The Character and Adventures of Muladeva Author(s): Maurice Bloomfield Source: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol

. 52, No. 212 (Nov. - Dec., 1913), pp. 616-650 Published by: American Philosophical Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 08/09/2013 10:22
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Ph.D., LL.D.

(Read April 18, 1913.) Any selection of Hindu fiction might fitly open with the only adventures, story that attempts a continuous account of M?ladeva's is one of the very few figures in Hindu fiction because M?ladeva In general the personnel that may be described as a "character." of Hindu fiction is made up of stock or lay figures. Such are, above all, the young prince, usually of ineffable beauty, virtue, strength and skill, who contrives to get himself separated from his happy This leads up to a home, and starts upon a career of adventure. union with a no less hyperbolically beautiful and virtuous princess. The hero, for his part, is liable to be carried off by a mettlesome horse into the wilderness, where his adventures begin. He is pretty sure to come upon the heroine in some unpleasant predicament, such as a prospective uncongenial marriage, or, when she is in some personal E. g., times without end, the hero saves the beautiful danger. maiden from an infuriated elephant, usually by throwing his upper garment before the elephant's trunk.1 Or, quite in the manner of St. George and the dragon, he saves the princess from a bloodthirsty In the end he marries her, and she, incidentally, bestows R?ksasa.2 her father's kingdom upon him. Very frequently the prince is attended by a faithful friend, perThe two, as boys, had chance the son of his father's chief minister. that had in the made sand together, is, played mud-pies together.3 friend is prone to display much heroism and self-sacrifice in behalf of the prince: he is a stock figure of the better sort. Simi1 Kath?sarits?gara 89; Story of Bambhadatta, in Jacobi's "Ausgew?hlte " ; Story of Agadadatta," ibid., p. 71, stanzas 53 ff. Erz?hlungen," p. 16,1. 19 ff. 2 Kath?sarits?gara 79 ; Vet?lapanca vincati 5. 3 Such a person is called in Sanskrit, pansukr?dita (Pari?istaparvan, p. 123; cf. Harsa-Carita 1, Bombay edition, 1897, P? J7; m P?li, pansukilita (J?taka 83 and 519); Mah?v?stu 3. 45i; in Prakrit, pansuk?liya, Jacobi's " Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen," p. 20, 1. 16. This 616

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larly, the heroine has a faithful female friend, who is almost invariably the go-between, or love's messenger (servus currens) between herself and the hero. The lady, as a rule, takes the initiative, ty look or act, in establishing relations with her lover-to-be. Comfortably settled kings, in their maturer years, are also taken with a kind of "wanderlust," and roam in search of adventures.4 Merchants and merchants' sons start on quests of trade and wealth ; travel to a great distance; suffer ship-wreck; are rescued by dangerous sirens; are destroyed by them; or attain in the end marvelous wander prosperity. Holy men, gifted with supernatural powers, about; whensoever they are treated properly they secure the happiness of deserving lay persons. On the other hand, all

sorts of rogues in the guise of holy men play tricks under the mantle of their sanctity, usually to meet with discomfiture and disgrace in the end. Faithful or faithless wives ; noble or degraded courtezans ; gamblers, thieves, and robbers are further instances of the stereotyped dramatis personse of Hindu fiction. To a very considerable extent all these adventures are lifted to a higher plane of romanticism by the interference, or deus ex machina cooperation of supernatural beings : benign gods, magic-loving Vidy?dharas, Yaksas, and And all persons, divine or human, heavenly nymphs, called Apsaras. operate with supernatural agencies: magic objects that grant wishes, or perform wonderful acts; powerful charms; the forecast of dreams ; the prophecies of holy men and women. The adventures of all these personages contain as a rule no very plots. They usually consist of a chain of salient, individual, romantic episodes, strung together, one after another. Quite continuous frequently, one or the other of the happenings are in the nature of an anecdote, or prank, or trick which one person in the story plays upon the other. In this latter phase of fiction puns and riddles

within story, and frequently the events told in one and the same story are really different events which merely overlap each other at some one point. 4 See Prabandhacint?mani, Tawney's Translation, pp. 12, 30, 42.

often play a part. The separate events of a story rarely unfold character, and do not necessarily contribute to such denouement as the story may happen to have. There is the familiar boxing of story

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the ancient treasury of narrative which India pours out lavishly from the time of the RigVeda to this day. nearly all the more important motifs are intensely repetitious in the Hindu narratives themselves. though dwelled tradictory delineation. narrated by himself to a king in Kath?sarits?gara This content downloaded from 117. these stories seem fairly to exhaust all the permutations which can be imagined to arise from the juncture of real or fictitious persons and things with the circumstances of time and place. at least. either wanting. of his own life. as found with other peoples. many a time they may. imaginaof each unit of story-telling. as a matter of external experience. of character. Therefore. yet it fulfils to a certain extent more modern requirements as regards delineation The stories told about him show more real sequence. figures in an autobiographic episode dhy?yana. or they are indicated by crude.224. so that. the Hindu story rarely goes beyond the limits of a sort of thin novelette. as a rule. passed freely beyond the bounds of India. and shrewdness in bulk. the individual motifs of story or fairy-tale. is.193. is no exception to the rule. nor absolutely original collections of such fables or stories. but numberless individual stories and individual story traits penetrated to the farthest ends of the It at earth. such as the Pa?catantra. moreover. rather hard to find. Real types of men and women are. seem to hold a kind of mass-meeting on the great arena of Hindu As is well known. tiveness. in the rest of the world. and effect than is customary in Hindu is preserved in DevenThe most important story of M?ladeva dra's Vrtti. and the clever way in which they are worked up. any rate. sometimes conThe biography of M?ladeva. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .35 on Sun. closer interlocking of cause fiction. a sort of commentary on the Jain text called the Uttar?M?ladeva. ' or the Seventy Tales of the Parrot. fiction lies in the ingenuity. As a corollary to this last condition. Taken to be of Indian origin. there are neither absolutely original fables or stories.618 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER The real interest of Hindu AND [April18. With all this wealth of themes. be suspected fiction.' were exported bodily and taken over by other literatures. upon with some insistence. Not only the stories and fables of entire cycles. fable or fiction traits of marked character which do not own to an Indian analogon .

after hearing Apah?ra5 Cited by the K?cik? at Panini 8. or at the end of the tenth book of the Brhatkathama?jan. yet delectable figure. 739. princes adventures.224. see p.5 " " which seems to mean Wizard. I35b. 6 See Bloomfield. with Karn?suta. sort of gentile designation. i8." i. note 2. magic practices by means of roots are still as familiar as they were in the time of the Atharva-Veda. by the simple device of stealing that wealth." General Index. 740. 215. see Weber. "Indische Streifen. Cagliostro. On the he is a rogue whole gel. be taken more seriously and padded out into a sort of The life history of M?ladeva fitly begins with his own name. as cited by the commentaryto Subandhu's V?savadatt?." literally. in a roundabout fashion.] ADVENTURES OF MULADEVA 619 124. pp. 7 In the Lexicon called H?r?vali. This content downloaded from 117. Mephisto. Apah?ravarthe one of who narrates his own man. in the fifteenth tTale of the Vampire' he acts a Mephistophelic part in involving a princess in two marriages. 621. p. 2. occasionally hero. Again. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . biography is rather in the nature novel. " The Atharva-Veda. Pavolini. p. tells how he decided to follow the way of Karn?suta. Beitr?ge zur Indischen Erotik. next. In Dacakum?racarita. Meyer's translation of Dacakum?racarita. 191.193.6 M?ladeva is identified. arranged so trickily that it is hard to say which husband she really belongs to. Schmidt." figures. Prabandhacint?mani (Tawney's Translation). GSAI. 176. He who makes roots his Within the sphere of narrative in which M?ladeva divinity. ix. Tyl Eulenspieand others. whose pranks have endeared him to the popular heart as a shifty. as in Devendra's story. in order to teach the misers of a certain city the instaAt the bility of wealth. (Vetalapancavin?ati). himof Thieving" is said to be a Karataka.35 on Sun.7 an author on the "Science Karn?suta (steya??stra-pravartaka). end of the same story King R?jav?hana. 244. in addition. 383. who may however. some self a great scoundrel. M?ladeva figures occasionally in other stories . a lively tradition of a very variegated sort shows that he " " in the imagination of the Hindu has fixed himself as a character Yet even Devendr?'s people through many centuries. also makes the same identification.I9I3. means consistent: of an impressionist sketch than a well-knit Nor is his characterization in tradition as a whole by any he has traits of Simplicissimus. pp. B?lakrsna to B?na's K?damban.

