
dc
) 7.86
Live Loads (Single Lane Loaded)
Design Truck 15.67
Design Tandem 20.25
Design Lane 3.63
Live Loads (Two Lanes Loaded)
Design Truck 17.85
Design Tandem 23.07
Design Lane 4.13


G. Load and Resistance Factors
1. Load Factors and Load Limit States
Impact factor for timber components (reduced due to wood damping
properties) = IM = (
1
/
2
) x 33% = 16.5% = 0.165

Importance, redundancy, and ductility factors = η = 1.0
Skew factor (bridge is not skewed thus 1.0) = ζ = 1.0

Use the Strength I Limit State to determine the required resistance for
the deck panels.

2. Resistance Factors
Flexural resistance factor = φ
f
= 0.85
Compression perpendicular to grain resistance factor = φ
cperp
= 0.90


A. Strength I Limit State Bending Moment per Unit Strip (1 ft)
The earlier analysis showed that the tandem axle load controls the
bending moment of the deck panels. Additionally, the previous results
indicate that the live loads per unit strip are largest for the two lanes
loaded case. Therefore, use the two lanes loaded case of the tandem
[ 3.6.2.3]
[ Table 3.6.2.1- 1]
[ 1.3.2]
[ 4.6.2.3]
[ 8.5.2.2]
I nvestigate
Flexural Strength
Requirements
[ 8.5.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-17

axle loads with the uniform lane load in determining the critical live load
bending moment acting on the deck panels.

Factored bending moment for two lanes loaded case = M
u(m)
]] M ) IM 1 ( M [ 75 . 1 M 25 . 1 [ M
) m ( lane ) m ( dem tan dc ) m ( u
+ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ζ η

ft
ft kip
64.4 ]] 13 . 4 ) 165 . 1 ( 07 . 23 [ 0 . 1 75 . 1 14 . 8 25 . 1 [ 0 . 1 M
) m ( u

= + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =


B. Deck Modification Factors
Moisture content factor for mechanically laminated deck lumber = C
m

C
m
= 1.0

Size effect factor for sawn dimension lumber in flexure (F
bo
) = C
f

d
plank
= 12 in
b
plank
= 4 in
C
f
= 1.10

Deck factor for a mechanically laminated deck in flexure (F
bo
) = C
d
b
plank
= 4 in
C
d
= 1.15

Stability factor for sawn dimension lumber in flexure = C
s

Laminated deck planks are fully braced. C
s
= 1.0

Flexural deck resistance = F
b
= F
bo
⋅ C
m
⋅ C
f
⋅ C
d

F
b
= 3.20 x 1.0 x 1.10 x 1.15 = 4.05 ksi = 583.2 ksf


C. Deck Flexural Resistance
Required deck flexural resistance = M
n(req)

ft
ft kip
75.8
85 . 0
4 . 64
M
M
f
) m ( u
) req ( n

= = =
φ


Required section modulus of one foot of deck width = S
req
Required depth of deck laminates (planks) = d
req
6
d ft 1
S
2
req
req

=

M
n(req)
= F
b
· S
req

[ Table 3.4.1- 1]
[ 8.4.4.3]
[ 8.4.4.2]
[ Table 8.4.4.2- 1]
[ 8.4.4.4]
[ Table 8.4.4.4- 1]
[ 8.6.2]
[ 8.4.4.1- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-18

Substituting terms gives
(OK) in 12.0 in 10.6 ft 0.88
2 . 583
8 . 75 6
F
M 6
d
b
) req ( n
req
≤ = =

=

=

The required deck panel depth (10.6 inches) indicates that the originally
assumed deck depth (12 inches) can be used. However, it is not
uncommon that a deeper section will be required to satisfy the deflection
limit.


A. Deck Deflection with Current Deck Parameters
The midspan deflections are estimated with the design truck or 25% of
the design truck applied in conjunction with the design lane load.
Design for deflections using a per foot width approach.

Deflections are to be calculated using Service I Limit State. The impact
factor is to be included in determining the design truck deflection.

1. Deck Strengths
Moment of inertia of one foot width of deck panels = I
prov

4 3 3
plank prov
in 1728 ) 12 ( 12
12
1
d b
12
1
I = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =

Deck Panel modulus of elasticity with moisture considerations = E
E= E
o
x C
m
E = 1600 ksi x 1.0 = 1600 ksi

2. Loads per Unit Strip Width (1 ft)
Design truck load used for deflection calculations = P
∆truck

P
∆truck
= [2 lanes of load x (1 + IM)] / b
bridge

P
∆truck
= [(2 x 32 kips) x 1.165] / 34.0 ft = 2.19 kips/ft

Design lane load used for deflection calculations = w
∆lane

w
∆lane
= 2 lanes of load / b
bridge
= 2 x 0.64 klf / 34.0 ft
= 0.0376 klf/ft

3. Deflection Calculations
Deflection at deck midspan due to the design truck load = ∆
truck

in 0.35
1728 1600 48
) 12 11 . 23 ( 19 . 2
I E 48
L P
3
prov
3
e truck
truck
=
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅

= ∆
Deflection at deck midspan due to the design lane load = ∆
lane

in 0.087
1728 1600 384
12) (23.11
12
0.0376
5
I E 384
L w 5

4
prov
4
e lane
lane
=
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
I nvestigate
Deflection
Requirements
[ 3.6.1.3.2]
[ 2.5.2.6.2]
[ 8.4.4.1- 2]
[ 3.6.1.3.2]
[ AI SC 2
nd
4- 192]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-19

Deflection at deck midspan due to a combination of truck (25%) and
design lane loads = ∆
combined

combined
= 0.25 x ∆
truck
+ ∆
lane
= 0.25 x (0.35) + 0.087


combined
= 0.175 in ≤ ∆
truck
= 0.35 in

Therefore, the maximum deflection between the combination load
deflection and the truck load deflection = ∆ = ∆
truck
= 0.35 in

Live load deflection limit at deck midspan = ∆
max


max
= L
e
/ 425 = 23.11/ 425 = 0.0544 ft = 0.63 in

∆ = 0.35 in ≤ ∆
max
= 0.63 in (OK)

Deflections are okay. Thus, the initial 12-inch deck panel depth and
grade are adequate for deflection


Shear need not be considered in the design of wood decks.





A. Spreader Beam Parameters
Maximum spreader beam spacing = s
max
= 8.0 ft

Actual longitudinal spreader beam spacing = s
spdr
= L / 3 = 24 / 3 = 8.0
ft
s
spdr
= 8 ft ≤ s
max
= 8 ft (OK)

Minimum allowable rigidity (EI) of the spreader beams = r
min

r
min
= 80,000 kip⋅in
2


The spreader beams shall be attached to each deck panel near the panel
edges at intervals less than or equal to 15 inches. The spreader beams
reduce the relative panel deflection, thus decreasing wearing surface
cracking.

Required moment of inertia of spreader beams to accommodate the
specified rigidity = I
min

min min
I E r ⋅ =

[ 2.5.2.6.2]
[ 9.9.3.3]
I nvestigate Shear
Resistance
Requirements
[ 8.7, 9.9.3.2]
I nvestigate
Spreader Beam
Requirements
[ 9.9.6.3]
[ 9.9.4]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-20

4 min
min
in 50
1600
80000
E
r
I = = =

Required depth of spreader beam = d
min

3
min
d b
12
1
I ⋅ ⋅ =

(OK) in 12 d in 4.64
6
50 12
b
I 12
d
spdr
3
3
spdr
min
min
= ≤ =

=

=
Mn/DOT standard practice is to use 6 in X 12 in spreader beams.


B. Spike Lamination Deck Pattern
Spike-laminated decks shall consist of a series of lumber laminations
that are placed edgewise between supports and spiked together on their
wide face with deformed spikes of sufficient length to fully penetrate
four laminations. The spikes shall be placed in lead holes that are bored
through pairs of laminations at each end and at intervals not greater
than 12.0 inches in an alternating pattern near the top and bottom of
the laminations.

Laminations shall not be butt spliced within their unsupported length.



Figure 8.5.1.2 – Timber Deck to Cap Connections
[ 9.9.6.1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-21

C. Deck Tie-Downs
Typically, Mn/DOT uses
5
/
8
-inch diameter spikes to attach the metal tie-
down plates (brackets) to the deck panels, and
3
/
4
-inch diameter spikes
are used to connect the plates to the pile cap. The plates are typically
3
/
16
inch thick by 2
1
/
2
inches wide X 2’-6” long. These plates are
spaced at 3 feet maximum intervals transversely over the pile cap or
two plates per deck panel -the latter being more typical of Mn/DOT
designs.


A. Maximum Support Reactions per Unit Strip (1 ft)
1. Live Load Reactions
The maximum live load reactions need to be calculated. The design
truck and tandem axle loads have been oriented to produce the greatest
reaction at the pile cap. The design truck, tandem and lane reactions
are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the equivalent live load
strip width (E
s
or E
m
).

a. Multiple Lanes Loaded
The calculations below only consider the multiple lanes loaded case.
Because the equivalent lane strip width for multiple lanes is less than
that for the single lane loaded case (E
m
<E
s
), there is more force per
transverse foot for the multiple lane load case.

Maximum pile cap reaction due to the design truck loads = R
truck


m e
e
truck truck truck
E
1
L
) 14 L (
P P R ⋅





 −
⋅ + =

ft
kips
4.31
36 . 10
1
11 . 23
) 14 11 . 23 (
32 32 R
truck
= ⋅





 −
⋅ + =

R
truck
P
truck
P
truck
14.0 ft
L
e
= 23.11 ft
[ 9.9.6.2, 9.9.4.2]
I nvestigate
Bearing Strength
Requirements

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-22

Maximum pile cap reaction due to the design tandem loads = R
tandem


m e
e
dem tan dem tan dem tan
E
1
L
) 4 L (
P P R ⋅





 −
⋅ + =
ft
kips
41 . 4
36 . 10
1
11 . 23
) 4 11 . 23 (
25 25 R
dem tan
= ⋅





 −
⋅ + =

Maximum pile cap reaction due to the design lane load = R
lane


ft
kips
0.71
36 . 10
1
2
11 . 23 64 . 0
E
1
2
L w
R
m
e lane
lane
= ⋅





 ⋅
= ⋅





 ⋅
=

2. Dead Load Reactions
Maximum reaction on pile cap due to the deck weight = R
deck

ft
kip
0.578
2
11 . 23 050 . 0
2
L w
R
e deck
deck
=

=

=

Maximum reaction on pile cap due to the wearing surface weight = R
ws

ft
kips
0.722
2
11 . 23 0625 . 0
2
L w
R
e ws
ws
=

=

=

Maximum pile cap reaction due to spreader beam = R
spdr

R
spdr
= 0.025 kips/ft

Maximum reaction on pile cap due to the curb/railing weight = R
barrier

ft
kips
0.074
2
11 . 23 00644 . 0
2
L w
R
e barrier
barrier
=

=

=

Maximum reaction on pile cap due to the dead loads = R
dc

R
dc
= R
deck
+ R
ws
+ R
spdr
+ R
barrier
= 1.40 kips/ft
R
lane
R
lane
L
e
= 23.11 ft
w
lane
= 0.64 klf
R
tandem
P
tandem
P
tandem
4.0 ft
L
e
= 23.11 ft

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-23

B. Summary of Unfactored Support Reactions
Table 8.5.1.2 – Support Reactions
Unfactored Load Case
Maximum Support Reaction
(kips/ft)
Dead Loads (total) 1.35
Deck Panel 0.578
Spreader Beams 0.025
Curb/Railing 0.074
Wearing Surface 0.675
Live Loads (multiple lanes loaded)
Design Tandem Loads 4.41
*

Design Truck Loads 4.31
*

Design Lane Load 0.71
*

*
Kips per transverse foot of the equivalent lane strip (E
m
)


C. Strength I Limit State Reaction per Unit Strip (1 ft)
Table 8.2.2.2 shows that the design tandem for the two lanes loaded
case controls the reaction of the deck panels. Therefore, the design
truck will be neglected for bearing calculations.

Maximum factored reaction when multiple lanes are loaded = R
u(m)

]] R ) IM 1 ( R [ 75 . 1 R 25 . 1 [ R
) m ( lane ) m ( dem tan dc ) m ( u
+ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ζ η

ft
kips
12.0 ]] 71 . 0 ) 165 . 1 ( 41 . 4 [ 0 . 1 75 . 1 40 . 1 25 . 1 [ 0 . 1 R
) m ( u
= + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

D. Deck Bearing Resistance
1. Bearing Dimensions
Width of bearing = b
b
= 1 ft = 12 in (for unit strip)
Length of bearing = L
b
= ½ x b
cap
= ½ x 14 = 7 in
Provided bearing area = A
b
= b
b
x L
b
= 12 x 7 = 84 in
2


2. Deck Modification Factors
Bearing modification factor = C
b
L
b
= 7 in ≥ 6 in
C
b
= 1.0

Moisture content factor for mechanically laminated deck lumber = C
m

C
m
= 1.0

The size effect factor (C
f
) for sawn dimension lumber is not considered
for bearing design (F
cpo
).
[ 3.4.1]
[ 8.8.3]
[ Table 8.8.3- 1]
[ 8.4.4.3]
[ Table 8.4.4.2- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-24

The deck factor (C
d
) for mechanically laminated dimension lumber is not
considered for bearing design (F
cpo
).

3. Deck Resistance Calculations
Nominal resistance in compression perpendicular to grain = F
cp

F
cp
= F
cpo
x C
m
= 1.10 x 1.0 = 1.10 ksi

Nominal resistance of deck in compression perp. to the grain = P
n

P
n
= F
cp
x A
b
x C
b
= 1.10 x 84 in
2
x 1.0 = 92.4 kips

Factored resistance of deck in compression perp. to the grain = φP
n

φP
n
= φ
cperp
x P
n
= 0.90 x 92.4 kips = 83.2 kips

φP
n
= 83.2 kips ≥ R
u(m)
= 12.0 kips (OK)

There is no need for a sill plate at the bearing because the given bearing
strength is more than adequate.


Figure 8.5.1.3 below indicates the position of the spreader beam
connections, the ship lap joints (deck panel-to-deck panel connections),
and deck panel-to-pile cap tie-down plates. Use Mn/DOT standard
practices for the design of these connections.

The maximum spacing of the spreader beam connection spikes is 15
inches, and they shall be placed near the panel edges.


[ 8.4.4.4]
[ 8.8.3- 1]
Summary of
Connection Design
[ 9.9.6.3]
[ 8.4.2.2.1]
[ 8.4.2.2.5]
[ 8.4.4.1- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-25



Figure 8.5.1.3 – Timber Deck Partial Plan View


JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-26

This example demonstrates the design of a typical spliced timber pile
cap, which accompanies the deck design of example 8.5.1. The bridge
contains no longitudinal girders; the dead and live loads are uniformly
spread along the pile cap. It shall be noted that these types of bridges
are usually reserved for secondary roads with low truck traffic volumes.

A. Material and Design Parameters
The dimension annotations used throughout this design example are as
follows. The vertical thickness of a member is considered its depth. The
transverse and longitudinal dimensions of a member are considered its
width and length, respectively. These dimension labels differ from the
2000 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, which can be found in
Figure 8.3.1.

1. Pile Cap
Initial timber pile cap width = b
cap
= 16 in = 1.33 ft
Initial timber pile cap depth = d
cap
= 16 in = 1.33 ft

The largest available size for visually-graded beam lumber is 16” X 16”,
for lengths up to 25 feet. Use these as actual dimensions, not nominal.

2. Wearing Course
Average depth of wearing course = d
avg
= 4 in
Depth of wearing course = d
ws
= (1.5 / 1.25) ⋅ d
avg
= 4.8 in ≈ 5.0 in
(Use 5-inches.)

Notice that the wearing course depth has been factored such that it can
be considered a DC load, instead of DW.

