Rhetorica

Discourse
Ethos Pathos Logos
Plato (427 - 347 BC), a philosopher in Classical Greece says Rhetoric is the "art of enchanting the soul."

Sumedha Manabarana

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Discourse
The word discourse has several meanings: Generally, discourse refers to verbal expression in speech or writing. More broadly, discourse is the use of language (spoken or written) in order to produce meaning in a social context. It may also refer to language that is studied in order to see how the different parts of a text are connected.

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Other useful notes
"Discourse is the way in which language is used socially to convey broad historical meanings. It is language identified by the social conditions of its use, by who is using it and under what conditions. Language can never be 'neutral' because it bridges our personal and social worlds."
(Frances Henry and Carol Tator, Discourses of Domination. Univ. of Toronto Press, 2002)

Discourse* = expression in speech or writing /the way the language is used in social contexts / a person’s skill in using language effectively and persuasively. In linguistics, discourse means a unit of language longer than a single sentence.

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Rhetoric

(Rhetoric was developed in ancient Greece.)

The term rhetoric has a number of connotations (ideas suggested by the term in addition to its meaning). As such, defining rhetoric remains a very complex task.

Plato (427 - 347 BC), a philosopher in Classical Greece says rhetoric is the "art of enchanting the soul." In a simple sense, rhetoric is the art of using persuasive, effective, written or spoken discourse (including the use of figures of speech).

Quite simply … rhetoric is the writer’s tricks used to manipulate the reader.
Politicians offering rhetoric instead of real solutions or something of the sort

Rhetoric is the style of speaking or writing, especially the language of a particular subject: fiery political rhetoric. It is the language that is elaborate, pretentious, insincere, or intellectually vacuous:  His offers of compromise were mere rhetoric. It is the speech or discourse that pretends to significance but lacks true meaning:  What all the politician says is mere rhetoric. Rhetoric is the art of persuasive written or spoken discourse developed in ancient Greece.

Rhetoric is the art of the using of language that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers that attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Rhetorical devices
A rhetorical device is a technique used by writers or speakers in order to increase the persuasiveness of what they write or speak.

Other associated words: Rhetoric Devices, Rhetorical figures, Literary Terms, Literary techniques,
Figures of Speech, (Poetic Devices / Dramatic Devices), Writing Tools, etc.

Alliteration, onomatopoeia, metaphor, simile are some rhetorical devices (literary techniques).

Note that although rhetorical devices may be used to evoke an emotional response in the audience, this is not their primary purpose.

Rhetorical devices and literary techniques are closely related to tone and style. An author’s tone is partially determined by the type of techniques he uses. An author’s style partly consists of selecting and using certain devices.

Why do they use rhetorical devices?
They use rhetorical devices to persuade their reader or listener towards considering their topic from a different perspective.

The sentences they use in their work are designed to encourage or provoke rational arguments (from an emotional display of a given perspective or action.) [rational = sensible, sound, wise, logical, realistic]

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Obama, the perfect postmodern political President is a master at the art of rhetoric.

The difference between rhetoric and reality

Rhetoric has three pillars, three models of persuasion on which it is based: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.

Aristotle’s "ingredients for persuasion" – otherwise known as "appeals" – are known by the names of ethos, pathos, and logos. They are all means of persuading others to take a particular point of view.

Ethos, pathos and logos each have a different meaning.

Ethos (Credibility)
Ethos is an appeal to ethics1, and it is a means of convincing someone of the character or credibility2 of the persuader. (It is the speaker's, author's or source’s authority.)

[ethics1 = the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it / a social, religious, or civil code of behaviour considered correct] [credibility2 = the quality of being believed or trusted / believability, reliability, cred (short word for credibility), plausibility, trustworthiness, believableness, tenability (the quality or state of being able to be believed)

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Ethos is the beliefs and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society, nation, or ideology (a set of beliefs or ideas, especially one held by a particular group) • • an ethos of public service the carefree Californian ethos

Examples of Ethos:
1. "Doctors all over the world recommend this type of treatment."