"Shoot of Ac" complishments.9 or "Love-Bibles" of Karn?. pramud). we should. and the Artha?astra (K?util?ya) of C?nakya.. e. See the list in Prabh?vaka-Carita (ed. Else a mother about whom we hear nothing." that is. you have gone Karn?suta's " rough practices one better ! Karn?suta goes.193. namely Gon?putraka. 6. . 32. tho no as other authors are mentioned at all. g. the Raghuvan?a. i. 3. than an equivalent of M?ladeva. to Prakrit cuta " fallen. k?n?na) are well-known in Sanskrit literature.p. 2 . i. remarks 8 Prabandhacint?mani. according to Hindu models. in the story of Agadadatta (Jacobi's "Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen"). " In the introducSon of Goni or Gonik?. (4) (to us) villanous K?mac?stras. g. TB. e. by four names: (i) M?ladeva. 9 Not so the Hindus. "Five arrows (of the God of Love). 172. V?tsy?yana's K?mac?stra is regarded as on a par with the three Vedas. rather " " than a metronymic. This content downloaded from 117. Gonik?putra. So also Devendr?. expect a patronymic. 132. 918 ff. exclaims : Why. This also looks as tho the names were interchangeable. especially the same text Gon?suta and M?ladeva when we consider that the text is metrical and is liable to require " Beitr?ge differing quantities in a tetrasyllable .. authorities not side by side. which looks occurs the expression gon?putraka-muladeva-bhanitam." and Karn?putra. all told. the typical n?yaka or "hero. 1. E. perhaps a courtezan. stanza 22. 63." a sort of "devil of a fellow. counts 72 accomplishments. the Son of Goni. In the two Vedic texts he typifies lust or pleasManu 9. VS. 46. 4. Sharm?). p. 10This spelling due. "Son Karn?suta (Karn?cuta10). in the Prabandhacint?mani. (3) Kal?nkura." are mentioned once more. p. ure (pramad.35 on Sun. p." as he is sketched ideally and systematically in the scheme of ther of India." p." the standard expression for passing from a higher to a lower existence in the course of transmigration. or man about town. perhaps.620 varman's BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [Aprili8? " rascally story.." or accomplishments. 160. perhaps. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." tion to the Pa?casayaka.224. 30. see Richard Schmidt. e. They regard the K?mac?stra as a legitimate Castra. zur Indischen Erotik. This fourth name is similar to that of a frequently mentioned author of amatory literature. Hir?nanda U." and Gonik?suta. Product of the 64s kal?'s. Sons of maidens (kumar?putra. (2) " " : name little Servant of Roots the is more M?labhadra. which belong to a routine man of the world. The same author. " In for all the world as tho it meant M?ladeva.

his son to the pander Dh?rt?m?y?. he is there mentioned along with a set of k?mac?stra authors which Next. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1. This content downloaded from 117. the merchant Candra entrusts." pp. " Paccekabuddhageschichten. to teach him the wiles and tricks of bad women. 16) states that the Vindhya forest. 18 See Charpentier. and the like. as was pointed out above. shining authority on the Pa?casayaka refers to him several times on intik?mac?stra: mate questions of the ars amatoria. 12 See Schmidt. of M?ladeva for scepticism as regards the identity B?na's K?dambari edi(Peterson's tion.11 a satirical treatise on the foibles or tricks inherent in sundry walks of life. the point being that M?ladeva is best able to save a youth from the pitfalls of rogues and courtezans.18 If my surmise is correct. As such he is supposed to prince of rogues. any case there is no occasion and Karn?suta. it had extensive mountains and was frequented The word for mountain is acala. An analysis of its contents is given by J." p. 879. xl ff. J. 50. and thus make out a mathematical equation between M?ladeva and Karn?suta. Meyer. These two words figure in the M?ladeva legends as proper names of persons. also Sylvain Levi. that Gonik?putra is no other than M?ladeva himself.224. similarly. Karn?putra. 23. pp. are metronymics of an author whose It is probable. and Gon?putra are one and the same man. " nated as dh?rtapati. that M?lareal name is no longer known." be a fit teacher of a young man of wealth and family. Incidental mentions in literature show his adroitness not only in So much for the name. Cf." p. in the Introduction to his translation of the Samay?m?trk?. he is.35 on Sun. and the word for hare by hares. for the most part are cited elsewhere in this sphere of literature.193. 58. As regards M?ladeva's character we may In Ksemendra's Kal?begin with his performances as an author. Candragupta. therefore. like the story of This is euphuistic indirecKarn?suta. " tion (vakrokti) for. which deals with the secret cult of Durg? . 19. vil?sa.12 This is supported by a text called ?aktiratnakara. n (reprint).I9I3J ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 621 that Gon?putra." is ?a?a. In Cukasaptati. p. his authority in this line of literature rises in the scale. "La Brhatkath?manjan de Ksemendra. fascicles ? and 2 (1886). 919. In deva. had its Vipul?cala and ?a?a. M?ladeva appears as the mentor (a sort of Visnu?arM?ladeva is desigman) of a young merchant's son. 11 The text is published in the series K?vyam?l?. " Beitr?ge.

of Kath?sarits?gara. M?ladeva " climbs to the pinnacle of tricky mischief.224. thinking " wriggles out with the verse : To every lover in the world she alone seems charming that is his love. a farmer's wife who is in the habit of carrying him his She deposits dinner amuses herself with her paramour on the way. in love-affairs of the shady sort. catch who is to decide. plays part of the Thus. see riddle in of is. on the road with a boon companion. if In haven't a the you light-o'-love. an" Sir. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. or on More especially. who is Kandarika. either on his own account. enters that house in which there is no shapely love eagerly awaiting his return. illicit loves. Weber. He. and in the story of Oedipus. practices." is savory little story told in the Jain Ava?yaka Niryukti. by means of a stanza composed by M?la" deva : Who.35 on Sun. i. xxv. again. They come across another traveler with When Kandanka is smitten with the charms of the tricks the husband.622 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. woman." 30th Story of the Parrot (?ukata?ataka "It's saptati) two demons (pi??cas) quarrel over the beauty of their hold of M?ladeva. that is not a fool. as lord of M?ladeva 14 Cf. This content downloaded from 117. Kath?sarits?gara. which tho called a A scholiast to the Saphouse. he pushes himself forward. the dinner-kettle on the road. and M?ladeva puts in camel's meat. I dreamt that you would be eaten by a camel. not merely the theoretic academician Tradition has him the practical promoter of love: wherever there be some beauty to conquer. the account of others. respective wives. however. In Kath?sarits?24) a son encourages his widowed gara 98 (Vet?lapancavin?ati father to marry. and have Another time.193. in the "Tales Parrot. is really a prison without chains ?" of H?la14 cites a hemistich by M?ladeva of quite similar no use with import: anointing yourself fragrant unguents. a sort of fidus Achates. They in his soul that both their she-devils are passing ugly. no other." 22. 26. her husband inquires suspiciously she. M?ladeva of devil in connection with the a mischievous he Or. is the standard resort. in an unplayed this prank to nullify the omen. Tawney's note to his Translation M?ladeva love. but also in wise saws pertaining to love." The same Mah?bh?rata. M?ladeva When swers : here named his wife. Das Sapta?atakam des H?la. quick as a flash. as regards the last point.

PRINTED NOV. distracted with love on beholding Manahsv?min. who is not eligible. and I asked for a maiden to be given him to wife. V?racarita 8 (Indische Studien.193. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 212 V. who turns into a beautiful maiden. gone going this maiden safe for me. so keep somewhere or to look for other. son on a journey of six months. the king accepts the charge . And that prince of villains took him in this disguise to the judgment" hall of the king. has not come back to claim the maiden. same book. ?ukasaptati 62 . In time the brother-in-law of the king gives his daughter. PROC. in the 15th Vampire story. the father of his lady-love. But now he has I and am him . wearing the form of a The fresh bridegroom becomes young maiden of exquisite beauty. Dacakum?racarita 5. of course. fall madly in love with each other.X9X3. when he returns. sv?min is a woman by day and an ardent lover by night. The two young from an infuriated elephant. until finally 15The same ruse in similar stories. LII. xiv. Mrg?nThe princess ?a?ikavat?. the Brahman Mrgankavat?. PHIL. There were no as a second' wife.224.] rogues" ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 623 in affairs of love. but how difficulty in his marrying Manahsv?min can the king who has him (or her) in keeping for another husband. I9I3. gives Manahsv?min as a companion to the two marry by the Gandharva rite. until I bring back my son. as told in the version of the Kath?sarits?gara 89. Then that matchless deceiver places a magic globule into his mouth. Kath?sarits?gara 7. Manahsv?min. second globule to Manahsv?min. 40-87."15 Needless to say. princess ?a?iprabh? people. Manahsv?min. and brought her from a long distance.). M?ladeva. SOC. The two girls become very affectionate. goes there with her ladies-in-waiting.35 on Sun. I have only one son. invited to her cousin's and is prabh? marriage. a Brahman's son. or the 14th story in ?ivad?sa's saves the life of a A young Brahman. He gives a and transforms himself into an ancient Brahman. including Manahsv?min. and Manah?a?iprabh?. goes to visit that master of magic. he may marry the trick-maiden.AMER. permit this marriage? It is decided to send the minister's her also.I9. Pramati's adventure. using the simple device of putting in and taking out the magic globule. This content downloaded from 117. if. remains behind with Manahsv?min. in marriage to the son of his minister. and said to him : O king. 153 ff. for you keep safe under your protection the whole world.