3. Curb and Railing [Glulam Rail (Type 1)]
Width of timber curb = b
curb
= 12 in
Depth of timber curb = d
curb
= 12 in
Width of timber rail post = b
post
= 8 in
Thickness of timber rail post = t
post
= 12 in
Depth (height) of timber rail post = d
post
= 34 in
Width of timber rail = b
rail
= 12 in
Thickness of timber rail = t
rail
= 12 in
Depth (height) of timber rail = d
rail
= 10.5 in

The timber barrier design is not a part of this design example, but the
dimensions are used for weight considerations. The maximum spacing
for the timber rail posts is 6.0 ft.
8.5.2 Design
Example: Timber
Pile Cap
[ Figure 8.3.1]
[ 8.4.1.1]
[ 8.4.1.1.2]
[ 9.9.8]
[ Mn/ DOT
5- 397.146]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-27

4. Deck Planks
Depth of timber deck panel laminates or planks = d
plank
= 12 in = 1 ft
Width of timber deck panel laminates or planks = b
plank
= 4 in = 0.33 ft

The standard MNDOT dimensions for visually-graded deck panel lumber
are 4” X 12”. These dimensions are used for dead loads and section
properties. The adequacy of the timber deck, for this example, has been
verified in example 8.5.1.

5. Piles
Diameter of circular timber piles = d
pile
= 12 in
Number of piles = n
piles
= 6

It is standard MNDOT practice to use equally spaced 12 in or 14 in
diameter piles.

6. Span Lengths
Overall transverse length of pile caps = L
trans
= 36 ft
Transverse combined width of deck panels = b
bridge
= 34.0 ft
Longitudinal distance between pile cap centerlines = L = 24 ft
Transverse distance between centerlines of piles = L
cap
= 6.5 ft
Transverse clear distance between adjacent piles = L
clr
= 5.5 ft

The pile cap is spliced over an interior pile. This is necessary because
the maximum available beam length is 25 feet.

7. Unit Weights and Moisture Content
Type of pile cap wood material = Douglas Fir-Larch Beam and Stringer
(Dense Structural Select)

Unit weight of soft wood (Douglas Fir-Larch) = γ
DFL
= 0.050 kcf
Unit weight of bituminous wearing course = γ
ws
= 0.150 kcf

Moisture content of timber = MC = 19.0%
MNDOT designs for wet-use only – typically with a MC of 19%.


8. Douglas Fir-Larch Beam & Stringer (Dense ) Strength
Properties
Base resistance of wood in flexure = F
bo
= 5.3 ksi
Base resistance in horizontal shear = F
vo
= 0.25 ksi
Base resistance in compression perpendicular to grain = F
cpo
= 1.30 ksi
Modulus of elasticity = E
o
= 1700 ksi

[ Table 8.4.1.1.4- 1]
[ 3.5.1]
[ 8.4.1.1.3]
[ 8.4.1.1]
[ 9.9.2]
[ 8.4.1.1.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-28

The bridge deck will consist of 5 interconnected longitudinal deck panels.
The deck panels are supported by timber pile caps, which span the width
of the bridge. Each timber pile cap contains a splice located over an
interior pile support. See the timber deck example 8.5.1 for details
regarding the deck design and connection configurations.


Figure 8.5.2.1

A. Determine Dead Loads
The dead load units are given in pounds per linear foot of pile cap
length.

Area of pile cap cross section = A
cap

A
cap
= d
cap
⋅ b
cap
= 16 ⋅ 16 = 256 in
2
= 1.78 ft
2


Linear weight of timber pile cap = w
cap

w
cap
= γ
DFL
⋅ A
cap
= 0.050 ⋅ 1.78 = 89.0 lbs/ft

Linear weight of deck panels = w
deck

w
deck
= γ
DFL
⋅ d
plank
⋅ L = 0.050 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ 24 = 1.20 kips/ft

Linear weight of bituminous wearing course = w
ws

w
ws
= γ
ws
⋅ d
ws
⋅ L = 0.150 ⋅ 5.0 ⋅(1/12)⋅24 = 1.50 kips/ft

Area of spreader beam = A
spdr

A
spdr
= d
spdr
⋅ b
spdr
= 12 ⋅ 6 = 72 in
2
= 0.5 ft
2


Linear weight of spreader beams = w
spdr

w
spdr
= 2 ⋅ A
spdr
⋅ γ
DFL
= 2 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 0.050 = 0.050 kips/ft
Select the Basic
Configuration
Determine Dead
and Live Load
Reactions, Shear
Forces, and
Bending Moments

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-29

Volume of curb/railing per longitudinal foot of bridge length = υ
barrier

υ
barrier
= 2.19 ft
3
/ft

Weight of timber barrier per longitudinal foot of bridge length = w
barrier

ft
kips
146 . 0 24
0 . 36
19 . 2 050 . 0 2 (
L
L
) 2 (
w
trans
barrier DFL
barrier
= ⋅





 ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅





 ⋅ ⋅
=
υ γ


This linear load assumes that the barrier weight acts uniformly over the
entire pile cap length.

Linear dead load acting along the pile cap = w
dc
barrier spdr ws deck cap dc
w w w w w w + + + + =

ft
kips
2.99 146 . 0 050 . 0 50 . 1 20 . 1 089 . 0 w
dc
= + + + + =

B. Coordinates and Structural Analysis Models
1. Span Coordinate Numbering Method
The figure below illustrates the numbering of the "coordinates" for each
pile cap span. Pile cap span 1 starts at number 1.0 and runs to 2.0-.
The left digit (1) indicates the span number, and the right decimal digit
designates the tenth of the span. The positive or negative sign following
the tenths digit indicates the support side under analysis. This
numbering technique is helpful in using influence line charts and
presenting where maximum member forces occur. The remainder of
this design utilizes this numbering technique to show the location of
critical shear forces and reactions.

Notice that the pile cap is spliced above an interior pile. This affects the
continuity of the pile cap. The pile cap is made up of a two and three
span continuous beam.


2. Analysis Models
In determining the maximum member forces, MNDOT uses a variation of
beam models as follows:
LABELING OF SPAN TENTH POINTS
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
6.0 5.6 0.0 7.0
Pile Support
Pile Cap Splice
Pile Cap
- + - + - + - + - + - + - +
[ Mn/ DOT
5- 397.146]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-30

1) The maximum shear forces and reactions are determined by
modeling the pile cap as a spliced five span simply-supported
beam, such as the one shown above. Moving live loads are then
placed at various locations along the span, to produce the
maximum shear and reactions. This method of analysis allows
the effects of adjacent spans to be investigated.
2) The maximum positive bending moments (tension on pile cap
bottom) are determined by considering the pile cap as a single
simply-supported span.
3) The maximum negative bending moments (tension on pile cap
top) are determined by considering the pile cap as a single fixed-
fixed span.

The dead and live load shear, reaction and bending moment results can
be determined using a basic structural analysis computer program, or
using the standard beam formulas found in AISC 2
nd
Edition LRFD
Manual (4-188 to 4-206).

C. Dead Load Reaction, Shear, and Bending Moment Results
The dead load member end forces are determined using the models
shown below.

1. Maximum Reaction and Shear Force
Critical dead load shear acting on the pile cap = V
dc(5.0-)
= 12.1 kips
Critical dead load reaction along the pie cap = R
dc(2.0)
= 24.2 kips

2. Maximum Positive Bending Moment
Critical positive dead load bending moment = M
dc(pos)

ft kip 15.8
8
5 . 6 99 . 2
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap dc
) pos ( dc
− =

=

=

wdc
Pile Cap
Lcap = 6.5 ft
wdc
Simple Pile Cap Span
Mdc = wdc (Lcap)
8
2

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-31

3. Maximum Negative Bending Moment
Critical negative dead load bending moment = M
dc(neg)


ft kip 10.5
12
5 . 6 99 . 2
12
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap dc
) neg ( dc
− =

=

=

D. Live Load Shear, Reaction and Bending Moment Results
The multiple presence factors cannot be used in conjunction with the
equivalent lane strip widths (E
s
and E
m
) determined in example 8.5.1.
Assume the design truck, tandem, and lane loads are applied
transversely over these equivalent lane strip widths.

Equivalent lane strip width for single lane loaded = E
s
= 11.86 ft
Equivalent lane strip width for multiple lanes loaded = E
m
= 10.38 ft

1. One Lane Loaded
a. Design Truck Axle Loads
Point load of design truck axle = P
truck
= 32 kips

Linear design truck load acting along pile cap for the single lane load
case (E
s
) = w
truck(s)

ft
kips
3.82
86 . 11
24
) 14 24 (
32 32
E
L
) 14 L (
P P
w
s
truck truck
) s ( truck
=





 −
⋅ +
=





 −
⋅ +
=

Maximum design truck shear force = V
truck(5.0-)
= 15.9 kips

Maximum design truck reaction = R
truck(2.0)
= 30.3 kips

Lcap = 6.5 ft
wdc
Fixed-Fixed Pile Cap Span
Mdc = wdc (Lcap)
12
2
[ 3.6.1.2]
[ 4.6.2.3]
[ Design Example
8.5.1]
[ 3.6.1.2.2]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-32

Maximum design truck positive bending moment = M
truck(pos)

ft kip 20.2
8
5 . 6 82 . 3
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) s ( truck
) pos ( truck
− =

=

=


Maximum design truck negative bending = M
truck(neg)

ft kip 13.45
12
5 . 6 82 . 3
12
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) s ( truck
) neg ( truck
− =

=

=

Maximum design truck (single lane load case) = M
truck(s)

M
truck(s)
= M
truck(pos)
= 20.2 kip⋅ft


b. Design Tandem Axle Loads
Point load of design tandem axle = P
tandem
= 25.0 kips

Linear design tandem load acting along pile cap for the single lane load
case (E
s
)= w
tandem(s)

ft
kip
3.86
86 . 11
24
) 4 24 (
25 25
E
L
) 4 L (
P P
w
s
dem tan dem tan
) s ( dem tan
=





 −
⋅ +
=





 −
⋅ +
=

Maximum design tandem shear force = V
tandem(5.0-)
= 16.1 kips
Maximum design tandem reaction force = R
tandem(2.0)
= 30.65 kips
Maximum design tandem positive bending moment = M
tandem(pos)

ft kip 20.4
8
5 . 6 86 . 3
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) s ( dem tan
) pos ( dem tan
− =

=

=

Maximum design tandem negative bending moment = M
tandem(neg)

ft kip 13.6
12
5 . 6 86 . 3
12
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) s ( dem tan
) neg ( dem tan
− =

=

=

Maximum design tandem (single lane load case) = M
tandem(s)

M
tandem(s)
= M
tandem(pos)
= 20.4 kip⋅ft


[ 3.6.1.2.3]
Pile Cap
Es
wtruck(s)

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-33

c. Design Lane Load
Uniform design lane load = w
lane
= 0.64 klf

Linear design lane load acting along pile cap for the single lane load case
(E
s
) = w
lane(s)

[ ] [ ]
ft
kip
1.3
86 . 11
24 64 . 0
E
L w
w
s
lane
) s ( lane
=

=

=

Maximum design lane shear force = V
lane(5.0-)
= 5.42 kips

Maximum design lane reaction force = R
lane(2.0)
= 10.32 kips

Maximum design lane positive bending moment = M
lane(pos)

ft kip 6.67
8
5 . 6 3 . 1
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) s ( lane
) pos ( lane
− =

=

=

Maximum design lane negative bending moment= M
lane(neg)

ft kip 4.58
12
5 . 6 3 . 1
12
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) s ( lane
) neg ( lane
− =

=

=

Maximum design lane (single lane load case) = M
lane(s)

M
lane(s)
= M
lane(pos)
= 6.67 kip⋅ft

2. Multiple Lanes Loaded
a. Design Truck Axle Loads
Linear design truck load acting along pile cap for the multiple lane load
case (E
m
) = w
truck(m)


ft
kip
4.37
38 . 10
24
) 24 24 (
32 32
E
L
) 14 L (
P P
w
m
truck truck
) m ( truck
=





 −
⋅ +
=





 −
⋅ +
=

Maximum design truck shear force = V
truck(5.0-)
= 20.35 kips

Maximum design truck reaction force = R
truck(2.0)
= 32.9 kips

Pile Cap
Es
wlane(s)
[ 3.6.1.2.4]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-34

Maximum design truck positive bending moment = M
truck(pos)

ft kip 23.1
8
5 . 6 37 . 4
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) m ( truck
) pos ( truck
− =

=

=

Maximum design truck negative bending moment = M
truck(neg)

ft kip 15.4
12
5 . 6 37 . 4
12
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) m ( truck
) neg ( truck
− =

=

=

Maximum design truck (multiple lane loaded case) = M
truck(m)

M
truck(m)
= M
truck(pos)
= 23.1 kip⋅ft


b. Design Tandem Axle Loads
Linear design tandem load acting along pile cap for the multiple lane
load case (E
m
) = w
tandem(m)


ft
kip
42 . 4
38 . 10
24
) 4 24 (
25 25
E
L
) 4 L (
P P
w
m
dem tan dem tan
) m ( dem tan
=





 −
⋅ +
=





 −
⋅ +
=

Maximum design tandem shear force = V
tandem(5.0-)
= 20.4 kips

Maximum design tandem reaction force = R
tandem(2.0)
= 33.0 kips

Maximum design tandem positive bending moment = M
tandem(pos)

ft kip 23.3
8
5 . 6 42 . 4
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap ) m ( dem tan
) pos ( dem tan
− =

=

=
Pile Cap
Em
wtruck(m)

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-35



Maximum design tandem negative bending moment = M
tandem(neg)

ft kip 15.6
12
5 . 6 42 . 4
12
) L ( W
M
2
2
cap ) m ( dem tan
) neg ( dem tan
− =

=

=

Maximum design tandem (multiple lane load case) = M
tandem(m)

M
tandem(m)
= M
tandem(pos)
= 23.34 kip⋅ft


c. Design Lane Load
Linear design lane load acting along pile cap for the multiple lane load
case (E
m
) = w
lane(m)
ft
kips
1.48
38 . 10
) 24 ( ) 64 . 0 (
E
L w
w
m
lane
) m ( lane
=

=

=

Maximum design lane shear force = V
lane(5.0-)
= 6.89 kips

Maximum design lane reaction force = R
lane(2.0)
= 11.14 kips

Maximum design lane positive bending moment = M
lane(pos)

ft - kip 7.82
8
) 5 . 6 ( ) 48 . 1 (
8
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap (m) lane
(pos) lane
=

=

=

Maximum design lane negative bending moment = M
lane(neg)

ft kip 5.21
12
) 5 . 6 ( ) 48 . 1 (
12
) L ( w
M
2
2
cap (m) lane
(neg) lane
− =

=

=

Maximum design lane (multiple lane load case) = M
lane(m)

M
lane(m)
= M
lane(pos)
= 7.82 kip⋅ft

Pile Cap
Es
wtruck(s)

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-36

E. Summary of Shear Force, Reaction and Bending Moment
Results
Table 8.5.2.1
Unfactored Load Case
Maximum
Positive
Bending
Moment
(kip⋅ft)
Maximum
Negative
Bending
Moment
(kip⋅ft)
Maximum
Shear
Force
(kips)
Maximum
Support
Reaction
(kips)
Dead Loads 15.79 10.53 12.09 24.18
Single Lane Loaded
Design Truck 20.17 13.45 15.94 30.33
Design Tandem 20.39 13.59 16.11 30.65
Design Lane 6.67 4.58 5.42 10.32
Multiple Lanes Loaded
Design Truck 23.08 15.39 20.35 32.90
Design Tandem 23.34 15.56 20.38 32.97
Design Lane 7.28 5.21 6.89 11.14

The live load member force results indicate that the flexural, shear, and
compression designs are controlled by the multiple lanes loaded with the
design tandem and lane loads. Hence, the remainder of this example
will deal exclusively with this load case.


F. Load and Resistance Factors
1. Load Factors
Impact factor for timber components (reduced due to wood damping
properties) = IM =
1
/
2
⋅ 33% = 16.5% = 0.165

Importance, redundancy, and ductility factors = η = 1.0
Skew factor = ζ = 1.0

a. Load Limit States
Use the Strength I Limit State to determine the required resistance of
the pile caps.