2. "If my age doesn’t convince you that my opinion matters, at least consider that I am your grandfather and I love you dearly." 3. "My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to …cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor."

Pathos (Emotion/Empathy)
Pathos means pity, suffering or emotion - from which we get such words as sympathetic, pathetic, etc. Pathos is what causes an audience to care about a character so that they rejoice when he rejoices and weep when he weeps. (It is a Christian quality.)

Pathos is an appeal to emotion, and is a way of convincing an audience of an argument by creating an emotional response.
Pathos is the quality in a work of art of literature that evokes feelings of sadness, pity, and compassion in the reader. This usually happens when an innocent character suffers through no fault of his own.
In Art, pathos means that which inspires pity or allows the viewer to relate to a character on a human level.

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Examples in films: In Charley Chaplin’s 1921 American silent comedy-drama film “The Kid”, a feeling of sorrow overpowers the audience when the agents take away the kid from the orphanage. The scene was full of pathos.

The scene takes place just before the Tramp's famous rooftop pursuit of the agents from the orphanage.

Examples of Pathos: 1. "If we don’t move soon, we’re all going to die! Can’t you see how dangerous it would be to stay?" 2. "You’ll make the right decision because you have something that not many people do: you have heart." 3. "After years of this type of disrespect from your boss, countless hours wasted, birthdays missed… it’s time that you took a stand."

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Logos (Logic)
Logos is an appeal to logic, and is a way of persuading an audience by reason.
Logos is the reason or the rational principle expressed in words and things, argument, or justification; esp personified as the source of order in the universe.

Examples of Logos:

1. "History has shown time and again that absolute power corrupts absolutely." 2. "More than one hundred peer-reviewed studies have been conducted over the past decade, and none of them suggests that this is an effective treatment for hair loss." 3. "You don’t need to jump off a bridge to know that it’s a bad idea. Why then would you need to try drugs to know if they’re damaging? That’s plain nonsense."

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Rhetoric is the art of speech, which was used centuries ago and is actual even today. It teaches us how to use the language in the most effective way. For knowing that much about public speaking we owe to a great philosopher Aristotle, who managed to give us a clear vision about rhetoric in his work “Ars Rhetorica ”. Already in ancient times the speakers knew how to talk to an audience and be heard. Rhetoric really improves communication between the author and his listeners and allows to persuade them of the necessary ideas, or to make them do certain actions. The essay you are going to write should also appeal to the readers, so that the aim of the essay will be achieved. Using Ethos, Pathos and Logos in Your Essay Ethos, Pathos and Logos may be used together in different proportions in the same text as they are aimed at the persuasion of readers. Political speeches, advertisements, presentations, mainly any text which is supposed to be read or heard employs a certain degree of these three notions of rhetoric. The same with an essay, it should contain a certain level of persuasion, depending on the purpose of the essay. Essays are of different types. For example, in an argumentative essay, or a persuasive essay the writer will use more Ethos and Pathos, as to make more of an emotional appeal to the readers/ listeners. As for the narrative, descriptive, information or analysis essays, the writer will try to use more Logos, appealing to the informational issue. Curtsey: ProfEssays.com

CREDITS:
You Dictionary.com http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples/examples-of-ethos-logos-and-pathos.html Dr. Sanity Blog Post: http://drsanity.blogspot.com/2012_06_01_archive.html Obama Care cartoon by Eric Allie Collins Dictionary.com http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english Oxford Advanced Learners Online Dictionary http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/ Wabash College http://blogs.wabash.edu/rhetoricnotes/ Congress cartoon by Cartoon by Mike Konopacki, 2001 From Old Books .org

http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Blades-Pentateuch/pages/discourse-into-the-night/1166x626.html

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http://www.maati.tv/2013/03/11/yehi-aarzoo-rahi-umr-bhar-k-muhabbaten-mery-sath-hoon/ ProfEssays.com http://www.professays.com/essay/ethos-pathos-logos/