35 on Sun. unable to deliver the goods. and a fierce dispute takes place between the latter and ?a?in in the presence of that M?ladeva. Then M?ladeva takes this bridal couple to his own home. One should think that M?ladeva mischief done so far. but the joke is rather on M?ladeva. 5. by way of compensation. returns to claim the manwoman Manahsv?min. she 16The quip with the mango-fruitsrecurs in Prabandhacint?mani (Tawney's Translation). long ago." Then they elope before the minister's son. There is one charming story which M?ladeva narrates to the famous legendary king Vikram?ditya. witty preliminary passes. Brhatkath?manjar? 2720. by which I can at pleasure become a man during the night. Manah" sv?min says : This ?a?iprabh? should be given to me . for. turns his Leporello (who is this time called ?a?in) into a young Brahman." The story cleverly dodges the decision of the dispute. his supposed son. afraid of the feigned stern Brahman anger of M?ladeva. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it is full of quips and pranks. the husband of Mrg?nkavat?. I married her by the favor of the master fool.224. for her own father bestowed her on me in the presence of the fire.. poor digest.624 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. so I will now become one for your sake.193." ?a?in says: "You with her? She is my wife. in a in 10. This content downloaded from 117. self-persiflage. Not he. M?ladeva). who narrates it with a sort of humorous in company with ?a?in. the atmosphere of our hero. and. " the pupil of that master-rogue tells her : I have a boon from Visnu. as illustrating the virtue and resourcefulness of a true wife. after some liputra. who had been promised him as his second wife. pp. what have you to do (i. As behoves and. arrives at P?taM?ladeva. e. of course. when she was a maiden. with some of the inhabitants. full of give and falls in love with a take. where Manahsv?min meets them. It is told in Kath?sarits?gara 124. He ingratiates himself with her father. and. The latter is.16 M?ladeva saucy Brahman's daughter who had shamed them by her wit. would be content with the impish Again he takes on the guise of the old Brahman. gives his own daughter ?a?iprabh? to ?a?in. 6. and manages to marry her. and goes to claim Manahsv?min as his daughter-in-law from the fiduciary king.

tho. when she says : Then he country bumpkins are tricked in this way by city wits. making shortened.224. I vow that the country bumpkin will desert you and go far away. and he astonished every cunning. and promptly makes off to Ujjayin?.19ia?] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 625 does not remember that they had previously exchanged repartee. Prabandhacint?mani. but lives with her in great mutual love for some time. but wishing to make trial of her cleverness. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of course. including his father's " name. daughter starts off to Ujjayin? in the guise of a splendidly equipped hetsera. of course. to her home in P?taliputra. Finally M?ladeva himself is admitted to her presence and favor. one there by showing such remarkable 17Cf.35 on Sun. This boy. calling herself Suma?gala. In a quarrel he beats with a creeper a fisher^boy who is." " replies : Rest you fair. In due time she gives birth to a boy by M?ladeva. Then the Brahman's He puts a ring on in love with her. I will go and bring my father back a captive . until she forges a letter from her supposititious sovereign. He does not recognize her as his own wife. p. is wonderfully accomplished. a mere child. for your mother roamed about in foreign lands. night he recalls himself to her memory.193. and disappears as she came. There she poses as the beauty of the world. 170. returning. of low caste. how his own friend ?a?in was chased from pillar to post in an attempt to reach her. and he conquered in play all who were there. and finally exclaims : Mother. but manages to elude them. at the age of twelve. boy And he came and saw me playing dice in the gambling-hall. her finger. city wit ."17 The boy then extracts from his mother the whole story. She is approached by many suitors. and you were born to her by some husband or other. certain of my identity from the description his mother had given him." She then vows in her turn that a son of hers by him shall bring him back again. M?ladeva narrates with gleeful unction. At " Yes. This content downloaded from 117. and the boy throws into his teeth: "You beat me. a position which she is able to maintain through her father's wealth and her own charm. I will make your promise good ! " At this point M?ladeva's own narrative becomes too good to be "The set out and reached this city of Ujjayin?. tho nobody knows who your father is .

' Then I will tell you a marvelous tale. the grain thus produced the king put a stop to the famine among his subjects. and astonishment. lived from the time of the theological the condition that. and that. I went at my leisure to the market-place. This content downloaded from 117. the unstable scape-grace. and saw myself on a heap of cotton." must remember that gambling is M?ladeva's pet vice which brings him to grief in Devendra's novel.626 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. you may keep the bedstead. if you understand it and admit that it is really true. that kingdom Formerly king himself cultivated the back of the beloved of the boar with Enriched with great loads of spray from the chariot of the snakes. and gained the esteem of man." prince of thieves. fails.' "When I said this the boy laughed and said: 'The chariots of the snakes are the clouds . ' ' ? this bedstead will me : For what price you give up to him and said ' Then the boy said to me. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Then he gave away to the needy all the money he had won at play. is like stealing the white " continues : So when I woke of Sherlock Holmes' eyes. O king. and I shall get back the bedstead. you will Now listen! be illegitimate. M?ladeva. M?ladeva up. Then. if M?ladeva solves it. but you may get it by telling some strange and wonderful story.35 on Sun. letting We me down gently on a heap of cotton while I remained asleep. of a in certain the was a famine there king . amusement. So I went roaming about. in his turn. You cannot get the bedstead for money. but if you say that it is not true and that you do not believe it. And at night he came and stole my bedstead from under me.224.193. furthermore.' When I heard that I said to him. for she is said to have been most dear to Visnu in his boar incarnation . and what is there to be astonished at in the fact that rain from the '" clouds made grain to spring on the earth ? The boy then. without a bedstead. I saw there that boy selling the bedstead. And. if not he becomes the boy's slave. him to his of his and takes hold takes the M?ladeva arm. poses a cosmic-mythological riddle? dear to the heart of the Hindu brahmodya of the Veda?on Of course. I was at once filled with mixed feelings of shame. he is " " thieves' bible. and. boy mother in P?taliputra." author of a steya-??stra or Stealing a bedstead from under such as he. O crest-jewel of cunning ones. the beloved of the boar is the earth. he gets the bedstead .

a great magician. e. gutik?.20 C?nakya goes by the nick-name K?utilya.. furthermore. p. 19 See Jacobi. and then returned to Ujjayin?. mukhavasasamudde?ah . we may regard the statement that he was an adept in cipher. practices. in Vetalapancavin?ati 14 (Civad?sa's version) siddhagutik?. brilliant narrator . i. cf. a typical n?yaka. He is a cultivated conversationalist .."21 The recent publication of his Artha??stra. and so on. In Devendra's story he slaps a hunch-backed female slave upon the back. . in the 18 In Weber's Catalog of the Royal Library in Berlin. " Crooks. sarvottamas?urabhyasamudde?ah. M?ladeva. 22 Gulik?. ties come to the fore in Devendra's story." and author of a steya-c?stra. perfumes. " Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen. unable to keep steady company for ever. yogagutik? (correct) ." who must These qualireally control no less than sixty-four accomplishments. or his double Karn?suta. 743. he is also celebrated in all accessories." p. was born with teeth in his Candragupta. or " Science of Politics " is one of the important events of Indology. gu<Jik?. Particularly he has always at his hands one of those magic pills. mouth. M?ladeva is not merely versed in the direct arts. This is also one of the necessary qualifications of the great Hindu Macchiavelli. and. 9.22 They are familiar in Devendra's stories . man of the world and arbiter elegantice. 306. . ibid.19 another of Devendra's stories. figures as a resourceful thiefcatcher (? la Haroun-al-Rashid) 88 and 112. Cukasaptati 3 (where Kutila is the name of a rogue). and tricks of love. in Brhatkath?manjari 9. in fact. or accord" ing to the Hindu Love-Bibles. the celebrated C?nakya. Dacakum?racarita ? (end) . marvelous musician . "master-thief. to signify thou earnest to bite the world. I. Henry VI. and ointments .193. . 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . In the broader sphere of tradition he.19is?] there " ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 627 " a long time with that wife and that son. M?ladeva is mentioned in a series of authors on personal toilet: sn?n?yasugandhisamudde?ah . Kath?sarits?gara As a corollary to his artistry Vetalapancavin?ati 14 (Civad?sa 13). is a dh?rtapati. exin pert massage.18 knows how to send a lady a present .35 on Sun. M?ladeva is.. or hero. 20 Teeth hadst thou in thy head when thou wast born. .224. 21 Cf. 731. Minister of king who like Richard III. presto. vol. 65. in this science This content downloaded from 117. she becomes straight. In the after story of Mandiya. he has become king of Benn?yada.

p. finds his father duly engaged in gambling in the gambling-hall. and is driven from the side of his beloved. See above. In the story digested above the boy.23 It is a curious. his companion Kandar?ka. 19. pp. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Prabandhacint?mani. no.628 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. 632) . the hetaera Devadatt?. just as the theft of the bedstead is a jibe on M?laIn Samay?m?trk? deva's reputation as master-thief.35 on Sun. cites or what one solemn Jain text. 83. 114. 130. 103. to the same. must go to perdition in the end. 4? 3.24 of the romancer.224. II. or almost tragic note in M?ladeva's character is Kath?sarits?gara his love for gambling. Devendr?. on arriving in Ujjayin?." as Jacobi once designated him. 24 See Leumann. 9. Don Giovanni shape of M?ladeva. the Jn?t?dhy?yana him. Devendra's story begins by telling that his father drove him from home on account of this passion of his. vi. this bube. as long as he lives. 31. the author of the Vitti to' the Uttar?dhy?yana. like Yudhisthira or Naia. line 38. 10. 641. p. he is too It is true that entertaining to be read out of stage or drawing-room. story of M?ladeva All sorts of devices for such transformations are familiar in Hindu Kathako?a. 23 See below. our hero thus transforms himself into a dwarf. in S?mavidh?na-Br?hmana 3. p. lines 29-33. 135. 6.29 M?ladeva is said to be skilled in the practices of the demon Kali. loses his all by gambling . The dramatic. WZKM. And so it has come to pass that this dissolute " Schlaumeier and Erzspitzrogue and companion of the base. see especially This content downloaded from 117. 106. "Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen. as a forbidding Yet there is no mistaking that he is beloved example of sensuality. is done over into a real pious amounts hero by another Jain writer. In the same story he. Tawney. tho it is employed sententiously to illustrate both the yogaghatik? or yog?ngulik? (both corrupt) . 184. 43fiction. We are accustomed to an important difference in the handling ?f fiction by Brahmanical texts on the one hand and Buddhist and Jinist texts on the other. line 1 . p. and Jacobi. Meyer's Translation of Dacakum?racarita. meaning that he is a gambler. in consequence he is humiliated by a rival. golik?. Brahmanical fiction is essentially secular.193. but. 37 and 74 (cf." p. yet rational trait of story tradition that an outside atmosphere of complacency or benignity surrounds the scape-grace The story-tellers all like him.