2. Resistance Factors
Flexural resistance factor = φ
f
= 0.85
Shear resistance factor = φ
v
= 0.75
Compression perpendicular to grain resistance factor = φ
cperp
= 0.90

[ 3.6.2.3]
[ Table 3.6.2.1- 1]
[ 1.3.2]
[ 4.6.2.3- 3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-37

A. Factored Bending Moments Acting on Pile Cap
The previous results indicate that multiple lanes loaded with the design
tandem and lane loads control for flexure.

1. Strength I Limit State Positive Moment
Positive (tension on pile cap bottom) bending moment due to multiple
lanes load under ultimate strength loads = M
u(m)

]] M 1M) (1 [M ζ 1.75 M [1.25 η M
lane(m) tandem(m) dc u(m)
+ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

7.28]] (1.165) [(23.34) 1.0 1.75 (15.79) [1.25 1.0
u(m)
M + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

ft kip 80.1 M
) m ( u
− =

2. Required Flexural Resistance of Pile Cap
Required pile cap flexural resistance = M
n(req)

ft
ft kip
94.2
85 . 0
06 . 80
M
M
f
) m ( u
) req ( n

= = =
φ



B. Determine Flexural Resistance of Pile Cap
1. Pile Cap Modification Factors
Moisture content factor for beam lumber = C
m

C
m
= 1.0

Size effect factor for sawn beam lumber in flexure (F
bo
) = C
f

d
cap
= 16 in ≥ 12.0 in
C
f
= (12 / d
cap
)
1/9
= 0.97

Stability factor for sawn beam lumber in flexure (F
bo
) = C
s

b
cap
= 16 in ≤ d
cap
= 16 in
C
s
= 1.0

2. Nominal Flexural Resistance
Pile cap flexural resistance = F
b
= F
bo
⋅ C
m
⋅ C
f
⋅ C
s

F
b
= 5.3 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ 0.97 ⋅ 1.0 = 5.14 ksi

3. Provided Flexural Resistance
Provided pile cap section modulus = S
prov

S
prov
= (
1
/
6
) ⋅ [b
cap
⋅ (d
cap
)
2
] = (
1
/
6
) ⋅ [16 ⋅ (16)
2
] = 682.7 in
3


Provided pile cap flexural resistance = M
n(prov)
M
n(prov)
= F
b
⋅ S
prov
= 5.14 ⋅ 682.67
I nvestigate
Flexural Strength
Requirements
[ 8.4.4.3]


[ 8.4.4.2]
[ 8.6.2]
[ 8.4.4.1- 1]
[ 8.6.2- 1]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-38

= 3508.93 kip⋅in = 292.4 kip⋅ft

M
n(req)
⋅ 1 ft = (94.19) ⋅ 1 = 94.2 kip⋅ft

M
n(prov)
= 292.4 kip⋅ft ≥ M
n(req)
= 94.2 kip⋅ft (OK)

Additional calculations indicate that the minimum required pile cap depth
is 9.1 inches, for flexure. However, it is not uncommon that a deeper
section will be required to satisfy shear.


A. Critical Shear Force Location
For components other than decks, shear shall be investigated at a
distance away from the face of the support equal to the depth of the
component. When calculating the maximum design shear, the live load
shall be placed as to produce the maximum shear at a distance from the
support equal to the lessor of either three times the depth of the
component (d
cap
) or one-quarter of the span (L
cap
). The placement of
the live load is more critical when it is applied as axle point loads, rather
than the uniform load used in this example and in typical Mn/DOT
designs.

Distance away from the support, where the live load is placed = d
live
=
lesser of
3 ⋅ d
cap
= 3 ⋅ 16 in = 48.0 in
OR
L
cap
/ 4 = 6.5 ft / 4 = 19.5 in

Therefore, d
live
= 19.5 in = 1.625 ft

Position to check for shear = [d
cap
+
1
/
2
⋅ d
pile
]/ L
cap

= [1.33 ft +
1
/
2
⋅ 1 ft] / 6.5 ft
Check for shear at 28% of span length away from the support
centerlines.

Horizontal shear must be checked for components other than decks.
The term "horizontal" shear is typically used in wood design, because a
shear failure initiates along the grain. This shear failure is typically
along the horizontal axis. The shear stress is equal in magnitude in the
vertical direction, but inherent resistance is greater, and is not of
concern.
I nvestigate Shear
Resistance
Requirements
[ 8.7]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-39


Figure 8.5.2.2

B. Unfactored Shear Forces Acting on Pile Cap
These shear forces are less than those listed in the earlier table (page
13). The results given below are not the maximum shear forces.
Rather, they are the maximums taken at the appropriate distance "d
cap
"
from the critical support face. The following shear forces were taken at
span coordinate 4.72 (72% point of span number 4).

1. Dead Load Shear Force
Maximum dead load shear force at a distance "d
cap
" away from the
support face = V
dc(m)
= 6.26 kips

2. Live Load Shear Forces (Multiple Lanes Loaded)
Only the design tandem and lane loads, for the multiple lanes loaded
case, are shown below. From the earlier results, this is the load case
that produces the maximum shear force.

a. Design Truck Axle Loads
Maximum design truck shear forces at a distance "d
cap
" away from the
support = V
truck(m)
= 11.15 kips

b. Design Tandem Axle Loads
Maximum design tandem shear forces at a distance "d
cap
" away from
the support = V
tandem(m)
= 11.17 kips

c. Design Lane Load
Maximum design lane shear force at a distance "d
cap
" from the support
= V
lane(m)
= 3.78 kips

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-40

C. Factored Shear Force Acting on Pile Cap
Strength I Limit State shear force for two lanes loaded case = V
u(m)

]] V ) IM 1 ( V [ 75 . 1 V 25 . 1 [ V
) m ( lane ) m ( dem tan dc ) m ( u
+ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ξ η

kips 37.2 ]] 78 . 3 ) 165 . 1 ( 2 . 11 [ 0 . 1 75 . 1 ) 26 . 6 ( 25 . 1 [ 0 . 1 V
) m ( u
= + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

Required pile cap shear resistance = V
n(req)

kips 49.6
75 . 0
2 . 37
V
V
v
) m ( u
) req ( n
= =
Φ
=

D. Determine Shear Resistance of Pile Cap
1. Pile Cap Modification Factors
Horizontal shear factor = C
h
= 1.33 (MNDOT Standard Practice)
Moisture content factor = C
m
= 1.0

2. Nominal Shear Resistance
Horizontal shear resistance (DFL Dense Select Struct.) = F
vo
= 0.25 ksi

Specified resistance of wood in shear = F
v

F
v
= F
vo
⋅ C
h
⋅ C
m
⋅ C
f
= 0.25 ⋅ 1.33 ⋅ 1.0 = 0.33 ksi

3. Provided Shear Resistance
Required factored shear resistance of pile cap cross-section = V
n(prov)

kips 56.3
1.5
16) 16 (0.33
1.5
) d b (F
V
cap cap v
n(prov)
=
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅
=

V
n(req)
= 49.61 kips ≤ V
n(prov)
= 56.32 kips (OK)


A. Unfactored Support Reactions Acting on the Pile Cap
The maximum support reactions are listed in the earlier table (page 13).
These reactions are taken from span coordinate 2.0.

1. Dead Load Reaction Force
Maximum dead load reaction force = R
dc(2.0)
= 24.2 kips

2. Live Load Reaction Forces (Multiple Lanes Loaded)
Only the design tandem and lane load reactions, for the multiple lanes
loaded case, are shown below. From the earlier results, this is the load
case that produces the maximum reaction forces.

a. Design Truck Axle Loads
Maximum design truck reaction force = R
truck(m)
= 32.9 kips

[ 3.4.1]
[ 8.4.4.3]
[ Table 8.4.1.1.4- 1]
[ 8.7- 2]
I nvestigate
Compression
Resistance
Requirements
[ 8.8.3]

JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 8-41

b. Design Tandem Axle Loads
Maximum design tandem reaction force = R
tandem(m)
= 33.0 kips

c. Design Lane Load
Maximum design lane reaction force = R
lane(m)
= 11.1 kips


B. Factored Support Reactions Acting on Pile Cap
Maximum factored reaction due to two lanes loaded case = P
u(m)

]] R ) IM 1 ( R [ 75 . 1 R 25 . 1 [ P
) m ( lane ) m ( dem tan dc ) m ( u
+ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ξ η

kips 116.9 ]] 1 . 11 ) 165 . 1 ( 0 . 33 [ 0 . 1 75 . 1 ) 2 . 24 ( 25 . 1 [ 0 . 1 P
) m ( u
= + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

Required pile cap compression resistance = P
n(req)
kips 129.9
90 . 0
94 . 116
P
P
cperp
) m ( u
) req ( n
= = =
φ



C. Determine Compression Resistance of Pile Cap
1. Pile Cap Bearing Dimensions
Bearing length = L
b
= ½ ⋅ d
pile
= 6 in
Bearing width = b
b
= ½ ⋅ d
pile
= 6 in
Bearing Area = A
b
= [π ⋅ (d
pile
)
2
] / 4 = [π ⋅ (12)
2
] / 4 = 113 in
2


2. Pile Cap Modification Factors
Bearing modification factor = C
b
L
b
= 6.0 in ≥ 6.0 in
C
b
=1.0
Moisture content factor = C
m
= 1.0

3. Nominal Bearing Resistance
Compression resistance parallel to grain = F
cpo
=1.30 ksi
Specified resistance of wood in compression = F
cp

F
cp
= F
cpo
⋅ C
m
⋅ C
f
⋅ C
d
⋅ C
b
= 1.30 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ 1.0 = 1.30 ksi

4. Provided Bearing Resistance
Provided compression resistance perpendicular to grain = P
n(prov)

P
n(prov)
= F
cp
⋅ A
b
= 1.30 ⋅ 113 in
2
= 146.9 kips

5. Bearing Resistance Check
P
n(req)
= 129.9 kips ≤ P
n(prov)
= 146.9 kips (OK)

The provided bearing resistance is greater than the required strength.
[ 8.8.3- 1]
[ Tbl 8.4.1.1.4- 1]
[ 8.4.4.3]
[ Tbl 8.8.3- 1]
[ 3.4.1]



DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-1
9. DECKS AND
DECK SYSTEMS
Reinforced concrete decks on girders are the predominant type of deck
used on highway bridges in Minnesota. The deck is the structural
element that transfers vehicle and pedestrian loads to the girders. It is
analyzed as a continuous beam with the girders acting as supports. The
top and bottom primary moment resisting steel runs transversely in the
deck. The stool between the beam top flange and the deck bottom varies
to allow placement of the deck to the proper elevation.

Timber decks may be used on secondary roads and temporary bridges as
part of the superstructure. Guidance for the design of timber decks is
provided in Section 8.

Specialized deck systems are used for railroad bridges. A common
design is a thru-girder system with floor beams supporting a bent plate.
This channel shaped bent plate holds the ballast on which the rails are
supported. These specialized deck systems are not currently covered in
this manual.


Deck Protection Policy
The following practices are used to extend the service life of new
concrete bridge decks:
9.1 General
• All reinforcement bars shall be epoxy coated. Also, use epoxy
coated reinforcement when widening a bridge or when adding a
new railing.
• The top reinforcing bars shall have a total of 3 inches of cover.
• Primary bridges shall be constructed with a 2 inch low slump
concrete wearing course.

Primary bridges are defined as:
• All bridges carrying interstate traffic.
• All interstate highway bridges at an interchange with access to the
interstate route.
• All bridges carrying trunk highway traffic within major
metropolitan areas and municipalities with populations of 5,000 or
greater.
• All bridges on highways with a 20 year projected ADT greater than
2,000.

The State Bridge Engineer shall determine the appropriate action on any
exceptions to this policy.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-2
9.1.1 Deck
Drainage
Deck Drainage Considerations
The design of a deck requires:
• Removing potential hydroplaning water from the driving surface
using a crown cross-section.
• Channeling drainage water away from the bridge and features
below the bridge using road grades and end slopes respectively.

Superstructure Drains
Drain outlets shall be avoided over roadways, shoulders, sidewalks,
streams, railroad tracks, or end slopes. Drains placed over riprap will
require the area to be grouted, or a grouted flume section provided. At
down spouts or deck drains provide splash blocks.

Avoid drainage details that include flat elements (grades less than 5%).
Pipes and drainage elements with flat profiles tend to collect debris and
plug.

Drainage systems shall avoid direct runoff to waters of the State.
Bridges over lakes or streams, where bridge length is less than 500 feet,
shall be designed such that deck drains are not necessary. Narrow
bridges that are longer than 500 feet may have problems with deck
flooding in severe rainstorms. Discuss this issue with the Hydraulics Unit
prior to beginning final design.

Also note that special drainage requirements are necessary for bridges
where a Corps of Engineers “404 permit” is required. The Hydraulic’s
Unit may also require the addition of containment and treatment features
to the project for bridges located in or near scenic waterways or near
public water supply sources.

The materials and gages for corrugated metal (C.M.) drains, and semi-
circle deck drains, such as those used on railroad bridges, are to be
provided in the plan details. Use 16 gage metal for other C.M. drains.

Drains shall extend a minimum of 1 inch below the bottom of
superstructure. See Standard Bridge Detail B701, B702, B705, or B706.


9.2 Concrete Deck
on Beams
Figure 9.2.1 illustrates the two most common concrete deck systems
used. The deck system selected is based on the protection policy. The
left side of the figure shows a deck constructed with a single concrete
pour. The right side illustrates a deck with a wearing course.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-3


F
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9
.
2
.
1





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-4
The wearing course is less permeable and consequently reduces the rate
at which chlorides penetrate into the deck.


9.2.1 Deck Design
and Detailing
Design
The traditional approximate method of analysis shall be used in deck
design. Do not use the empirical deck design method shown in
LRFD 9.7.2. The deck shall be treated as a continuous beam. Moments
as provided in LRFD Table A4.1-1 are to be applied at the design sections
shown in Figure 9.2.1. The use of LRFD Table A4.1-1 must be within the
assumptions and limitations listed at the beginning of the appendix.
Tables 9.2.1.1 and 9.2.1.2 provide minimum reinforcement requirements
based on the traditional deck design method for decks supported on
prestressed concrete beams and steel beams, respectively. The tables
may be used for all LRFD deck designs that fit the assumptions, as well
as for decks of bridges designed by the Load Factor method (curved steel
bridges or bridge widenings).

The transverse reinforcement given in Tables 9.2.1.1 and 9.2.1.2 is
adequate for deck overhangs (measured from centerline of beam to edge
of deck) up to 40% of the beam spacing when a Type F concrete barrier,
which meets Test Level 4 (Standard Details Part II Figures 5-397.114
through 5-397.117) is used.

The amount of longitudinal steel placed in decks is increased in the
negative moment regions over the piers. The amount of steel must be
consistent with the superstructure modeling assumptions. If precast
beams are made continuous over the piers an appropriate amount of
reinforcement must be included in the deck to provide adequate negative
moment capacity. Similarly for steel beams, the amount of longitudinal
reinforcement must be consistent with the design section property
assumptions. For steel beam or girder superstructures, the LRFD
specifications require at least one percent reinforcing over the piers. See
Figure 9.2.1.7 for additional information.
[ 6.10.1.7]

The design of the distribution steel for the entire bridge shall be based on
the widest beam spacing found in any span.

The top longitudinal steel in non-pier areas shall satisfy the requirements
for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.

For skews less than or equal to 20°, detail deck reinforcement parallel to
the skew. Design the reinforcement taking into account the skew.




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-5
For skews greater than 20°, provide reinforcing at right angles to the
centerline of roadway.