and the resourceful adventurer. But the Buddhist and Jinist texts are religious forthright . the viveur. None of these But the story qualities. Yet they work up the same variegated. and gifted with beauty.] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 629 utilitarian and moral aspects of life (artha. how a king who is the future Buddha hires a professional rascal (dhutta) to corrupt an innocent young girl by pander's tricks worthy of the doctrines of the Kuttan?mata or Samay?m?trk?. always under the cloak of teaching the law ( dhammakath?. those S?hus and Kevalins liked a romantic. too.224. of grateful disposition. the musician . Or. they teach the high piety. those Bhikkhus and Arhats.I9I3. it makes him out a veritable pattern skilled in every accomplishment. but at what cost ? It is hard to shut out the impression that those good saints. and that. the high moral law. whose devotion to him is the saving " motif of the story : he is wise. virtuous. a heroic protector. pleasant of speech. in the words of Devadatt?. It comes as a shock when we read in Andabh?ta-J?taka. d'hammaThe texts are full of curious discrepancies between the tissue kah?). a very ocean of kindliness. of noble soul. and the sententious piety which hangs from it as loose embroidery. respond to the Jinistic ideal. we must note. so to say. virtuous. dharma).35 on Sun. is a tour-de-force of this sort. versed in many exemplar: arts." This content downloaded from 117. of the story which is often palpably phlogistic. unmoral. in order that he may beat his own chaplain (purohita) at gambling. or even salacious story for its own sake . The text has in mind to bring out in strongest relief the mental superiority of the Buddha.193. grateful. the companion of low women . the dhamma. clever. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . M?ladeva is still the gambler who gambles away the clothes off his back . noble of mind. k?utilya. but saving their faces in the end by drawing the moral which tacks itself gratuitously to the heels of almost any naughty entertainment. skilled in the arts. grace. which is hard to beat and not quite easy to understand. the black-art practitioner . n?ti. that they sat there in their vih?ras and ?cramas with something very like the ghost of a smirk on their faces listening to what people will always listen to. and One is surprised at hearing the jargon of the and of discerning mind. as told by Devendr?. The story of M?ladeva. often immoral fiction. if not prurient. the hetaera. and youth. recoins many of these values .

and the rivalry of a rich suitor for the favor of Devadatt?. note 2. Benn?yada.. This content downloaded from 117. standing for the type of noble hetaera. main the product of the naive schematism of the Hindu mind.25 belongs to the type of the beautiful and noble hetaera. (Meyer's p. the fact is that with the Hindus this is a settled conception. The system of the erotic books deals with various grades of hetaeras. ix ff.." L.630 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. and really seem honestly to admire "virtue. Hindu counsel of perfection?this is about what it amounts to? on such a stage and from such mouths. because of his passion for gambling.. that it pays to serve holy ascetics.. 788 ff. which he has own obtained his scant food."Beitr?ge zur Indischen Erotik. The purpose of the Jinist writer is served thus : M?ladeva's the happenings sheer for- tunes sink to a very low ebb indeed.35 on Sun. The way these people declaim on.26 We need not try the hopeless task Taken in bulk they are in the of appreciating such distinctions. and a settled type in fiction. . to gives a saintly ascetic who has come to a certain village. pp. the Devendr?. Devadatt?. p. in order to break In consequence thereof he obtains the kingship of I must The point is. 128 Kal?vil?sa ff. Kath?ko?a. stating that a hetaera of that name was captivated by " M?ladeva's superior intellectual qualities. He act of piety to obtain success through the favor of the gods. The heroine. than I like better Devendr?. Indische Streifen. say. Samay?m?trk?. Howsoever difficult we may find it to adjust this conception to our ideas. strangely uncongenial to an Acta Sanctorum. Meyer. ?ukasaptati 45? see the parallel stories. In the end he manages by dint of a frankly selfish named Ay ala. For an extreme example of the former class 58. Yet there is an appreciable sediment of reality as regards the beginning and end of the classification : there are vile and noble hetaeras. the first grade. 26 See Schmidt.224. See Weber." fits vicecrusaders better than denizens of the lower world." pp. Kath?sarits?gara 25A commentator of Subandhu's V?savadatt? substitutes the name Nagaramandan?. just by begging. Something needs to be said about the remaining characters of this story. 278 ff. a month's fast. the story-teller. 383. Aside from this paradox of the story.193. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 41 ff. called ganik?. gifted with every grace of heart and mind. Dacakum?racarita. theologian. event by event. are romance.

or Varadhanuga) In the Brhat-kath? books (Kath?sarits?gara prince Bambhadatta. and ultimately becomes his wife.) As regards the noble hetaera the class" " ical figures of Aspasia. This content downloaded from 117. Kuberasen?." Accordingly. to the symbolic debate between the Mama and Devadatt? which contrasts the former's sordidness with the latter's refinement. Leumann. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the doings of Danstr?kar?l? and Dh?rt?m?y? in Cukasaptati 22 and 23. those of companions mind swell come to as but antique easily parallels. the Bambhadatta of as one name (the other is Varacycle stories.28 27Cf. p. Kandarika). Kath?sarits?gara 38. Vasantatilak?. much more than matrons of high birth. The story of king Vikram?ditya and Madanam?l?. In our story Devadatt? rivals Vasantasen? in tone and character. or Phryne. shall not blacken these pages. in Kathako?a. p. 151. a third one is remarkable for her intellect in Prabandhacint?mani.35 on Sun. and yet she is a courtezan with a villainous " Mama " to guide and browbeat her. WZKU. as one of the gems of our romance.X9X3-] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 631 Samay?m?trk?.27 but I may draw attention. who has impoverished himself by liberality. Prabandhacint?mani. is illus" trated best by Vasantasen?. Such a hetaera. shows the greatest devotion to her children. and as faithful to kings as their own wives. king." good She loves the Brahman merchant C?rudatta. L ff. and otherwise surrounded with all the animate and inanimate real The description of the Mama. of one Kandaria but Kandarika belong rather to (Skt. Samay?m?trk? and Kuttan?matam.224. as given in properties of her vocation. of the fidus Achates of the adventurous dhanu. vi. p. 116. describes the hetaera C?ul?devi as a famous vessel of beauty and faith. at times really noble. excelling even matrons of good family. or Lais. The character of the Hindu hetaera is may run on different planes. 43. 67. another one. or boon companion. as well as their nobility of character. parallels society. 2* Cf. is the friend of the princess Ratnama?jan. even hetaeras are occasionally of noble character. in Pari?istaparvan 2. In the legend at large M?ladeva is in the habit of training with a Mention has been made above (p.193. is a story of a hetaera's true devotion which winds up with " the reflection : Thus. 622) friend. the famous heroine of the Toy-Cart. But the high standing of courtezans.. 225 ff. p.

" Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen in M?h?r?ctri. but this time the joke is rather on M?ladeva. the journey through might be pleasant there comes along a Dhakka-Brahman. enough. deva names At each meal-time the Dhakka anything. for his the Later on. When M?ladeva is driven out of Uj jen? by the Mama's machinations. and to serve the additional purpose of placing in strong relief the grateful disposition which the story explicitly ascribes to M?ladeva."30 crosses the forest. until the time comes and addresses. 19. feasts without offering M?lafor parting.16 ?a?in. 641." This content downloaded from 117. by the Jaina chronicler Devendr?. K?dambari."29 M?ladeva a sort of Leporello to M?ladeva's Don Giovanni. At the sight of it he reflects that. 30 See the note below. whereas the Dhakka has a well-provisioned knapsack. Also a personage by the name of Vipula. The curious anecdote seems to me to reflect the companion of M?ladeva. three For M?ladeva has days they travel together. or translated by Pavolini." pp. p. 31 Edited by Jacobi. where he ultimately becomes king. as one of his friends. is the name of M?ladeva's companion Brhatkath?manjari) The commentator to B?na's B?lakrsna. The Jaina story of M?ladeva in M?h?r?stri Prakrit.224. mention him. he presents the Dhakka with a village. elaborated. But I think that he is. 5665.35 on Sun. otherwise unheard of in the story: Karn?sutah Karatakah steyac?strapravartakah tasy?khy?t?u sakh?y?u dv?u Vipula-Acalasamjnit?u Ca?a? ca mantripravarah. after all.632 and BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. there by reflection. and M?ladeva. This ?a?in. On the way he comes to an extensive forest.193.31 gathers up the adventures and unfolds the 29The same authoritymentions also Acala (Ayala). There is regularly a touch of facetiousness in this road-companionship. "Vicende del Tipo di M?ladeva. M?ladeva's rival. he starts without a penny to bless himself with for Benn?yada. when he expresses companionship. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (Peterson's edition). nothing to eat. They exchange M?ladeva tho treated thus shabbily. flits across the with : we should like to know elusiveness legend tantalizing It is rather curious that Devendra's novelette fails to more of him. gratitude has become king Vikrama. "if he could meet some other person traveling in the same direction. so that he might at least have someone to talk to. alludes to him as ?a?a "Hare." Opportunely " which I take to mean a In his company Brahman of the Thugs.

In the following translation the parallels to the individual items are stated in the notes. without. 175 ff. M?ladeva's M?ladeva's rival. Her sayings and doings are.35 on Sun. a personage forget her own baseness This content downloaded from 117. in whom is Devadatt?. well-knit and consistent. becomes.224. flitting. is well delineated. from the moment that M?ladeva comes acquainted with Devadatt?. 1909). But this connected quasibiography. however. perhaps. 632. shadowy figure of M?ladeva shapes itself into a real person in his hands. items of the story are for the most part recurrent from earlier sources. whether we The Mama makes us altogether lovable. by the sheer force of her character and the wit of her utterances. The entire setting of the arrives in Ujjen? and bestory.193. his dream of kingship. reveals The motifs individual itself on closer inspection as both legendary and unoriginal. Jacobi's excellent edition of Devendra's -classic.1913. Ayala. a rattling good story. 193 ff. pp. as indeed for the data involved in this essay as a whole.. betrays the practised skill of a good dramatist. so to speak. skilled in the ars amatoria and kindred topics. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . skill lies in his power Devendra's and to imbue The to connect with life the separate members of his story. and by John Jacob Meyer. 1908). mishaps. pp. ""Hindu Tales" (London. 57 ff. by Charpentier. I am indebted in part to the essays or translations of the scholars mentioned in the foot-note on p. For the materials involved in these comparisons. the best and most original feature of the story. shifting. IX. " Giornale della Societ? Asiatica Italiana. historical value. embalmed the notion of the noble hetaera. Paccekabuddhageschichten" (Upsala. the son of the woman Karn? (or Goni). and his choice as king of Benn?yada are well told. There certainly existed at some time or another an author M?ladeva. stories with vocabulary has long been an Indological will or not. the manner in which he prepares for greatness. going into the details of comparison.] character ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 633 of this singular personage more completely and consistthan all the rest of the data which occur scatteringly in the reently It is a legendary biography without any real maining literature. and reveals Devendr? as more than a rival of the best J?taka-narrators. .

33 Cf.82 had been cast out by his father because he was addicted to the vice of gambling. all of which they She then dispatched a hunchbacked slave. In Ujjen? he changed his appearance by virtue of a magic pill. Devadatt? heard it and thought: "Ah. M?hav? by name.35 on Sun. so that he became a celebrity. and gifted with beauty. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . when they found him. and answered her : I have 32The part of the story beginning here. He became curious. and. by name. of noble mind. my mistress Devadatt? bids thee favor her with a visit to our house. to call him. Mongolische M?rchen) . 263 ff. 35 The theme of the lure of a beautiful voice recurs frequently (see Benfey's Pa?catantra i. Goontilleke. clever. heard that her pride was such that she took no pleasure in any ordinary mortal. 277 ff. i. devoted to virtue." p. vol. proud of her beauty. in order to stir her emotions. Orientalist. is essentially the same as the story of Lohaja?gha. Kath?sarits?gara 12. He was withal skilled in every art. not a mere man ! sent out her slave-girls to look for him. a hero to those who sought his protection. and astonished the city folk by his many stories.. his song was exquisite in the harmony of its various sounds. Now there lived at that time in Ujjen? a most elegant courtezan. by Devendr?. I. and intellect. ArdschiBordschi-Chan. second interpolation in nth story (J?lg." " M?ladeva slily disguised his purpose.193.33 and after roaming over the earth had come to this city from P?taliputta.. M?ladeva is a city called Ujjen?. by his skill in music and other arts. M?ladeva This content downloaded from 117. and addressed him politely: "Very noble sir.224.634 The There BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER Adventures of M?ladeva as AND told [April18. 436 ff. charm. p.) : Meyer. they saw that M?ladeva had the shape of a dwarf. and. courteous. A certain Rajput.84 took on the shape of a dwarf.. p. of grateful disposition. 34 See above. and youth. "Hindu Tales. its many modulations . reported to Devadatt?. stationed himself at daybreak near her house. M?hav? went up to him. Devadatt? by name. this must be a god. versed in many sciences. see the notes in Tawney's Translation. grace. 78 ff. Kath?sarits?gara 121. and by the performance of sundry jugglers' tricks. 574. up to the point where M?ladeva is disgraced by Ayala. what an "8d She incomparable voice . 627. and His voice vibrated with began to intone a sweet-sounding melody.

she is worn out by countless gallants. Beitr?ge zur Indischen Erotik./. adroitly witty. " 37 For the use of betel in erotic practices see Schmidt. began to converse in sweet and cultivated language : her heart was attracted to him. like a razor she cuts the body .37 Then M?hav? beheld exhibited her restored figure. note . pleasant in its courtliness. and offered him betel. that is sorcery? what use is there in magic roots ! "38 It happened that a certain lute-player arrived there and sounded his lute. She is soft of speech. p. and what is not beautiful. With mind she brought him to the house. however. your skill is exquisite ! the Ujjen?-folk are passing clever. the string full of flaws. Devadatt? was pleased. " Like the crest of a flame her nature is to devour .224." Translation. 36 These two stanzas are quoted in Sanskrit . "A courtezan is a most degraded person. Mister " " But M?ladeva said : Ah. like intoxicating drink she bewilders the senses . daze she bade him be seated. still more amazed. Devadatt?. genteel men are forbidden to As the poet says:86 associate with dissolute women. suggests that they may be from a lost work by M?ladeva himself. p. lutist. for its character and chronology see H?rnle. p. " " Uv?sagadas?o. insistently hand. Speyer. As says the poet : of clever men. what is beautiful. where Devadatt? In a him.?1913-] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 635 no use for the society of courtezans . See another description of the baseness of courtezans in Cukasaptati 23. what is wrong here?" replied: Devadatt? "The asked: "The conversation astounded This content downloaded from 117. delightful in its delicate sounds. and told the whole story. and by virtue of his great art and magic skill." p. but evil of mind: such a one is not regarded by gentles. beguiled his soul with many entook him the ticing expressions. 49. Charpentier." Index." She asked how he knew. they know the difference between tube of the lute is unclean . bravo. 38 See Meyer's good note on this stanza. p.193. and led him to by the house." M?ladeva "Sir." The slave-woman.35 on Sun. and exclaimed : " Bravo. 945 . 20. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 195. aye. a dwarf in shape. Studies about the Kath?sarits?gara. like a thorn the courtezan is rued ! " Therefore I have no desire to go to her. c. As he went he slapped her crooked back. she was made straight. is given over to drink and gluttony. yet incomparably charming. 59.

. laughing softly. A she-elephant nearby which was always in the were transported. ordinarily such excellence does not I must make him disclose his reside in a person of such shape. 170 ff.. and a hair out of the string. and he drew a pebble from the tube."41 " and M?ladeva replied : I do not know it perfectly. or the skill tricks in Pari?istaparvan 8. his body abounding in 39 Marvelous skill in detecting flaws in objects that are supposed to be perfect. what touch: he must be some "What unexcelled skill. that they might do you know this also?" Devadatt? asked: "What! anointing. M?ladeva. like the God of all creatures by his beauty. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. he would show her." Vol. finally. that of the third attracts a distant deer. he is Then she dismissed the Vissakamm? (the Creator) in disguise!" lute-player with presents. p. habit of roaring stood still rocking herself. exceeding divine personage in disguise. cint?mani.36 Then Devadatt? and her attendants he put it in order and began to play. He Love bewildering appeared resplendent as the sun. 65 ff." They brought campaka-oil.224. In Kath?sarits?gara 11 King Udayana subdues evermore with his lute wild elephants. that of the second makes a tree burst into blossom. firstpart. 122. you ! removed the magic pill which had changed him. Prabandhacint?mani. Supp?raka-J?taka. "Beitr?ge. and assumed his true form.636 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18.bottom. and. Cf.193. with her ears down. This content downloaded from 117.occurs a tourney of lute-players for the hand of princess Gandharvadatt?: the music of the firstquiets a mad elephant. p. and taming them brings them home. II. p. my heart longs greatly to see " When she kept on importuning. Devadatt? arrived and Devadatt? ordered the massagist. so " : Permit me to do your M?ladeva said both bathe. that of the fourth makes an elephant give up a half devoured a fifthsoothes the entire assembly to sleep. 41 One of the sixty-four accomplishments (kal?) of the typical man of the world (n?yaka)." p. Such a one is gracious to those who appeal to him. 40 In Kathako?a. See Schmidt.35 on Sun.40 and the lute-player in surprise thought: "Verily. In Prabandhasweet . and said : Noble Sir. Dinner-time And she thought: he proceeded to anoint.Weber. 143. she was enchanted. your unparalleled virtues of themselves mark you as a superior person. Show me therefore your true self. 1093. and he said. 45. " " true shape ! She fell at his feet. the four wonderful house-servants of King Jit?ri. the musician Sol?ka sings so that a dry branch bursts forth into buds. but I have stood in the presence of them that know. "Handschriften-Verzeichniss. p. and anxious to oblige. The lute was handed him.