Overhangs are to be designed to meet the strength requirements of
Section 13. LRFD A13.4.2 specifies that the vehicle collision force to be
used in deck overhang design is to be equal to the rail capacity
w
R . This
ensures that the deck will be stronger than the rail and that the yield line
failure mechanism will occur in the parapet. For example, the TL-4 F-rail
has a capacity kips 0 . 128 R
w
= (see Section 13.3.1), which is well above
the rail design collision force F kips 54
t
= for a Test Level 4 railing.
Because of the large difference between rail capacity and collision force,
Mn/DOT requires the deck overhang to carry the lesser of the rail
capacity
w
R or
4
/
3
x F .
t

Geometry
Figures 9.2.1.2 through 9.2.1.5 contain standard Mn/DOT deck details.
Typical deck reinforcement layouts at deck edges and medians are
illustrated in the figures.

Use a uniform deck thickness for all spans based on the minimum
thickness required for the widest beam spacing.

The main transverse reinforcement will vary with the beam spacing. For
skewed bridges, continue the reinforcement for the wider beam spacing
until the reinforcement is completely outside of the span with the wider
beam spacing.

The standard height of bridge sidewalks is 8 inches above the top of
roadway. Bridge medians shall match approach roadway median shape
and height.

Use a uniform thickness for the edge of deck in all spans. Use a 9 inch
minimum thickness on structures without a wearing course. Use an
8 inch minimum thickness on bridges with a wearing course or sidewalk.

Dimension the bottom of deck on the outside of the fascia beam at 1 inch
below the top of the beam for prestressed concrete beams. For steel
beams, detail the bottom of deck on the outside of the fascia beam to
meet the bottom of the top flange. See Figures 9.2.1.2 through 9.2.1.5.

Check the slope of the bottom of the deck on overhangs. The edge of the
deck should be higher than the location next to the beam top flange.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-6
Detailing
The main transverse deck reinforcement shall consist of straight bars
located in both the top and the bottom reinforcing mats.

For the acute corners of highly skewed bridges, detail the deck
reinforcement as follows: In addition to the 2-#16 bars that run parallel
to the expansion joint at the end of the deck, place 2 top mat #16 bars
that are 10 feet long and run parallel to the joint with a spacing of 5
inches. Also, run a series of radial transverse bars that shorten as they
progress into the corner. Finally, place a bent bar in the corner that ties
to the outside deck longitudinal bar and the end bar running parallel to
the joint. See Figure 9.2.1.1.






















Figure 9.2.1.1

Add a longitudinal tie at the end of the deck if the deck projects past the
end of the diaphragm more than 1 foot.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-7
Several detailing practices are to be used near piers:
• Detail longitudinal steel (temperature and distribution) as
continuous over piers.
• Provide additional longitudinal steel to minimize transverse deck
cracking. See Figures 9.2.1.6 and 9.2.1.7.
• For decks supported on non-continuous prestressed beams, detail
a partial depth sawcut in the deck over the pier backfilled with a
sealant. See Figure 9.2.1.8.
• Place polystyrene on the corners of prestressed concrete beams
bridges with skews greater than 20° to reduce wandering of the
transverse deck crack at the centerline of pier. See
Figure 9.2.1.8.

For bridges with transverse deck reinforcement parallel to the skew,
dimension transverse bar spacing along edge of deck.

Deck Placement Sequence
For bridges with wide decks and continuous bridges with long spans, a
deck placement sequence detailing locations of transverse construction
joints shall be shown in the plans. A deck placement sequence must be
provided on the following bridges:
• Bridges with decks wider than 90 feet.
• Continuous bridges with spans exceeding 150 feet.
• Bridges where the concrete placement rate is not high enough to
cast 60% of the span length per hour.

Generally, for steel girder superstructures locate the first transverse
construction joint at the 0.6 point of the first span. The following pour
shall commence at the 0.6 point of the adjacent span and shall terminate
at the end of the previous pour. Continue this pattern for all interior
spans. Start the last pour at the end of the bridge and extend to the end
of the previous pour. A minimum of 72 hours is required between pours
in adjacent spans.

For unusual span length configurations, discuss location of transverse
construction joints with the Bridge Design Engineer and Regional
Construction Engineer.

Provide information on the location and pattern for the deck placement
on the superstructure details of the bridge plan.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-8
REINFORCEMENT FOR DECK ON PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS
(Negative Moment @ 10 inches from CL Beam)
Transverse Reinforcement
Bottom
Maximum
Beam
Spacing
with Wearing
Course
w/o Wearing
Course
Top
Deck
Thickness
(in)
Longitudinal
Reinforcement
Bottom ∗
Longitudinal
Reinforcement
Top ∗
4'-9" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 8" 13 @ 8" 9 13 @ 10" 13 @ 1'-6"
6'-0" 13 @ 6½" 13 @ 7½" 13 @ 8" 9 13 @ 9" 13 @ 1'-6"
6'-6" 13 @ 6" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 7½" 9 13 @ 9" 13 @ 1'-6"
7'-0" 13 @ 5½" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 7½" 9 13 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
7'-6" 13 @ 5½" 13 @ 6½" 13 @ 7½" 9 13 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
8'-0" 13 @ 5" 13 @ 6" 13 @ 7" 9 13 @ 7" 13 @ 1'-6"
8'-6" 13 @ 5" 13 @ 6" 13 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 7" 13 @ 1'-6"
9'-0" 16 @ 7" 13 @ 5½" 13 @ 6½" 9 16 @ 10" 13 @ 1'-6"
9'-6" 16 @ 6½" 13 @ 5" 13 @ 6" 9 16 @ 10" 13 @ 1'-6"
10'-0" 16 @ 6" 13 @ 5" 13 @ 5½" 9 16 @ 9" 13 @ 1'-6"
10'-6" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 13 @ 5" 9 16 @ 9" 13 @ 1'-6"
11'-0" 16 @ 5½" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 6" 9 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
11'-6" 16 @ 5½" 16 @ 6½" 16 @ 6" 9 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
12'-0" 19 @ 7" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5½" 9 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
12'-6" 19 @ 7" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5½" 9¼ 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
13'-0" 19 @ 7" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5" 9½ 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
13'-6" 19 @ 7½" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5" 9¾ 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
14'-0" 19 @ 7½" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5" 10 16 @ 8" 13 @ 1'-6"
14'-6" 19 @ 7½" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5" 10¼ 16 @ 9" 13 @ 1'-6"
15'-0" 19 @ 7½" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 5" 10½ 16 @ 9" 13 @ 1'-6"
* Reinforcement shown is for bridges where beams are not continuous at piers and expansion joints exist at abutments.
Note that additional reinforcement may be required when integral abutments are used or beams are continuous at piers.
See Figure 9.2.1.6 for additional top reinforcement required at piers when only deck is continuous.
Design Assumptions:
1. Live load moments are from LRFD Table A4.1-1.
2. The 2" wearing course is sacrificial and is not used in determining a structural depth d for bottom steel.
3. The control of cracking by distribution of flexural reinforcement requirements have been met using a clear cover of 1"
for bottom steel and 2" for top steel with a Z=130 kips/inch.
4. The LRFD code (under empirical design) states the ratio of the effective beam spacing to slab thickness should be less
than 18 (Ontario uses 15); this slab thickness increase fits these requirements and is similar to what we have used
successfully in the past.
5. A future wearing course of 20 psf with a load factor of 1.25 has been used.
6. Concrete strength of 4 ksi; reinforcing steel strength of 60 ksi.
Table 9.2.1.1




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-9
REINFORCEMENT FOR DECK ON STEEL BEAMS
(Negative Moment @ 3 inches from CL Beam)
Transverse Reinforcement
Bottom
Maximum
Beam
Spacing
with Wearing
Course
w/o Wearing
Course
Top
Deck
Thickness
(in)
Longitudinal
Reinforcement
Bottom ∗
Longitudinal
Reinforcement
Top ∗
4'-9" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
5'-6" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
6'-0" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
6'-6" 13 @ 6" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
7'-0" 13 @ 5½" 13 @ 7" 13 @ 6" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
7'-6" 13 @ 5½" 13 @ 6½" 13 @ 5½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
8'-0" 13 @ 5" 13 @ 6" 13 @ 5" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
8'-6" 13 @ 5" 13 @ 6" 13 @ 5" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
9'-0" 16 @ 7" 13 @ 5½" 16 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
9'-6" 16 @ 6½" 13 @ 5" 16 @ 6½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
10'-0" 16 @ 6" 13 @ 5" 16 @ 6" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
10'-6" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 5½" 9 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
11'-0" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 5½" 9¼ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
11'-6" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 5" 9½ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
12'-0" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 5" 9¾ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
12'-6" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 5" 10 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
13'-0" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 7" 16 @ 5" 10¼ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
13'-6" 16 @ 6" 16 @ 6½" 19 @ 6" 10½ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
14'-0" 16 @ 5½" 16 @ 6½" 19 @ 6" 10¾ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
14'-6" 16 @ 5½" 16 @ 6½" 19 @ 6" 11 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
15'-0" 16 @ 5½" 16 @ 6½" 19 @ 6" 11¼ 13 @ 6" 13 @ 1'-6"
* Requirements for positive moment area shown; See Figure 9.2.1.7 for reinforcing requirements over the pier. Also note
that additional reinforcement may be needed in deck at abutments when integral abutments are used.
Design Assumptions:
1. Live load moments are from LRFD Table A4.1-1.
2. The 2" wearing course is sacrificial and is not used in determining a structural depth d for bottom steel.
3. The control of cracking by distribution of flexural reinforcement requirements have been met using a clear cover of 1"
for bottom steel and 2" for top steel with a Z=130 kips/inch.
4. The LRFD code (under empirical design) states the ratio of the effective beam spacing to slab thickness should be less
than 18 (Ontario uses 15); this slab thickness increase fits these requirements and is similar to what we have used
successfully in the past.
5. A future wearing course of 20 psf with a load factor of 1.25 has been used.
6. Concrete strength of 4 ksi; reinforcing steel strength of 60 ksi.
Table 9.2.1.2




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-10

Figure 9.2.1.2




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-11

Figure 9.2.1.3




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-12

Figure 9.2.1.4




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-13

Figure 9.2.1.5




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-14

Figure 9.2.1.6




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-15

Figure 9.2.1.7




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-16

Figure 9.2.1.8




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-17
9.3 Reinforced
Concrete Deck
Design Example
This example demonstrates the design of a typical reinforced concrete
deck. The dimensions used are consistent with those of the prestressed
beam design example in Section 5.7.2. The first part describes the
design of the interior region of a reinforced concrete deck supported on
beam or stringer elements. The second part provides design procedures
for the deck overhang region.

The deck is assumed to carry traffic loads to the supporting members
(beams or girders) via one-way slab or beam action. The supporting
members for the deck are parallel to the direction of traffic. The
substructures are not skewed, so the primary reinforcement for the deck
is placed perpendicular to the supporting members. Distribution steel is
placed parallel to the beams.

The reinforced concrete deck section with wearing course is illustrated in
Figure 9.3.1.

Deck
Unit weight of deck and wearing course, kcf 150 . 0
deck
= γ
Skew angle of bridge, degrees 0 = ϕ
Out-to-out bridge deck transverse width, in 616 ft 33 . 51 b
deck
= =
Modular ratio, 8 ksi 3644 / ksi 29000 E / E n
cs s
≈ = =

Railing/Barrier
A stiffening element is required at the edge of decks for load distribution.
This requirement is satisfied with the continuous F-rail typically used on
Mn/DOT bridges. Refer to the barrier design example in Section 13.3 for
more details.

The deck is modeled as a continuous beam on pinned supports provided
at the centerline of the supporting beams. The beams are assumed to be
rigid, not permitting vertical movement. Recognizing that beams have
top flanges that provide support for the deck over a finite dimension, the
specifications permit designing negative moment reinforcement for
locations that are offset from the centerline of the beam.
[ 4.6.2.2.4]
A. Material and
Design Parameters
[ 9.7.1.1]
[ 9.7.1.3]
[ 9.7.1.4]
B. Structural
Analysis of
I nterior Region
[ 9.6.1]





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-18

F
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9
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3
.
1





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-19
[ 4.6.2.1.6] For prestressed beams, negative moments should be checked at the
design section located
1
/
3
of the flange width away from the beam
centerline. The offset can be no more than 15 inches. For the top flange
width of 30 inches, check negative moments at a location 10 inches away
from beam centerline. The design uses a unit strip one foot wide.

The AASHTO LRFD Specifications contain tables listing the design live
load moments (positive and negative) for decks supported on different
beam spacings. The tabularized moments are for a one foot wide strip.

The limitations for use of the tables include a check on the overhang
dimension. A minimum of 1.75 feet from the centerline of the fascia
beam is permitted. The maximum overhang permitted is the lesser of
[6.0 feet or (0.625 x beam spacing)].
ft 0 . 6 ft 63 . 5 ft 0 . 9 625 . 0 ≤ = ⋅

For this example the overhang is:
( ) ft 17 . 3 0 . 45 33 . 51
2
1
= − ⋅ ft 63 . 5 ft 17 . 3 ft 75 . 1 < < OK

The overhang dimension checks are satisfied, as are the other
parameters.
C. Live Loads
[ Appendix A4]

Interpolate Design Live Load Moments
LRFD Table A4.1-1 lists the following design live load moments for a
beam spacing of 9.0 ft:
Positive moment = 6.29 kip-ft
Negative moment (9 in) = 4.28 kip-ft
Negative moment (12 in) = 3.71 kip-ft

Interpolate to obtain a value at the design section (10 inches away from
the center of the supporting beam):
ft/ft - kip 09 . 4
3
71 . 3 28 . 4
1 28 . 4 = ⎟




⎛ −
⋅ −

The values in LRFD Table A4.1-1 include the multiple presence and
dynamic load allowance factors.

D. Dead Loads The dead load moments are based on the self-weight of the 7 inch deck,
a 2 inch wearing course, and a 0.020 ksf future wearing surface.

Depth of concrete deck, in 9 in 2 in 7 d
deck
= + =




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-20
Dead loads will be computed for a strip of deck 1 foot wide. Mn/DOT
practice is to simplify the dead load bending moment calculations, by
computing both the positive and negative dead load bending moments
using:
10
L W
M
2
DC
DC

=

Deck and Wearing Course Load:
( ) ( ) klf 11 . 0
2
1
9 150 . 0 d W
deck deck deck
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ γ =

Future Wearing Surface Load:
klf 02 . 0 W
WS
=

Combined Dead Load:
klf 13 . 0 02 . 0 11 . 0 W W W
WS deck DC
= + = + =

Dead Load Bending Moment:
( )
05 . 1
10
9 13 . 0
M
2
DC
=

= kip-ft

E. Flexural Design
Moments
[ 1.3.3 – 1.3.5]
The load modifiers for the deck design are:
00 . 1
D
= η
00 . 1
R
= η
00 . 1
I
= η
Then 00 . 1
I R D cum
= η ⋅ η ⋅ η = η

[ Table 3.4.1- 1]
Use the load factors provided in LRFD Article 3.4.1 to generate the
Strength I and Service I design moments.

Strength I Limit State Loads
( ) ( ) [ ] LL 75 . 1 DC 25 . 1 00 . 1 U
1
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

Negative Design Moment:
( ) ( ) [ ]
LL(neg) DC u(neg)
M 75 . 1 M 25 . 1 00 . 1 M ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
( ) ( ) [ ] 47 . 8 09 . 4 75 . 1 05 . 1 25 . 1 00 . 1 = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-21
Positive Design Moment:
( ) ( ) [ ]
LL(pos) DC u(pos)
M 75 . 1 M 25 . 1 00 . 1 M ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
( ) ( ) [ ] 32 . 12 29 . 6 75 . 1 05 . 1 25 . 1 00 . 1 = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft

Service I Limit State Loads
( ) ( ) [ ] LL 0 . 1 DC 0 . 1 00 . 1 S
1
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =

Negative Design Moment:
( ) ( ) [ ]
LL(neg) DC S(neg)
M 0 . 1 M 0 . 1 00 . 1 M ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
( ) ( ) [ ] 14 . 5 09 . 4 0 . 1 05 . 1 0 . 1 00 . 1 = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft

Positive Design Moment:
( ) ( ) [ ]
LL(pos) DC S(pos)
M 0 . 1 M 0 . 1 00 . 1 M ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
( ) ( ) [ ] 34 . 7 29 . 6 0 . 1 05 . 1 0 . 1 00 . 1 = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = kip-ft

F. Top Steel
( Negative
Moment)

[ 5.7.3]
Flexure Strength Check
The top reinforcement has a clear cover of 3 inches (which includes the
2 inch wearing course). Design the negative moment reinforcement
assuming a singly reinforced cross section and that #13 bars are used
( ). inches 50 . 0 d
b
=

[ 5.5.4.2] Flexural and tension resistance factor, 90 . 0 = φ

Determine distance from extreme compression fiber to tension
reinforcement.
in 75 . 5 5 . 0
2
1
3 9 d
2
1
- cover d d
b deck s
= ⋅ − − = ⋅ − =

Try #13 bars with a 6.5 inch center-to-center spacing.