14. 1. nor is it likely to endure. 179. quoted from an unknown author. an attachment to such as me. my heart has never inclined to any man. 29. 10.' " ' Courtezans abandon an impoverished man . this stanza recurs in the G?th?koca of Municandras?ri. bees a withered flower . and they both bathed and feasted in great state. 27. As has been truly said : " ' Whom may not one see with one's eyes.45 The poet says : "'The moon.." p. 45 This quasi proverbial statement is nullified by frequent expressions of love for home and country in Sanskrit literature. excepting yourself. Every person loves from self-interest. whose original home is the ocean. note. 26. however.193. is not proper.224.42 she again fell at his feet. GSAI. " Finally she said : Noble Sir.35 on Sun. note. p. 43According to Pavolini. as a diadem on his head: see Mrcchakatik? (Stenzler's edition). no one regards any " other attachment' " Devadatt? replied : Own country or strange country are of no consequence to noble men. 44The following two stanzas are again in Sanskrit.'43 " Therefore. see Meyer's " Translation of Dacakum?racarita. 64. Kath?sarits?gara io. 222. and said.46 Likewise. "You have shown me great favor!" Then she anointed him with her own hands." M?ladeva O thou. g. servants a fallen king. 124. 4eHara (?iva) wears the moon.19is?] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 637 fresh youth and grace. you must come to this house quite constantly. The hair on Devadatt?'s body stood erect with joy. cranes a dried-up lake . She had him dressed in a robe fit for a god. and they passed the time in genteel conversation. though separated from the ocean. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and game a burnt forest. As a rule attachments spring from selfinterest alone. stranger that I am and poor. noble men do 42Horripilation in Hindu stories is produced by joy as well as by fear. said : " This content downloaded from 117. ix. Samay?m?trk? 4. wealth is of no consequence . and with whom may not one hold conversation? Rare. is that quality in man which arouses joy in the heart. As the poets say:44 " ' Birds abandon a tree whose fruit is gone . dwells on the head of Hara: wheresoever virtuous men go there they are carried on the head. e. to please me. that art devoted to virtue.

a blemish. from father and mother. and did not come points. but.35 on Sun. 24. gave her whatever she asked. This content downloaded from 117. by all means yield to my wishes.193. p. Ayala by name. Then he con"Therefore. her other and clothes. generally speaking. while delighted. M?ladeva a boon. It precludes liberality to others and own enjoywastes property. that art the resort of all virtues. brings It destroys piety. 77. is the O ment. Kath?sarits?gara 121. 48The Hindus fancy either a gazelle or a hare in the moon. clothes on his back. M?ladeva regarded Ayala with suspicion. sent He bore M?ladeva a grudge. and sought out his vulnerable presents. Prabandhacint?mani. 49 Cf. administered a gazelle on the full-moon. and right and wrong . not attach much value to it. danced It came to pass that Devadatt? beat the drum. is that he did not keep even the sweetly spoken. which ruins the body and leads to hell ! " " But M?ladeva could Aye. drop M?ladeva ! You Mama datt?'s 47 This practice is referred to quite frequently: Kath?ko?a. the rewards of love at a hunBut the devotion of a noble man exceeds a krore. " " "50 said to her : My child. " friendly rebuke : Dearly beloved.47 before the king. Now Devato the house. beloved do not adhere to this vice which makes forget God and teacher. it steals from child and wife." a of surpassing them union between there and sented. jewels. p. and was deeply smitten with Devadatt?. 48." is sometimes the real mother of the hetaera. and shame and grief upon parents and teacher. Now there was a rich son of a merchant. the passion of gambling in thee. p. granted her But M?ladeva was so passionately addicted to gambling. rather a hired manager. Devadatt?. I. See Dhanarhjaya's Dacar?pa 2. The king was which she laid up in store. sprang up love. unless there was some special occasion. like the figure of the Gambling.' dred thousand.638 BLOOMFIELD?ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA [April?8. Vol. the reflections on gambling in the gamblers' stories. is the enemy of truth . 50This " Mama. to virtue alone is their inclination/ Anent this it is said: " ' Speech is valued at a thousand .48 foundation of every sin:49 " Gambling disgraces the family . as the poet says. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by all means desist from this vice ! not control his exceeding passion. J?takas.224. who He had a host of friends.

and is removed from the braid of hair. 80 ff. therefore I shall not give him up ! her by means of sundry for red lac she gave it her dry.. tell M?ladeva. pleasant of speech.PRINTED PROC.51 Therefore drop this gam" " bler ! Devadatt? answered her : I am not. 51 The rendering of the second of these proverbs is not quite certain. he is altogether made up of virtues : "He is wise. of noble soul. skilled in the arts.193. Ayala sugar-cane spoke to him. and of " discerning mind .. 80. This content downloaded from 117. 5. to have sent me such a load of cane with leaves and branches?" The mother pointed out that he must surely be liberal to have sent in this wise. 78: "After she (the hetaera) has sucked him (the lover) dry. 9 ff. she said : Of such sort is that most beloved of thine. therefore send her some ! 2o. bent upon Her money alone. and especially 4. a very ocean of kindliness." mother was foolish in offering such illustrations.SOC. when she asked for flowers she gave her mer? stems. ibid. Now sugar. to noble qualities rather is my inclination. (Of course) Ayala had figured that Devadatt? would share with others. her hostility to poor lovers of her charge.35 on Sun. They appear to be borrowed directly from Samay?m?trk? 5. Devadatt? has a craving for " She went and told him. PHIL. 212 W. Next day Devadatt? said " to Mahav? : My dear. for a withered flower disfiguresthe place where it has been put. and his serviceableness is at an end.. my mother. am I whereupon he sent a cart-load. " and Devadatt? retorted : Mama.52 And when pressed to " explain. 40 ff. 52 These three symbols state technically how a hetaera should estimate her lover in dollars and cents.224." AMER.I9I3. 4. thought that the Then the mother started to convert Devadatt? then said to her (By way of counter-illustration) " " mother : ask ! for She Mama. grateful. LII. Samay?m?trk? ?.] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 639 have no use for this penniless gallant. l6. attach yourself to him with all your soul! Two swords do not go into one scabbard. and one does not polish a non-precious stone. and when Devadatt? asked But Devadatt? yet you will not give him up. DEC. I913. devoted to virtue. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Mama's greed for money comes out. whereas Ayala is a stupendous giver who keeps on sending much wealth ." mother asked of what sort were the noble qualities of that gambler. a she-elephant. she should throw him off like a squeezed stick of sugar-cane . " Devadatt? burst out : What. ibid. symbols: when she asked for sugar-cane she gave it her squeezed .

after reflection. Schmidt. this.640 M?ladeva BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. I shall furnish you the needed inThen you two will be united." mentioned in Schmidt. but you therefore for a while hide under the couch.224. and told Devadatt? to get ready all the belongings of a bath. cut them into blocks two inches in length. 196. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Then he took some fresh jessamine.35 on Sun. she herself must find a way by which that gallant might be driven out : then all would be well. but he replied that The Mama agreed with he would give her others. agreed. and on the next day did just as he had been told. perhaps the games called ik?ubhanjik? "breaking of sugar-cane. in order to be anointed. Ayala was informed by the mother.53 made them fragrant a bit with camphor. This content downloaded from 117. and that. to Ayala: has come. sprinkled them with a mixture of four spices. and split them slightly at both ends. mother has accepted money sent by him. she said "Pretend to her that you are going to another town. 27 . seated himself upon the couch. Devadatt? agreed and told him to get up and put on a robe." " and naveksubhaksik? feasting on fresh sugar-cane. Ayala was anointed. covered the cane with it. Do He did so. " zur Indischen Erotik. So. 850. and formation." The mother concluded that Devadatt? was hopelessly infatuated . came. 54 Cf. that she would not of her own accord let go of M?ladeva. or "elegant.55 Then Ayala saw to-day in a dream. 203. do you arrive with a retinue and Then. cf. packed it and sent it off. anointed. saying: "Regard. pretending that he was going to another M?ladeva town. "Beitr?ge zur Indischen Erotik. the dripping vesture after a bath of the heroine in Karp?rama?jar? i.54 Mahav? went and delivered it . Devadatt? saw Ayala coming. and said to M?ladeva : " Such and such is the situation ." Ayala spied him." p. He went off. make then my dream asked whether he wished to spoil all the Devadatt? come true. Mama." 55Cf." p. therefore. when M?ladeva shame him in such a way that he will leave the place in disgrace." He arrived with a large retinue. and washed with warm bath53C?turj?ta. and bathed here upon this couch. more sumptuous.193. that I would be dressed. and see Meyer's note on this passage. took two sticks of cane. then Devadatt? showed it to the mother. They belong to the accomplishments Beitr?ge of the n?yaka." said: "I valuable belongings. such as coverlets and pillows. the difference between men: this is why I am taken with these his qualities. massaged. p.

" XIV. and reflected that great men in the course of the revolving cycle of existences easily get into misfortune. Ayala seized M?ladeva by the hair. a dialect called Dhakk? is spoken by gamblers in the second act of the Mrcchakatik?. This content downloaded from 117.I9I3. tribe. "Indische Studien. Brahman57 of distinguished appearance. entered. crushed by fate?" Then he said to M?ladeva: After passing many villages and towns he came to the edge of a forest twelve leagues in length.35 on Sun. takka. I should come to grief. "cunning. 57The words dhakka. Sthagik?. p. and then decided to travel to a distant land. see Kern." ? 25. the name of a thieving courtezan." He first bathed in a clear pond." See the proverbial statement to that effect. so this is not the time for " " heroic deeds. t?ka. and. so that M?ladeva. are Hindu terms for a despised people. 396. caste. then the journey through After a while there approached a Dhakkamight be quite pleasant. brooding : " See how I have been tricked by this man. sly. who can rely upon Fortune's favors? Who does not on occasion take a fall. who is not "Tho you have come to such a pass. fraudulent. to the present passage.Pari?istaparvan 8. but I must live to retaliate for their enmity.56 He set out toward Benn?yada." reported by the lexicographers. It occurred to him that if he could meet some other person traveling in the same direction. treat me just as I have treated you ! " Then M?ladeva went from the city disspirited and sad." Then he said to Ayala : Do what you please ! Ayala observed that M?ladeva by his very carriage showed himself to be a person of distinction. and said to him: "Ho there! see now if you find any one to protect " M?ladeva looked about him. Then he re" flected : I cannot get away from them. equipped with a sack of 56A sort of " Live to fightanother day. if ever. note. 205. so that he might at least have some one to talk to. aye. According to Pischel. is probably the same word. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and perceived that he was suryou ! rounded by men with sharp swords in their hands. Sanskrit sthaga. drenched Then men derneath. there to devise some scheme of retaliation.193. 256. do you now go free. dishonest. Mahratti thaka. or guild. cf. " Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen.224. Now I am unarmed. was with it. by the might of fate.] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 641 who lay uning water right there on the couch. Ayala's and the mother gave the signal. Meyer. thakka. As the poet says : " Who in this world is always lucky. armed.

miser. German Raubm?rder. and it seems to me likely that we have in all these words the precursors in Hindu literature of the Thugs. and the friend came in and asked her what was the : 'I matter. said to her : Sit down here.35 on Sun. And where may you be bound for?" there is where I am going. The words most frequently imply stinginess." is the name in that language of the notorious guild of the Thugs (see under that word). P?li cora-gh?taka." Appendix ii. whereupon they went to the water and washed their hands and feet.224. Mahratti " th?ka." The story goes on to tell that the stingy Takka actually allowed himself to be burned. She said to him : ' Look my husband is dead/ But he reflected saw her a moment ago happy enough.642 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. namely.and say to my friend: My husband is dead. and the Doctor then proposed that they should travel together.193. In the meantime a friend of his. as they marched along. and remain weeping " and clinging to my feet. M?ladeva sat down in ?ukasaptati 7. Brhatkathatna?jar? and Brhatkath??lokasar?igraha. and drop in on him as a guest. M?ladeva said that he was going to Benn?yada." When he is gone we will comfortablyconsume this pudding/ After he had told her this she began to cry. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." is the equivalent of modern thag. He and his wife were always eating barley-gritswithout salt. rather than murderousness. ' And he. for fear some one should see him. they saw at noon-time a clear pool. This content downloaded from 117. Dictionary of Anglo-Indian Terms. cooking a pudding. 'Alas. Uv?sagadas?o. my friend! Alas. So I will not go/ Thereupon the mischievous fellow sat down and began crying out. According to H?rnle. because they saw that I had come as a guest. 140 ff. even though stinginess and roguery. Once the Creator moved him to ' say to his wife : I have conceived a desire for a milk-pudding. I add here the curiouslyparallel Takka-anecdote from Kath?sarits?gara : " There lived somewhere a rich but foolish Takka who was a 65. sacrificing his life in order to save his pudding. and proceeded to cook the pudding. or Phansigars. occur in the two sister-texts of the Kath?sarits?gara. as far as I can see. " He replied : There is beyond the forest a place called V?ranihana . The Dhakka proposed that they should rest a while. and. and he never learned the taste of any other food. and asked his wife where her husband was. M?ladeva asked: "Reverend Sir. for this cunning Takka wishes to cat my pudding. came there.while the Takka remained indoors. have you far to go?" provisions. are their characteristics in the literary documents referred to. according to Yule. a Takka who was fond of mischief. tho he has had no illness? No doubt the two have arranged this trick. concealed in bed. how comes it that her husband is now dead. " note 8. before these relation take you off to the pyre and burn you/ The foolish ' man answered his wife in a whisper : No ! that will never do. cook me one today/ His wife agreed. The two of them started. for he still continued to * counterfeitdeath. The story does not. But his wife came to him and whispered in his ear : Jump up. my friend'/ Then his relations came in and prepared to take that silly Takka to the burning-place. lying on the bed.

My name is M?ladeva : if my affairs should ever prosper." But the Doctor. On the third day M?ladeva thought that. moistened them with water. obtaining some lentils. There shortly he perceived a mighty ascetic of great majesty. After a while he perceived a house which he entered for alms. 6?. The Doctor said : Sir. they set out again . something like Pious Giver " . saw him the hair on his body stood erect with joy.224. hoping that he would give him something in the evening. at noon they halted after the same fashion. according to Harsacarita 6 (Bombay edition. and did not give him any- M?ladeva proceeded. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . " Nigghinasamma.58 doubtless he the shade of a tree on the bank.] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 643 The ?hakka loosened his provisionsack. M?ladeva followed. since this 58A Brahman without greed is hard to find. put grits into a dish. giving him nothing. Then he started toward a pool. cf. my fortune is made. after having eaten. hoping that he would give him somein the thing morning. to be given over to feeding . I am in luck." ?. " ironically." This content downloaded from 117.35 on Sun. After that he tramped through the entire village."59 The Doctor then started for his village. but the Dhakka ate just as before. 181) . Yet even then he did not give him anything. thing. " said : Reverend Doctor.. and proceeded on his way. and their roads " parted.I9I3. Yet in the evening he ate in exactly the same way. now that the forest was almost crossed. and this is mine . Weber. When M?ladeva as he thought.193. Night overtook them as they traveled . "Indische Studien. M?ladeva proceeded to Benn?yada. 59 Saddhada seems to mean. but people also know me by the nick-name Nigghinasamma. 62. 1897." M?ladeva I have traveled with your assistance. "Oh. They crossed the forest. will offer me some later on. What now might your name be ? " The Dhakka said : " Saddhada. and slept under a banyan-tree. they At daybreak stepped from the road. p. this is your road. and fell to is just what you might expect M?ladeva thought: "This eating. depart you therefore by this. from the Brahman gang. something like Devotee of Pitilessness. then you must visit me in Benn?yada. but nothing else. tied up his knapsack. he would surely on this day give him something. his body lean from abstinence. who was entering (the village) to break a month's fast.

a thousand elephants. meditation. "I must not therefore hesitate: I shall offer him these lentils. pleased with M?ladeva's piety. p. this noble S?hu. a poor carrier of wood. free from the attachments of house-holders?this noble person is a S?hu (Saint). mighty ascetic has at this juncture come within the path of my sight. thou hast done well! Therefore.35 on Sun. called out: "O son M?ladeva. had given his barley-meal in order that he might break a month's fast. and a kingdom ! The " divinity responded : My son. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .193. thus be it ! Then he bade farewell and 60 In Prabandhacint?mani (Tawney's translation). This content downloaded from 117. will come back here. gentleness. there is also another village nearby. thus here is this great-souled saint. in the second half of this stanza (recited by the Saint). observing the perfection of his obeisance. and rectitude. understanding the pure-mindedness of this gift of his possessions. King C?lav?hana also owes his exalted station to the favor of an ascetic. he offered his lentils to the Saint.224. here and in the other world. " " ask what thou wishest : I shall grant all ! M?ladeva chanted : The " courtezan Devadatt?."60 M?ladeva " " said : O blessed divinity. engrossed with the five-fold samiti-virtues. intent upon the five great wise. to whom he. with reverent gestures. fortu" nate are the men whose lentils serve for the S?hu's break of fast! Then a divinity in heaven. and self-mortification . " Such a person is a fruitful field. intent salvation . M?ladeva's zeal increased as he gave. without wordly goods. as a shower of gold in a poor man's house. live without care. as a royal elephant in the house of a Pariah. and the S?hu chanted in metre (the following half of a stanza) : "Verily." and held out his bowl. and the three-fold gupti-restraints. devoted to the Saint. let me take a little. The S?hu." Thereupon. " Purified by insight and knowledge . 15. irrigated by the water of holy thought: wealth deposited in it as grain yields endless crops both vows. Very shortly thou shalst obtain all this by the might of the sage's feet. upon in pure thought . For I shall certainly come into fortune : " As the wish-tree in the Marutthal?-desert. But I shall make two or three trips. after having visited some houses. Then I shall give him all I have gathered.644 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. said: " O thou who art devoted to piety. endowed with patience. Since the village is stingy. so as to get more. devoted to study.

out of " said : Father. bathed. After dinner the teacher said: "I have here a lovely daughter. or sweet to sugar . from a house-wife such a cake as had been described. in the meanwhile now be my guest. thinking that they But M?ladeva sugar The tramp started out for alms. Benn?yada. By night he slept outside in the travelers' hospice. whereupon the teacher exclaimed joyously : I shall interpret your dream in an auspicious hour. "My son. made friends with a wreath-maker by helping him gather flowers.] returned ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 645 M?ladeva The Saint went to a grove. entered into his body. agitason-in-law?" The teacher tion betrays love . " Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen.35 on Sun. where he M?ladeva told the other tramps. One of them said : "You will to-day get a tremendously big cake full of ghee and " ! did not tell his dream. where begged he arrived in due course. and. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .224. and joyously went to some garden. (to ?the village). The teacher in turn addressed him politely. The gardener gave him some flowers and fruits. went to the house of an interpreter of dreams." Moreover : " Is it necessary to impart smell to the lotus. stanza 75 ( Jacobi." " p. 72) : Who paints the peacock. and in the last watch had a dream: The moon with full disc. These he took. having adorned himself." M?ladeva accepted. and inquired about his prosperity and health. and personal appearance the food one subsists on. even when he has not made mention of it." The poet says :61 "Behavior declares one's family. or refinement to them that have " sprung from a good family ?62 And again : ?1 This stanza in Sanskrit. and feasted sumptuously. narrated his M?ladeva.193. " dream. for and started for ate alms the last time. would regard for me do you marry her. or imparts their gait to the royal swans ? Who bestows fragrance upon the lotus. 92 See Aga<Jadatta. This content downloaded from 117. did get knew not its true meaning. and good manners upon them that are " sprung from noble families? after his concerns.I9I3. Another tramp had the very same dream which he told to the rest of the tramps. or to teach sport to noble elephants. behavior of itself betrays a man's family. and inquired with folded hands. speech one's country. He paid his respects. her brilliance undimmed." M?ladeva you make one whose family and character you do not know your replied.