Width of compression face of member, in 12 b =





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-22
Area of top steel provided per foot,
2
b s(top)
in 37 . 0
5 . 6
12
20 . 0
spacing
12
A A = ⎟





⋅ =








⋅ =
in 54 . 0
12 4 85 . 0
60 37 . 0
b f 85 . 0
f A
c a
c
y s(top)
1
=
⋅ ⋅

=
⋅ ′ ⋅

= β =






⋅ ⎟





− ⋅ ⋅ = ⎟





− ⋅ ⋅ =
12
1
2
54 . 0
75 . 5 60 37 . 0
2
a
d f A M
s y s(top) n

14 . 10 = kip-ft
13 . 9 14 . 10 9 . 0 M
n
= ⋅ = ⋅ ϕ kip-ft kip-ft 47 . 8 > OK

Crack Control Check
The design value for the crack width parameter (Z) for severe exposure
is . kip/in 130

The thickness of clear cover used to compute shall not be taken
greater than 2.0 inches. Assuming #13 bars are used,
c
d
in 25 . 2 d 5 . 0 0 . 2 d
b c
= ⋅ + = .

The area of concrete assumed to participate with the primary
tensile reinforcement for this check is:
top
A
[ 5.7.3.4]
2
bars
c
top
in 25 . 29
5 . 6
12
12 25 . 2 2
N
b d 2
A =










⋅ ⋅
=







⎛ ⋅ ⋅
=
⎞ ⎛


[ 5.7.3.4- 1] The maximum tensile stress permitted in the top mat at the Service I
limit state is:
ksi 36 f 6 . 0 ksi 2 . 32
25 . 29 25 . 2
130
A d
Z
f
y
3
3
top c
sa(top)
= ⋅ ≤ =

=

=

Compute the stress in the reinforcement using a cracked section analysis.
Begin by locating the neutral axis.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-23


( ) x d A n
2
x
x b
s s
− ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
( ) x 75 . 5 37 . 0 8
2
x 12
2
− ⋅ ⋅ =

solving, in 46 . 1 x =

Determine the lever arm between service load flexural force components.
in 26 . 5
3
46 . 1
75 . 5
3
x
d d j
s s
= − = − = ⋅

The stress in the reinforcement when subjected to the Service I moment
is:
ksi 2 . 32 ksi 7 . 31
26 . 5 37 . 0
12 14 . 5
d j A
M
f
s s
(neg) s
s
≤ =


=
⋅ ⋅
= OK

[ 5.7.3.3.1]
Maximum Reinforcement
The LRFD maximum reinforcement check is a limit on the neutral axis to
steel depth ratio. The c/d ratio must be less than 0.42.

[ 5.7.2.2] For 4 ksi concrete, the depth of the section in compression can be found
with the “a” dimension determined in the strength equations and
1
β . For
4 ksi concrete, 85 . 0
1
= β .
in 64 . 0
85 . 0
54 . 0 a
c
1
= =
β
=
42 . 0 11 . 0
75 . 5
64 . 0
d
c
d
c
s e
< = = = OK





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-24
[ 5.7.3.3.2]
Minimum Reinforcement
Reinforcement should be provided to carry the smaller of 1.2 times the
cracking moment ( ) or 1.33 times the Strength I bending moment
( ).
cr
M
u
M

Conservatively assume a full 9 inch deep section for the minimum
reinforcement check.
( ) ( )
3
2 2
deck
deck
in 162
6
9 12
6
d b
S =

=

=

[ 5.4.2.6] The rupture stress (
r
f ) of concrete is assumed to be:
ksi 48 . 0 4 24 . 0 f 24 . 0 f
c r
= ⋅ = ′ ⋅ =

Set the cracking moment ( ) equal to
cr
M S f
r
⋅ :
( ) ( ) 78 . 7
12
1
162 48 . 0 2 . 1 S f 2 . 1 M 2 . 1
r cr
= ⎟





⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ kip-ft GOVERNS
27 . 11 47 . 8 33 . 1 M 33 . 1
u(neg)
= ⋅ = ⋅ kip-ft

Use the value to check minimum reinforcement.
cr
M 2 . 1 ⋅
13 . 9 M
n
= ⋅ ϕ kip-ft kip-ft 78 . 7 > OK

G. Bottom Steel
( Positive Moment)
[ 5.7.3]
Flexure Strength Check
The bottom reinforcement has a clear cover of one inch. Because the
wearing course may be removed in future milling operations, do not
include it in structural capacity computations. Size the positive moment
reinforcement assuming a singly reinforced cross section. Assume that
#16 bars are used.

Determine distance from extreme compression fiber to tension
reinforcement.
in 69 . 5 63 . 0
2
1
2 1 9 d
2
1
course wear cover d d
b deck s
= ⋅ − − − = ⋅ − − − =

Try #16 bars with a 7 inch center-to-center spacing.
Area of steel per foot
s(bot)
A =
2
b s(bot)
in 53 . 0
7
12
31 . 0
spacing
12
A A = ⎟





⋅ =








⋅ =
in 78 . 0
12 4 85 . 0
60 53 . 0
b f 85 . 0
f A
c a
c
y s(bot)
1
=
⋅ ⋅

=
⋅ ′ ⋅

= β =




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-25






⋅ ⎟





− ⋅ ⋅ = ⎟





− ⋅ ⋅ =
12
1
2
78 . 0
69 . 5 60 53 . 0
2
a
d f A M
s y s(bot) n

05 . 14 = kip-ft
65 . 12 05 . 14 9 . 0 M
n
= ⋅ = ⋅ ϕ kip-ft kip-ft 32 . 12 > OK

Crack Control Check
Crack width parameter for severe exposure kip/in 130 Z =

Depth of concrete measured from extreme tension fiber to center of bar
located closest is :
c
d
in 31 . 1
2
63 . 0
0 . 1
2
d
cover d
b
c
= + = + =

Area of concrete assumed to participate with the reinforcement for
this check is:
bot
A
2
bars
c
bot
in 41 . 18
7
12
12 31 . 1 2
N
b d 2
A =










⋅ ⋅
=







⎛ ⋅ ⋅
=
⎞ ⎛


The maximum tensile stress in mild steel reinforcement at the Service I
limit state is:
ksi 36 ksi 0 . 45
41 . 18 31 . 1
130
A d
Z
f
3
3
bot c
sa(bot)
> =

=

= , Use 36 ksi

Compute the stress in the reinforcement using a cracked section analysis.
Begin by locating the neutral axis.
[ 5.7.3.4]
[ 5.7.3.4- 1]
( ) x d A n
2
x b
s s
2
− ⋅ ⋅ =


( ) x 69 . 5 53 . 0 8
2
x 12
2
− ⋅ ⋅ =

solving, x in 68 . 1 =

Determine the lever arm between service load flexural force components.
in 13 . 5
3
68 . 1
69 . 5
3
x
d d j
s s
= − = − = ⋅

The stress in the reinforcement when subjected to the Service I design
moment is:
ksi 0 . 36 ksi 4 . 32
13 . 5 53 . 0
12 34 . 7
d j A
M
f
s s
(pos) s
s
≤ =


=
⋅ ⋅
= OK





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-26
[ 5.7.3.3.1]
Maximum Reinforcement Check
The LRFD maximum reinforcement check is a limit on the neutral axis to
steel depth ratio. This c/d ratio must be less than 0.42.

[ 5.7.2.2] Similar to the negative moment region use 85 . 0
1
= β and the “a”
dimension from the strength computations.
42 . 0 16 . 0
69 . 5 85 . 0
78 . 0
d
a
d
c
s 1 e
< =

=
⋅ β
=








OK

Minimum Reinforcement Check
Reinforcement should be provided to carry the smaller of 1.2 times the
cracking moment ( ) or 1.33 times the Strength I bending moment
( ).
cr
M
u
M
( ) ( ) 78 . 7
12
1
162 48 . 0 2 . 1 S f 2 . 1 M 2 . 1
r cr
= ⎟





⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ kip-ft GOVERNS
39 . 16 32 . 12 33 . 1 M 33 . 1
u(pos)
= ⋅ = ⋅ kip-ft

Use the value to check minimum reinforcement.
cr
M 2 . 1 ⋅
65 . 12 M
n
= ⋅ ϕ kip-ft kip-ft 78 . 7 > OK

As part of the Traditional Design Method an “equivalent width method”
for reinforced bridge deck designs is utilized. The constraints for
reinforced concrete decks, designed in accordance with “traditional”
methods, are given in LRFD 9.7.3. To ensure proper load distribution,
reinforcement placed perpendicular to the primary reinforcement must be
placed in the bottom mat. This reinforcement is a fraction of the primary
steel required for the bottom of the section (positive moment). For decks
where the primary reinforcement is placed perpendicular to traffic, the
longitudinal reinforcement requirement in the bottom mat is:
[ 5.7.3.3.2]
% 67
S
220
e









where =
e
S effective span length in feet

The effective span length is a function of the beam or stringer spacing
and the type of beam or stringer. For prestressed concrete I-beam
sections, the effective span length is the distance between flange tips
plus the distance the flange overhangs the web on one side.
overhang flange width flange top spacing beam S
e
+ − =
ft 5 . 7 ft 0 . 1 ft 5 . 2 ft 0 . 9 = + − =
% 67 % 3 . 80
5 . 7
220
≥ =








Use 67%
[ 9.7.2.3]
H. Bottom
Longitudinal
Reinforcement

[ 9.7.3.2]




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-27
Use 67% of the primary steel in the bottom mat. The required area of
steel is:
/ft in 36 . 0 53 . 0 67 . 0 A 67 . 0 A
2
s(bot) s(req)
= ⋅ = ⋅ =

Try #16 bars on 10 inch centers. Area of steel provided equals:
/ft in 37 . 0
10
12
31 . 0
spacing
12
A A
2
b s(prov)
= ⎟





⋅ =








⋅ =
/ft in 36 . 0 /ft in 37 . 0
2 2
≥ = OK

The top longitudinal bars must meet the shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement requirements.
Temperature /ft in 20 . 0
60
9 12
11 . 0
f
A
11 . 0 A
2
y
g
s
= ⎟




⎛ ⋅
⋅ =








⋅ ≥
(total in each direction, distributed to both faces)
For each face, Min. temp. ( ) /ft in 10 . 0 20 . 0
2
1
A
2
s
= ⋅ =
Use #13 bars spaced at 18 inches ( ) for top
longitudinal reinforcement.
/ft in 13 . 0 A
2
s
=

Mn/DOT uses additional reinforcement over the piers for continuous
decks over piers where the beams are not continuous. The additional
reinforcing consists of two #19 bars placed on 6 inch centers between the
top mat #13 bars. Refer to Figure 9.2.1.6 for typical reinforcement
detailing.
I . Top Longitudinal
Reinforcement

Figure 9.3.2 illustrates the final reinforcement layout for the interior
region of the deck.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-28

Figure 9.3.2




Figure 9.3.3 illustrates the overhang region. Four cases must be
considered for the overhang design:
J . Structural
Analysis of
Overhang Region
[ A13.2- 1]
Case 1: Extreme Event II evaluated at the gutter line for the dead
load plus horizontal collision force.
Case 2: Extreme Event II evaluated at the edge of the beam flange
for the dead load plus horizontal collision force plus live
load.
Case 3: Strength I evaluated at the edge of the beam flange for the
dead load plus live load.
Case 4: Extreme Event II evaluated at the edge of the beam flange
for the dead load plus vertical collision force plus live load.

For this example, the distance from the edge of flange to the gutter line
is small, so by inspection Case 2 and Case 3 will not govern. Case 4 will
never govern when the Mn/DOT overhang limitations are followed and a
Test Level 4 F-rail is used. Therefore, only Case 1 calculations are
included in this example.





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-29

Figure 9.3.3


1. Geometry and Loads
Overhang = 3.17 ft (calculated earlier)

Edge of deck to negative moment section location = 20 in

Deck thickness at gutter line (ignoring wearing course):
( ) in 30 . 9
23
20
8 5 . 9 8 = ⎟





⋅ − +

Average deck thickness:
in 65 . 8
2
30 . 9 8
= ⎟




⎛ +


Deck Bending Moment (at Gutter Line)
15 . 0
2
67 . 1
67 . 1 150 . 0
12
65 . 8
M
deck
= ⎟





⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎟





≈ kip-ft

Barrier Bending Moment
Barrier weight is 0.477 kips per foot. The centroid of the barrier is
11.04 inches outside of the gutter line.




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-30
44 . 0
12
04 . 11
477 . 0 x w M
cb barrier barrier
= ⎟





⋅ = ⋅ = kip-ft

[ A13.2]
Collision Force Tension and Bending Moment
The F-rail with wearing course has a maximum capacity kips 5 . 121 R
w
=
(see Section 13.3.1E). The factored design force for a Test
Level 4 railing.
kips 54 F
t
=

Mn/DOT requires the deck to carry the lesser of the rail capacity
w
R or
4
/
3
x :
t
F
kips 5 . 121 R F
w collision
= =
or
( ) kips 72 54
3
4
F
3
4
F
t collision
= ⋅ = ⋅ = GOVERNS

The collision force is applied at a height of 34 inches above the top of the
structural deck. It generates a tension force and a bending moment in
the overhang portion of the deck. The moment arm to the center of the
deck cross-section at the gutter line is:
Moment arm ft 22 . 3 in 65 . 38
2
30 . 9
34 = = + =
(wearing course is ignored)

The collision force is applied to a length of barrier 3.5 feet long.
Computations for the standard F-rail design example (Section 13.3.1E)
indicate that 10.2 feet of barrier length ( ) is engaged in resisting the
collision force in the “interior” regions. Assume that a deck width of
10.2 feet plus two barrier heights (using a 45 degree distribution) resists
the tension force and overturning moment.
c
L
width deck effective / F F
collision c(linear)
=
kips/ft 54 . 4
2 83 . 2 2 . 10
72
L L
F
45deg c
collision
=
⋅ +
=
+
=
( ) 62 . 14 22 . 3 54 . 4 arm moment F M
c(linear) c
= ⋅ = ⋅ = kip-ft/ft

Extreme Event II Limit State Bending Moment
Dead Load Moment:
( ) ( ) 59 . 0 44 . 0 15 . 0 M M M
barrier deck
= + = + = kip-ft/ft

Total Factored Moment:
36 . 15 59 . 0 25 . 1 62 . 14 00 . 1 M 25 . 1 M 00 . 1 M
DL c u
= ⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ = kip-ft/ft





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-31
Total Factored Axial Force:
kips/ft 54 . 4 F P
c(linear) u
= =
The eccentricity of is:
u
P
in 56 . 40 ft 38 . 3
54 . 4
36 . 15
P
M
e
u
u
u
= = = =

2. Overhang Resistance
The overhang must resist both axial tension and bending moment. The
capacity of the overhang will be determined by considering the tension
side of the structural interaction diagram for a one foot wide portion of
the overhang. See Figure 9.3.4.


Figure 9.3.4


Check if the reinforcement chosen for the interior region will be adequate
for the overhang region. The interior region reinforcement is:
Top reinforcement – #13 bars @ 6
1
/
2
" ( A ) /ft in 37 . 0
2
s
=
Bottom reinforcement – #16 bars @ 7" ( ) /ft in 53 . 0 A
2
s
=




DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-32
Referring to Figure 9.3.5, determine the capacity of the overhang section
for the eccentricity equal to 40.56 inches.
u
e

Start by assuming that for both the top and bottom reinforcement,
y s
ε > ε .