Meyer. In Jagaddeva's " Svapnacint?mani.63 When dream. 41. i. The sight of the moon in a dream secures to Madanareh? an imperial son. Hail. and stayed there happily." By such and the like saws he was induced to consent and marry her in an auspicious hour. xxxiii." p. At that time the king of the city died without leaving a son. he was conducted into the 63In Pari?istaparvan 8.and recognizes by the upward lines on them and other signs. 327). cites several instances from Hindu literature and elsewhere. the water-pitcher sprinkled.35 on Sun. that the hermit is worthy of a throne. widely prevalent magic practice see now Edgerton's paper. 16 . Jacobi's "Ausgew?hlte Erz?hlungen. 23 ff. we have : He who surrounds in his dream a city or village with his entrails as a magic instrument. 97. 232. In Prabandhacint?mani. 196. a three-yearold prince seats himself upon the throne. p. If virtue be present.193. 65This is a sign of the temporal or spiritual superiority of the person sittingin the shade. p. 15 ("Indische Studien. 64 On this curious. In the same text. 1." (Half a dozen parallel verses from other texts are quoted by von Negelein. Then the five royal emblems (magic electors of a king) were consecrated.becomes prince in the city.224.64 After roaming about within the city they went outside. This content downloaded from 117. and came He was discovered sitting in shade that did not upon M?ladeva. There are many other dreams and signs of future royalty: In Pari?istaparvan 6. the chowries fanned. Hail. in the story of Nami. The list of these five magic electors follows three lines below. p. 62. namely. 66pundar?karh s?tam chattram: Ksemendra's Lokapraka?a. 19. 117. ruler of a province in the village.. 158 ff. a pregnant woman desires to drink the moon: it is a sign that her son will become king. 80. the editor of this last text. he heard that he was rejoiced." Thereupon the people shouted The elephant lifted him upon his back. but a yet more grievous stain on the vicious is the very stainlessness of their family. Kathako?a. whereupon he becomes king of that city. p. Then he was told the purport of the that he should be king within seven days. 1. 212.65 On beholding him the elephant roared . the son of a courtezan by a barber dreams that P?taliputra is surrounded by his entrails. to which add Prabandhacint?mani. On the fifth day he went outside the city and sat down in the shade of a campaka-tree.231. Kathako?a. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . JAOS.) To be born with teeth is a sign of future kingship.and is immediately crowned king. and the sun-shade66 " stood over M?ladeva. p. the steed neighed . shift. what matters family? The virtuous have no need of family. Pari?istaparvan 8. a king washes the feet of a hermit." XVIII. p.646 " BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18.

I9I3. king . p. became exceedingly wroth against Ayala. are you king here. my city are these two jewels. p. else I shall hold your life forfeit ! " " Devadatt? said : My lord. house. and proclaimed: " Behold. women of good family. While this was going on Devadatt?. expert in all arts . fell at his feet. I ?m a courtezan." " what is this affair of yours ? Then Mahav? stated the case. " dog-foot." In Kath?sarits?gara 13. Kathako?a. as illustrating by an extreme example the devotion of a wife. 69Or. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and said : The king said: "Speak (which I have reserved for myself)!"68 " the favor is Devaout. I desire that no man other than M?ladeva be bidden to me. O queen. this is the puissant king Vikkama. and they became united in close mutual friendship. and that Ayala be forbidden to come to my " The king said : It shall be as you please." Then the entire retinue of vassals. him that does not do his bidding I shall not spare. and not your wedded wife. 638. then he said to him : " Sirrah. after she had witnessed M?ladeva's humiliation. " " The king said : Sirrah." as he is. end: " Thus. The " became incensed and How in said. then appeared on the firmament of the heavens. but tell me now. dog as he is in the main :69 let him go ! I am going now to release you on the word of this noble woman. chaplains.] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 647 The divinity city. She " upbraided him : See here. the king of Shortly he entered into relations with Viy?radhavala." 68 See above. especially of wives of good family.35 on Sun. and consecrated king by ministers and vassals. now. Ujjen?.224. In Dacakum?racarita 6 (Mitragupta's third story) we read: "Husbands are the only divinities of wives.67 and yet you behave thus in my house: now you need not " trouble yourself about me any further ! Then she went before the " Grant me the favor of that gift king. but 67See the story. In Kath?sarits?gara 13 a dog-foot is branded on the forehead as a sign of disgrace. M?ladeva lived in the enjoyment of refined pleasures of the senses. behold. his body is permeated with'divinity ! Therefore. what more have you to say ? "Your Majesty. that you demean yourself thus ? Therefore do you now seek protection.193. and even these this fellow does mal" treat ! He had him brought up and beaten . of the leper husband. 187.this against Ayala. what purpose is served by killing him. datt? said: This content downloaded from 117. and others became submissive to his commands. ministers. ever worship their husbands with chaste and resolute behavior. already thine .

and uncoined gold and pearls. Then on the full-moon of this very month70 he loaded M?ladeva ships with wares and started for Persia. madder. one account of this very deficiency. 70tie ceva unim?e. sandal-wood. is there any difference between him and me? Even this my entire kingdom belongs to him. On and was shown the wares on the ships. The king asked : " " And Ayala said. " note. 215. The king had a seat offered him. Thus Jacobi's uncertain conjecture. and so on. enjoying his love. greatly attached to this Devadatt?. began to search in every direction. 71 pa?caula = Skt. from Persia. you shall obtain full pardon only when you have produced M?ladeva himself. being honored by the king Ayala proposed: the send some inspector to appraise my wares. if it so pleases her. who. camping without the city. but Ayala did not recognize the king.193." He Ayala fell at his feet and went out of the palace." He does not state his authority. 18.224. and she was permitted." Whereupon king The king went with a revenue said that he would go in person. if she so liked. but even so he did not find him.35 on Sun. note. pa?cakula : see Prabandhacint?mani. state her own wishes ! was explained to her.648 BLOOMFIELD?CHARACTER AND [April18. Now Ayala. as soon as he was seated he recognized Ayala. and 84. Whence has the merchant come ? "Your majesty. kindly send her to me. to go " It is very gracious of you to permit me my to him. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Then the king honored her with presents of great value. betel. In the meantime datt? and to king Viy?radhavala. the matter however. king Vikkama. This content downloaded from 117. pp. consisting of motherofficer. and went on a visit to the king." The king said " to his royal wardens : I say. " Devadatt? was called . had amagsed great wealth and choice wares. p. She said : heart's desire. why has king Vikkama sent such a letter. sent a letter and presents to DevaTo the king he wrote: "I am therefore. and especially p. but even more engrossed with and she was building Jina temples and images. 208. and M?ladeva lived with her. arrived at Benn?yada.71 In the aloes. Meyer. of-pearl. and if it is agreeable to you. how much more Devadatt? : let her. in the course of his tour through Persia. They ruled the kingdom in common. and doing honor to the Saints. He asked the people the name of the king Then he filled a dish with coined there. who received her in dispatched to M?ladeva greatest state. and was told.

Then he addressed himself to the king: "I did at that time obscure Your Majesty who and the other bales. chain this convicted thief!" The king They chained Ayala. Then he asked Ayala: "Do you know me?" Ayala said: " Who should not know the great princes that are famed over the whole earth?" The king said: "A truce to your flattery. abashed in his soul : Your mercy is great ! He fell at the feet of the king and of Devadatt?. in anger.193. such as crystals. Mr. 72A curious parallel to this touch in the story occurs in Prabandhacint?mani. Merpresence of the appraiser the king asked: "Look chant. it amounts to just so much. his heart beating. who is adorned with every accomplishment.] ADVENTURES OF M?LADEVA 649 here. makes all people happy. Ayala recognized her. and corals. a careful search revealed just where was the gold and the silver. and. wearing jewels on all her limbs. he saw some spoons of gold that had been hidden in them by merchants for fear of thieves. By noticing their (unexpected) weight. see p. pearls. say " " orth whether Then Ayala said : Your straightf you know me ! I do not know Majesty. And she said : Behold this is that M?ladeva to whom you ' said at that time : Show thou courtesy to me also.I9I3. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but weigh in my presence ! The goods were weighed in bulk. he ordered his immediate release. and by poking into them with a spike.35 on Sun. ordered his attendants : Zounds. is this the extent of your property?" Ayala answered: "Your The king then majesty. 98. and returned to the palace. if ever." Thereupon the king had Devadatt? called. And when the king saw him securely bound." " " ordered : Make the merchant give half. " The king. This content downloaded from 117. and where the many other precious wares. and was mightily ashamed in " his soul. by the ' There lies your chance : might of fate. 105. p. committed him to the hands of the guards.224. The chief of the guards led him into the king's presence. when he came to sell them. A young merchant "bought some sacks of madder." This text is acquainted with the Uttar?dhy?yana literature in general. valuables were found hidden within the madder72 The king had the bales ripped open . you are freed by the king who is kind to the humble and afflicted ! " Upon " " hearing this he said. you at all. by pushing against them with the feet. she appeared like a lovely Apsaras. I should come to grief ! now that you have gotten into danger to property and life.

[April?8. He bowed in gratitude for the great favor and returned to the village.650 BLOOMFIELD?M?LADEVA. too. 8 Sep 2013 10:22:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . At this time the tramp heard that M?ladeva had seen the same dream as himself. at had entered Nigghinasamma. He was sent to Ujjen?. Baltimore. the request of M?ladeva.35 on Sun. and Viy?radhavala. This content downloaded from 117. That I shall drink and sleep until I shall again see that dream. Now he thought : I shall go where there is milk to be gotten." Ayala with great devotion again fell at their feet." because The king said: "You are already pardoned by the mercy of the queen. came to Benn?yada. spotless by nature: may Your Moreover. presented him with the village he came from. and the king remitted his duties. does not allow me to enter that city. Devadatt? had him bathed and dressed in a robe of price.193.224. pardoned him. angry Majesty pardon me that! I have abused you. having heard that M?ladeva upon his kingdom. but that he had become king in consequence of " his ardent desire. and obtained an audience. Johns Hopkins University. in a spirit of piety."?As to whether he shall see it no man reporteth. The king. the king of Ujjen?. 73The demon of eclipse. just as R?hu73 obscures the ful-moon.