Next, check development of the top and bottom bars from the edge of
deck. From Figure 5.2.2.2 of this manual:
For #13 bars, in 12
d
= l
For #16 bars, in 15
d
= l
For #13 top bars, available in 18
davail(13)
= l 100% developed
For #16 bottom bars, available 100% developed in 16
davail(16)
= l


Figure 9.3.5





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-33
Then:
/ft in 37 . 0 A
2
stopeff
=
/ft in 53 . 0 A
2
sboteff
=
kips 20 . 22 60 37 . 0 f A T
y stopeff stop
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
kips 80 . 31 60 53 . 0 f A T
y sboteff sbot
= ⋅ = ⋅ =
kips 0 . 54 80 . 31 20 . 22 T
stot
= + =

The total compression force C is:
c 68 . 34 c 85 . 0 0 . 12 0 . 4 85 . 0 a b f 85 . 0 C
c
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ′ ⋅ =
Find the distance from the bottom of the section to the neutral axis by
taking moments about :
n
P
( ) ( ) 04 . 1 56 . 40 80 . 31 40 . 3 56 . 40 20 . 22 + ⋅ + − ⋅
0
2
c 85 . 0
65 . 4 56 . 40 c 68 . 34 = ⎟




⎛ ⋅
− + ⋅ ⋅ −
0 c 74 . 14 c 88 . 1567 83 . 2147
2
= ⋅ + ⋅ −
in 39 . 1 c =

Check if original assumption was correct that .
y s
ε > ε
00207 . 0
000 , 29
60
E
f
s
y
y
= = = ε
( ) 00207 . 0 0144 . 0
39 . 1
003 . 0
39 . 1 40 . 3 65 . 4
stop
> = ⎟





⋅ − + = ε
( ) 00207 . 0 0048 . 0
39 . 1
003 . 0
39 . 1 04 . 1 65 . 4
sbot
> = ⎟





⋅ − − = ε

Therefore the assumption was correct.

Then,
kips 21 . 48 39 . 1 68 . 34 c 68 . 34 C = ⋅ = ⋅ =
And,
C T T P
sbot stop n
− + =
kips 79 . 5 21 . 48 80 . 31 20 . 22 = − + =





DECEMBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 9-34
[ 1.3.2.1] The resistance factor φ for Extreme Event II limit state is 1.0. Therefore,
kips 54 . 4 kips 79 . 5 P P
n n
> = = ⋅ φ OK
57 . 19
12
1
56 . 40 79 . 5 e P M
u n n
= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ φ kip-ft
57 . 19 = kip-ft kip-ft 36 . 15 > OK

Therefore, the interior region reinforcement is adequate for the overhang
region. Note that if the reinforcement was found inadequate, the barrier
bar that extends into the deck could also have been included as tension
reinforcement.




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-1

Different types of foundations are used throughout the state due to the
variety of soil and rock conditions present. This section provides
guidance on the design and detailing practices for spread footings, driven
piles, and drilled shaft foundations.


During preliminary design a number of activities take place to determine
the types of foundations to be used and the permitted capacities for
foundation components.

Prior to beginning final design on trunk highway projects, designers
should review the Foundation Engineer’s Memo and the Bridge
Construction Unit’s Recommendations.

For bridges on the local road system, the local agency or their consultant
will retain a private geotechnical engineering firm to prepare a foundation
recommendations report. The report will summarize the geotechnical
conditions, the proposed bridge structure, and recommend a foundation
type.


After conducting an exploration program, Mn/DOT’s Foundation Engineer
summarizes the geotechnical conditions at the site in a memo. The
Regional Bridge Engineer reviews the Foundation Engineer’s Memo and
the preliminary plans for the project and prepares the final
recommendations concerning the foundations for the project. A sample
Bridge Construction Unit Foundation Recommendation is provided in
Appendix 10-A.


Type and Size
Based on geotechnical information and the anticipated type of structure,
a foundation type will be recommended. In most cases pile supported
footings will be recommended. The piling may be timber, cast-in-place
concrete, H-pile, or pipe pile. Where scour is not a concern and soil or
rock with adequate bearing capacity is found near the surface, spread
footings may be recommended. Occasionally, a footing supported on
drilled shafts will be recommended.

Load Capacity
The bearing resistance for the material below spread footings or the axial
load capacity for piles or shafts will be provided in the foundation
recommendations.
10.
FOUNDATI ONS
10.1
Determination of
Foundation Type
and Capacity
10.1.1 Foundation
Report
10.1.2 Foundation
Recommendations



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-2

Settlement/Downdrag
Recommendations may specify that a waiting period be provided after
the placement of an embankment in order to allow settlement to occur
before starting construction of a substructure. In some cases, a
surcharge embankment, to be removed after the waiting period, may
also be recommended as a means of accelerating the rate of
consolidation.

If long term settlement is expected, pile downdrag will be considered.
Unless piles are isolated from the settling material (with a bituminous
coating), settlement will introduce downdrag in the piling or shafts due to
side friction. The amount of downdrag to consider will be specified in the
Foundation Recommendations.

Method of Construction Control
To ensure that foundations will have the capacities anticipated during
design, testing or observations are made during construction. These
construction controls consist of compaction testing for spread footings,
Mn/DOT pile driving formula, Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) testing, or
physical load tests for piling and Cross-hole Sonic Logging (CSL) for
drilled shafts. The Foundation Recommendations will identify the
construction controls to be used for the project.

Estimated Pile Length
The soil exploration program will not completely describe the
geotechnical conditions at the site. To account for this variability,
estimated pile lengths are used in computing bid quantities. Test pile
lengths 10 feet longer than anticipated pile lengths are specified in the
recommendations. If during construction, the test piles indicate that a
longer or shorter length is justified, the production piling quantities and
payments are adjusted accordingly.

Estimated Bottom of Footing Elevation
To minimize the potential for scour, settlement, or frost heave problems
a recommended bottom of footing elevation will be presented for each
substructure location.

Other General Information needed for Plan Preparation
Check pile layouts for interference with in-place utilities (including
overhead power lines), drains and existing piles/foundations.

Unique projects may have limits placed on the amount of noise and
vibration that can be generated during construction.



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-3

Several types of piling are available (treated or untreated timber, steel H
and pipe piles, and cast-in-place concrete piles). The Regional Bridge
Engineer may recommend that more than one type or size be used for a
project.

Steel H-piles are steel H-shaped sections that are usually fitted with
manufactured points and driven to a minimum bearing capacity. In some
cases, high strength, small diameter, thick-walled pipe are permitted as a
substitute for H-piles. If permitted, this will be indicated in the
Foundation Recommendations.

Cast-in-place (CIP) piles are steel pipe shells with a plate welded to the
bottom that are driven to a minimum bearing capacity or to an estimated
tip elevation. After driving, the inside of the shell is filled with concrete.
Reinforcement may be needed if the pile is subjected to tension or
flexure.

The pay item “Pile Tip Protection” refers to manufactured points for H-
piling. The pay item “Pile Points” refers to manufactured points that are
used to protect the shells of cast-in-place piles during driving operations.
The Regional Bridge Engineer’s recommendations will identify whether or
not tips or points should be used.

Quantities to be included in a final plan set for structures supported on
piling are: 1) length of piling delivered, 2) length of piling driven, 3)
number and length of test piles, and 4) pile tip protection or pile points.

Standard Details B201 and B202 contain the standard splices for cast-in-
place pile shells and H-piling.

Designers can typically assume that steel H and CIP piles can resist a
factored horizontal load of 18 kips per pile (without consideration of the
batter). Larger horizontal capacities need to be calculated (based on the
geotechnical properties of the material at the site.)

When horizontal forces control the design, a more in-depth consideration
of horizontal loads and resistances should be made before adding
additional piles.

Pile and drilled shaft foundation plans should be dimensioned from
working points.



10.2 Piles



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-4

Pile Load Table For Plan
Current practice for construction of pile foundations is to drive piling to
refusal or to drive piling to the required design service load indicated in
the plan. The service load resistance is monitored in the field using the
Mn/DOT pile driving formula or by using Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA)
testing. The resistance factors found in the LRFD Specifications for pile
foundations have been found to be inadequate for use in design. Until
appropriate resistance factors are determined, continue to report
maximum service pile loads in the plans using one of the Standard Plan
Note tables shown in Appendix 2-H, Section F. To fill out the table, first
determine the maximum factored pile load from the critical load
combination. Report this value in the “Factored Total Load” block of the
table. Also, split up the load as required and fill in the other factored
load blocks in the table. Next, determine the corresponding service pile
load, which will be placed in the “Design Load” block of the table. Finally,
compute the average load factor, which is:
Average Load Factor = (Factored Total Load) / (Design Load)

See Section 11.4.1G and 11.4.3F for example calculations.

Test Piles
Each bridge substructure utilizing a pile-type foundation will typically
require one or two test piles. Separate the test piles (use a maximum
spacing of about 40 feet) within a foundation unit to facilitate a more
accurate assessment by the Field Engineer of the in-situ soil
characteristics. The Foundation Recommendation prepared by the Bridge
Construction Unit will specify the number of test piles for each
substructure unit. For abutments with all battered piles, place a test pile
in the front and in the back row. For pier footings, place test piles near
the center of the pile group. If possible, use vertical test piles. Number
and locate test piles on the Bridge Survey Plan and Profile sheets.

Test piles are used to establish the length for the pier and abutment
foundation piles. Based on the number of blows per foot at the end of
driving, the size of the pile driving equipment, and the length of the pile
being driven, estimated bearing capacity can be arrived at with different
formulas. The procedure used to determine pile bearing capacity is
described in Mn/DOT Spec. 2452.3, Section E2.

On large projects when specified, foundation test piles are evaluated with
electronic equipment attached to the pile during the driving process. This
equipment, called a Pile Driving Analyzer or PDA, provides more specific
information concerning the capacity of the pile. A pay item for pile



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-5

analysis must be included in the plan when the PDA is performed by the
contractor.

Pile redriving is specified in the Foundation Recommendation when the
soils are of a type that additional bearing capacity can be gained after the
pile has set for 24 hours or more. For this situation, include an item for
pile redriving to compensate the contractor for redriving the pile(s) after
the required setup time.

Clear Spacing and Minimum Concrete Cover
The minimum concrete cover for piles is 9 inches. To facilitate pile-
driving operations the minimum pile spacing is 2’-6” with 3’-0” minimum
preferred.

It may be necessary to increase the plan dimensions of a footing or pile
cap when using battered piles to provide the minimum concrete cover of
9 inches.

The standard embedment into a pier or high abutment footing for a
driven pile is one foot and should be dimensioned in the plans. Assume
the piles are pinned supports.

Battered Piles
The standard pile batter for pier footings is 6 vertical on 1 horizontal. For
abutments, the standard batter is 4 vertical on 1 horizontal.

Pile layouts for foundations that include battered piles should be
dimensioned at the bottom of the footing.


Drilled shafts are large-diameter reinforced concrete piles constructed by
boring a hole into earth and/or rock, inserting a reinforcing cage and
filling the cavity with concrete. Drilled shafts may also be called caissons
or drilled piers. Because of the high cost of construction, drilled shafts
are normally used only when the foundation characteristics of the site,
such as bedrock, may cause driven piling to attain bearing capacity at ten
feet or less below the footing, when piling cannot be embedded below the
computed scour elevation of a streambed, and for other reasons
applicable to a particular project. Drilled shafts may also be used to
enhance the stability of piers adjacent to a navigation channel.

Information used for the design of drilled shafts is determined by the
Mn/DOT Foundations Unit. This information includes depth (length) of
the earth and rock portions of the shaft, and maximum load capacity for
10.3 Drilled Shafts
[ 10.7.1.5]



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-6

a given diameter. Load capacity of drilled shafts is provided by end
bearing on rock (minimum embedment five feet), or by sidewall friction
in soil or rock.
Drilled shafts are designed as columns subjected to axial and lateral
loads. Lateral loads may or may not be resisted by passive soil pressure,
i.e., scour depth below the streambed (flowline) should not be considered
as providing lateral support. If shafts are placed in a group, the
minimum center-to-center spacing is three times the diameter (D) of the
shaft and appropriate group reduction factors must be applied. When the
spacing is greater than 8D the shafts can be designed as individual units.
Shaft diameter is determined by the required loading, standard industry
drilling equipment, casing size, and other factors unique to the project.
Normally, shaft diameters are in the range of 3 to 5 feet. Smaller shafts
may be used to replace driven piles in a group, such as, that of a pier
footing. Larger shafts may be appropriate when a single shaft is used to
support a single pier column, or to minimize the number of shafts in a
group when deep shafts are required. For a combined earth and rock
shaft, the earth portion should be of a diameter that is 6 inches larger
than the rock shaft in order to allow passage of special rock drilling tools.
If a shaft terminates in rock, the design diameter for the full depth of the
shaft should be the same diameter as that of the rock portion.

Detailing of drilled shafts in the plans should consider location,
construction methods, foundation conditions, contract administration by
district construction personnel, structural integrity of finished shafts, etc.
Many details are job specific; therefore, much of this information should
be compiled before detailing is started.

Because most of the depth of a shaft is formed by the excavated
borehole, it will be necessary to determine if casings, either permanent
or temporary, will be used. Permanent casings must be specified
whenever shafts are constructed in water, even if the work is contained
within a cofferdam and the final cut-off elevation is below the streambed
because dewatering cannot take place before the shafts are constructed.
Some contractors prefer that permanent casings be used through all soil
to the top of bedrock in case any of the soil is capable of caving.
Permanent casings should not be used in the sidewall friction area of soil
or rock. Temporary casings are provided by the contractor for the
convenience of construction operations and are removed at the
completion of the work. Most casings are provided in diameters of 6-inch
increments and should be specified as such. For metric plans, the
diameter must be soft-converted to metric units and not rounded off.
Otherwise, the contractor may provide custom-made casings at a higher
price.



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-7

Drilled shafts are reinforced in the same manner as round columns.
Cover on the bars should be three inches on the sides and six inches
from the bottom of the shaft. If the shaft design requires a reinforced
connection between the top of the shaft and the structure above and
hooked bars are intended, the hooks projecting beyond the side of the
shaft may prevent subsequent removal of temporary casings. Hooks
may be turned inward to avoid this interference, however, possible
interference with placement of footing reinforcement should then be
checked.

Uncoated reinforcement bars should be used unless the top portion of a
shaft will be permanently exposed, or if the bars will be extended into an
exposed portion of the structure. In this case, use coated bars only at
the top of the shaft unless it is more practical to use coated bars
throughout.

When specifying concrete for the shafts, the mix normally used is No.
1X46 ( ksi 5.0 f
'
c
= ) if the concrete will be placed in a wet (water-filled)
hole, and No. 1Y46 ( ksi 4.0 f
'
c
= ) if the concrete will be placed in a dry
hole. The first digit should be “3” for air-entrained concrete if the top
portion of the shaft will be exposed in the final construction. Aggregate
should be no larger than ¾” to provide for a positive flow around the
reinforcement since vibration of the concrete in the greater part of the
shaft is not practical.

Payment for the drilled shafts should always include separate items for
earth and rock shafts due to the large disparity in the cost of drilling. If
it appears to be unlikely that the shaft depth will change during
construction, payment for concrete, reinforcement, and permanent
casings (if used) can be included in the pay item for the shafts.
However, foundation conditions are rarely known with a high degree of
accuracy and changes in the shaft quantities may occur. For such
situations, separate items for the materials are recommended. In either
case, the plans and special provisions must clearly state how payment
will be made.

When boulders can be anticipated during drilling, include a pay item for
obstruction removal.

Because it is not possible to visually inspect the unexposed portion of a
finished shaft, other means of inspection and structural integrity testing
have been devised. One such test is Cross-hole Sonic Logging (CSL).
This test and other tests should be used only if recommended by the



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-8

Regional Bridge Engineer since these tests and the preparation of the
shafts for the tests can be very costly.

The resistance factors found in the LRFD Specifications for bearing
capacity for drilled shaft foundations have been found to be inadequate
for use in design. Until appropriate resistance factors are determined,
continue to report maximum service pressures in the plans using one of
the Standard Plan Note tables shown in Appendix 2-H, Section F. To fill
out the table, first determine the maximum factored bearing pressure
from the critical load combination. Report this value in the “Factored
Total Load” block of the table. Also, split up the load as required and fill
in the other factored load blocks in the table. Next, determine the
corresponding service pressure, which will be placed in the “Design Load”
block of the table. Finally, compute the average load factor, which is
equal to:
Average Load Factor = (Factored Total Load) / (Design Load)


Any footings or foundations with a thickness of five feet or greater should
be treated as mass concrete. This may require the contractor to modify
the concrete mix and/or to instrument the concrete member and take
action to ensure that the temperature differential between the inside and
outside of the member is small enough to minimize the potential for
cracking.

Minimum Soil Cover
The minimum cover (soil, earth, or slope paving) on top of a footing is 12
inches. For a pier footing which extends under a roadway, the minimum
cover is 2 feet.

Bottom of Footing
To minimize the potential for frost movements impacting the structure,
the bottom of footings should be placed at least 4’-6” below grade. When
feasible, the bottom of footings (or seals if they are used) should be
placed below the estimated scour elevation. In many cases this is not
economically practical and the bottom of footing elevation should be
evaluated using Section 10.6 as a minimum criteria.

Scour
Scour depth is based on the 500-year flood event.
For bridges over a river or stream, spread footings are not allowed due to
the potential for scour.

10.4 Footings
10.4.1 General



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-9

When designing footings in areas of potential scour assume no beneficial
ground support for the piling or drilled shafts from the flowline to the
predicted total scour elevation during the extreme event load case.

Footing Plan Dimensions/Formwork
Footing plan dimensions should be laid out in a manner that will allow
support of the formwork used to construct the substructure elements
above it. This is accomplished by extending the footing at least six
inches beyond the vertical face of the wall or stem.

Footing Thickness/Shear
The footing thickness should be sized such that shear reinforcement is
not required.

Footing Flexure Steel and “d” dimensions
For footings with a pile embedment of one foot or less, place flexural
reinforcement on top of the cut off piles. For pile footings with an
embedment greater than one foot, place reinforcement between the
piles.

Dowel Detailing
Dowels connecting the footing to the substructure unit shall be detailed
and dimensioned from working points. This reduces the chance of
construction tolerances for pile driving and concrete placement impacting
the final location of substructure components.


Dimension length of pile embedment into the footing in the plans.
Identify battered piles with a symbol that differs from vertically driven
piles.


Seal Design
A seal is a mat of unreinforced concrete poured under water inside the
sheet piling of a cofferdam. It is designed to withstand the hydrostatic
pressure on its bottom when the water above is removed. Dewatering
the cofferdam allows cutting of piles, placement of reinforcing steel, and
pouring of the footing in a dry environment.

The hydrostatic pressure under the seal is resisted by the weight of the
seal, the friction between the seal perimeter and walls of the cofferdam,
and friction between the seal and foundation. The friction values used for
seal design are working stresses.

10.4.2 Footing
Supported on
Piling or Drilled
Shafts



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-10

Bond on piles = 0.010 ksi

Bond on sheet piling = 0.002 ksi on seal depth less 2 feet

Lateral forces from stream flow pressure are resisted by penetration of
the sheet piling below the streambed elevation and by the bracing inside
the cofferdam. The cofferdam design is the responsibility of the
contractor.

Design the seal to resist a depth of water H, defined as the distance from
the bottom of the seal to the elevation indicated in the Foundation
Recommendations.

A rule of thumb for the seal thickness to begin with during design is
0.25 H for pile footings. Use a minimum seal thickness equal to 3 feet.

In plan, the minimum seal size is 1’-6” larger than the footing size on all
sides, but it must be large enough to avoid interference between sheeting
and battered piles.


Abutment spread footings supported on rock shall be keyed into rock a
minimum of six inches. Shear keys should be added to spread footings
when needed. Typical shear keys are 12”x12” or 18”x18”.

To ensure proper bearing capacity below spread footings, a layer of
aggregate with 100% compaction may be specified under spread
footings. Refer to the Foundation Recommendations.

The resistance factors found in the LRFD Specifications for bearing
capacity for spread footing foundations have been found to be inadequate
for use in design. Until appropriate resistance factors are determined,
continue to report maximum service pressures in the plans using one of
the Standard Plan Note tables shown in Appendix 2-H, Section F. To fill
out the table, first determine the maximum factored bearing pressure
from the critical load combination. Report this value in the “Factored
Total Load” block of the table. Also, split up the load as required and fill
in the other factored load blocks in the table. Next, determine the
corresponding service pressure, which will be placed in the “Design Load”
block of the table. Finally, compute the average load factor, which is
equal to:
Average Load Factor = (Factored Total Load) / (Design Load)

10.4.3 Spread
Footings



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-11

For pile bent piers, the pile tips should be driven a minimum of 10 feet
below the scour elevation. The capacity of piling needs to be checked for
the condition where the predicted scour event has occurred. When debris
loading can be excessive, encasing the piles with a concrete wall will be
specified.

For integral abutments, orient H-piles for weak axis bending in the
direction of movement and inform the Road Design group of the
appropriate approach panel detail to include in the roadway plans.

For pile bent piers, provide 2’-0” of embedment into the cap. A larger
pile embedment equal to 2’-6” is used for integral abutments. Use an
embedment of 2’-4” for low parapet abutments.


The following guidelines may be used with discretion by registered
engineers for determination of the stability of existing bridge
substructure units supported by pile foundations (see Figure 10.6.1) if
estimated scour depths are sufficient to expose piling. Estimated scour
depths to be used are those furnished by the Hydraulics Engineer for the
lesser of overtopping or a 500 year flood event.

(1) For pile bent piers or abutments and for piers or abutments on
footings supported by friction piling, the substructure unit is
classified as stable with respect to scour if scour depth will not
expose more than 50% of the embedded piling, and the
unsupported pile length is not more than 24 times the
diameter of cast-in-place pile, 24 times the nominal section
depth of an H-pile, or 16 times the average diameter of a
timber pile.
(2) For pile bent piers or abutments or for piers or abutments on
footings supported by end bearing piling, the substructure unit
is classified as stable with respect to scour if at least 5 feet of
the pile will remain embedded in dense material and the
unsupported pile length meets the criteria in (1) above.

The substructure unit shall be considered stable if the foundation satisfies
one of the above criteria. These guidelines are based on the concept that
countermeasures will be taken where inspection reveals scour holes in
the vicinity of pile bents or below the bottom of concrete footings. Pile
exposures without lateral support will therefore be of relatively short
duration.

10.5 Pile Bent
Piers and
Abutments
10.6 Evaluation of
Existing Pile
Foundations when
Exposed by Scour



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-12








F
i
g
u
r
e

1
0
.
6
.
1




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-13

For state aid projects, bridge designers need to coordinate their
excavation and fill quantities with roadway designers. This is particularly
true for projects where grading is let as part of a separate contract.
Designers should note the limits of excavation and fill noted in the
standard bridge approach treatments (MN/DOT Standard Plans 5-
297.233 and 5-297.234).

The cost associated with excavating material, in and around foundations,
depends on several items. These items include: access to the site, the
amount of material that needs to be removed, the type of material to be
removed (sand, silt, clay, rock, etc.), and the location of the water table.
Mn/DOT’s Spec. 2451 identifies and describes the standard classes (U, E,
R, WE, WR) of excavation by the cubic yard.

Where no rock is present, use a lump sum pay item for structure
excavation. The special provisions detail the percentage of excavation
paid for at each substructure unit. Where rock is likely to be
encountered, pay for the rock excavation as Class R (or WR for rock
below water) by the cubic yard. Excavation above the rock is to be paid
for as a lump sum. Refer to the Foundation Recommendations.

When aggregate backfill is used under spread footings, the additional
excavation below the bottom of footing elevation is considered incidental
to placing the backfill material.

Class R excavation may be used by itself, in which case it would cover all
conditions of rock removal. When used in conjunction with WR, the lower
limits of the Class R should be noted in the Plans as being the same as
the upper limits of the WR (the lower water elevation shown in the
Plans). Because rock excavation is expensive, adequate boring or
sounding information is essential to determine the elevation of the rock
surface. If the information furnished is insufficient to determine the
elevation of rock, additional data shall be requested from the District.
10.7 Structure
Excavation and
Backfill



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 10-14

[Appendix 10-A: Sample Bridge Construction Unit Recommendations]
(FUTURE CONTENT)




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-1

This section contains guidance for the design and detailing of abutments,
piers, retaining walls, and sheet pile walls. Abutments and piers are used
to support bridge superstructures, whereas walls primarily function as
earth retaining structures. In most cases, abutments, piers, and walls
are reinforced concrete elements.

The preferred details for connecting the superstructure to the
substructure are dependent on the geometry and type of bridge. For
example, flexible substructure units supported by a single line of piles
may be constructed integral with the superstructure. Conversely, short
stiff substructure units are detailed with expansion bearings between the
superstructure and substructure to reduce the design loads in the
substructure units.


General
Abutments function as both earth retaining structures and as vertical load
carrying components. Parapet abutments are detailed to accommodate
thermal movements with strip seal expansion devices between the
concrete deck and the abutment end block. Integral abutments are
designed to accommodate movements at the roadway end of the
approach panel. Based on the following parameters, select the type of
abutment for a project:

Integral abutments should be used on bridges less than 300 feet long
with skews less than or equal to 20º. See Section 11.1.1 for more
details. Parapet abutments should be used in all other cases.

Extend architectural rustications 2 feet below the top of finished ground.

Railroad underpass abutments shall be designed according to AREMA
Specifications for the live load specified by the railroad. The Duluth
Mesabe & Iron Range Railway requires a special live load. Construction
will be in accordance with Mn/DOT Construction Specifications. The live
load surcharge is found by taking the axle load and distributing it over an
area equal to axle spacing multiplied by the track spacing, generally 70
square feet. Do not reduce the surcharge loading for skew.

Detailing/Reinforcement
Bridges with mask walls can develop a horizontal crack at the top of the
bridge seat that extends horizontally into the wingwall. To prevent such
cracks from occurring, detail the abutment/wingwall construction joint
through the thickness of the abutment in a plane coincident with the back
face of the wingwall.
11.1 Abutments
11. ABUTMENTS,
PI ERS, AND
WALLS



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-2

For bridges without mask walls, place a 1’-6” corner fillet at the back face
wingwall/abutment connection. Detail a construction joint for the
wingwall/abutment connection at the end of the corner fillet and running
vertically through the wingwall thickness. Show 3-ply joint waterproofing
along the inside face of the joint.

Detail sidewalk paving brackets with the same width and elevation as the
roadway paving bracket. Sidewalks are to be supported on abutment
backwalls and detailed to “float” along adjacent wingwalls.

Avoid projections on the back of abutments that are less than 4’-6” below
grade. If shallower projections are necessary, slope the bottom to
minimize frost upheaval effects.

Tie abutment and wingwall dimensions to the working points.

The gutter line, the edge of deck and the centerline of the fascia beam
should be illustrated and labeled in the corner details.

Provide the dimensions from working points to the intersection point of
the centerline of bearing and the inside face of wingwall.

To facilitate plan reading, label the ends of the abutments in the details
(South end, North end, etc.).

Label all construction joints and identify the nominal size of keyways.

Where conduit extends through an abutment, provide horizontal
dimensions from a working point to the location where the conduit
penetrates the front face of the abutment or the outside face of the
wingwall. The elevation at mid-height of the conduit should also be
provided.

For presentation clarity, detail abutments with complicated layouts on
separate sheets. Identical abutments (except for minor elevation
differences) should be detailed on common sheets.

On footing details, specify the lap splice length for bent dowels and the
dowel projection for straight dowels.

If the railing contains a separate end post (supported on the abutment),
show the end post anchorage reinforcement in the abutment details.




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-3

Joint waterproofing (per Spec. 2481) shall be provided for construction
joints, doweled cork joints, Detail B801 joints, and on wall joints below
ground. Waterproofing is not required at the top of parapet expansion
block joint.

All reinforcement, except those completely in the footing, shall be epoxy
coated. The minimum size of longitudinal reinforcement in abutment and
wingwall footings is No. 19 bars.

Provide shrinkage and temperature reinforcement per Section 5.2.6. For
sections over 48 inches thick provide a minimum of No. 19 bars at 1’-0”.
Temporary construction loads may require additional reinforcement.

For bearing pedestals over 2 inches tall provide No. 13 or No.16
reinforcing tie bars at 6 inch to 8 inch centers in both directions under the
bearings. For pedestals with a height of 2 inches, only the transverse
reinforcement is required. Horizontal steel in pedestals should have 2
inches of clear cover to bridge seat. Provide a minimum of 2 inches of
clear distance between anchor rods and reinforcing tie bars.

Voided or hollow type abutments shall have access doors. See Detail
B942.


Integral abutments are the preferred type of abutment when length and
skew limitations are met as described in Section 11.1.

An integral abutment consists of an abutment wall or pile cap supported
by a single line of piles. The superstructure beams or slab bear on the
pile cap. An end diaphragm is cast which encases the beams and is
attached to the pier cap, making the superstructure integral with the
abutment. See Figure 11.1.1.1 for a typical integral abutment detail.

Verify that the roadway designer has included approach panel details for
a jointless abutment in the grading plan when an integral abutment is
used.

Geometry
Use a thickness of 3 feet for the abutment wall. Set the minimum
abutment depth below grade at 3 feet and use a minimum freeboard of 2
feet.

11.1.1 I ntegral
or Contraction
Abutments



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-4


Figure 11.1.1.1




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-5

Cast-in-place piling is limited to bridges 150 feet or less in length. Orient
H-piling such that weak axis bending occurs under longitudinal bridge
movements. Minimum pile penetration into abutment wall is 2’-6”. The
preferred wingwall configuration is parallel to the centerline of the bridge.
If required, flare wingwalls to minimize length. Limit the length of the
wingwall cantilever to 12 feet. For detailing purposes provide a
horizontal construction joint at the elevation of the concrete pile cap.
The upper portion of the wingwall is cast with the diaphragm and deck.

Tie the approach to the bridge with dowel bars that extend at a 45
degree angle out of the end diaphragm through the paving bracket seat
and bend horizontally 4 inches below the top of the approach panel.

Design/Analysis
Design piling for axial loads only. Assume that one half of the approach
panel load is carried by the abutment. Distribute live load over the entire
length of abutment. Apply the number of lanes that will fit on the
superstructure adjusted by the multiple presence factor.

Research indicates that the longitudinal moment at the abutment/slab
connection is approximately
1
/
3
the computed fixed-end moment. Design
the longitudinal deck reinforcement at the abutment for ½ of the fixed
end moment due to live load only.

Design the abutment back face vertical bars for the following load cases:

Case 1 – Design vertical bars for the maximum factored shear. Apply
the simple span girder reaction to the abutment wall. Consider the
wall to act as a continuous beam between pile supports.

Case 2 - Design vertical bars for ½ of the fixed end moment due to
live load only.

Case 3 - Design vertical bars for the passive soil pressure which
results when the bridge expands. Assume the abutment wall acts as
a cantilever fixed at the bottom of the superstructure and free at the
bottom of the wall. Referring to Figure 11.1.1.2, determine the
passive pressure p
p
at the elevation of the bottom of superstructure
and apply as a uniform pressure on the cantilever:

soil soil p p
h k p ⋅ = ⋅γ


|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
φ
45 tan k
2
p


material backfill the of friction internal of angle φ = (use 30 degrees)



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-6

Then design for a moment M
up
equal to:


|
|
.
|

\
|

⋅ =
2
h p
M
2
abut p
EH up
γ

A load factor for passive earth pressure is not specified in the LRFD
specifications. Use the maximum load factor for active earth pressure,
1.50.
EH
= γ

Figure 11.1.1.2

Design front and back face horizontal bars for the passive soil pressure,
which results when the bridge expands. Consider the wall to be a
continuous beam with piles as supports and design for a moment of:


|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
10
L w
M
2
p
EH up
γ

w
p
= passive pressure calculated at the elevation of the bottom of
superstructure and applied as a uniform pressure on the wall
= p
p
⋅ h
abut

L = pile spacing

Design abutment wall top and bottom horizontal bars for vertical loads.
Consider the wall to be a continuous beam with piles as supports.
Parapet abutments have backwall or parapet elements that are separate
from the end diaphragms in the superstructure. Low parapet abutments
have total heights (including footing) of less than 15 feet. High parapet
abutments have total heights greater than 15 feet. If the total height of
11.1.2 Parapet
Abutments



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-7

the abutment is more than 40 feet, counterforts should be considered.
Figure 11.1.2.1 illustrates minimum cover and clearance dimensions for
parapet abutments. Typical rip rap details are presented in Figure
11.1.2.2.

Geometry
For parapet abutments, include pedestals under bearings and slope the
bridge seat between pedestals to provide drainage away from the
parapet wall and bearings. A standard seat slope provides one inch of
fall from the back of the seat to the front of the seat. In no case should
the slope be less than 2 percent.

Limit the maximum pedestal height to about 9 inches. The minimum
pedestal height is 2 inches (at the front of the pedestal). Set back
pedestals a minimum of 1
1
/
2
inches from the front face of the abutment.

Design/Analysis
For design of piling or footing bearing pressures, as a minimum consider
the following load cases:

Construction Case 1 – Strength I (0.90DC+1.00EV+1.5EH+1.75LS)
Abutment has been constructed and backfilled, but the superstructure
and approach panel are not in place. Use minimum load factors for
vertical loads and maximum load factors for horizontal loads. Assume
live load surcharge is acting.

Construction Case 2 – Strength I (1.25DC)
Abutment has been constructed, but not backfilled. The superstructure
has been erected, but approach panel is not in place. Use maximum load
factor for dead load.

Final Case 1 – Strength I (1.25DC+1.35EV+0.90EH+1.75LL)
Bridge is complete and approach panel is in place. Use maximum load
factors for vertical loads and minimum load factor applied to the
horizontal earth pressure (EH).

Final Case 2 – Strength I (1.25DC+1.35EV+1.50EH+1.75LL)
Bridge is complete and approach panel is in place. Use maximum load
factor all loads.





JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-8


Figure 11.1.2.1


Figure 11.1.2.2



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-9

Design abutments for active pressure using an equivalent fluid weight of
0.033 kcf. A higher pressure may be required based on soil conditions.
Neglect passive earth pressure in front of abutments.

Use LRFD Table 3.11.6.4-1 for determination of live load surcharge
equivalent soil heights. Apply live load surcharge only when there is no
approach panel.

Assume that one half of the approach panel load is carried by the
abutment.

Distribute superstructure loads (dead load and live load) over the entire
length of abutment. For live load, apply the number of lanes that will fit
on the superstructure adjusted by the multiple presence factor.

For resistance to lateral loads, assume piles can resist 18 kips per pile
(factored horizontal load) in addition to load taken by battering, unless
shown otherwise by analysis.

Design footing thickness such that no shear reinforcement is required.
Performance of the Service I crack control check per LRFD 5.7.3.4 is not
required for abutment footings.

Design abutment stem and backwall for horizontal earth pressure and live
load surcharge loads. For stem and backwall crack control check, use z =
170 kips/in.


Low abutments shall have vertical contraction joints at about a 32 foot
spacing. (See Detail B801.) A drainage system behind the stem need
not be provided for low abutments. Figure 11.1.2.1.1 contains typical
dimensions and reinforcing for low parapet abutments.


High abutments shall have vertical construction joints (with keyways) at
about a 32 foot spacing.

Detail high abutments with granular backfill and drainage systems (Detail
B910). Outlet the 4 inch drains through wingwalls and backslopes.
Granular backfills at railroad bridge abutments typically includes
perforated pipe drains. Figure 11.1.2.2.1 illustrates typical high
abutment dimensions and reinforcing.


11.1.2.1 Low
Abutments
11.1.2.2 High
Abutments



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-10



Figure 11.1.2.1.1



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-11



Figure 11.1.2.2.1



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-12

The intended layout for the wingwalls will be provided in the preliminary
plans.

Where wingwalls are oriented parallel to the centerline of the roadway,
sidewalk and curb transitions should generally not be located adjacent to
wingwalls.

The maximum cantilever beyond the edge of footing for wingwalls is 12
feet. For cantilevers up to 8 feet, no design is required if the following
guidelines are used:

• wingwall thickness = 1’-6”
• maximum rustication depth = 2”
• horizontal bars are located inside or outside of the vertical bars
• maximum height of cantilever = 13’-6”
• horizontal back face reinforcement consists of #16 bars at 12
inches maximum spacing

For cantilevers greater than 8 feet in length, a design must be completed.

Avoid steep vertical offsets between wingwall footings by separating
footings with a 1:1 soil slope or by using a single footing to support the
entire wingwall.

With wingwalls over 20 feet long, separate footings with different
elevations may be required. Assume soil pressures between abutment
and wingwall footing are equally distributed to both footings. With
spread footings, limit the bottom of footing elevation difference to 5 feet.
With pile foundations, the distance between footing segments should be
greater than 1.5 times the elevation difference between footings. Limit
the cantilever (beyond the end of the footing) of wingwalls to 6 feet with
separate wingwall footings.

Vertical construction joints shall be provided on wingwalls over 32 feet
long.

Avoid horizontal wingwall construction joints unless hidden by other
horizontal details. Joints between the barrier and wingwall tend to
become visible over time due to water being carried through the
construction joint by capillary action.

Provide reinforcement through the construction joint at the intersection of
the wing and abutment wall to transfer wingwall loads to the abutment.

11.1.3 Wingwalls



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-13

Within the plan set provide wingwall pile loads if they are less than 80%
of the loads in the main portion of the abutment. When listing the total
length of piling for an abutment and a separate wingwall, check if the
wingwall pile needs to be longer than the abutment piles.

Figures 11.1.3.1 through 11.1.3.5 contain details and tables that can be
used to determine the length of straight and 45º wingwalls. Guidance is
provided for parapet and pile bent abutments.




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-14


Figure 11.1.3.1




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-15


Figure 11.1.3.2




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Figure 11.1.3.3



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-17


Figure 11.1.3.4



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Figure 11.1.3.5




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Figure 11.1.3.6



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-20

In most cases approach panels are a roadway pay item. Inform the
roadway designers of the appropriate approach panel detail to include in
the roadway plans (for a jointless bridge or for a bridge with expansion
joints). Also coordinate curb and median transitions with roadway
designers.

Provide 8 inches of width for the abutment blockout or paving bracket,
which supports the approach panel. Place the paving bracket not less
than 1’-3” below the top of roadway surface. The reinforcement in the
end block or paving block is shown in Figure 11.1.4.1.


Figure 11.1.4.1

Bridge Approach Treatment
For Mn/DOT repair projects and other projects where no separate grading
plans are prepared, make sure that bridge approach treatments are
consistent with roadway Standard Plan 5-297.233.

Bridge Approach Panel
Details for bridge approach panels for concrete and bituminous roadways
are provided on the roadway Standard Plans 5-297.223 – 5-297.232.
Use a concrete wearing course on approach panels when the bridge deck
has a concrete wearing course. The wearing course will be placed on the
bridge superstructure and the approach panels at the same time. Include
the wearing course quantity for the approach panels in the superstructure
summary of quantities.

11.1.4 Approach
Panels



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-21

A wide variety of pier types are used in bridge construction. The simplest
may be pile bent piers where a reinforced concrete cap is placed on
piling. A more typical pier type is a cap and column pier. Columns
supported on individual footings support a common cap. The spacing of
columns depends on the superstructure type, the superstructure beam
spacing, and the size of the columns. A typical cap and column pier for a
roadway may have from three to five columns. At times wall piers may
be used to support superstructures. Where extremely tall piers are
required, hollow piers may be considered. Specialty bridges such as
segmental concrete bridges may use double-legged piers to reduce tie
down reactions during segmental construction.


To facilitate the use of standard forms, detail round and rectangular pier
columns and pier caps with outside dimensions that are multiples of 2
inches. As a guide, consider using 2’-6” columns for beams 3’-0” or less
in depth, 2’-8” columns for beams 3’-1” to 4’-0”, 2’-10” columns for
beams 4’-1” to 5’-0”, and 3’-0” columns for beams over 5’-0” unless
larger columns are necessary (for strength or for adequate bearing area).

When laying out piers, consider the economy to be gained from reusing
forms (both standard and non-standard) on different piers constructed as
part of a single contract.

Dimension piles, footing dimensions, and center of columns to working
points.

For pier caps (with cantilevers) supported on multiple columns, space the
columns to balance the dead load moments in the cap.

Label the ends of piers (South end, North end, etc.).


The minimum column diameter or side of rectangular column is 2’-6”.


Slope pier caps in a straight line and utilize concrete pedestal beam seats
when possible. Pedestals shall be set back at least 1
1
/
2
inches from the
edge of cap and be no taller than 9 inches. Consider omitting pedestals if
their height is less than 1 inch.

Choose a pier cap width and length that is sufficient to support bearings
and provide adequate edge distances. As a guide, choose a pier cap
depth equal to 1.4 to 1.5 times the width.
11.2 Piers
11.2.1 Geometrics
11.2.2 Columns
11.2.3 Cap



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-22

The bottom of the pier cap should be approximately parallel to the top.
Taper cantilever ends about
1
/
3
of the depth of the cap. When round pier
columns are required, use rounded pier cap ends as well. The ends of
pier caps for other types of pier columns should be flat. Detail solid shaft
(wall) piers with rounded ends for both the cap and shaft.

Integral Steel Box Beam Pier Caps
Avoid the use of steel box beam pier caps whenever possible.
Conventional concrete pier caps or open plate girder pier caps are
preferred.

To ensure that components are constructible, review the design details of
box beam pier caps with the Fabrication Methods Unit and the Structural
Metals Inspection Unit early in the plan development process.

The minimum dimensions of a box pier cap are 3’-0” wide by 4’-6” high.
Make access openings within the box as large as possible and located to
facilitate use by inspection personnel. The minimum size of access
openings in a box pier cap is 18” x 27” (with radius corners.).

Provide access doors near each end. If possible, locate the door for
ladder access off of the roadway. Orient the hinge for the access doors
such that doors swing away from traffic. Access doors can be placed on
the side of box pier caps if they are protected from superstructure runoff.
If not, locate in the bottom of the cap. Bolt the frame for the door to the
cap in accordance with Bridge Detail Part I B942.

Bolted internal connections are preferred to welded connections. Fillet
welds are preferred to full penetration welds.

Avoid details that may be difficult to fabricate due to clearance problems.
Assume that welders need an access angle of at least 45 degrees and
require 18 inches of clear working distance to weld a joint. The AISC
Manual of Steel Construction contains tables with entering and tightening
clearance dimensions for bolted connections.

Paint the interior of boxes for inspection visibility and for corrosion
protection. Provide drainage holes with rodent screens at the low points
of the box.

Piers Adjacent to Railways
Piers located within 50 feet of the centerline of railroad tracks are
required to have crash walls incorporated into their design unless they
are protected as specified in LRFD 3.6.5.1.
11.2.4 Crash
Walls [ 3.6.5]



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-23

Piers located within 25 feet of the centerline of railroad tracks must
either be of “heavy construction” or have crash walls.

A pier is considered to be of “heavy construction” when it meets all of
the following:
• The cross-sectional area of each column is a minimum of 30
square feet.
• Each column has a minimum dimension of 2.5 feet.
• The larger dimension of all columns is parallel to the railroad
track.

Crash walls must meet the following geometric requirements:
• Top of crash wall shall extend a minimum of:
• 6 feet above top of railroad track when pier is between
12 feet and 25 feet from centerline of tracks.
• 12 feet above top of railroad track when pier is 12 feet or
less from centerline of tracks.
• Bottom of crash wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet below
ground line.
• Crash wall shall extend one foot beyond outermost columns and
be supported on footing.
• Face of crash wall shall be located a minimum of 6 inches outside
the face of pier column or wall on railroad side of pier.
• Minimum width of crash wall is 2.5 feet.
• Minimum length of crash wall is 12 feet.

Piers of “heavy construction” and crash walls adjacent to railroad tracks
shall be designed for a minimum load of 400 kips.

Piers Adjacent to Roadways
Piers located within 30 feet of the edge of roadway are required to have
crash walls incorporated into their design unless they are protected as
specified in LRFD 3.6.5.1.

Crash walls adjacent to roadways shall be designed for a minimum load
of 400 kips.


Include a standard hook at each end of all footing longitudinal and
transverse reinforcement.

Use 90 degree standard hooks to anchor the dowel bars in the
footing/column connection. Show the lap splice length for bent dowels
and check development length of hooked end of dowel bar at
11.2.5 Design and
Reinforcement
[ AREMA 2.1.5.1
and C- 2.1.5.1]




JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-24

footing/column interface. Size dowel bars one size larger than column
vertical reinforcement when the dowel bar is detailed to the inside of the
column vertical.
`
Provide the dimensions between the center of column dowel patterns and
the nearest working points.

To simplify construction, detail vertical column reinforcement to rest on
top of the footing.
Columns with a diameter less than or equal to 42 inches shall use spiral
reinforcement. The spiral shall have a 3-inch pitch and be No. 13E.
Extend spirals no less than 2 inches into the pier cap. Use Table 5.2.2.3
to compute the weight of column spiral reinforcement.

Round columns over 42 inches in diameter and square or rectangular
columns shall be designed with tied reinforcement. Ties no smaller than
No. 10E shall be used when the column vertical bars are No. 32E or
smaller. No. 13E or larger ties shall be used for No. 36E, No. 43E, No.
57E, and bundled column vertical bars. The maximum spacing for ties is
12 inches. Place the first tie 6 inches from the face of the footing, crash
wall, or pier cap.

Use standard hooks to develop the top longitudinal reinforcement at the
ends of pier caps.

Provide 2 inches minimum clear distance between anchor rods and
longitudinal reinforcement bars. For piers without anchor rods, provide a
single 6-inch minimum opening between longitudinal reinforcement bars
to facilitate concrete placement.

The maximum size of pier cap stirrups is No. 16E. Use open stirrups
unless torsion loads are large enough to require closed stirrups. If
necessary, use double stirrups to avoid stirrup spacing of less than 4
inches.

Provide No. 13E or No. 16E ties in both directions under bearing
assemblies (6-inch to 8-inch spacing). The clear distance from the top of
reinforcement to the top of the pier cap shall be no less than 2 inches.
Detail ties to clear bearing anchor rods by a minimum of 2 inches.


Show an optional construction joint at the top of columns. All
construction joints should be labeled and the size of keyways identified.

11.2.6
Miscellaneous



JANUARY 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 11-25

Detail a
3
/
4
inch V-strip on the bottom of pier cap ends to prevent water
from migrating on to substructure components.

Provide a vertical open joint in pier caps that have a total length
exceeding 100 feet. The design may dictate that additional pier cap
joints are necessary to relieve internal forces.


Single line pile bent piers shall be constructed with piles no smaller than
16-inch diameter CIP piles. Refer to Section 10.6 and Figure 10.6.1 for
discussion of the unsupported pile length for pile bent piers.

The preliminary plan may specify that a wall is to be provided which
encases the piles from the bottom of the cap to the flowline. The wall
provides stability and protects the piling from debris. In this case, H-
piles or CIP piles less than 16 inches in diameter are sometimes
specified.


Retaining wall designs need to consider several parameters. These
parameters include:
• Height of the wall
• Geometry of the wall (curved or straight)
• Type of material retained
• Geometry of the backfill (level or sloped)
• Magnitude of live load surcharge
• Whether or not traffic barriers will